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Engine and Wheels


To celebrate the occasion of completing 50 issues of Engine and

Wheels newsletters, we have compiled this handbook of homebuilt
horseless carriage information from all the how-to articles and
information, appearing in previous issues.

Everett Moore

SPRINGS will be for static display and driving in

Do we really need them? parades and other “home coming” activities.
Unless you live in a primitive area, your driv-
When it comes to designing a replica we ing environment will be a smooth, paved
automatically try to duplicate every feature street.
on the original. However, we don’t duplicate What do we really need for our suspen-
the engine, transmission, wheels — We only sion? Naturally, the front axle must articu-
use something similar. Why do we try to late to accommodate any unevenness in the
duplicate the springs? road surface. This could be accomplished by
merely pivoting the front axle, the same as
In conventional car design, springs are a you will find in any lawn and garden tractor.
necessity and the general practice is to keep The “suspension” is provided by the pneu-
the unsprung weight to a minimum. The pur- matic tires.
pose here is to provide a comfortable ride,
handling characteristics and traction. It is Looking backward, we see Henry Ford
assumed that the vehicle will be traveling only had springs on the front axle of his first
over unknown terrain ranging from silky car, the Quadricycle. On the other hand,
smooth to horrible. The drive train and steer- Ransom Olds went to the opposite extreme
ing axles, besides being structurally suffi- and designed a unique (and hard to dupli-
cient, must be able to flex to accommodate cate) springing system into his curved dash
this driving environment. Oldsmobile.

In designing our cars we must, first, con- Olds continued this design into produc-
sider the purpose and exactly where they will tion, while Ford’s Quadricycle was only used
be driven. Unless you are designing a street to prove that a gasoline engine and four
legal, licensed vehicle, your prime purpose wheels could provide a means of transporta-

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 1

tion. With the Model “T”, Ford not only intro- springs on his designs. Well, boys and girls,
duced springs, but produced a car that trav- take a hard look at his fine cars. Jimmy,
eled over roads that few 2 wheel drive cars of while inspired by the original Olds curved
today, could follow. dash carriage, found that the original method
of springing simply wasn’t practical for the
Front axles can be sprung several ways average home builder.
and, because of the need to articulate the
axle, this is a natural place for a spring. Also, Jimmy’s design utilizes a drive chassis
being easily seen from the front, springs add that is totally unsprung — The springs sus-
to a pleasing appearance. pend the body only. The center distances of
the axle, counter shafts and differential
The rear axles are a different story — shafts all remain constant.
mainly because of the fact that we are con-
fined to using chain drive to either one or My own, replica Quadricycle design fol-
both rear wheels. In conventional design, the lowed the original by not having any springs
sprung rear wheels can travel either up and on the rear and only coil springs on the front
down in a straight line or in an arc deter- — This being to simply articulate the front
mined by the suspension arms to the rear axle to accommodate any surface that might
wheels. The rear wheels can be on a solid axle be less than perfectly level.
or independently suspended.
Unless you’re a purist who desires to
With a differential and drive shaft the duplicate every little detail, I seriously ques-
action of the rear wheels can be accommodat- tion the need for rear springs. I personally
ed by the addition of a slip-spline in the driv- follow the design theory of “practical repli-
eline. Chain drive is a different story. cas.” Make your car look close enough to the
original that the casual observer will recog-
The drive sprocket must be located in
nize it as a “such and such” but keep it sim-
such a manner that the chain tension will be
ple enough that the average homebuilder can
neither too tight nor too loose. We can study
tackle it with a degree of success.
motorcycles and see how this was done.
Regardless, this demands that the drive
All of my driving has been in a parade or
sprocket be as close to the pivot point of any
around my neighborhood, on a smooth paved
rear axle suspension arm. Ideally, this could
surface. No one who has ever driven it has
be a co-axial arrangement where the chain
complained about the “rough ride.” Why,
tension would remain the same. The Brush
because the pneumatic tires, while small,
design of nearly a hundred years ago is a
provide just enough cushion from what little
good example.
irregularities are encountered.
It is interesting to note that while Brush
utilized an inline drive shaft and differential,
he resorted to a chain final drive to each The History of Spark Plugs
wheel. Another point of interest is his use of
coil springs on front & rear wooden axles. At a recent car show, another “old timer”
Now to the theme of this article: Why do started a conversation about where Henry
we need rear springs at all? If, indeed they Ford got his spark plugs. It was a subject that
are not needed, we sure go to a lot of expense I hadn’t given much thought to. So I dug into
and trouble to use them. the subject and found this interesting site:
Ok, you’re saying, Jimmy Woods has rear

