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CE 612 - Advanced Concrete Technology

Assignment II
Infrastructure Engineering and Management
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Guwahati, Assam 781039

Submitted By: Avinash Panda (174104103) Guided By: Dr. Indu Siva Ranjani G
Abi Abraham (174104107)
Michael Samuel
Preetham Raj (174104141)


Review Paper on Bacteria based self healing concrete - Bioconcrete

ABSTRACT crack remediation. Cracks in concrete form

an open pathway to the reinforcement can
Fracture or cracking of concrete is a typical
lead to durability problems like corrosion of
marvel without prompt and appropriate
the steel rebar’s. Furthermore, cracks can
treatment, cracks in solid structures have a
cause leakage in case of liquid retaining
tendency to grow further and in the long run
structures, due to alkali, sulphate and drying
require exorbitant repairs. Despite the fact
shrinkage in order to overcome this problem,
that it is conceivable to diminish the degree
a variant of smart concrete is rapidly
of splitting by accessible present day
developing, which is known as “Self-healing
innovation, remediation of cracks in concrete
concrete”. The self-healing concrete is one
has been the subject of research for a long
that senses its crack formation and reacts to
time. Cracks and fissures are a typical issue
cure itself without human intervention.
in building structures, pavements and
historic monuments. New technique in fitting INTRODUCTION
cracks with environmentally friendly One of the major concern to concrete is that
biological process that is a continuous self- it is vulnerable to the formation of cracks due
remediating process is hot topic now a day. to its relatively low tensile strength. Tensile
In this study Bacillus Sphaericus that is and compressive forces, freeze-thawing
abundant in soil has been used to induce reactions and shrinkage are the various
CaCO3. It is therefore vital to understand the mechanisms for crack formation.
fundamentals of microbial participation in

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The presence of cracks results in the specifically to enhance self-healing
reduction of the strength of concrete and capability.
obstructs the structural integrity and Many systems and techniques have been
durability of material but also makes investigated to heal concrete cracks
concrete particularly vulnerable to a autonomically such as modifying concrete by
deleterious environment. In addition, it can embedding microcapsules or hollow fibres
lead into concrete deterioration and the with a suitable healing agent. Once the crack
corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, occurs the shell of the capsule or the wall of
to improve the strength and durability of the tube ruptures and the healing agent is
concrete once cracks appear, one way is to released and reacts in the region of damage
implement automatic repair it is called self- to produce new compounds which seal the
healing approach (Jiaguang Zhang, et. al, crack and/or bond the crack faces (R.
2017). Alghamri,et. al, 2016).

Broadly, self-healing processes within Self-healing using chemicals: One method

concrete can be divided into two categories: for self-healing which comes under
autogenic and autonomic. autonomic self-healing in concrete is by the
addition of chemicals. Microfibers and
Autogenic self-healing: It is the phenomenon
superabsorbent polymers are some material
where the material heals cracks using its own
solution to restrict crack propagation and
generic components and constituents.
enhance self-healing efficiency.
Ongoing hydration is the main healing
mechanism in young concrete due to its Self-healing using biological methods: Bio-
relatively high content of unhydrated cement mineralization techniques give promising
particles, while formation of calcium results in sealing the micro cracks in
carbonate is the most likely cause of self- concrete. The freshly composed micro-
healing at later ages. For attaining effective cracks can be sealed up by perpetual
autogenous self-healing, water is essential hydration process in concrete. The strength
and the crack widths are restricted to be less of the Bacterial concrete will be more than
than 100 𝜇m and preferably less than 50 𝜇m the normal concrete (Kunamineni Vijay, et.
Autonomic self-healing: It involves the use of al, 2017).
engineered additions that does not
Bio concrete: Bio concrete is a product that
conventionally added into cementitious
will biologically produce limestone to heal
materials. These additions are added
cracks that appear on the surface of concrete
structures. Specially selected types of the

