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Mapping the Factors that support the social integration on Minangkabau society in Luhak

Agam

Siti Fathimah1, Fitri Eriyanti2, Erianjoni3


1
Master Program Of Social Science of Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, Padang, Indonesia,
sitifathimah98@yahoo.com
2
Lectrer Master Program of Social Science of Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia,
fitrieriyanti4138@gmail.com
3
Lectrer Master Program of Social Science of Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia,
erianjoni@yahoo.com

Abstract
The origin region for Minangkabau is divided into three luhak (regions), which is also known as
Luhak nan tigo. As the heart of this region, this also becomes the culture center. All the three
luhak are located in west Sumatra. This place also stands from many ethnic groups, religions, and
the local customs. This research is aimed to map the supporting factors of social integration on
minangkabau people. By using descriptive-qualitative approach, informants of the research were
the leader of the society, youth, leaders of local customs, religious leaders, and ordinary citizens.
The techniques of data collection used were observation, interview, and studying the
documentation. The result of the research found that the customs that are still strong bound
among the people of minangkabau created unity among them, by having customs law that are
still available and valid in Minangkabau. These laws make the people of minangkabau feel safe
and they are afraid to break those laws. The customs laws are used as principle and ‘way of life’
by the people in order to create safety in the society, orderliness, and to create people that have
good characters and morals.

Keywords: social integration, Minangkabau.

How to Cite: Siti Fathimah, Fitri Eriyanti, & Erianjoni. (2017). Pemetaan Faktor-faktor yang
Mendukung Integrasi Sosial dalam Masyarakat Minangkabau di Luhak Agam. In Ifdil (Eds.),
International Conferences on Educational,Social Sciences and Technology (pp. XX–XX).
Padang: Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Padang Publishing. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.24036/XXXXX
Introduction
In society consists of the elements that between one and other there are differences, such as
differences in social status, ethnicity, race, religion, language, and culture. For each of these
differences to coexist, it is necessary to harmonize these differences in order to achieve the unity
of life in one container both within the vessel of the social association and of the larger group
called the state.

According to Soerjono Soekanto (1986: 61), social integration will occur between individuals
and individuals, individuals and groups, as well as groups and groups. Integration will arise
because the orientation between social elements has in-group feelings toward the group, and
there are other groups outside the group (outer group). Usually, cooperation will be stronger if
there is a danger that threatens from outside or there are actions from outside that offend the
feelings of people in the group. Cooperation will be aggressive if for a long time experience
disappointment as a result of feelings of dissatisfaction and unfulfilled desires because there are
obstacles that come from outside the group.

In this case, Elly M. Setiadi and Usman Kolip (2010: 390) explained that the integration between
kinship members will occur if each member of a relative is in compliance with the norms and
values applicable within the kinship system. If in the kinship system there are some members of
kinship who do not comply with the values and norms applicable in it, then the kinship system is
declared as not integrated anymore. Likewise with community integration, J. P. Gillin and J. L.
Gillin in Elly M. Setiadi and Usman Kolip (2010: 390) define the society as "the largest grouping
in common commons, traditions, attitudes, and feeling of unity are operative". Departing from
the definition, it can be concluded that the society is (1) a group of people who occupy a certain
area, (2) reside in a relatively long time, (3) there are rules of life such as customs, habits,
attitudes, and feelings of unity, 4) a sense of identity among its citizens.

This integration will be achieved if the community life has been fulfilled all the elements
together. Otherwise, if one of the elements contained in the community is not met, then the state
of society can be said not integrated anymore. In line with Gillin and Gillin above, Turner (1978:
6) explains more that society is to be distinguished from, and was not to be able to, it is
constituent parts. In conceiving of society as a reality, suigeneris. Society must be viewed as an
entity. As a whole, society can be distinguished from its parts, but it cannot be separated by
considering society as a reality of suigeneri (a reality whose existence cannot be doubted).

