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Antenna System Equipment

DESCRIPTION
Copyright

© Copyright Ericsson AB 2009-2010. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form without the written
permission of the copyright owner.

The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to
continued progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ericsson shall
have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use
of this document.

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Contents

Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Functions and Concepts 3


2.1 Hardware 3
2.2 Antenna System 3
2.3 Antenna 5
2.4 TMA 6
2.5 RET 6
2.6 Antenna Tilt 7

3 Managed Object Model 9


3.1 Managed Object Overview 9

4 Configuration Management 11
4.1 Antenna 11
4.2 Iuant TMA 13
4.3 Golden Feeder TMA 15
4.4 RET 15
4.5 Connecting a Sector to the Antenna System 18

5 Fault Management 19

6 Performance Management 21

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Antenna System Equipment

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Introduction

1 Introduction

This document describes the management model and concepts for the
managed area Antenna System Equipment.

The document provides an understanding of how the area is modeled, including


the functions related to the area and how they are managed.

A managed area represents a group of functions and Managed Objects (MO)


within the node, where each area is relatively independent of other areas.

An antenna system is created as part of the autointegration function described


in RBS Autointegration. The antenna hardware units are configured in the
Radio Access Network (RAN) system during site configuration in or system
expansion. This document provides a general description about how the MOs
are configured and handled, not assuming any specific application tool to be
used.

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Antenna System Equipment

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Functions and Concepts

2 Functions and Concepts

This section describes the functions and concepts, as well as hardware, that
apply to operation and maintenance of antenna system equipment.

2.1 Hardware
Antenna system equipment consists of the following hardware:

• Antenna

• AISG/3GPP Tower Mounted Amplifier (ATMA)

• External Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)

• AISG/3GPP Remote Electrical Tilt Unit (ARETU)

• Feeder Cable

Detailed information regarding antenna system hardware is found in the Radio


Base Station (RBS) Site Products library.

2.2 Antenna System


In LTE, the antenna system includes the following basic functions:

• Antenna

• TMA

• Remote Electrical Tilt (RET)

Antenna system exists in the following functional combinations:

• Antenna

• Antenna and TMA

• Antenna and RET

• Antenna, TMA, and RET

Antenna system configuration comes in many different combinations depending


on which functions are applied, previous RAN system to be implemented in,
frequency band use and so on. For information about cascaded configuration
of ARETUs in an antenna system, refer to Cascaded RET Support.

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Antenna System Equipment

A simplified example of an antenna system applying antenna, TMA, and RET


functions is shown in the following figure:

X
X
RetSubunit X

RET
AuPort

RfBranch TMA RfBranch

Rx
TmaSubunit
RfPort
Tx/Rx & DC

RBS

L0000137A

Figure 1 Example of an Antenna System with Antenna, TMA, and RET


Functions

The MO structure is shown in the following figure:

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Functions and Concepts

AntennaUnitGroup

AntennaUnit

AntennaSubunit AntennaSubunit

AntennaNearUnit AuPort AuPort AntennaNearUnit

RetSubunit RetSubunit

RfBranch TmaSubunit TmaSubunit RfBranch

RfPort RfPort

L0000138A

Figure 2 Managed Object View of Antenna System with Antenna, TMA, and
RET Functions

2.3 Antenna
The antenna transmits and receives Radio Frequency (RF) signals distributed
through a feeder cable to the RBS.

The types of antennas used in the LTE system are as follows:

• Directional

• Omnidirectional

Directional antennas are used to cover one or several sectors from a common
RBS site, where the antenna beam is directed away from the RBS tower
covering a specific area.

Omnidirectional antennas covers an area of a circle, surrounding the RBS


tower, which is placed in the middle of a sector.

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Antenna System Equipment

2.4 TMA
The TMA amplifies RF signals received by the Receiving (RX) antenna, before
the signals are sent to the RBS, increasing uplink coverage. This allows the
RBS to be placed some distance from the antenna. Transmitted signals from
the Transmitting (TX) RBS, are filtered but not amplified before being sent to
the antenna.

TMAs allow long feeders and high power amplifiers in the downlink, contributing
to balanced downlink and uplink signals.

