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Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447

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Journal of Applied Geophysics


j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / j a p p g e o

A VLF survey using current gathering phenomena for tracing buried faults of
Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, Turkey
A. Gürer a,⁎, M. Bayrak a, Ö.F. Gürer b
a
Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Avcılar Campus, 34320 Istanbul, Turkey
b
Kocaeli University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, Vinsan Campus, 41300 Kocaeli, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) produces moderate to large earthquakes which can severely affect the
Received 30 April 2008 surrounding cities spreading towards the basins of the region. In this study, with the aim of feature city
Accepted 27 March 2009 planning, very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF) survey was carried out across (FBFZ) to locate
subsurface faults covered by basin fills. VLF parameters such as the apparent resistivity, phase (VLF-R
Keywords: response) real and imaginary parts of tipper (VLF-EM response) were obtained using GBZ, a well known
VLF response
radio station in England at Oxford, which give a strong signal in our survey area with a suitable frequency
Galvanic currents
Eddy currents
(19.6 kHz) for our purposes. VLF method is called as VLF-EM, when it is only relying on the measurement of
H-polarization horizontal and vertical magnetic fields. However, when it includes measurement of horizontal electric field,
E-polarization providing resistivity values, it is referred as VLF-R method. In this study, the direction of horizontal electric
Fault zone field is perpendicular to fault strike describing the H-polarization mode. Although this mode produces strong
VLF-R (resistivity) response, we also obtained quite clear and characteristic VLF-EM anomalies along some of
the survey profiles. Both VLF-R and VLF-EM responses with the contribution of the vortex and gathered
(direct) currents, in E and H-polarization modes, are reviewed and VLF anomalies observed over FBFZ are
discussed. In FBFZ, current gathering anomalies become stronger in the presence of high conductivity
contrast and in the presence of parallel fault branches separating the medium into resistors in series. In these
conditions, changing electrical charge at the contacts of faults cause successive variations in E-field. As a
result VLF-R response is strengthened and also secondary magnetic field which causes VLF-EM anomalies
may be enhanced, in H-polarization mode. Interpretation of resistivity, phase and tipper data with current
density pseudosections, over our survey lines, showed the location of buried faults of FBFZ beneath the
sedimentary covers of the basins.
© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction where primary E field of a VLF transmitter is perpendicular or parallel


to the geological strike, respectively with standard equipments.
VLF radio transmitters operating in 15–30 kHz frequency band- Oskooi and Pedersen (2005) suggested developing new tensor VLF
width provide an electromagnetic source for geophysical investiga- measurement systems in order to obtain transmitter direction
tions. VLF method has been used successfully to investigate faults all independent responses. However, widely used modern VLF equip-
over the world; examples includes the narrow mineralized fault zones ments are in scalar mode and we reviewed H-polarization and E-
(Phillips and Richards, 1975), Nojima Fault and Ogura Fault (Yama- polarization modes which are described considering the transmitter
guchi et al., 2001), non-mineralized shallow fault zones (Jeng et al., direction dependent measurements.
2004), groundwater-bearing zones (Sharma and Baranwal, 2005). The It is reported that VLF responses are mainly constituted by
application of VLF-EM survey in Turkey, for several purposes (Bayrak gathered currents for both of the H and E-polarization modes. The
and İlkışık, 1995; Bayrak, 2002) including the fault-zone-induced response is entirely formed by gathered currents in H-polarization,
weathering (Gürer et al., 2008), has also been in use for over 10 years. whereas it is formed mainly by gathered currents with a minor
For tracing of 2-D structures, it is possible to make VLF contribution of vortex currents, in E-polarization mode (McNeill and
measurements in the E-polarization or in the H-polarization modes Labson, 1991). In H-polarization mode, magnetic field on the surface
shows no variation as we traverse over the contact (McNeill and
Labson, 1991) and (HSz /HPT
y ) anomalies can not be observed. However,
⁎ Corresponding author. Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of
Geophysical Engineering, 34850, Avcilar Campus, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel.: +90 212
varying E field across the vertical contacts forms strong resistivity
4737196; fax: +90 212 4737180. anomalies (VLF-R response) in H-polarization. Contrarily, strong
E-mail address: agurer@istanbul.edu.tr (A. Gürer). magnetic field variations around 2-D conductors are obtained in E-

