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Defined As:

 According to Keith Davis "Is the processes of passing of information and understanding
from one person" to another
 "Is any behavior that results in a exchange of meaning by American Management
 It is a process of exchanging information, ideas, knowledge, sharing of experience
between the sender and receiver through accepted code or symbols.
(Five terms social process, symbols, meaning and environment)
 Is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another


A. Verbal Communication - people used the words they use these words vary among
individuals according to culture, socio economic background, age and education.
A.1 Speaking
A.2 written words

B. Non - Verbal Communication

B.1 Gestures - signs language including finger spelling into the palm by the deaf/blind
B.2 Body Language
B.3 Facial expression/ Touch


 The communication process is dynamic, continuous, irreversible, and contextual. It is not

possible to participate in any element of the process without acknowledging the existence
and functioning of the other elements.
 The sharing of meaningful information and exchange of information (a message) between
two or more people.


1. sender or communicator - the person who initiates a message

2. receiver or interpreter - the person to whom a message is directed
3. message - the verbal and/or nonverbal content that must be encoded by the sender and
decoded by the receive
4. channel- the medium by which the message is delivered and received
5. context - the setting and situation in which communication takes place
6. noise - anything that interferes with the accurate expression or reception of a message
7. feedback - a response from the receiver indicating whether a message has been received
in its intended form


1. Intrapersonal- takes place within a single person - essentially it is the

thought and talking inside your head
2. Interpersonal - the type of communication that involves direct Interaction between two or
more people or within the group.
3. Mass communication - means of transmitting of messages to a large number of people
usually using electronic or print media.
Characteristics of Good Communication

Completeness • answer all questions asked

(context) • give something extra, when desirable
• check for the five W's and any other essentials
Conciseness (style) • shorten or omit wordy expressions
• include only relevant statements
• avoid unnecessary repetition
Consideration • focus on "you" instead of "1" or "we"
(context/delivery) • show reader benefit/interest in the reader
• emphasize the positive, pleasant facts
• apply integrity and ethics
Concreteness • use specific and accurate words, facts and figures
(style/sources) • put action in your verbs
• choose vivid, image-building words
Clarity (organization/ • choose short, familiar, conversational words
sources) • construct effective sentences and paragraphs
• achieve appropriate readability (through headings
and transitions) and iistenability
• include examples, illustrations, and other visual aids,
when desirable
Courtesy (delivery) • be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative
• omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle
• grant and apologize good-naturedly
Correctness (style) • use the right level of language
• maintain acceptable writing mechanics
• choose nondiscriminatory expressions
• apply ail the other pertinent "C" qualities


1. Sincerity - primary basis which the audience judges the integrity

- means without deceit, pretense or hypocrisy, truthful and straight forward

Tips to project sincerity:

1. Be yourself- the presentation you give should be a natural reflection of your personality, not
an imitation of someone else's.

2. Concentrate on ideas rather than words -- this keeps you from words and expressions you
would not normally use, and keeps the flow of your presentation natural.

 Extemporize rather than memorize — when speaking, use an outline, possibly one on a
flipchart or overhead transparency, rather than a written text. Practice by doing a few dry
runs in front of a mirror or with a tape recorder.

Kozier B. Et al,Fundamentals of nursing 7*^^ edition, copyright 2004
WWW, wikianswer, corrs
WWW. e i tfo ru m. CO m

 It is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender,

a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need intent not be present or
aware of the senders to communicate at the time of communication; thus, communication
can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the
communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The
communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the
sender. (Wikipedia)

Modes of Communication

 Simplex mode
 In this mode of communication, only one-way communication is possible.
Example is radio and television broadcasting. In this mode there is just one communication
channel. So, we ern receive data on that channel hut could not be able to transmit on same

 Duplex half-duplex
 In this mode of communication, two-way communication is possible but one at a time. If
there is a location a and b so we can send data from a to b or from b to a but one at a time.
Example is walkie-talkie or push-to-talk. In this mode there is also a single
communication channel but it can be used in both direction for transmission.

 Full-duplex
 In this mode of communication, two-way communication is possible in both directions
simultaneously. It means data can be sent from a to b and from b to a at same time.
Example is telephone/mobile communication. We can listen and talk at same time on
telephone. In this mode there are two communication channels one for each direction of
transmission. Anonymous

Elements of Communication
 Sender
 is the, speaker, issuer or writer, who intends to expr JSS or send out a message

 Encoding
 which means translating information into a message in the form of symbols that represent
ideas or concepts.
 Channel
 is the medium through which the message is communicated

 Decoding
 the process where the message is interpreted tor its content.