TMA configurations supported include:

• Golden feeder TMA. This type of TMA is not suppled with DC from the
RBS and can not be monitored. It is modeled in theRfBranch MO. The
parameters of the TMA are set in the feeder characteristics instead of a
separate TMA unit MO, which will lead to a feeder gain instead of a loss.

• TMAs with an AISG 2.0 interface that communicates with the RBS on
the antenna feeder using the Iuant interface protocol. These TMAs can
report gain values and fault conditions to the RBS and also control RET
equipment on a RS-485 interface. This TMA is power supplied by the RBS
and has the possibility to supply RET units with DC power. These devices
are modeled in the TMASubunit MO.

Note: External TMAs are not supported in this release. External TMAs will
be DC powered from the RBS and may be supervised by monitoring the
current consumption. When supported, these devices will be modeled in the
ExternalTma MO.

For detailed information about the TMA function, refer to TMA Support.

2.5 RET
The RET provides electrical tilt for tuning and optimizing the network by
adjusting the vertical lobe-angle of the antenna. The RET is implemented in
both the RBS and Operation and Support System - Radio and Core (OSS-RC),
so antennas connected to the RBS can be adjusted from a remote location,
such as an operation and maintenance center. A site visit is not required.

The RET (implemented in the ARET hardware) communicates through the Iuant
protocol, and control management is provided by the RBS through the TMA.
However, if a TMA is not used in the antenna system, control management is
provided through an RET Interface Unit (RIU). For detailed information about
the RET function, refer to RET Support.

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Functions and Concepts

2.6 Antenna Tilt


The transmitted power in the horizontal direction is highest when the antenna
beam is not tilted down. However, tilting is sometimes necessary to ensure
high LTE capacity. Interference minimization and desired beam coverage are
achieved by antenna tilting.

Antenna tilt is distinguished by mechanical tilt and electrical tilt, as illustrated


in the following figure:

Antenna axis
+

Mechanical
tilt

Mechanical
tilt

Electrical
tilt

Total tilt

L0000139A

Figure 3 Antenna Tilt

2.6.1 Mechanical Tilt


Mechanical tilt is set during installation and defined as the inclination of the
antenna element axis with respect to the vertical plane. Positive values
represent down-tilting, away from the vertical axis, whereas negative values
represent up-tilting.

2.6.2 Electrical Tilt


Electrical tilt is provided by the RET function and provides remote electrically
controlled tilting of the antenna beam. Electrical tilt is defined by the inclination
of the maximum of the antenna main beam with respect to the direction

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Antenna System Equipment

orthogonal to the antenna element axis (the horizontal plane if the antenna
axis is vertical).

2.6.3 Total Tilt


Total tilt is defined as the inclination of the maximum of the antenna’s main
beam with respect to the horizontal plane. Total tilt = Mechanical tilt + Electrical
tilt.

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Managed Object Model

3 Managed Object Model

This section describes the management model defined for this area.

For information about the managed object model concept, refer to Managed
Object Model (MOM) User Guide.

Note: Setting an unsupported value may affect traffic. A few MOs,


parameters, counters, and value ranges may be visible in the MOM
even though they are not yet supported. This is because system
design considers future aspects. Refer to Parameter and Counter
Limitationsfor a list of limitations to the MOM included in this library.

3.1 Managed Object Overview


Antenna system equipment represents a subset of the MOM. The MOM view of
the MOs included in this managed area are illustrated in the following figure:

Equipment

AntennaUnitGroup

AntennaUnit AntennaNearUnit AntennaNearUnit ExternalTma

AntennaSubunit RetSubunit ExtTmaConnector

RfBranch AuPort
TmaSubunit

RfPort

Belongs to another managed area


Belongs to this managed area
L0000140A

Figure 4 The Managed Object View for Antenna System Equipment

For information about all MO classes, refer to Managed Object Model RBS.

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Antenna System Equipment

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Configuration Management

4 Configuration Management

This section provides a general description of configuration activities related


to this managed area.