0926-9851/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2009.03.011
438 A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447

polarization. The variations in the ratio of the vertical secondary (S) is composed mainly of platform-type limestones. The deep relation of
magnetic field to the primary field dominating total (PT) horizontal these units and FBFZ has been investigated by Gürer et al. (2004a,b)
magnetic field are strong in E-polarization mode. The function of HSz / using magnetotelluric method and the deep resistivity structure has
HPT
y , also known as tipper, forms VLF-EM response. Besides strong VLF- been imaged and related to the mentioned surface geological entities.
EM anomalies, weaker VLF-R (resistivity and phase) responses can Fig. 1b illustrates our VLF survey area on a generalized tectonic map of
also be observed in E-polarization mode. the region. Local geological maps where our VLF profile carried out are
This paper presents the results obtained during the VLF surveys also shown in Figs. 3–6 with the VLF data.
across fault rupture of Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ), Turkey at four
profiles, to characterize features of shallow faults and explore the 3. VLF survey
possible location of the subsurface faulting where the surface rupture is
covered with the basins of sediments. FBFZ produces earthquakes which The data was collected using the Scintrex EDA-OMNI equipment. The
can severely affect the cities, located in the basins bounded by active instrument is controlled by a microprocessor and facilitates automatic
faults, such as Burdur, (1914, M. 7.0), Fethiye (1957, M. 7.1), Dinar (1925, tuning; digital data capture and signal stacking. The magnetic field is
M. 6.0), and Akşehir (2000, M. 5.9). Developing over time, these cities recorded by three orthogonal coils mounted in a cylindrical housing
spread across basins. Basin edge effects (Kanlı et al., 2006) and buildings with a preamplifier and the electric field perpendicular to the magnetic
located directly above the buried faults are known to increase field is measured with two probes in contact with the ground which are
earthquake hazards, by creating severe lateral and vertical offsets on placed 10 m apart. The measurements of both electric and magnetic field
the foundations of the buildings in the region. This motivated us to map components can be made rapidly.
hidden faults of FBFZ in the basins around Fethiye and Burdur cities. We performed VLF measurements on four profiles using GBZ
In our survey we used the VLF GBR antenna, Oxford, because its (19.6 kHz) radio transmitter in England. This station is quite stable and
signals were strong and the frequency (19.6 Hz) low enough to data were provided for electrical fields in the direction changing from
penetrate to buried faults. The survey was done in the H-polarization N 55° E to N 95° E, for different profiles, so the observed responses are
mode since in the survey area the wave transmitted by the above close to the H polarization mode of electromagnetic induction.
antenna propagated in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the
fault zones. 3.1. Current gathering and VLF anomalies over vertical conductors
Although H-polarization mode was expected to give the negligible
EM induction response, we obtained quite good VLF-EM responses Jones (1983) gives a detailed review of current gathering phenom-
together with the strong VLF-R anomalies along some profiles, in ena and describes this phenomenon as the re-arrangement of field lines
certain field conditions. We discussed these results in our paper. of current density as current flows from a region of one value of electrical
conductivity into a region of a differing conductivity such as the regions
2. Geology of the study area separated by vertical structural contacts. In H-polarization mode, the
current gathering phenomenon forms the VLF-R (resistivity and phase)
The study area is located at the junction of the major active tectonic response in conductors parallel to the primary wave fronts. By Ohm's
zones of the eastern Mediterranean and southwest Anatolia. The main Law this radial field drives radial galvanic currents that are stronger in
tectonic elements of the eastern Mediterranean region are the Aegean regions of high conductivity and weaker elsewhere. The situation, for
and Cyprus arcs, which form a convergent plate boundary (Fig. 1a). VLF-R response of successive vertical conductors in H-polarization, is
The southwest Anatolian extensional province is bounded by the analogous to a set of resistors in series which is strengthening the
Eskişehir fault zone in the north, and FBFZ in the south. It consists of a galvanic currents. In this case, if one thinks the propagating wave acts as
series of E–W and N–S-trending horsts and grabens (Fig. 1b) filled a constant current source of strength I, the losses in the ground behave
with deformed Miocene–Pliocene terrestrial sequences and unde- as variable resistor R, with a voltage drop IR. Whether R is large or small
formed Quaternary sequences separated by intervening angular has no effect on the magnitude of I. So, the magnitude of voltage, Ey field,
unconformities (Yılmaz et al., 2000; Koçyiğit, 2005). Most of the should arrange itself in each earth segment having different resistivities
margin-bounding faults of the grabens are active and a number of to meet the requirement of local power flow to the earth (McNeill and
devastating earthquakes have occurred in historical times and in the Labson, 1991). When the wave propagating over ground, the magnitude
relatively recent geological past (Westaway, 1993; Taymaz and Price, of total electric field component of Ey field increases in resistors while
1992; Yılmaztürk and Burton, 1999). decreases in conductors (Fig. 2a). Thus, re-adjustment of field lines of
The FBFZ was interpreted as a wide left-lateral oblique fault zone, current density and current flow gives rise to the generation of charges
with a large component of extension (Taymaz and Price, 1992) and on the surface of vertical discontinuity separating the two regions
well-defined seismicity (Yüksel,1986; Pınar,1998; Utkucu et al., 2002). (Fig. 2a). This surface charge, leads to a disparity in the normal
Although, FBFZ has a linear arrangement between Fethiye and Afyon it component of the displacement field and is related to electrostatic field
is not continuous in character and covered by several basins such as the between neighboring regions (regions 1, 2 and 3 with conductivities of
Cameli, Burdur, Acıgöl, Sandıklı, Çivril and Esen Çay basins and their σ1, σ2, σ3). Hence, for an applied electric field E0, the electric field in the
bounding faults. To the north the FBFZ merges with a series of WNW– y-direction is reduced by E1y, and is increased by E2y in the regions
ESE grabens, including the Dinar, Beyşehir, Akşehir-Afyon and having conductivity σ1 and σ2 respectively (Price, 1973; Jones, 1983).
Dombayova grabens and their bounding faults (Alçiçek et al., 2006). The changing electrostatic fields in two medium, which are oppositely
The study area, the southwestern Taurides, is situated at the directed creates secondary electromagnetic fields.
junction between the rapidly extending West Anatolian crust and In the early days of VLF applications, for simplifying interpretation of
relatively stable central Anatolia (Barka and Reilinger, 1997). Around VLF-EM responses, the target is assumed to be located in free space and
Fethiye and Burdur cities which our VLF survey was carried out, there subjected to a uniform horizontal magnetic field. In this case, eddy
are two important tectono-stratigraphic units of the region: the Lycian currents were accepted to be the main reason of the VLF-EM anomalies
nappes and the Beydağı autochthon (Fig. 1b). The Lycian nappes and response was assumed to be controlled by induction number (McNeill
consist of slices of the western Taurides metamorphic basement, and and Labson,1991). However, because of the finite conductivity of the earth,
the overlying Mesozoic platform carbonates, together with the the primary electrical field has also a small radial component. It is reported
dismembered ophiolite and volcanic-sedimentary units that form that in the presence of a surrounding host rock with finite conductivity,
the uppermost nappe (Yılmaz et al., 2000). The Beydağı unit, which eddy currents play a minor role in the VLF-EM response from virtually all
covers a large part of SW Anatolia, is thought to be an autochthon and targets observed in VLF surveys (McNeill and Labson, 1991). In this case,
A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447 439

