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INTRODUCTION TO

ANAESTHESIA

Fatiş Altındaş
Department of Anesthesiology
† Dioscorides first used the term
anesthesia in first century AD
„ To describe the narcotic-like effects

† As “a defect of sensation” in Bailey’s


An Universal Etymological English
Dictionary (1721)
† Oliver Wendell Holmes used its
present meaning (1846)
„ means the sleeplike state
„ makes possible painless surgery
History of Anesthesia
† In ancient time, people used
„ Opium poppy, coca leaves, mandrake
root, alcohol, phlebotomy
† Ancient Egyptians used the
combination of opium poppy and
hyoscyamus morphine and
scopolamine
Ether
† Prepared in 1540 by Valerius
Cordus
† Used as sedative in
„ tuberculosis
„ asthma and whooping cough
„ remedy for toothache
† Crawford W. Long and William
Clark used it on patients in 1842
William Morton
(1819-1868)
† The first succesful
surgical
anesthesia, 1846,
Boston
Chloroform
Professor James Young
Simpson (1811-
1870)
† found chloroform to
be efficacious and
reasonably safe
† used for Prince
Leopold’s and
Princess Beatrice’s
birhts
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
† Produced by Joseph Priestly
1772,
† Humphrey Davy first noted
its analgesic properties in
1800.
† Horace Wells first used it in
humans for anesthesia in
1844
† Less popular in tree agents
„ Low potency
„ Tendency to cause asphyxia H. Davy
Intravenous Anesthesia (IVA)
† Pierre Cyprien Ore
„ Pioneer of IVA
„ Chloral hydrate in
1872
† Barbiturates were
synthesized 1903
„ For induction of
anesthesia
Regional Anesthesia
† In 1860, Albert Niemann isolated
crystalized alcoloids of coca.
† Karl Koller used cocain for eye block in
1884
† In 1885, first epidural block
† In 1898, first spinal anesthesia by
August Bier
† Second local anesthetic agent (prilocain)
was founded in 1904
† Lidocain was founded in 1946
Evolution of the specialty

†The development of the


indepented medical specialty
of anesthesiology would not
occur until the early 20th
century.
† In England, in 1893, the first
organization of physician specialists in
anesthesia, “The Society of
Anesthetists”
† In the United States, the first
organization of physician anesthetists
was formed in 1911.
† invented an inhaler
for ether
† published the first
book on general
anaesthesia:On the
Inhalation of Ether

John Snow
the father of anaesthesia
History of Anesthesia in Turkey-1
† The first publications belong to surgeons
† They made great contributions to
anesthesia in Turkey
† Publication of Miralay Ahmet Bey
„ includes the information about the use of
ether
† Ether anesthesia was first used in
Gülhane Askeri Hospital in 1898 by
Rieder Paşa
History of Anesthesia in Turkey-2
† Dr. Sadi Sun is the
first anesthesiologist
in Turkey
† The first endotracheal
entubation was
performed by Dr Sun
† In 1955, anesthesia
was accepted as a
medical specialty by
Ministry of Health
What is Anesthesiology?
†Practice of medicine
dedicated to the relief of
pain and total care of the
surgical patient before,
during and after surgery.
† Anesthesiologists are a
physician who complete a six
years of medical school and
four more year anesthesiology
residency training program.
† Anesthesiologist is the perioperative
physician
† Provides medical care to each patient
„ Evaluating the patient before surgery
(preoperative)
„ Consulting with the surgical team
„ Providing pain control
„ Supporting of life functions during
surgery (intraoperative)
„ Supervising care after surgery
(postoperative)
In the operating room
† The role of anesthesiologist is to provide
continual medical assessment of the
patient
„ Monitor and control the patient’s vital
functions
† Heart rate, rhythm, breathing, blood pressure,
body temperature, fluid balance
† Immediately diagnose and treat any medical
problems during surgery or recovery period
„ Control pain and level of unconsciousness
In the postanesthesia care unit
† Patients are
transferred to recovery
room after surgery
„ Allowing them to emerge
fully from the anesthetics’
effects

† They are observed by


skilled nursing
personnel
„ After stabilization
sufficiently, transferred to
regular room or home
What is Scope of Anesthesiologist?
† Anesthesiologists work in ICU
† Sedation and providing anesthesia outside
the operating room
„ Magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac
catheterization etc.
† Pioneers in cardiopulmonary resuscitation
† In childbirth, anesthesiologists manage the
care of two persons
† Anesthesiologists are also involved in pain
management,
„ to diagnose and treatment of acute and chronic
problems.
Happy New Year!