Note: Attributes starting with iuant do not have operational impact on the
system. These attributes are defined according to the 3GPP TS 25.466
standard. However, the attribute iuantDeviceType is an exception
from the above. It is used to connect to the RET or TMA in the antenna.

MO relations are displayed in Figure 4 on page 9.

4.1 Antenna
This section describes configuration activities related to the antenna.

4.1.1 Adding and Deleting an Antenna Unit


Before adding an antenna unit, an AntennaUnitGroup MO must have been
created.

To add an antenna unit, create an AntennaUnit MO related to an


AntennaUnitGroup. An AntennaUnit can consist of up to four antenna
elements, represented by the AntennaSubunit MO. To add an antenna
element, create an AntennaSubunit related to the AntennaUnit.

Note: If several antenna elements are related to one antenna unit, they will
have the same mechanical tilt.

When deleting an AntennaUnit, it must not be referenced by any other MO.


The children MO must be deleted first.

4.1.2 Replacing the Antenna Unit

Before replacing the physical antenna unit, the VSWR supervision must be
turned off and the RU must be locked. To turn of the VSWR supervision, set
the attribute vswrSupervisionActive to false in the RfPort MO, related
to the RfBranch MO. This MO has a connection to the AntennaUnit MO
through the AuPort MO and AntennaSubunit MO.

To lock the RU, change the attribute administrativeState to 0 for locked


in the AuxPlugInUnit MO representing the RU. This MO belongs to another
managed area, RBS Equipment. The AuxPlugInUnit must be related to the
RfPort that is connected to the antenna unit to be replaced. Locking the RU
will automatically cease alarms from the sector and cell that are automatically
locked.

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After the physical antenna unit has been replaced, the state information of
the RfPort is propagated in the system to the related sector and cell MOs,
dependent on the RfPort. The related MOs will automatically be enabled.

4.1.3 Adding an RfBranch

Before adding an RfBranch, an AntennaUnitGroup MO must be created.

To add an RfBranch, create an RfBranch MO related to an


AntennaUnitGroup, AuPort, and RfPort.

The sum of TMA ulGain and RfBranch ulAttenuation must be within


the RU Maximum Uplink Attenuation, see Radio Unit Descriptionfor RU
specific limits.

4.1.4 Configuring the Rf Branch


Equipment lacking its own MO is merged into the RfBranch MO, such as
feeders, filters and golden feeder TMAs.

To configure the Rf branch, such as setting downlink attenuation and traffic


delay, set the attributes in the RfBranch MO.

Note: A golden feeder TMA most likely achieves a gain in uplink. This
is configured as a negative value in the RfBranch attribute
ulAttenuation.

For ulAtenuation and dlAttenuation: The value range for each entry is
-500..-2, -1, 0..500 (-50..50 dB). Unused entries are set to -1.

For ulTrafficDelay and dlTrafficDelay: The value range for each entry is
0..800000 (0..800000 ns). Unused entries are set to -1.

4.1.5 Changing the Mechanical Antenna Tilt Attribute


Changing the mechanical tilt attribute will only change the value in the system,
and will not have any physical impact on the antenna axis. The actual
mechanical tilt is changed on site by an operator during antenna hardware
installation. One reason to set the mechanical tilt attribute is to be able to
measure the total tilt of the antenna if an RET has been installed.

Before changing the mechanical tilt attribute, the sector has to be initiated in
the RBS Site Configuration.

To change the mechanical tilt attribute, set a value in the attribute


mechanicalAntennaTilt in the AntennaUnit MO.

The value represents the antenna tilt relative to the vertical plane. Positive
values signify tilting of the antenna forward, the antenna beam is lowered.

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Configuration Management

Negative values give an uplifted beam. The attribute value represents a tenth
of one degree. For example, the attribute value 20, represents 2.

4.1.6 Setting Maximum and Minimum Total Tilt


To set the maximum total tilt, set a value in the attribute maxTotalTilt in the
AntennaSubunit MO.

To set the minimum total tilt, set a value in the attribute minTotalTilt in
the AntennaSubunit.

For value description and definition of maximum and minimum total tilt, see the
attribute description in AntennaSubunit.

4.2 Iuant TMA


This section describes configuration activities related to the Iuant TMA.