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bacteria, along with a calcium-based nutrient In suspension state, concrete mix is added
known as calcium lactate, and nitrogen and with bacteria. Concrete being extremely
phosphorus, are added to the ingredients of alkaline in nature, the bacteria added should
the concrete when it is being mixed. These fit in some special norms. The added bacte-
self-healing agents can lie dormant within the ria should be able to withstand the harsh
concrete for up to 200 years. (Dr Henk environmental conditions of concrete.
Jonkers,) Concrete is a dry material and the pH value
of cement and water when mixed is up to 13
Strength and durability of structural concrete
which makes it confrontational as most of the
can be increased by a biotechnological
organisms cannot survive in an environment
method based on calcite precipitation. Crack
having pH value higher than 10.
size more than 0.8mm is more difficult to be
Types of Bacteria: Bacteria naturally occur in
repaired however with the use of bacteria
nature in various forms. They are present not
cracks can heal with the calcite precipitation.
only on the surface but also beneath the
The strength of bacterial lightweight mortar
surface of the earth. The various bacteria
was more than normal lightweight mortar.
that can be used in concrete are:
This can be used where light weight
Anaerobic Bacteria
structures are required. These light weight
If anaerobic bacteria like closely related
aggregates are good carrier for bacteria,
specie of shewanella are added to concrete,
which increases the healing efficiency and
the compressive strength increases from 25-
structural durability (Kunamineni Vijay, et. al,
30% (Mohanadoss P, et. Al,2015).

MATERIALS & MECHANISM Aerobic Bacteria (Soundharya S,,

The various types of aerobic bacteria that
a- Bacteria Used in Bio Concrete can be used in concrete are:

Selection of bacteria is done based on its  Bacillus pasteurii

high resistance against pH, temperature  Escherichia coli
and lack of water content. Bacteria genus  Bacillus subtilis
Bacillus were found to thrive in this high-  Bacillus cohnii
alkaline environment and can synthesise  Bacillus pseudofirmus
calcium carbonate.  Bacillus halodurans
 Bacillus massiliensis

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b- Carrier generally used as fine aggregate. In this
1. Perlite:It is a valuable and worldwide- experimental work replacement of river sand
used material for building materials by quarry waste (fineness modulus of
industry, which can be found crushed sand equal to 3.2) conforming to
extensively in volcanic rock. The grading Zone III of IS – 383 – 1970 was used
volume of perlite will expand to 4–20 as fine aggregates.
times its original one when it is
d- Graded Coarse Aggregate
subjected to heating above 870°C.
After this physical transformation, the Locally available well graded granite
expanded perlite (EP) exhibits aggregates of normal size greater than 4.75
excellent characteristics associated mm and less than 16mm having fineness
with high porosity and high-water modulus of 2.72 was used as coarse
absorption. Hence, it could be aggregates.
considered as an attractive and ideal e- Water
bacteria-carrier material because of
Potable water has been used for casting
its availability in large geological
concrete specimens. The water is free from
reserves and low cost (Jiaguang
oils, acids, and alkalis and has a water-
Zhang, et. al, 2017).
soluble Chloride content of 140 mg/lit. As per
2. Graphite Nano platelets (GNP): They
IS 456 – 2000, the permissible limit for
are nanoparticles made from
chloride is 500 mg/lit for reinforced concrete;
graphite. Graphite nanoplatelets
hence the amount of chloride present is very
emerged as good carrier compound
less than the permissible limit.
for short period healing.
3. Light weight aggregates (LWA): Light f- Cement
weight aggregate depicted as good
Ordinary Portland Cement: The cement is a
carrier compound for long period
binding material. It conforming to IS456-
healing. concrete incorporated with
2000-53 grade. It consists of grinding the raw
bacteria immobilized with light weight
materials, mixing them intimately in certain
aggregate, is exhibited significant
proportion depending upon their purity and
enhancement in compressive
composition and burning them in a kiln at a
strength of concrete.
temperature of about 1300 – 1500 degree
c- Graded Fine Aggregates
centigrade at which temperature, the
The materials smaller than 4.75 mm size is material Cinter and partially fuses to form
called fine aggregates. Natural sand is