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 2

— Steering Geometry —
It is often said that the wheel has been
mankind’s greatest invention. The applica-
tion of the wheel has been the foundation of
an infinite number of industries, not the least
of which has been the automobile industry.
Probably the first application, many cen- B
turies ago, was the wheelbarrow. Second, A
was, most likely the 2 wheeled cart. This still 120

serves as basic transportation in 3rd world

But, when our forefathers really got
rolling (no pun intended) was when the sec-
ond axle was attached to a 2 wheeled cart, Fig. 2
thus creating a 4 wheeled wagon. This
arrangement is still with us today in the form
or left side of the vehicle, depending on the
of utility vehicles. Every kid had a “little red
direction we’re turning.
wagon” and, also, used this steering mecha-
We have tried to illustrate this in Fig. 2.
nism when he built his first “side-walk car” or
The vehicle is now turning about a 10 ft (120
soap box derby entry.
in.) radius. The intersection point of the axle
centerline can be seen. Please note that both
front wheels remain parallel to each other,
regardless of the direction being traveled.
Go out to your kid’s or grand-kid’s sand-
pile and pull his little red wagon around and
you will see, by the tracks in the sand how
the two axles track.
Now, if you are still awake, let’s go to the
typical home-built horseless carriage depict-
Fig. 1 ed in Figure 3. It is set up about a 46 in.
tread and a 72 in. wheelbase. Each front
Now, with all this ho-hum stuff said, let’s
wheel is steered independently, being con-
take a closer look at the “steering mecha-
nected with a tie rod. Each front wheel has
nism.” In figures 1 and 2 we have two
it’s own kingpin and, in our example, are 40
straight axles with 2 wheels on each. The
in. apart.
front axle is attached by means of a kingpin
Now, let’s turn on a 10 ft radius as we did
and pivots about it’s center. Each axle is on
previously, in Figure 2. When traveling per-
centerlines that we have labeled A and B.
fectly straight we have the same wheel con-
When traveling in a perfectly straight line,
figuration as we did in Figure 1. However,
these two center lines are absolutely parallel
when we start to turn, each front wheel has
to each other and, if extended to the moon,
it’s own turning radius and, also, it’s own cen-
would remain the same distance apart.
ter line with both intersecting the rear axle
Now, when we start to turn, this parallel
center line at the same point.
relationship ceases, with the two centerlines
The most important thing to note here is
intersecting at some point determined by the
the front wheels being no longer parallel to
radius being turned. Please note that this
each other. In Figure 3, the left front wheel
intersection point can be on either the right
is turning a tighter radius that the right. In

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 3

The kingpin width (40 in.) is fixed. The tie
rod, while it can be less that 40 in., is fixed.
What can be done to allow the front wheels to
turn independent of each other? Go back to
your street car, and examine the steering
arms extending from each front spindle. You
72 will note that they do not extend at a right
angle to the axle, but, inward at an angle that
is somewhat more than 90o.

How does turning the steering arms on


each front spindle inward make the wheel

track as desired in Fig. 3 ?
To better understand what’s happening,
160 R
let’s examine the transfer of rotary motion
into linear motion. Most of you are familiar
with the piston engines. You will notice that
while the piston moves up and down in the
120 R

R cylinder, it changes linear speed while the
crankshaft speed remains constant. The
movement of the piston is the slowest at the
top and bottom of it’s stroke and the fastest
when the crank is at right angles to the cylin-
Fig. 3
our example, the tire OD is 20.5 in. When In the steering mechanism, just the oppo-
going straight, the tread width (with “0” toe site happens. Treating the tie rod as a con-
in) is 46 in., both front and rear. If we meas- stant linear motion, we see how the steering
ure it in the turn,, we see that the tread arm is affected most when at 90o to the spin-
width at the rear measures 44.5 in. while the dle. As it passes 90o in either direction it’s
front measures 47.5 in. rotary motion starts slowing down in refer-
Look at your street car. Turn the wheels ence to the linear motion of the tie rod.
full to the left. Now, look at the wheel config- If we were to build a front axle with the
uration and see an example of this. steering arms at right angles (90o) to the
Remember, we said the kingpins were 40 spindle the previous paragraph would apply,
in. apart. Lets say, for example, that you con- only both front wheels would move the same
structed your front axle to these dimensions. amount.
You might assume the steering arms extend-
This is the configuration shown in Fig. 4.
ing from each front spindle to be at right
While the tie rod moves, both spindles react
angles (90) to the the axles. This would mean
the same. The front wheels, while always
that you, also, made your tie rod 40 in.
remaining parallel to each other, will turn to
This would result in a front axle setup
where the front wheels were always parallel, a different turning radius, resulting in one or
resulting in their centerlines not intersecting the other scooting sideways, resulting in tire
the rear axle centerline at the same point, wear.
when turned as previously done. Refer to With both steering arms positioned
Figure 4 on the next page for an illustration. inward and a left turn is made as in Fig. 3,
What can be done to achieve the front the left wheel will turn a bit sharper than the
wheel configuration as we see in Figure 3? right wheel and thus, maintain the same