4.2.1 Adding and Deleting an Iuant TMA


Before adding a TMA, an AntennaNearUnit MO of type TMA must have been
created. Make sure the attribute values for anuType and iuantDeviceType
are valid for the type TMA.

To add a TMA, create a TmaSubunit MO related to an AntennaNearUnit.


An RfBranch must reference the TmaSubunit.

When deleting a TMA, it cannot be referenced by any other MO. The children
MOs must be deleted first and the TMA must not be locked, see Section 4.2.3
on page 14.

4.2.2 Replacing the Iuant TMA


Before replacing the physical ATMA, it has to be taken out of traffic. Lock the
TMA according to Section 4.2.3 on page 14.

After the physical ATMA has been replaced, it is detected, restarted and
configured automatically according to stored information in the RBS. Automatic
restart is triggered when the TMA is locked.

After the restart, the new TMA must be brought into traffic again, see how to
unlock a TMA in Section 4.2.3 on page 14.

If the replaced TMA is preconfigured with device data that conflicts with data
stored in the RBS, then an alarm is raised. If this occurs, the device data in the
TMA must be changed according to Section 4.2.4 on page 14.

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4.2.3 Locking and Unlocking the Iuant TMA

Before locking and unlocking a TMA, a connection to the physical ATMA must
have been established, and the RBS must have an Operation and Maintenance
(O&M) connection.

To lock and unlock the TMA, change the attribute administrativeState


to 0 for locked and 1 for unlocked, in the AntennaNearUnit. Make sure the
MO is related to the TmaSubunit.

4.2.4 Setting Device Data in the Iuant TMA


When an Iuant TMA is replaced, the preconfigured device data in the new TMA
may not match the device data stored in the RBS.

Before setting device data, a TmaSubunit MO related to an


AntennaNearUnit MO must have been created. A connection to the
physical ATMA and the RBS must be established to have an Operation and
Maintenance (O&M) connection.

To set device data in the TMA, change the mismatching attributes beginning
with iuant in either the AntennaNearUnit or TmaSubunit, depending on where
the mismatching device data is detected.

The RBS compares the device data values with the TMA data values unit
according to the rules described in the following table:

Table 1 Rules of Device Data Comparison


Set Value Unit Value Resulting Value kept
blank blank Unit value
blank value Unit value
value blank Set value
value value Unit value

When values do not collide, the RBS stores the matching values in both the
RBS database and the physical ATMA unit.

When values collide, an alarm PreconfiguredParameterMismatch is


raised. The RBS stores the new value in the database, but retains the existing
value in the physical ATMA unit. For more information about the alarm, refer to
PreconfiguredParameterMismatch.

To overwrite the preconfigured value in the physical ATMA, enter the new
value after receiving the alarm. The following example shows how to overwrite
an existing installation date:

AntennaNearUnit.iuantInstallationDate = 2009/05/29

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Configuration Management

4.2.5 Restarting the Iuant TMA

Before restarting the TMA, a connection to the physical ATMA must have been
established.

Start the action restartUnit in the AntennaNearUnit MO related to the


TmaSubunit to be restarted.

4.2.6 Performing a Self Test on the Iuant TMA

Before performing a self test on the TMA, a connection to the physical ATMA
must have been established.

To trigger a self test, start the action selfTest in the AntennaNearUnit related
to the TmaSubunit.

4.3 Golden Feeder TMA


The golden feeder TMA is modeled in the RfBranch MO, see and Section
4.1.4 on page 12.

4.4 RET
This section describes configuration activities related to the RET.

4.4.1 Adding and Deleting an RET


Before adding an RET, an AntennaNearUnit MO must have been created.
Make sure the attribute values for anuType and iuantDeviceType are valid
for the type RET.

To add an RET, create an RetSubunit MO related to an AntennaNearUnit.


The added RetSubUnit Mo must be referenced from the AntennaSubUnit
that the RET is connected to.

When deleting an RET, it cannot be referenced by any other MO. The children
MOs must be deleted first and the RET must not be locked, see Section 4.4.3
on page 16.