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modular chapped clinker. The clinker is mechanism is called as Microbiologically
cooled and ground to a fine powder with Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation
addition of 2 to 3% of gypsum the product (MICP).
formed by using this procedure Portland
cement. Of all the materials that influence the
behavior of concrete, cement is the most
important constituent, because it is 11 used
to bind sand and aggregate and it resists
Fig.1 Possible self-healing mechanisms for cementitious
atmospheric action. Portland cement is a materials

general term used to describe hydraulic

The mechanism involves decomposition of
urea by bacteria, with the aid of the bacterial
Mechanism urease enzyme. Bacteria species gives
urease, that catalyzes urea to carbonate and
Mechanism of applying the healing agents in
ammonium that results in an increase of pH
concrete: Direct application and
and carbonate concentration in the bacterial
Encapsulation are the two methods by which
surroundings. These components further
bacteria can be applied to the concrete. The
hydrolyze to ammonia (𝑁𝐻 4+) and carbonic
application of healing agent by the direct
acid 𝐶𝑂32− that leads to the formation of
method used for finding optimum
calcium carbonate. The process of making
concentration of bacteria for strength
urease for the hydrolysis of urea𝐶𝑂(𝑁𝐻2 )2
purpose and the optimum concentration was
30x105cfu/ml. In the second method into carbonate (𝐶𝑂32− ) and ammonium

lightweight aggregates are impregnated by (NH4+) is be as follows:

bacteria solution encapsulated in a polymer 𝐶𝑂(𝑁𝐻2 )2 + 𝐻2 𝑂 → 𝑁𝐻2 𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻 + 𝑁𝐻3

coating. As soon as the crack ruptures the 𝑁𝐻2 𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻 + 𝐻2 𝑂 → 𝑁𝐻3 + 𝐻2𝐶𝑂3
embedded microcapsules, the healing agent
𝐻2𝐶𝑂3 ↔ 𝐻𝐶𝑂3− + 𝐻 +
is released into the crack faces by using
2𝑁𝐻3 + 2𝐻2 𝑂 → 2𝑁𝐻 4+ + 2𝑂𝐻 −
capillary movement. Now the healing agent
𝐻𝐶𝑂 −3 + 𝐻 + + 2𝑁𝐻 4+ + 2𝑂𝐻 − ↔ 𝐶𝑂32− + 2𝑁𝐻 4+ + 2𝐻2 𝑂
associates with the embedded catalyst,
activating polymerization and safeguard the The cell wall of the bacteria is negatively
closure of the near-by cracks (Kunamineni charged, the bacteria draw cations from the
Vijay, et. al, 2017). environment, together with Ca2+, to deposit
on their cell surface. The Ca2+ ions react
Self-Healing Approach: Bacteria act as a
with the 𝐶𝑂32− prime to precipitation of
long lasting healing agent and this

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calcium carbonate at the cell surface that governed by following factors (Jonkers HM,
serves as a nucleation site. Fig.2 shows the 2011).
image of calcium carbonates precipitation on
• pH value.
bacterial cell wall.
• Calcium concentration.
𝐶𝑎2+ + Cell → Cell – 𝐶𝑎2+ • DIC (Dissolved Inorganic
Cell –𝐶𝑎 + 𝐶𝑂32− → Cell –CaCO3 Carbon) concentration.
• Nucleation sites.

The main mechanism behind making a self-

healing concrete is that the bacteria should
be able to convert the soluble organic
nutrients into insoluble inorganic calcite
crystals which seals the cracks. The self-
healing agent that is applied to the concrete
consists of two components, bacteria which
Fig.2 Calcium carbonates formation on bacterial cell wall
acts as a catalyst and calcium lactate i.e. the
METHODOLGY mineral precursor which is converted to

The method of using microbes in bacterial calcium carbonate minerals (Henk MJ,et

concrete is known as microbial Induced al,2008).

Calcium Carbonate Precipitation (MICCP) or RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Bio mineralization (Kavia K, et al, 2015). Bio
Effect of bacteria on properties of concrete
mineralization is a biological precipitation in
which organisms create a local micro 1 Hydration kinetics
environment by providing chemical
The addition of bacteria spore powder in
precipitation of mineral phases
concrete either accelerate or retard the
extracellularly. Some usually occurring
setting time of concrete depending on the
metabolic processes including sulfate
calcium source supplied. The nutrients to
reduction, photosynthesis and urea
bacteria are supplied in the form of calcium
hydrolysis end up in giving CaCO3 as there
lactate, calcium nitrate, and calcium formate.
byproduct (Vekariya M, et al, 2013). Various
The addition of calcium lactate can retard the
bacteria can precipitate calcium carbonate in
setting time, calcium formate and calcium
both natural and laboratory conditions.
nitrate can accelerate the setting time of
Calcium carbonate precipitation is mainly
concrete (M. Luo, et. al, 2016).