 Receiver
 the person who decodes the message

 Feed back
 the response of the receiver to the message

Communication process

 Is a guide toward realizing effective communication. It is through the communication

process that the sharing of a common meaning between the sender and the receiver takes
place. Individuals that follow the communication process will have the opportunity to
become more productive in every aspect of their profession. Effective communication
leads to understanding.

 The communication process is made, up of four key components. Those components

include encoding, medium of transmission, decoding, and feedback. There are also two
other factors in the process, and those two factors are present in the form of the sender
and the receiver. The communication process begins with the sender and ends with the
receiver, (nick sanchez)

 Process
■ The first step the sender is faced with involves the encoding process. In order to convey
meaning, the sender must begin encoding, which means translating information into a
message in the form of symbols that represent ideas or concepts. This process translates
the ideas or concepts into the coded message that will be communicated. The symbols
can take on numerous forms such as, languages, words, or gestures. These symbols are
used to encode ideas into messages that others can understand.

■ When encoding a message, the sender has to begin by deciding what he/she wants to
transmit. This decision by the sender is based on what he/she believes about the receivers
knowledge and assumptions, along with what additional infer nation he/she wants the
receiver to have. It is important for the sender t a use symbols that are familiar to the
intended receiver. A good way for the sender to improve encoding their message, I to
mentally visualize the communication from the receiver’s point of view.

■ If a sender relays a message through an inappropriate channel, its message may not
reach the right receivers. That is why senders need to keep in mind that selecting the
appropriate channel will greatly assist in the effectiveness of the receiver's understanding.

■ After the appropriate channel or channels are selected, the message enters the decoding
stage of the communication process, Decoding is conducted by the receiver. Once the
message is received and examined, the stimulus is sent to the brain for interpreting, in
order to assign some type of meaning to it. It is this processing stage that constitutes
decoding. The receiver begins to interpret the symbols sent by the sender, translating the
message to their own set of experiences in order to make the symbols meaningful.
Successful communication takes place then the receiver correctly interprets the sender's

■ The receiver is the individual or individuals to whom the message is directed- The
extent to which this person comprehends the message will depend on a number of factors,
which include the following: how much the individual or individuals know about the
topic, their receptivity to the message, and the relationship and trust that exists between
sender and receiver. All interpretations by the receiver are influenced by their
experiences, attitudes, knowledge, skills, perceptions, and culture. It is similar to the
sender's relationship with encoding

■ Feedback is the final link in the chain of the communication process. After receiving a
message, the receiver responds in some way and signals that response to the sender. The
signal may take the form of a spoken comment, a long sigh, a written message, a smile,
or some other action. "Even a lack of response, is in a sense, a form of response" (Bovee
& Thill, 1992). Without feedback, the sender cannot confirm that the receiver has
interpreted the message correctly.

Methods of effective communication

 Talking
 You have to express yourself to convey a message.

 Listening
 Your ears might hear the words, but listening requires focus, interest and desire to

 Non-verbal communication
 Even when you say nothing, you’re communicating. Your posture, facial
expressions and gestures all tell a story.

 Empathy
 Considering the other person's point of view can go a long way toward being a
better communicator.

 Delivery
 There are many ways to deliver a message. If it's not possible to speak to someone
face-to-face, the telephone, e-mail or written messages will have to do.

 Mixed messages
 Actions speak louder than words, as the sayingg goes. It's easier said than done, but
setting emotion aside and sharing your feelings, hopes and desires can help you be

Characteristics of Good Communication

 Completeness
 Answer all questions asked
 give something extra, when desirable
 check for the five w's and any other essentials

 Conciseness
 Focus on “you" instead of "i" or "we"
 Show reader benefit/interest in the reader
 emphasize the positive, pleasant facts

 Concreteness
 Use specific and accurate words, facts z.nd figur is

 Clarity
 Choose short, familiar, conversational words

 Courtesy
 Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative

 Correctness
 Use the right level of language

 LANGUAGE (VERBAL and NON-VERBAL) Oral language is used to verbally

communicate with clients. Non - verbal communications are seen in sign language.
Language is an important component in sharing information and messages to one

In the 1987 Philippine Constitution, it designates the Filipino as the official language of
the Republic of the Philippines. (Article XIV, Section 6)

The constitution also designates regional languages such as auxiliary official languages.
(Article XIV, Section 7)

Ex: Bicolano, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan and Waray-Waray.

