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45. While killing a well, the choke has to be closed continuously a little bit in order to follow the
standpipe graph. This means that the ‘choke’ is begin to ‘washout’.

46. While killing a sudden increase in Pchoke is observed. This means that the choke is ‘PLUG’.

47. Given OD and ID of casing. The percentage wear also known.

10% OD = 0.9D + 0.1d
20% OD = 0.8D + 0.2d
30% OD = 0.7D + 0.3d
Max Pull = Ym x Cross Sectional Area

4. Scratches will be used when reciprocating casing and it would be normally in water zone. It will
be placed in such away that the ‘stroke’ when reciprocating the casing will cover the area of

5. A conductor has to be driven to x depth. However, the depth can not be reached after certain
blows/ft. the solution is to drill with 26"”bit -–continue piling / driven the conductor.

6. To prevent gas from the formation entering the cement while setting :
 Add detergent i.e. shell drillfoam.
 Use 2 type of cement of different setting time.
 Apply back pressure
 Use heavier mud
 Use weighted spacer
 Use multi-stage collar cementation.

7. In a deviated well, drilling is carried out with a mud motor and bit. The tendency of the bit walk
will be to the LEFT. This is due to ‘reactive torque’ which force the drillstring to the left.

8. In a deviated well, rotary drilling is carried out. The tendency of the bit walk will be to the
RIGHT. This is due to the string is rotated and so force to the right.

9. Turbulent Flow is preferred while displacing cement because it will fill-up wash out and a proper

10. Micro-annuli can be presented :

 Use H2O spacer ahead to get H2O wet.
 Use detergent
 Test casing after bump

11. There is always a pocket below a casing shoe because :

 To compensate for elastic stretch while RIH.
 To compensate of heating while cement set.

12. Four GOLDEN RULES of well kill :

 BHP = Po
 Pressure loss in annulus is assumed to have been consumed in drillstring.
 Assumed linear relationship between Pc1, Pc2 and depth of hole.
 Assumed linear relationship between Pm and circulation pressure.

13. Type of ‘hard facing’ should be applied to new DP is Hughes Super Smooth ‘X’ or equivalent.

14. While cementing, cement will fill with difficulty the washout. Often not even fill is achieved. What
can be done :
 While drilling, do not circulate at one spot and no turbulent flow.
 While cementing, turbulent flow is required. Use centralisers while cementing,
reciprocate pipe if possible.

15. The purpose of Torque Converter is to reduce pulling time. This is by smoothing torque load,
esp. at high torque.

16. Hexagonal kelly is better than a square kelly. A square kelly had 4 points/corners end to wear but
hexagonal kelly had 6 points/corner ends.

17. Always order NC50 connections / threads not 4.1/2”IF although interchangeable. This is because
4.1/2”IF had a sharp root and crest but NC50 had rounded root and crest.

18. Recipe for scavenger slurry :

 ½ the amount of cement yield.
 Twice the amount of mix H2O.

19. While pulling up and getting stuck, always work string – JAR DOWN.
While running in and getting stuck, always work string – JAR UP.

20. A hydraulic Ram Lock (Wedge Lock) can be found in the Subsea BOP stack. It is used for hang-
off DP.

21. The function of the bypass valve on the Koomey Unit is to shear/blind DP. It will be 3000psi WP.

22. The function of the pressure reducing valve on the Koomey Unit is to regulate the pressure as
required. One for bag type preventer and the other one for ram type preventer.

23. The oil level in the Koomey Unit can be checked by using the looking glass.

24. The function of a ram lock is to lock after closing ram.

25. Hand operated ram locks are used on land.

26. A fixed ram in a BOP pack-off against the TOP of the cavity.

27. A Hydrill GL bag type preventer is not pressure assisted. The only pressure assisted bag type
preventer is HYDRILL GK.

28. The minimum no. of laps of cable required on the drum with the hook touching the rotary table is

29. Two drums which are smooth on drillfloor are :

 Sand rail / swabline
 Air winch

30. CAL-SEAL is gypsum base cement. It is used for LCM in top hole section.

31. SCR (silicon control rectifier) is a rectifier used to convert AC to DC. A rig with a chain drive
have ‘NO’ SCR.

32. A drillcollar have stress relief grooves to prevent stress cracking. It is situated Pin-top and Box-

33. In a BHA, there is always a JAR incorporated. Usually 1 or 2 DC are run on top of the jar. The
neutral point will be weight below the jar.

34. A deadline anchor have 3 wraps.

35. A drillstring has been designed on MOP of 100 000lbs. While drilling, the hole develops
unexpected a drag of 40 000lbs. The new MOP is 60 000lbs.
36. 1.3/8” blockline 6x19 seale with IWRC 1PS and 1.3/8” blockline 6x19 IWRC 1PS have the
‘SAME’ breaking strength’.

37. The formulae for drillstring design and ton miles is always the weight of new pipe used. Even the
pipe in use is premium or Class 2. This is because we don’t know the wear point, how long etc.

38. On a well killing job, a sudden pressure drop of 200psi is experienced. This could be likely ‘

39. On a well killing job (Wand W), just 200 strokes after phase 1 is finished, a sudden pressure
increase in Pst is experienced while Pann is the same. This could be likely one of the nozzle

40. In a well, the 13.3/8” csg has to be tested to 3000psi. a cup type tester has been run on a 5” DP.
Need to check burst and collapse pressure before pressure test.

41. A Jack-Up is drilling a mudline suspension well. 9.5/8” casing is run, cemented and landed. The
type of slips used are AW slips on the BOP deck.