4.4.2 Replacing the RET


Before replacing the physical ARETU, it has to be taken out of traffic. Lock the
RET according to Section 4.4.3 on page 16.

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After the physical ARETU has been replaced, it is detected, restarted and
configured automatically according to stored information in the RBS. Automatic
restart was triggered when the RET was locked.

After the restart, the new RET must be brought into traffic again, see how to
unlock a RET in Section 4.4.3 on page 16.

If the replaced RET is preconfigured with device data, a mismatch may occur
with the device data stored in the RBS, and an alarm is raised. If this occurs, the
device data in the RET must be changed according to Section 4.4.4 on page 16.

4.4.3 Locking and Unlocking the RET


Before locking and unlocking an RET, a connection to the physical ARETU
must have been established.

To lock and unlock the RET, change the attribute administrativeState to


0 for locked and 1 for unlocked, in the AntennaNearUnit MO. Make sure the
MO is related to the RetSubunit.

4.4.4 Setting Device Data in the RET


When an RET is replaced, the preconfigured device data in the new RET may
not match the device data in the RBS.

For information about how to set device data, see and exchange TMA with RET
and TmaSubunit with RetSubunit.

4.4.5 Restarting the RET


Before restarting the RET, a connection to the physical ARETU must have
been established.

Start the action restartUnit in the AntennaNearUnit MO related to the


RetSubunit to be restarted.

4.4.6 Performing a Self Test on the RET

Before performing a self test on the RET, a connection to the physical ARETU
must have been established.

To trigger a self test, start the action selfTest in the AntennaNearUnit related
to the RetSubunit.

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Configuration Management

4.4.7 Calibrating the RET

A calibration of the RET is performed to find the limits of the antenna tilt and the
actuator is driven through the whole tilt range of the controlled antenna element.

Before calibrating an RET, a connection to the physical ARETU must have


been established.

To calibrate a RET, start the action forceCalibration in the RetSubunit.

4.4.8 Changing the Electrical Antenna Tilt

Before changing the electrical tilt, a connection to the physical antenna near
unit must have been established.

To change the electrical tilt, set a value in the attribute electricalAntennaT


ilt in the RetSubunit MO. For value description, see Section 4.1.5 on page
12. The value has to be set in the range of the minimum and maximum tilt
values set in the same MO. Changing the electrical tilt will affect the attribute
totalTilt in the AntennaSubunit MO that is related to the RET.

4.4.9 Uploading the Antenna Configuration File to the RET


The antenna configuration file includes the limits for the maximum and minimum
values that can be handled by the antenna. It also includes data used by the
RET to calculate the movement of its motor required to achieve the desired
change on the antenna tilt. Such conversion allows the operator to use degree
unit as input for the tilting function. The configuration file is specific for the RET
and antenna combination. Different combinations require different configuration
files which can be found in the supplier’s home page.

The configuration file also includes preventive maintenance configuration


data. To prevent a motor jam, the RET provides regular antenna motions on a
weekly basis.

Before uploading the antenna configuration file, it must be downloaded from


the supplier’s home page and stored in an appropriate location, for example
an external file server connected to the node. The AntennaNearUnit and
RetSubunit MOs must have been created. The AntennaSubunit MO to
be tilted must be referenced by the RetSubunit.

To upload the file to the RET, start the action sendAntennaConfigurationF


ile in the RetSubunit MO. The file path to where the antenna configuration file
is located must also be stated.

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Antenna System Equipment

4.5 Connecting a Sector to the Antenna System


Connect a sector to the antenna system by setting up references between
the SectorEquipmentFunction MO and the RfBranch, or branches, that
are used.

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Fault Management

5 Fault Management

For information about alarms and Fault Management events, refer to Alarm
and Event List.

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Performance Management

6 Performance Management

There are no specific key performance Indicators for the antenna system.
Performance Management counters are found in the Managed Object Model
RBS.

Note: Setting an unsupported value may affect traffic. A few MOs,


parameters, counters, and value ranges may be visible in the MOM
even though they are not yet supported. This is because system
design considers future aspects. Refer to Parameter and Counter
Limitationsfor a list of limitations to the MOM included in this library.

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