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2 Compressive strength strength (R. Andalib,, 2016). Cement
was replaced with 10% of fly ash and the
The strength of the structural concrete has
inclusions of 10^5cells/ml Sparcious
been improved by a Bio-technological
pasteurii bacteria were included. 20%
method based on calcite precipitation.
enhancement in compressive strength of
Microbial cells attained good nourishment
structural fly ash concrete was observed,
during initial curing period, as the cement
which is due to the deposition of calcium
mortar was permeable. But these cells were
carbonate on cell surfaces of microorganism
adapting to a new atmosphere. Due to the
(N. Chahal,, 2012). The compressive
high PH of cement, there is a possibility for
strength of the bacteria added to silica fume
bacterial cells to grow slowly in the initial
concrete improved due to the precipitation of
period and accustoms to high PH conditions
CaCO3. Microstructure analysis of concrete
in the curing period. During the process of
using XRD, SEM confirmed that calcium
cell growth, calcite precipitates on surface of
carbonate was present in the concrete (N.
the cell and also in the cement mortar matrix,
Chahal,, 2012). The compressive
which may be due to the presence of various
strength of concrete with Sparcina pasteurii
ions in the media. This results in less porosity
accompanied with Bacillus subtilis bacteria
and permeability of the cement mortar. The
(2 X 10^9cells/ml) is 20% more than concrete
flow of nutrients and oxygen to the bacterial
without bacteria as observed for 28 days (F.
cells gets stopped if many of the pores in the
Nosouhian,, 2016). Cement was
matrix are plugged at a time. In due course,
replaced with different fly ash concentrations
the cell either gets dead or turns into
of 10%, 20%, and 40% in mortar, bacterial
endospores. Thus the behaviour of
cell improved mortar compressive strength
increased compressive strength with
by 19%, 14% and 10%, compared to control
microbial cells can be explained (K.
specimens (V. Achal,, 2011). GNP acts
Santhosh,, 2001). By introducing
as a good carrier compound for uniform
Bacillus megaterium bacteria of
distribution of bacteria resulting in maximum
concentration 30 X 10^5 cfu/ml in concrete,
crack healing efficiency. The addition of
precipitation of calcite was higher in higher
Bacillus subtilis bacteria along with GNP, the
grade concrete as compared to the lower
compressive strength of concrete increased
grade concrete so, higher grade concrete
in all ages due to microbial precipitation of
imparts more strength as compared to the
calcium carbonate (W. Khaliq,, 2016).
lower grade concrete. The maximum
The 28 days compressive strength increased
development rate of strength for the highest
when compared to control cement mortar by
grade of 50 MPa concrete is as high 24% in

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incorporating the reactive spore powder in Bacillus sp. CT-5 (V. Achal,, 2011).
cement mortar (M. Luo,, 2016). Table1. gives the details of bacteria used,
Deposition of CaCO3 on the cell surfaces bacterial concentration and the values of
and in the pores of cement-sand matrix plugs compressive strength; these may vary
the pores in the mortar and causes depending on the calcium source supplied to
improvement in the compressive strength by the bacteria.

Sl.No. Bacteria used Best results Reference
Compressive strength 40% more
1 Bacillus sp. CT-5 5x10^7 cells/mm3 V. Achal, et. Al, 2013
than the control concrete
Maximum rate of strength
development was 24% achieved
2 Bacillus megaterium 30 x 10^5 *cfu/ml R. Andalib, et. Al, 2016
in highest grade of concrete 50
Improvement of 12% in
compressive strength as
3 Bacillus subtilis compared to controlled concrete 2.8 x 10^8 cells/ml W. Khaliq, et. Al, 2016
specimens with light weight
Increase in compressive
strength by 11.8% in bacterial
4 Bacillus aerius 10^5 cells/ml R. Siddique, et. Al, 2016
concrete compared to control
with 10% dosage of RHA
Compressive strength 35% more
5 Sporosarcina pasteurii 10^5 cells/ml N. Chahal, et. Al, 2012
than the control concrete
10% increase in compressive
6 AKKR5 strength as compared to control 10^5 cells/ml R. Siddique, et. Al, 2016
25% increase in compressive
R. Siddique, et. Al, 2011 &
7 Shewanella Species strength of cement mortar 10^5 cells/ml
P. Ghosh, et. Al, 2005
compared with the control mortar
Table1. Various types of bacteria and their compressive strength results.