Ex: LANGGAM, English; ANTS; Cebuano; IBON

 GENDER- interferes with communication when men and women lack the understanding
that they may process information differently.

“In general, some men are more interested using reason, where some women want to be
heard and validated through communication.” (Gray, 1992)
Ex. A post partum client during perennial care prefers a female nurse than a male
nurse to perform the procedure.

 CULTURE- associates different group beliefs and practices by age, race, economic
status, health and disability.

Ex. European health practitioners exchanges cheek-to-cheek greetings as a sign

of welcoming or gratitude.

 NOISE- unwanted or untowards sound directly affecting the conversation.

Ex. A nurse giving a health teaching about breastfeeding initiation while the baby
is crying out loud.

 HEALTH ILLITERACY- inability to understand values and beliefs related to health.

“Health literacy represents the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation
and ability of individuals to gain, access to, understand, in use information in ways that
promote and maintain good health.” (WHO)
Ex. A nurse who uses medical terms while explaining a procedure to patient.

 ANGER- universal strong feeling that is often precipitated by a situation that frustrates
or prevents a person from attaining a goal or getting what he wanted in life.
Ex. A morning shift duty nurse scolds a patient for not properly taking a bath
upon assessment.

 INCONGRUENT/ NON-THERAPEUTIC RESPONSES- when words or actions in a

communication do not match the inner experience of self or are inappropriate to the
context. It presents blaming, placating and unreasonable answers to questions.



a. STEREOTYPING- offering generalized and oversimplified belief about groups of

people that are based to experiences limited to be valid. (These response categorize clients
and negate their uniqueness as individuals)

Ex. CLIENT: “I was born on February.”

NURSES: “All people born on the month of February are cute.”
b. AGREEING or DISAGREEING- judgmental responses that agrees or disagrees to either
right or wrong and that the position of the nurse is to judge this.
(These response deter clients prefer thinking through their position or may cause a client
to become defensive.)

Ex. CLIENT: “I do not think Dr. Kupido is a very good doctor for patients with heart
problems. He does not seem interested to his patients.”
NURSE: “Dr. Kupido is a very good cardiologist and an excellent surgeon.”

c. PROBING- Asking for information chiefly out of curiosity rather than the intent to assist
the client. Asking “WHY” is often probing. (These response violate clients privacy.)

Ex. CLIENT: I was speeding along the street and did not see the stop sign.”
NURSE; “Why are you overspeeding?”

d. REJECTING- refusing to discuss certain topics with the client. (These response makes
the client feel that the nurse is rejecting the communication but also the client

Ex. CLIENT: “I have a feeling of nervousness right now.”

NURSE: “That’s not important. Let’s discuss other areas instead of the nervousness you
are feeling.”

e. UNWANTED REAASURANCE- using cliches or comforting statements of advice as a

means to reassure the client. (This response block the fears, feelings and other thoughts of
the client.)

Ex. CLIENT; “Do you think everything will be alrigjit?”

NURSE; “I’m sure everything will be alright.”

f. PASSING JUDGEMENT- giving opinions, approving or disapproving responses,

moralizing or implying one’s own values. (These responses imply that the client most
think as the nurses think, fostering client dependence.)

Ex. CLIENT: I am doing good in my exercises today.”

NURSE; “NO!I do not think you’re doing good on your exercise.

g. GIVING COMMON ABVICE- telling the client what to do. (These response deny the
client’s right to be the equal partner in patients care.)

Ex. CLIENT: “Should I move from my home to a nursing home?”

NURSE: “If I were you. I’d go to a nursing home, where you’ll get your meals cooked
for you.”


•When a problem arises, request an appointment to speak to them, (demonstrates respect and
allows for the conversation to occur in an appropriate time and place)
•When talking, state your concern clearly and accurately (promotes cooperation and facilitate

•Seek a win-win solution to conflicts arising (encourages solving problems)

•Proper delegation of task (promotes collaboration on tasks given)


•Keep the patients goal as the center of discussion (Helps focuses on patient care)

Heidgerken, Loreta E. (1971). Teaching and Learning in Schools of Nursing. 3*^^ ed.
Philadelphia: J.B. LipincottCo. 1971
Kozier and Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing (Concepts. Process and Practice) 8* edition.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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