Anda di halaman 1dari 35

Ice Thermal Storage Applications in China

Baltimore Aircoil Company


Agenda

• Overview of Ice Thermal Storage Market in


China
• Ice TES Applications in China
– Low Temperature Air Distribution
– Tall Building Application
– District Cooling
Ice Thermal Storage
Market in China
• Power shortages and rate differentials
driving need for load shifting ⇒ growing
demand for Ice Storage applications
• Growing acceptance of TES system with
low temp design
• Growing interest in District Cooling
10 year presence in China
150 BAC ice thermal storage installations
1.2 million ton-hours of thermal storage capacity

Central China TV (CCTV)


Beijing

Shanghai Science Museum


Thermal Storage Incentives in China

On peak Mid-peak Off-peak Peak vs. Offpeak


(US C/Kwh) (US C/Kwh) (US C/Kwh) Rate Differential

Beijing 15.6 8.9 3.7 4.2 : 1

Shanghai 12.4 8.4 2.8 4.4 : 1

Hangzhou 15.8 11.2 6.7/4.6* 3.4 : 1

Guangzhou 12.4 7.8 3.9 3.2 : 1

Shenzhen 13.6 10.2 5.9/2.8* 4.8 : 1

Wuhan 13.4 7.8 4.0 3.4 :1

* Special Rate for TES


Additional Benefits of Ice Thermal Storage
Technology

Take advantage of low temperature fluids and


larger temperature ranges
minimizing the size of the system components and
energy consumption
Cold Air Distribution Design Reference
Electric Power Research Institute HVAC&R Center

Benefits of Cold Air Distribution


• Economics
• Comfort & Indoor Air Quality
Design Considerations
First Cost and Operating Cost
Comparisons
Case Studies
Design Reference
Benefits of Cold Air Distribution

13°C (55°F) Air System

• Construction Benefits

move 50% less water


move 33% less air

– Mechanical

7°C (44°F) Air System

Source: Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)


Benefits of Cold Air Distribution
• Construction Benefits
– Building cost savings
• Building height reduction
– Up to 30 cm/floor
– One additional floor per 20 to 30 stories
• Building envelope (1 to 4%)
• Structural framework (minimum of 3%)
• Prefabricated walls (approximately 3%)
• Mechanical equipment rooms (reduced size)
• Elevators & stairs (shorter shaft height)
• Reduced electrical wiring (reduced wiring &
transformers)

Source: Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)


Designing Cold Air Systems
System Net Cost Annual Energy Savings

1000 50

900 45

Energy Saving per Year $000


800 40

700 35
System Cost $000

600 30

500 25

400 20

300 15

200 10

100 5

0 0
13°C (55°F) 13°C (55°F) 8°C (46°F) 5°C (40°F)
Supply Air Temperature
Source: Source: Fields, W.G. & D.E. Knebel, 1991, “Cost Effective Thermal Storage,” Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Magazine, July, pp. 59-72.
State Power Management Building
Beijing, China
70,000 square meters, Peak A.C. load: 2400 Tons
Ice Storage equipment: 7120 ton-hours
Ice Thermal Storage Technology Provides the
Building Owner and Occupants Significant
Benefits Including

• Lower first cost


• Lower energy cost
• Better energy efficiency
• Better indoor air quality and comfort
State Power Building, Beijing
Ice Thermal Storage Units

(8) 890 TH
Ice Tanks
State Power Management Building
Ice Strategy
USRT
2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
10

12

14
16

18

20
22
0

2
4

Base Chiller Ice Build Glycol Chiller Ice Discharge


State Power Management Building
Ice Storage System Diagram

ICE STORAGE TANK b V1 a CHILLER


(8) 890 Ton-hours c (3) 418 RT
3300
a V2 b
0
2C GPM
TS-1
c
10.30C
Ice Melt Mode
Heat Exchanger
0
3C 120 C
V1 modulate
V2 a-c Base Chiller
294 RT