Likewise with the Minangkabau community in the region Luhak Agam. Based on tambo,
Minangkabau natural origin region is divided into three luhak (regions) known as Luhak Nan
Tigo (the three regions), one of them is Luhak Agam. As a main regional of Minangkabau, this
region is certainly a cultural center of Minangkabau society. Luhak Agam is located in one
province in Indonesia, West Sumatra. This region also has a variety of ethnic, religious, and
customs. For example just like Bukittinggi city which once became part of Luhak Agam. As one
of the areas of origin Minangkabau, Bukittinggi City has the potential for high community
heterogeneity both in terms of ethnicity, religion, and customs. It is also found with a number of
districts / cities that exist in other Minangkabau natural areas. Certainly, the presence of this
diversity allows for conflict and leads to division, but it is also possible, with this diversity of
unity between peoples.

Muttukrishna Sarvananthan (2012: 109) also sees that in the presence and fostering of fiscal
devolution local governments are able to minimize economic imbalances and ethnic conflicts
between central and localities in Sri Lanka. The same thing was obtained based on information
from one of West Sumatera newspaper (Singgalang: 2016) which explains that the initial dispute
resolution process to follow up the case in some areas in West Sumatra is through mediation
between the ninik mamak (respectful elder leader) of both parties and the figure communities that
result in signed agreements. This condition can also be seen at the time of the issue of the
appointment of mamak kaum (elder leader of a community) that occurred in Gadut, Bukittinggi.
Similarly, Fitri Eriyanti's findings (2007: 32) regarding malakok, is a traditional institution in
Minangkabau social structure. In the ranking structure, malakok is one way to strengthen the
social structure of society. By doing malakok, migrants are accepted into the Minangkabau social
structure. When everyone is in a social structure is certainly a form of understanding, there is no
prejudice; they help each other, so that the peace of the community is built. Furthermore, Fitri
Eriyanti (2013: 80) also explained that social integration is created because of the role of custom
leadership in Minangkabau society structure and social integration occurs in attitude and
mentality of Minangkabau society which is open and tolerant.

Moreover, Lindayanti and Witrianto (2014: 6) also see that the role of custom also has its own
excuse in harmonizing the life of various ethnic who live in East Tanjung Jabung Regency that is
Malay-Jambi custom. Retnowati (2014: 195) also found the same thing in the Situbondo
Community, namely integration and reconciliation efforts have been undertaken by communities
and religious communities in Situbondo. One effort to handle conflict is through regular
meetings and gatherings by Pastors, priest and moslem priest, in order to discuss issues around
religious life. Further steps are also taken to make peace and humanitarian cooperation
agreements.

Based on the conditions above, the researchers are interested to examine the positive side that
supports the integration of Minangkabau society, although it is realized that the possibility of
conflict in the society cannot be eliminated. From the condition of Minangkabau society in
Luhak Agam, the researcher tries to map factors that support and hamper integration in
Minangkabau society.

Method
This research is descriptive research using qualitative approach. Setting of the research was
conducted in Minangkabau nature, which is known as Darek Minangkabau region; Luhak Agam
in Nagari Kamang Mudiak, Agam District and Manggis Gantiang Urban Village, Bukittinggi
City. These places are chosen since this region is one of the origin areas of the Minangkabau
nature, with the characteristics of areas of high heterogeneity both in terms of ethnic or religious
as well as still strong Minangkabau customs. The research informants are elements of local
leadership (wali nagari), youth elements, customs leaders, religious leaders, and ordinary citizens
(migrants and indigenous peoples). The data collection technique used is observation to
Bukittinggi city and Agam district, covering the activities of local culture and government which
have a pretext for the creation of social integration in Minangkabau society in Luhak Agam. The
second technique is by interviewing the informants concerned and documentation studies of
Minangkabau community cultural and governmental activities, organizational structure,
historical records on Minangkabau society and so on. To establish trustworthiness, the data
required the examination technique, and then in this study the researchers used triangulation.
Data analysis techniques used in this research is by using data analysis techniques from Miles
and Huberman model because this model is one model of data analysis for research using
qualitative approach.

Results and Discussion

1. The Local Elements of Socio-Cultural Factors That Are Potential to Support Social Integration
in Minangkabau Society in Luhak Agam.