*Cfu – Colony forming unit

Some other test results of bio concrete and bacteria15. The results of compressive
conventional concrete showed an eloquent strength of bacterial concrete and
difference. The table and charts given shows conventional concrete are given in Table 2
the clear information regarding compressive and Fig.3 The results of split tensile strength
strength, split tensile strength and flexural of bacterial concrete and conventional
strength of M20 conventional concrete and concrete are given in Table 3 and Fig.4 The
M20 bio concrete using different types of results of flexural strength of bacterial

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concrete and conventional concrete are
given in Table 4 and Fig.5. Bacterial Conventional
concrete concrete
S.No Compressive Compressive
strength strength
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Name of 7 28 7 28
bacteria days days days days
1 22.18 32.74 20.84 29.99
2 27.09 38.98 20.84 29.99
Fig.3 Comparison between compressive strength of bacterial Table2.Comparison between compressive strength of
concrete and conventional concrete. bacterial concrete and conventional concrete

Bacterial Conventional
concrete concrete
S No Compressive Compressive
strength strength
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Name of 7 28 7 28
bacteria days days days days
1 2.36 3.73 1.708 3.26
Fig.4 Comparison between split tensile strength of bacterial
2 sphaericu 2.24 3.35 1.708 3.26
concrete and conventional concrete.
Table3.Comparison between split tensile strength of bacterial
concrete and conventional concrete

Bacterial Conventional
concrete concrete
S.No Compressive Compressive
strength strength
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Fig.5 Comparison between flexural strength of bacterial Name of 7 28 7 28
concrete and conventional concrete. bacteria days days days days
1 pasteurii 4.6 7.85 3.92 7.06
Table4.Comparison between flexural strength of bacterial
concrete and conventional concrete

3 Water permeability

The penetration of aggressive substances

that are accountable for degradation of

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concrete under pressure gradient is, 2016). At 28 days, all control cement
determined by permeability and hence is bag house filter dust concrete specimens
considered to be the fundamental property show high to moderate permeability but
for portraying the durability of concrete. This AKKR5 bacterial (10^5 cells/ml) concrete
depends on the features of pore network of specimens show high to low permeability
cementitious materials quantified by due to pores filled with calcium carbonate (R.
porosity, tortuosity, specific surface, size Siddique,, 2016). The quality of the
distribution, connectivity, and micro cracks. recycled aggregate was improved due to
These parameters are amongst others, microbial precipitation this will reduce water
controlled by the (w/c) ratio, the particle size absorption of recycled aggregate (J. Qiu,
distribution, the age of hardened, 2014).
cementitious materials and the intrusion of
Compressive strength and water absorption
aggressive substances (Q. Tri,, 2013).
results of different bacteria after 28 days of
CaCO3 deposition in concrete resulted in a
curing: shown in Table 4.
decrease of water absorption and
permeability of concrete specimens. Studies
(N. Chahal,, 2012) revealed that
addition of S. Pastteurii bacteria in fly ash
concrete lead to a decrease in porosity and
permeability of concrete. Water absorption
was found to be reduced fourfold with a
concentration of 10^5 cells/ml bacteria in
concrete. In bacterial concrete pores are
filled with calcium carbonate precipitation by
bacteria (N. Chahal,, 2012). Cubes cast
with the addition of Bacillus Megaterium and
its nutrients absorbed more than three times
less water than control specimens due to
microbial calcite deposition (V. Achal,,
2011). The addition of Bacillus Aerius
bacteria causes the reduction in water
absorption and porosity due to calcite
precipitation which in turn increases the
durability of concrete structures (R. Siddique,