Fig. 1. (a) Main tectonic elements of Anatolia and the Mediterranean region. Arrows show directions of plate motion relative to Eurasia, (b) Tectonic map of the region (modified after
Koçyiğit, 2005) and VLF survey area is shown in a rectangle. FBFZ: Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone.

primary electrical field cause current flow in the homogenous half space (secondary magnetic fields) arises from the galvanic current component
and this current flow become gathered in the vicinity of the conductive in E-polarization mode.
target. The response of these gathered currents, flowing through the Magnetic field variations in E-Polarization mode form VLF-EM
conductive target together with vortex currents flowing through in closed anomalies and electric field variations in H-polarization form VLF-R
loop pats, creates a significant difference in the secondary magnetic field anomalies. Both of the magnetic and electric field variations over a 2-D
(Fig. 2b). Except the most resistive environment, vortex current flow can thin vertical conductor are mainly depends on current gathering
be ignored and we can assume all the measured VLF-EM response mechanism.
440 A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447

Fig. 2. (a) Minimum induction response and stronger current gathering response for a VLF antenna position respect to the geological strike. Radial VLF electric field variations and
surface charge distribution near vertical discontinuities (based on Price, 1973; McNeill and Labson, 1991) (b) Maximum induction response for a VLF antenna (transmitter) position
respect to the geological strike of a vertical conductor.