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 4



101° 101°


Fig. 5
While I’m sure there’s some Einstein for-
mulas that would give us the angle we need,
120 R

120 the easiest way for us blacksmiths is to make

an accurate layout on a drawing board or
CAD program and simply measure it. On the
Fig. 4 example shown in Figs. 3 & 5 I calculated
that if each steering arm was positioned
turning radius for each wheel.
inward at 11o the tracking would be good
Study Fig. 5 and you will see how, during
enough for our purposes. Some plans will
a left turn, the left wheel spindle is now turn-
assign this to be 15o and, again, good enough
ing faster, while the right wheel spindle is
for horseless carriages going 10 mph.
slowing down.
The slow speeds and relatively smooth
If you are still awake and understand all
road surfaces don’t hold us to quite the same
this, you’re probably saying, “Ok, now how
standards as a 100 mph street car. This, also,
much inward angle do I apply to the steering
applies to steering alignment, caster, camber
arms of the front axle I’m designing?”
etc that will be addressed in a future issue.
There’s several variables for which to
As always, I welcome input from you guys
account, such as: 1) The wheelbase; 2) The
out there on these subjects.
tread width; 3) The maximum turning radius
to be achieved. The diameter of the wheel
does not affect our problem.

— An Idea For a Steering Gear —

From the beginning, the Ford Model T Our design is based around a Peerless dif-
had about the simplest and most economical ferential available from Northern Tool. The
steering boxes made. Restorers have almost area where a sprocket would normally go has
depleted the junk yards of this item that was a 4” pitman arm attached. This can be altered
very popular with the home builders of past to a shorter arm if desired. Anyway, here’s a
years. simple 2:1 steering that helps a bit. Try it —
It utilized a planetary gear arrangement, you’ll like it!
located just under the steering wheel, that
provided a reduction. Still a bit “squirrely” to See the illustrations on the next page —
some, it was a far cry better than a straight,
go-kart type, shaft/pitman arm with no
mechanical advantage.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 5

19.33 (ref) 4.48 (ref)

3.00 4.00

Secure to frame

Differential - Northern Tool No. 1369 3.66 DIA (ref)

Couple to steering shaft
with Lovejoy or universal joint

Steering Gear - 2:1 (steering wheel to pitman arm)

1 3
2 8

1 R
8 1
9 3
DIA (x2) 2
32 4 (ref)

R (x2)
Make from 3/16" steel plate

Don’t run out of gas! Build you carriage with a

gas tank to go the distance!
Brand new, in original box, this fuel tank was original-
ly for a Kubota application. It was obtained off Ebay
auction. It even had a built in gas gauge.

These tanks, originally for generator sets, etc., are

perfect for our carriages. Search Ebay for tank similar
to this one.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 6

— Easy Caster and Camber —

Fig. 1


Fig. 2

Figure 1, above, depicts Pete Burger’s these slow-moving cars. When I built the
neat way of making the camber adjustable on Quadricycle I, at first had “0” caster. The
a typical “homebuilt” front axle. The top of steering was a bit squirrely and didn’t want
the kingpin is supported by a 5/8” ball type to track forward. I adjusted approx 3o posi-
rod end. By adjusting the nuts holding it, the tive caster and it made a world of difference
camber can be fine-tuned as desired. with the car going “hands off” for quite a dis-
All the homebuilts, including my own, tance.
have accepted the camber that resulted in the I added a feature, shown in Figure 2, to
finished axel. With the play in the kingpin Pete’s idea. By making the top mounting hole
and wheel bearings, it’s easy for the front end off 5/32” to the rear of car, we get 3 degrees
to look a bit spraddle legged. positive caster. Try these ideas, you’ll like
There’s a lot of differing opinions as to the them!
need for camber and caster adjustment on