42. ‘Blow Through’ happens during well killing job while circulating influx out from choke to gas
separator is overloading. To minimise ‘blow through’, reduce the pump rate while killing.

43. Both API and rounds buttress connection are NOT TIGHT GAS. Buttress double sealed and
Hydrill are GAS TIGHT CONNECTION. Drillpipe is not a GAS TIGHT connection. There is a
special DP with gas tight connection i.e. Mannesman DP with seal.

44. Whilst drilling at 13 000ft, a total power failure occurs (no circulation, rotation or hoisting is
possible). Measures would be taken is to reduce the chances of becoming differentially stuck over
gas sand :
 Use cement pump and start circulating
 Slack off the weight of string

45. If sticking BHA’s and trouble doglegs experience is an IOEM mud and the plan is intended to run a
Super-Combo consist of GR, CNL. Resistivity, density Log. We can object the proposal :
 Tool is too long +/-90ft and may stood up in high doglegs.
 Resistivity log cannot be run in IOEM mud – replacement induction type
 It is not a good idea to run Radioactive source in troublesome formation in combination
with RFT. It is possible but if RFT stuck, left nuclear sources downhole.

46. While drilling you had some trouble with your BHA in soft formation with high doglegs below last
casing shoe. Recommendation / precautions for your next BHA when POOH :
 Use spiral DC
 Make use of HWDP as part of WOB if possible
 Incorporate a jar in the BHA
 Use Melon stabilizers
 Use Lock Assy.
 Consider Rotating while POOH

47. Safety joint is a tool that normally don’t include in the BHA when fishing. Disadvantage is that it
doesn’t allow applying back torque to free fishing assy from the fish.

48. The normal operating pressure of the ‘MANIFOLD’ of koomey Unit is 1500psi. if you have a
leaking in annular BOP, it sealed only at 1000psi around DP. When you want to run 13.3/8” casing,
the concern is the rubber may extrude due to the big diameter of the casing because the metal
elements in the annular rubber will be further apart than around a DP.

49. 5 precautions that apply for shallow gas in drillstring – non equipment hardware :
 Drill riserless for sub-sumersible rig
 Pump out of hole, do not pull faster than you can fill-up while circulating
 Avoid swab and surge pressures
 Monitor fluid level carefully
 Drill a pilot hole before enlarging it

50. When you are doing a production in an exploration well with non H2S rated equipment. The RFT
indicate xpsi reservoir pressure. Unfortunately, y ppm H2S is found in surface samples from the
production test. The test had to be stopped.

51. Before running casing, the TP decided to increase the no. of lines on the block by 2 lines. Things to
check first is that the driller had changed the front plate of Martin Decker weight indicator. Other
things to be checked : Max allow. Total load on derrick. If use change 10 to 12 lines, with the same
load, gives less total load. Check also whether the drum can accommodate the extra cable. Check
the hook and crown block are rated for the increased weight.

52. Drilling a shale interval with a PDC bit. At some point the cuttings become bigger, longer and
winded. Background gas shows a slow but steady increase. This can be suspected that the bit is
wearing. Also the increase in background gas is an indication that we are about to penetrate
transition zone / abnormal pressure / under compacted formations.

53. During an emergency, and you went to drop a string which is still hanging on elevator : close the
bag preventer with the DP in the elevators and out of slips. Lower the elevator and open it. Slowly
lower the pressure of the annular. The DP should start sliding down.

54. When operating Shear / Blind Ram, always check that the bypass valve is used which indicate
3000 psi. also check the dp to shear i.e. the shear force.

55. After shearing a DP, the DP fall to inclination 43 degree. Before run fish assy, run a Mill Control
with guide. Mill top of fish and POOH. Run LIB to check the state of the top of fish. If OK, run a
guide + overshot + control mill.. the size of grapple should neatly grape/catch the body of the fish.
If this does not work, then alternatively, a taper tap can be used.

56. BSR = an indication of the strength ratio of box and pin of a certain connection in a string. In
ageing DC’s, the box OD will wear, hence reducing the BSR to less than a safe value. The target
BSR is 2.5 : 1 – Shell
2.0 : 1 – API

57. 2 ions concentration should be monitor for the use of K+ to check the mud stability and conversion
of smectite to illite when operating a KCL /KOH / Gypsum / starch mud are K+ and CL-
other 3 ions can be measured : OH- , Mg+ , Ca+

58. a swab-stop is an assy/tool in completion string. It stop a swab tool from falling deeper. A swab
tool is run on sand line.

59. In a horizontal well :

 Sweep hole with ‘low viscous Pill’ e.g. H2O.
 Rotate / reciprocate string +/- 120 RPM (this is to get turbulent flow).
 Another option is Mixpill – H2O first and follow up by heavy Pill. This is done to prevent
well come in (kick).

60. It is planned to contract an additional rig to drill a number of wells where high concentrations of
H2S are anticipated. The rig is equipped with grade E DP. You would want to confirm what type of
tooljoint the DP had and then ensure they were Ym = 75000psi or less and R hardness of 28.
Preferred less < 22 – NACE
< 23 - API

61. – Higher PV, high critical velocity.

- Increase Pm, low critical velocity.
- Drill solids weighted mud will have high PV than barite weighted mud for the same mud
density, therefore it will be harder to put into turbulent flow.
- It is more difficult to keep higher density muds in laminar flow.
62. Float collar should not made up to top of casing joints. There will be no way to fish, if it drop