Fischer et al. (1983) reported that, apparent resistivity value is parameter indicating the vertical conductors in VLF method. Tipper
much larger in E-polarization than it is in H-polarization mode (or geomagnetic transfer function) is the linear relation between the
(ρaE NN ρaH) and phase is smaller in E-polarization mode (ϕE b ϕH) just measured vertical and horizontal magnetic field components. At
over a conductive dyke. The amplitude of resistivity anomaly sufficiently large distances from VLF transmitters where the primary
considerably drops over the dyke in H-polarization whereas it slightly field can be considered as a plane wave, the vertical and horizontal
drops in E-polarization mode. Phase response increases for H- magnetic field components (Hz, Hx, Hy) exhibit linear relationship as
polarization and decreases for E-polarization approximately the
similar order of magnitude over the dyke. So we expect stronger Hz = Tx Hx + Ty Hy ð1Þ
VLF-R anomalies (especially resistivity anomalies) in H-polarization
mode. where the elements T are complex since they may include phase shift.
In practice commercial VLF instruments measure only the vertical and
3.2. VLF parameters one horizontal components of the magnetic field. For a 2-D structure,
the x-direction can be considered as the direction of the geological
The relation between the measured vertical and horizontal strike and preferably the direction to the VLF transmitter to obtain
magnetic fields in VLF-EM method gives an important diagnostic strong induction anomalies. The y-axis is the profile direction. For
A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447 441

each site the transfer function, the so-called scalar tipper TYsca, or, is where ω is the angular frequency and µ0 is the magnetic permeability of
estimated as free space. In homogeneous isotropic ground, ρa is the true resistivity and
the phase angle is 45°. The skin depth describes penetration depth for VLF
HzS plane waves propagation in a conducting medium and is expressed as
TYsca = ð2Þ
HyPT
 1 = 2  1 = 2
2ρ ρ
d= ≈503 in meter ð7Þ
using Hx or Hy components. For the case of induction by horizontal ωμ 0 f
primary magnetic field (y direction), the vertical magnetic (Hz) field is
entirely of secondary origin, whereas the horizontal magnetic field (Hy) where ρ is the resistivity of the medium and f is the exploration frequency
is a mixture of primary and secondary fields (Pedersen, 2002), in other in Hertz.
words Hy is the total magnetic field whose secondary magnetic field
component is relatively small and primary field dominating. In this case, 3.3. Filtering and interpretation of VLF data
tipper, for 2-D earth, is entirely depends on subsurface structure. For this
reason we showed these fields as HzS and HyPT we will drop letters S and The interpretation of VLF surveys in terms of buried conductors can
PT just for simplicity in the fallowing equations. For a 2-D earth, striking be assisted by the application of the Karous and Hjelt ((K&H), 1983)
x direction, the tipper varies along the profile showing the strongest linear filter to the observed in-phase component of the vertical magnetic
variations right above conductors and exists as a diagnostic indicator. field. Karous and Hjelt filter technique is based on discrete linear filtering
The point where the real and imaginary component of the tipper of VLF data. Starting with the Biot–Savart law to describe the magnetic
anomaly crosses over from being positive to negative polarity is usually field arising from a subsurface 2-D current distribution, these authors
interpreted as being the top of the steeply dipping conductor. use linear filter theory to solve the integral equation for the current
In the presence of a conductor in the underground, secondary distribution, assumed to be located in a thin horizontal sheet of varying
fields are superimposed on the primary field with phase lag, and the current density, situated everywhere at a depth equal to the distance
total VLF field is elliptically polarized. Tilt angle α of the major axis of between the measurement stations. By calculating the inverse filter at
polarization ellipse from horizontal in percent and the ratio of the various depths (e.g., Δx, 2Δx, 3Δx), one can study the variation of current
minor axis to the major axis as percentage e (ellipticity) are used in densities with depth. This filter is expressed as;
classical VLF literature to express VLF response. Expression for tilt
angle and ellipticity relating the horizontal and vertical magnetic Δz
I ðΔx = 2Þ = 0:102H − 3 − 0:059H − 2 + 0:561H − 1 − 0:561H1 ð8Þ
fields can be found in Smith and Ward (1974) in detail. 2π a
Real and imaginary components of tipper, expressing the VLF + 0:059H2 − 0:102H3
response in modern VLF literature, are related to the tilt angle and
ellipticity when the secondary magnetic field components are where Δz is the assumed thickness of the current sheet, Δx is the
relatively small compare to the primary magnetic field. The real distance between the data points and also the depth to the current
(Hzr) and quadrature (Hzi) responses are related to the tilt angle (a) sheet, location of the calculated current density is beneath the center
and ellipticity (ε) of the polarization ellipse. The tangent of the tilt point of the six data points. The values of H are the normalized vertical
angle is good approximation to the ratio of the real component of the magnetic field anomaly at each of six data points. Details of the filter
vertical secondary magnetic field to the primary field dominating derivation can be found in Karous & Hjelt (1983).
horizontal magnetic field, Filtered VLF data help to locate vertical discontinuities such as
  hidden faults. K&H filter technique also provides a useful comple-
Re Hz = Hy = tan α × 100ðpercentÞ ð3Þ mentary tool for the semi-quantitative analysis and target visualiza-
tion from surface to a few ten meters. The current density maxima,
The ellipticity is good approximation to the ratio of the quadrature seem always to occur within or around the conductors. As a result of
component of the vertical secondary magnetic field to the primary field this feature, current density pseudo sections can give diagnostic
dominating horizontal magnetic field (Paterson and Ronka, 1971), information for the target (Ogilvy and Lee, 1991).
Although, some modeling and inversion, techniques for interpreta-
 