In Minangkabau society, religion is a very important thing in life. This is seen in the philosophy
of local customs that explains the custom adat basandi syarak, syarak basandi kitabbullah
(customs come from islam laws, islam laws come from the holy Quran). Islam is a common
identity as a Minangkabau society. Thus, every Minangkabau person is obligatory for him/her to
be a Muslim, and if he/she is not a moslem, then he/she is not considered as a minangkabau
person.

Besides, in every society, a person cannot ignore the knowledge of his/her fellow human beings.
Many tribes that have not been influenced by modern psychology, in terms of associating with
each other, must hold on to the knowledge of facial types, or knowledge of the signs of the body.
In this class can also be incorporated knowledge of social manners, customs, norms system,
customary law and so on, then also knowledge about genealogy, as well as history.

Generally, within the traditional Indonesian legal system there are unwritten laws and laws that
are not modified in a statutory book. The unwritten law is called customary law, which is a
synonym of custom law (Soekanto Soerjono, 1982: 10). Likewise with the Minangkabau
community in Luhak Agam, in this society there is known by the customary law embodied in the
law regarding the neighborhood and community life so that the ideals of living a harmonious and
conducive life can be created. This law is used as a guiding principle in the life of society with
the aim of creating security, order and realize the society that is virtuous and noble, talatak
sesuatu pada tampeknyo, lamak di awak katuju di urang, “padi masak jaguang maupiah,
taranak bakambang biak, bapak kayo mandeh batuah, mamak di hormati urang”. Given this
rule, the local community follows the prevailing rules in society so that harmony can be created
despite the inevitable conflict. However, despite the conflicts, this can be done to resolve
problems in accordance with the customs provisions applicable in Minangkabau society.
Based on the above description, as for the socio-cultural elements in Minangkabau society that
are able to unite the community so that the creation of social integration lies in the system of
custom philosophy based on the teachings of Islam, language, art, kinship system, and customs,
which are still firmly in life community. This condition will be easily created if each individual
(both immigrants and indigenous peoples) have the same understanding about the meaning of
togetherness in the society embodied in the form of the same tribal institute and the same belief
that is Islam.

However, if the migrants come from other than the religion of Islam, then each of the followers
of religions must respect each other custom order that exists. As long as other religious
communities can respect the existence of Minangkabau cultural identity, it creates harmony of
social relations in society and vice versa. This is certainly framed with a strong sense of
tolerance from each side. Besides, the customs still strong and strong make the Minangkabau
people feel a unity, with the existing customary law in Minangkabau region makes the
community feel protected and afraid to violate the customary rules, so that conflicts or disputes
can be minimized.

This condition is as expressed by Emile Durkheim about social solidarity. Both in the
countryside and in the city there is something that unites them. But something is different
between in rural and urban areas. Durkheim describes two types of social solidarity in society, a
society based on mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. The subject of the idea or idea is
the question of what binds and unites people (Damsar.2015: 81). Thus the thing that can unite the
Minangkabau society is the socio-cultural element that lives in the society itself, this condition is
supported by the existence of customary rules framed in such a way based on the guidance on
Islam; adat basandi syarak, syarak basandi kitabbulah.

Based on those statements, it can be said that in every society there is a collective consciousness
that is according Durkheim in the form of totality of trusts and sentiments shared with the
average of the same member of society. Durkheim (1964) also explains that in order to create
social integration there must be values shared by individuals, such as moral and religious values.
This is what binds individuals in community groups. The destruction of these values means the
destruction of social integration. He further explained that society was originally composed by
individuals who wanted to meet their biological needs together. That need eventually evolves
into social needs. This collective durability forms the value of society, and it is this value that
keeps society balanced. The collective consciousness, says Johson in Damsar, is a social
solidarity that is related to individuals who share the same traits and share the same beliefs and
normative patterns. Solidarity in various layers of society works like social glue, in this context
can be values, customs, and beliefs shared by members of the community in collective
consciousness and collective consciousness (Ambo Upe, 2010: 95).