Cooling Load
First Cost Comparison
Cost Item (USD) Conventional Ice Storage System
Chillers 1,069,778 827,160
Cooling Towers 133,333 101,235
Ice storage 620,988
Glycol 61,728
Pumps 123,457 149,383
Piping&Insulation 891,358 854,333
Heat Exchanger 95,062
Air-handling Units 1,456,461 780,247
Ductwork &Insulation 2,127,089 1,665,432
VAV and Diffusers 982,475 824,309
Controls 1,392,593 928,395
Total 8,176,543 6,908,272
Non storage: 2400 RT, supply air temp = 12.8 C
Storage: 1600 RT, 7120 TH ice storage, supply air temp = 7 C
Source: Hydin Engineering Technology Ltd.
Lower First Cost
• By utilizing ice thermal
storage technology,
significant cost
savings can be
achieved through
reduced pumping,
piping, and air
distribution system
Lower Airside
Equipment Cost
• % Air Volume = Delta T Air Conventional/Delta T Cold Air
= (25oC-13oC)/(25oC-7oC)=12/18=0.67

• Original Supply Air (13 C) 643,900 CFM


• Super-cool Air (7 C) 431,600 CFM
• Reduced Air 212,300 CFM
• % Reduction of Supply Air 33%
• Original Number of AHU 40
• Revised Number of AHU 22
State Power Management Building
First Cost Comparison

Capital Cost ($mil)

10

0
Conventional Ice Storage w/ Ice Storage w/
System Conventional Air Low Temp Air
State Power Management Building
Energy Cost Comparison

Energy Cost ($000)

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Conventional Ice Storage w/ Ice Storage w/
System Conventional Air Low Temp Air
Lower Energy Costs
• Electric Rate Differential
– Peak to off-peak rate differential: 3.5 to 1
• Lower Pumping Energy
– Larger fluid temperature range equates to a 45%
reduction in flow rate or 45% reduction in pump
energy consumption
• Lower Fan Power Consumption
– Colder supply air equates to a 33% reduction in air
volume. Since the relationship of air volume to fan
power is the power of 3, fan energy consumption can
be reduced by as much as 70%
Improved Occupant Comfort
• In a cold air system with 7°C supply air, the space relative humidity
will be approximately 10% lower than in a similar 13°C system
resulting in improved occupant comfort
• As condensation on air handling unit coil fins is much greater than
standard conditions, more impurities in the air such as dust or dirt
are removed providing superior indoor air quality
• Better air quality and a more comfortable working environment can
also mean increased employee productivity
China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) Plaza, Beijing
中石油大厦
Lowered building height
1oC ice tank water
temperature
2oC chilled water
temperature
5.5oC cold air distribution

(24) TSC-678AS, 16272RTH.


BAC 3412A, (4)31056A CTI Certified Cooling Towers
Taipei 101, Taiwan
One of the World’s Tallest Buildings

(51) Ice Thermal Storage Tanks


(30) TSU 17,760 TH Podium Portion
(21) TSU 18,690 TH Tower Portion
(12) VT1-1335
(7) 15201 Cooling Towers
Taipei 101
Taiwan

74th floor
41.0°F (5°C)

42nd floor
39.2°F (4°C)

7th & 8th floors


37.8°F (3°C)
Zhongguangcun District Cooling, Beijing China
28,560 TH Ice Storage
Supply/Return Water Temperature: 36oF/56oF (2oC/13oC)
Leaving/Return Air Temperature: 45.6oF/78.8oF (7.5oC/26oC)

Financial Center Underground Commercial Space


(1,100,000 Ft.2) (1,500,000 Ft.2)
Zhongguangcun District Cooling
Plant, Beijing China

Chiller Plant

Ice Thermal Storage


Tank
Zhongguangcun District Cooling, Beijing
China

Ice Tank
Guangzhou University District Cooling Project, China
Largest Ice Storage Project in China

253,248 TH Ice Storage


Three District Cooling Plants Serving
- 10 University Campuses
- 250,000 Students

Plant #2

Plant #3

Plant #4
Lower Pumping and Piping Costs

• % Flow Rate = Delta T Conventional/Delta T Ice


Storage = (12°C-7°C)/(12°C-3°C) = 5/9 = 0.55

• The flow rate of the ice storage system is 55%


that of the flow rate of the conventional system
representing significantly reduced pump and
piping costs
Coils Outside Plant
#3
Conclusion
• Ice thermal storage is being widely used in
China to shift electric demand from peak to
off-peak periods.
• In addition, ice thermal storage inherently
produces very cold chilled water that can
be beneficially used to reduce initial system
cost, energy cost, and improve energy
efficiency.
Questions ?