Qu Hz = Hy = e × 100ðpercentÞ ð4Þ tion of VLF data tried by several authors (Beamish, 1998, 2000, 2002;
Pedersen and Oskooi, 2004; Oskooi and Pedersen, 2005, 2006), they
pointed out that single frequency VLF measurements have restrictions to
The real and imaginary components are expressed as a percentage resolve vertical structures and the lateral positions of the deep
of the total VLF transmitter's primary field. These two parameters are conductors unless the aid of wide band frequency RMT method.
called real and imaginary parts of tipper.
By measuring the horizontal electrical fields perpendicular to the 4. Results
horizontal magnetic fields resistivity and phase, VLF-R parameters,
can be obtained in both E and H polarization modes. The apparent As mentioned above, the FBFZ has been interpreted as a wide oblique
resistivity ρa and the phase angle ϕ between horizontal electric field left-lateral normal fault zone, with a large component of extension and
and magnetic field of the subsurface may be defined as a function of well-defined seismicity. Gürer et al. (2004a,b) imaged the deep
frequency as continuation of FBFZ with MT method in the study area. The one reason
of debates on strain and slip components of faults that take place in the

j j in ohm m; (Cagniard, 1953)


2
1 E x ;y FBFZ is that these faults don't show continuous character from Fethiye to
ρa = ð5Þ
ωμ 0 Hy;x Burdur. The fault branches can be observed in the hard rocks such as
limestone, tufa and travertine, but they can not be followed in the
and Neogene and quaternary aged soft rocks. In this study, we investigated
continuation of the branches of FBFZ fault zone under the unconsoli-
2  3 dated sediments using VLF method. For this purpose, we did VLF
−1
Im Ex;y = Hy;x measurements on the four characteristic sites. Results obtained from
/ = tan 4   5in degree ð6Þ these regions are good references for detecting subsurface faulting
Re Ex;y = Hy;x
covered by basin. In our survey area for our purpose, convenient VLF
442 A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447

transmitters exist only in the H-polarization mode. In this study we If we compare results from four profiles in the survey area,
choose VLF profiles which are perpendicular to the geological strike considering the relations between VLF-R (resistivity and phase) and
which are nearly perpendicular to the position of selected VLF VLF-EM (real and imaginary components of % HzS/HyPT) data, we can
transmitter GBR, with 55–95°. Although we were in H-polarization mention mainly two groups of anomalies. The first group of data is
mode, we obtained quite strong and characteristic VLF-EM fault collected in the regions where fault rapture is separated into parallel
responses which are compatible with the VLF-R responses, in some branches around Yassıgüme and Senir villages. Along YSG, SNR profiles,
certain conditions. another common feature is a high conductivity contrast consistent with