Similarly to the ideas above, Paul E. Mott (1965) and Zanden (1979) argue that there are some
factors or forces that can encourage the realization of social integration, one of which is socio-
cultural factor. Accordingly, Myron Weiner provided five definitions for integration. First,
integration is defined as "the process of unifying different groups culturally and socially into one
area unit and forming a shared identity. The latter definition defines integration as "... Integrative
behavior or the ability of people in a society to unite to achieve the same goal". That is, if
individuals or groups have the same norms, values, and beliefs then they will be bound up
together through a shared cultural network. Even their wholeness comes from this inequality.
Their life activities are guided by mutual expectations, so their culture is like "the copy of carbon
copy" with each other (Weiner, (1968: 264-265).

2. Forms of Local Elements from the Government Policy Segregated to the Support of Social
Integration in Minangkabau Society in Luhak Agam.

Doyle Paul Johnson (1986: 181) explains that social solidarity demonstrates in a state of
relationship between individuals and / or groups based on moral feelings and mutual beliefs
reinforced by mutual emotional experiences. However, Doyle Paul Johnson (1986: 204) also
explains that social solidarity and integration may be viewed as an example of a social fact that is
beyond the individual and cannot be described according to individual characteristics. To
understand the level and type of social solidarity that exists in society, it is necessary to analyze
its social structure.

Based on the above assumptions, in the structure of the Minangkabau society consists of various
social structures, ranging from a small village (government formal institutions) that have partners
from several cultural angles, there are customs, commemoration bodies, PKK to Bundo
Kanduang which facilitates Minangkabau women customs values, religion to the identity of
Minangkabau women. As for the different social structures that exist in Kamang Mudiak
Village, Manggis Gantiang is the presence of Parik Paga and FKPM (Community Police
Communication Forum) in the social structure of the Megalak Kamang. With these various
societies, it will open up opportunities for the creation of high solidarity, mutual assistance and
assistance in solving a problem. With these institutions the whole community feels gathered and
united through the activities organized by each of the management. With the moral to follow a
common rule that applies in society then solidarity will awaken and will form a harmonious
unity in a good social order.
3. Forms of Local Elements of Minangkabau Minority Mentality Facet of Potential Supporting
Social Integration in Minangkabau Society in Luhak Agam.

Raso jo pareso, this statement means check or meticulous, getting used to sharpen the sense of
humanity or a noble conscience in everyday life. In the face of every problem, we are required to
familiarize ourselves with careful research to get the essential truth and not in a hurry in the act.
Thus, the meaning of raso in customs is good as the saying goes as follows; nan kuriek iolah
kundi (the dotted is kundi), nan red iolah sago (the red is sago), nan baik iolah budi (the good is
the character), nan rancak iolah baso (beautiful is politeness). The differences between raso and
pareso are mentioned in the following maxim; raso tumbuah didado (the feeling that grows in
heart), pareso timbua dikapalo (the deep thinking appears on mind). Thus, it can be said that
customary teachings above teaches us how the pattern the way minangkabau people think. So
when they want to do something, they must be careful and everything should be carefully
considered. The implication in social integration is to express feelings and feelings then when
going to do something then the person will think first, so that any action does not harm other
people or themselves. So the conflict can be avoided.

The value of togetherness, within the social environment of Minangkabau society applies
provisions that are based on a sense of togetherness, solidarity, and consideration to one another.
This will certainly encourage solidarity and attention to the feelings of others in the daily
association. These values are believed by the Minangkabau society to ensure harmony in the
daily interaction. This is in accordance to a proverb that says; adat nan maniru manuladan,
sahino samalu, saraso sapariso. The mentality of the Minangkabau community in Luhak Agam
further that support for the creation of social integration is loyalty or loyalty. According to Amir
MS (2004: 103) is meant to be faithful (loyal) is steadfast, feel the same fate and united in the
kinship environment. This nature is the beginning of mutual help, mutual defense and mutual
sacrifice for others. In the event of a conflict and the Minangkabau are forced to vote, he will
take sides with his relative (siblings).