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absorption Bacteria strength results References
results 28
28 days
W.De.muynck (2008)
45-50% less W.De. muynck (2010)
30-35% increase
Bacillus than controlled V.Achal (2011)
1 than controlled
Sphaericus concrete Jagdeesha (2012)
concrete sample
sample Kumar jagdeesha (2013)
M. Manjunath (2014)
Nearly 50%
12-17% Reddy (2013)
less than
Bacillus increase than Y.park ()
2 controlled
subtilis controlled R.pei (2013)
concrete sample I.I. Muhammad (2014)
46% less than
24.2% increase
Bacillus controlled
3 than controlled Dhamia (2012)
magaterium concrete
concrete sample
Ramachandran (2001)
50-70% less S.S.Bang (2001)
2-4% increase
Bacillus than controlled Ramakrishanan (2005)
4 than controlled
pasteurii concrete De. Muynck (2008)
concrete sample
sample C. Qian (2009)
Y.Park (2010)
Nearly 35%
15% increase less than
5 Bacillus cohnii than controlled controlled Sierra –beltron (2014)
concrete sample concrete
Nearly 40%
less than
Baciillus increase than
6 controlled Kumar Jagdeesha (2013)
flexus controlled
concrete sample
30-40% 50% less than
increase than controlled W.D. Muynck (2010)
7 Bacillus cereus
controlled concrete Maheshwaran (2014)
concrete sample sample
B.Topc (2004)
Y.Park (2010)
80-85% less V.Achal (2011)
18% increase
than controlled Navneet chahal (2012)
8 S. Pasteurii than controlled
concrete Navneet chahal (2012)
concrete sample
sample R.Pei (2013)
R.Chidara (2014)
Pacheco et al.,(2013)
Nearly 50%
25-30 % S.Ghosh (2009)
less than
Shewanella increase than Y.Park (2010)
9 controlled
species controlled V.Achal (2011)
concrete sample N.R.Iyer et.l (2011)
Table4. Compressive strength and water absorption results of different bacteria after 28 days of curing.

4 Microstructure to harmful substances as that enter the

sample (V. Achal,, 2011). The addition
Calcite precipitation in mortar and concrete
of bacteria into the concrete can improve the
was visualized by SEM analysis. Rod-
microstructure of concrete by mineral
shaped bacteria associated with calcite
precipitation. This has been verified by SEM
crystals were found. Due to this deposition,
(scanning electron microscope), EDS
the impermeability of the concrete is
(Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and
improved as this deposition acts as a barrier

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XRD (X-ray powder diffraction) analysis. The permeability and acid ingress are decreased
researcher stated that an addition of 30 X (C.C. Hung,, 2016).
10^5cfu/ml concentration of Bacillus
Megaterium bacteria had (38.76%)
maximum weight of calcium compared with
other proportions of bacteria and in absence
of bacteria in concrete (R. Andalib,,
2016). The SEM analysis showed the
different calcite crystals embedded with Fig.5 SEM Images (a) control concrete (b) Bacterial calcite
precipitation in 10% silica fume concrete.
bacteria. It was observed that calcite is
present in the form of calcium carbonate as
the high amounts of calcium were found in
the sample, and this was confirmed by using
EDX and XRD analysis. It can increase the
durability of concrete (M. Luo, Fig.5
shows the SEM images of control concrete
and bacterial concrete. These images can
conform the calcite crystals in bacterial Fig.6 SEM images of (a) Normal concrete (R0) (b) Bacterial
concrete (N. Chahal,, 2012). The concrete (BR0) (c) 5% of RHA Concrete (R5) (d) Bacterial
concrete with 5% RHA (BR5).
strength of RHA concrete was improved by
the addition of bacteria, due to the deposition CONCLUSION
of calcium carbonate in pores and this was
The significance of this work is to
confirmed by using SEM images. Fig.6
understand, the use of urease producing
shows the SEM images of normal concrete
bacteria isolates, such as Bacillus subtilis,
and bacterial RHA concrete. It could be
bacillus pasteuri species in healing of cracks
clearly seen that in bacterial concrete the
in concrete. This paper has reviewed
voids are filled calcite (R. Siddique,,
different types of bacteria that can be used
2016). The deposition of calcium carbonate
for healing cracks and increase durability of
within the cracks of the test samples was
concrete. This study has also identified that
confirmed by the results obtained using
bacteria has a positive effect on the
microstructures. Thus with the increase of
compressive strength of concrete. The
signal transmission rate of ultrasonic pulse
advantage of using bacteria decreases water
velocity, the water absorption, chloride
penetration and chloride ion permeability.
The present study results recommend that

Page | 12
using the ‘‘microbial concrete” can be an friendly, and eventually leads to
alternative and high quality concrete sealant improvement in the durability of building
which is cost-effective, environmental materials.


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