Fig. 3. (a) Schematic drawings of YSG line location on geological map. (b) observed VLF-R apparent resistivity (c) phase (d) real and imaginary components of the induced vertical
secondary magnetic field as a percentage of the VLF transmitter's primary field dominating total horizontal magnetic field (HSz /HPTy (%)). (e) pseoudosection of current density using
real component. Circled crosses show the zero-crossing point of (HSz /HPT
y (%)).
A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447 443

theoretical expectations between two sides of fault zone. In this group, 4.1. YSG profile
all of the VLF-EM and VLF-R anomalies are strong enough to indicate the
buried fault zones. In the second group, there is only one fault branch Two surface fault branches of FBFZ, disappear within a basin around
separating two mediums having low conductivity contrast. This shows Yassıgüme (Fig. 3a) village. The VLF profile is 280 m length and is
us, the resistivity contrast between two regions is low and current approximately perpendicular to the fault branches (Fig. 3a) and
gathering can not produce responses strong enough to form harmonious measurements are in H-polarization mode with the angle of 95°
anomalies in all VLF components. We will present and discuss the results between the fault strike and transmitted electrical field ray path. The
from the first group where current gathering effect is relatively stronger VLF-EM data were collected with station spacing of 10 m using a dipole
YSG, SNR lines, and the second group, SLD and MLK lines, respectively. 10 m in length for the electric field measurements. At around 140 m
The angles between the transmitted horizontal electrical field of VLF distance of the profile, while phase increases abruptly apparent
antenna and geological strike of the faults across the profiles named YSG, resistivity decreases also abruptly from 30 to 3 Ω m forming a
SNR, SLD and MLK are 95°, 60°, 70° and 55° respectively. characteristic VLF-R response in H-polarization mode. The conductivity

Fig. 4. (a) Schematic drawings of SNR line location. (b), (c), (d), (e) and explanation are similar to Fig. 3.
444 A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447

contrast between the fault zone conductor and surrounding medium is theoretically. These field results show that current channeling mechan-
quite high with the value of σ2 /σ1 = 10. Real and imaginary compo- ism, in H-polarization, produce unexpectedly good VLF-EM response
nents of VLF-EM data, along YSG profile, also form a clear zero-crossing together with the strong VLF-R response, along this line.
point shaping a characteristic fault anomaly around the point of 140 m at
profile (Fig. 3b,c,d). The K&H current density pseoudosection which is 4.2. SNR profile
shown in Fig. 3e also shows a border at about 140 m indicating a fault
anomaly. In VLF applications, the zero-crossing points in the real and Linear hill morphology is bounded by two branches of FBFZ in
imaginary VLF-EM (tipper) responses determine the location of Senir, (Fig. 4a). These faults disappear under Neogene aged sediments
subsurface bodies in E-polarization mode. However, in H-polarization of the basin. The profile length is 170 m. The VLF-data were collected
mode, a significant variation in VLF-EM response is not expected with station spacing of 10 m using a dipole 10 m in length for the

Fig. 5. (a) Schematic drawings of SLD line location. (b), (c), (d), (e) and explanation are similar to Fig. 3.
A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447 445

electric field measurements (Fig. 4a). The apparent resistivity values approximately perpendicular to the fault (Fig. 5a). The VLF data were
increase abruptly at 105 m distance and phase decrease forming a collected with station spacing of 5 m using a dipole 5 m in length for the
characteristic VLF-R response in H-pole mode (Fig. 4b,c). Although electric field measurements. We are mainly in H-polarization mode with
measurements were done mainly in H-polarization mode, with the a 70° angle of VLF ray incidence to the strike. The apparent resistivity and
angle of 60° between the strike and primary electrical VLF field ray phase slightly change along this line with the low conductivity contrast
path, real component of VLF-EM (tipper) data also makes zero- (σ2 /σ1) of 2–5. The most important variations in VLF-R anomalies are
crossing point at this location (Fig. 4d) indicating the fault. Along this observed at 40 m distance along the profile. However, resistivity and
profile, 30° deviation from H-polarization situation may cause phase anomalies decreasing together do not form a characteristic H-
contribution of E-polarization response. The K&H current density polarization fault response. Real and imaginary components of the
pseoudosection, in Fig. 4e, also indicates a current density border. All rather noisy VLF-EM data show a zero crossover and resistivity decreases
of these anomalies show the continuation of Senir fault under the and phase increases very slightly at the distance of 80 m, indicating a
basin at around 105 m location of SNR profile. characteristic fault response (Fig. 5d). The K&H current density
pseoudosection, in Fig. 5e, also shows a vertical current density border
4.3. SLD profile at this location. At 80 m distance of the profile phase and resistivity
curves very slightly changes with a decrease in resistivity and an
Suludere fault, which is observed at the surface as a short rupture, increase in phase. In this profile nearly constant resistivity values, at
disappears within basin (Fig. 5a). The profile is 260 m length and is around 10 Ω m and low conductivity contrast are thought to be