Based on field findings, Mapping factors that support the social integration on Minangkabau
society in Luhak Agam is a socio-cultural element in Minangkabau society that is able to unite
the community so that the creation of social integration is located in a system of customary
philosophy based on Islamic teachings, language, art, kinship system, and customs, which are
still strong in the life of the people. This is supported also by the facilitation by the government
through the regional autonomy policy in a village as the smallest social structure in
Minangkabau government system supported by the existence of KAN, PKK, Bundo Kanduang,
Parik Paga, FKPM and others. Supported also with mentality of Minangkabau people who have
loyalty, prioritizing raso jo pareso, tolerance and high tolerance to each other and of course this
condition create harmony in society and state because it is maintained by values that are held
together to achieve the goal of social integration.
Meanwhile, adat is like a currency with two sides, on the one hand it is related to "law", with
methods detailed by Bushar (1995), namely customary law, customary marriage law, customary
inheritance law, criminal law customs, customary law law, customary law and customary law,
besides the method of serimonial procedure which is very distinctive and related to the other
side. On the other hand, custom is related to the demands of life, concerning the basic principles
of the teachings of the ancestors and is something that is handed down from generation to
generation, so that the offspring children can live well and sustainable. Therefore, it is not wrong
if the local custom is also associated with the philosophy or ethnic life view that influences the
mindset and character of an ethnicity.

Conclusions
The authors' conclusions on Mapping Factors Supporting Social Integration in Minangkabau
Society: A Study in Luhak Agam, is that a Society in Luhak (region) has a system of customary
philosophy based on Islamic teachings, language, arts, kinship system and customs, which are
still firmly in life. The society will be easily integrated when each individual (either migrant or
indigenous) has an understanding of the meaning of togetherness in a society embodied in the
same tribal and religious institutional form of Islam. However, if the migrants come from other
than the religion of Islam, then each of the followers of religion must respect each other custom
order that exists. As long as other religious communities can respect the existence of
Minangkabau cultural identity, it creates harmony of social relations in society and vice versa.
This is certainly framed with a strong sense of tolerance from each side. In addition, customs that
still strong and strong make the Minangkabau people feel a unity, with the existing customary
law in the region of Luhak Agam makes people feel protected and afraid to violate the customary
rules, so that conflict or dispute can be minimized. This customary law is used as a guiding
principle in the life of society, with the aim of creating security, order and realize the society of
virtuous and noble character.

The community in Luhak Agam consists of various social structures, starting from nagari (formal
government institution (small village)) which have partners from several cultural angles, in terms
of customs, consultative bodies, PKK to Bundo Kanduang which facilitate Minangkabau women
either socialize the values of local custom, religion to Minangkabau female identity. In Kamang
Mudiak village, there are several structures that are different from the structure in Manggis
Gantiang Urban Village. In Kamang Mudiak village there is a social structure of Parik Paga and
FKPM (Communication Forum of Community Police). With the existence of various social
institutions open the opportunity to create high solidarity, help each other and shoulder to
shoulder in solving a problem. As well as the community feel gathered and united through the
activities that are held from each stewardship. With the moral to follow a common rule that
prevail in society, then the solidarity will be built and form a harmonious unity in social order.

The attitude of personality and tolerant mentality of raso jo pareso in society in Luhak Agam
makes this community can easily be integrated harmoniously and conducive. As long as fellow
community members have these traits hence rapid harmony occurs. This mentality can even
exceed the brotherhood of one tribe. This means that if there is in society people who are good at
building relationships among citizens, preferably to be elected by the community as leaders in
nagari (village), and more in priority in the siblings and neighbors.

Acknowledgments
The authors realized without the help of various parties, this article will not be realized. In this
regard, the authors express sincere gratitude to all those who have been instrumental in solving
the Thesis. The authors express their gratitude to the honorable Mrs. Fitri Eriyanti, M.Pd., Ph.D.
as Advisor I and Dr. Erianjoni, M.Si., as a Supervisor II who have provided input and
suggestions and guide the author in completing this article. Thus, we also thank our beloved
parents who have provided prayer, morale and material support to the writer, lecturer of
Postgraduate Program of State University of Padang who has educated and taught writers,
informants, and 7. Moreover, we also thank our fellow Graduate students of State University of
Padang especially Science Study Program Social, who has taken the time to provide instructions,
advice and suggestions for the sake of completion of this article.