Fig. 6. (a) Schematic drawings of MKY line location. (b), (c), (d), (e) and explanation are similar to Fig. 3.
446 A. Gürer et al. / Journal of Applied Geophysics 68 (2009) 437–447

responsible of weak VLF-R response. Due to the inconvenient position conductivity contrast between two sides of the fault zone and 2)
between geological strike and VLF transmitter and low conductivity presence of parallel fault branches behaving as parallel conductors
contrast along the line, VLF-EM anomalies are weak and noisy. Although with parallel resistors in between. Especially, in Yassıgüme survey area
it is difficult to interpret these anomalies along SLD profile on their own (YSG line), VLF-EM real and imaginary components show a perfect
they are well correlated with a step like morphology having 2 m vertical characteristic fault response around the fault (Fig. 3d). Similar results
displacement at the 80 m distance of the profile. Considering the field are obtained from Senir (SNR) profile. In these survey areas, fault zone
morphology and all VLF anomalies at about 80 m we can concluded that splits into two or more fault branches and separates two mediums
the fault is at the 80 m distance in our profile in the basin. having high conductivity contrast. Along SLD and MKY profiles where
a single fault fragment take place and a low conductivity contrast is
4.4. MKY profile observed, VLF-EM anomalies related to the fault zone are negligible or
very noisy. Our field results shows that negligible variations in
The surface fault observed in Malkayası disappears under neigh- magnetic fields can be straighten by the high conductivity contrast at
boring Neogene aged basin (Fig. 6a). The MKY profile is 290 m length the fault zone. Parallel fault branches with the high conductivity
and is approximately perpendicular to the fault strike (Fig. 6a). The contrast may provide consecutive enhancement effect on magnetic
VLF-EM data were collected with station spacing of 10 m using a field variations and result considerable VLF tipper responses.
dipole 10 m in length for the electric field measurements (Fig. 6a). With easy survey procedure and fast interpretation, the VLF
Apparent resistivity decreases abruptly while phase increases, method can be used to locate subsurface faults. Even, in the case of
indicating a fault response in H-polarization, at about 50 m distance stations whose wave fronts perpendicular to the geological strike, we
(Fig. 6b,c). VLF-EM data (Fig. 6d) does not show a considerable can obtain a good VLF-EM anomaly over good conductors having a
variation as expected for H-polarization at this distance of the profile. strong conductivity contrast with its environ. In this case, joint effect
In Malkayası region observed apparent resistivities are rather high, of current gathering and induction processes, which is strengthened
mostly changes in between 100 and 500 Ω m, whereas conductivity by successive magnetic field variations caused by parallel faults having
contrast is rather low with a value of 5. high conductivity contrast with the surrounding medium, can also
At around 140 m distance, phase anomaly very slightly increases produce some indicative VLF-EM response in H-polarization mode.
and imaginary VLF-EM anomaly makes a zero crossing point whereas Our results, obtained over some parts of FBFZ, show good examples for
there is no considerable change in apparent resistivity data. At the detecting subsurface faulting covered by a basin by VLF method using
distance of 230 m on the profile, apparent resistivity and phase current gathering mechanism. The hidden fault branches of FBFZ were
slightly increase where decreasing real component of VLF-EM field quite successfully imaged by VLF method.
gains a higher gradient. For these two last locations, at 140 and 230 m
distances, some perturbations in subsurface structures striking in E- Acknowledgements
polarization position to GBR transmitter may cause anomalies. Current
density pseoudosection also shows borders at 140 and 230 m This work was supported by TÜBİTAK (grant 102Y054) and the
distances. The K&H current density pseoudosection, in Fig. 6e, also Research Fund of Istanbul University (grant 1781/21122001), BEKA-
indicates an anomalous highest density of equivalent current. DEP-159/250599 and we thank Muzaffer Özburan and Mert Özkan for
The VLF-R and VLF-EM responses at 55 m distance give harmo- their efforts to make field observations and to obtain VLF-R data set.
nious and theoretically expected responses for H-polarization excita-
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