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 7

— Rear Wheel Attachments —
There has never been a designer of home- By modifying all 4 wheels they became
built horseless carriages that hasn’t faced the inter-changeable, and a spare, so modified,
dilema of attaching either a sprocket or driv- would fit either front or back. See Figs. 4 &
ing axle to the rear wheels. Because the 5 on page 10.
Northern Tool garden cart wheel has become, Gary White of Sheridan, Michigan,
almost, the standard wheel, this is where we recently emailed me the method he used to
will focus. modify his hubs. His method is both simple
The Jimmy Woods’ designs utilize welding and typical of what other may have done. See
a mounting flange to the hub. This flange has page 11.
holes for the bolting on the sprocket. I have Gary, used the 3/4 dia. couplings from
seen modifications of his plans, where the Surplus Center. These couplings come with a
builder simply welded a sprocket directly to 3/16 keyway. There’s two problems with
the hubs. them: 1) They are only 3 inches long. 2) The
While it injects another part, I prefer a OD is 1-5/8 inch.
removable mounting flange. If it becomes Gary machined each of 3 couplers to the
necessary to change to a different diameter diameter necessary for a close fit in the hubs
sprocket, it is a relatively simple job. It, also, (with bearing removed). This is approximate-
gets the sprocket and chain a bit further from ly 1-3/8 inch dia, but your wheels should be
the tire and provides a means of adding brake “miked” for a better fit.
drums. See Figs. 1, 2 & 3 on next page. With a piece of 3/4 dia. full keyway, shaft,
There has been an increasing number of Gary mounted the couplers end to end and
builders who, like I did on my Quadricycle, welded into one 9 inch piece, with keyway
coupled the rear wheels directly to the running through out.
transaxle. The typical transaxle is designed This piece is now cut into 2 pieces of equal
to drive an 18 to 20 inch diameter lawn trac- length. Depending on the width of your cut-
tor wheel at a max of about 8 mph. By adding off tool, each piece should be at least 4-3/8
a 26 inch OD wheel, we increase our speed to long.
between 10 and 12 mph, a respectable and A piece is inserted into the hub and weld-
safe speed. ed both sides. Carefully done, you should
However, direct coupling to the transaxle, have a very sturdy driving wheel.
presents us with another problem. Most Another, very clever idea came from Pete
transaxles are, typically, in the neighborhood Burger of Ocoee, Florida. See Page 10. Pete
of 29 inches wide — hardly wide enough for used a method similar to the way I bolted a
our carriages. mounting flange to the hubs of the B&S Cycle
Therefore, we must couple the axles to Car. Only, he modified 1/2 of a large Lovejoy
extended shafts with keyways. For this arti- coupling, to not only bolt to the hub, but, also,
cle we will not address the method of cou- pilot into the hub after removing the bearing
pling, but, strictly concern ourselves with on the inside.
attaching to the hub of the wheel. The, wheel mounted, 1/2 coupler isn’t fas-
When designing my Quadricycle, I made tened to the axle by a keyway. The wheel is
extensions to attach to the ends of the axles, driven from the inside 1/2 of the Lovejoy cou-
using the keyways. Since I didn’t want to dis- pling which is keyed to the axle extension.
turb the hub more than necessary, I used a He, even, machined a pilot on this half and
driving flange that had 3 roll pins. The only mounted a brake drum.
modification made to the hubs was to drill My B&S Cycle Car uses mounting flanges
three holes to match the roll pins. bolted to the hub without the benefit of a

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 8

piloting surface. This flange in made from a attaching the flange to the hub, be sure and
purchased (McMaster Carr) 3-1/2 OD alu- use Locktite (Red) plus split lockwashers to
minum disc, 1/2 inch thick. A center hole is prevent it from working loose. Vibration
cut with a regular hole saw (half on each seems to be a by-product of these cars. See
side). A lathe wasn’t necessary. Figs. 1, 2 & 3 below.
To this mounting flange, I bolted sprock-
ets and brake drums. On the capscrews,

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

In the drawing above we see how the

rear hubs on the B&S Cycle Car were
altered to accept a mountings flange.
The bearing was removed and four 17/64
dia holes were drilled in one side.
Above, to the right, we have a draw-
ing of how the mounting flange is
attached to the hub. Socket head cap-
screws, with split lock-washers and a
generous amount of Locktite (Red)
applied, are threaded into the 4 inner-
most holes. A ball-end, long Allen
wrench is inserted through the opposite
bearing hole to tighten the screws.
Fig. 3

The photograph above shows the

mounting flange installed. The outer-
most tapped holes are used to attach
both the driven sprocket and a brake
This mounting flange was made from
a 3-1/2 OD aluminum disc, 1/2 inch thick.
These are available from McMaster

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 9

Fig. 5

The above photo shows the Quad axle

extension. You will notice the 3 roll-pins
extending from the flange to engage the
Fig. 4
holes in the hub. The wheel is held in
place with a nylon lock-nut on the end of
Above, is a photo of the Quadricycle the axle extension.
hub, with three 9/32 dia holes.

Pete Burger, of Ocoee, Florida, puts a

large, Lovejoy coupler to good use to get
power to his rear wheels.
The above photographs depict how
half of the coupler is modified by
machining a pilot diameter on it to fit in
the hole in the hub when the bearing is
He, also, added four 1/4-28 UNF
tapped holes to fasten this coupler half
to the hub.
The photograph below clearly shows
the modified hub and modified coupler the coupler half, to insure a snug fit.
half ready to be assembled. The bearing You will note how his machining
hole in the stamped hub is approximate- broke into the set-screw hole. No prob-
ly 1-3/8 inch diameter. However, it is lem, since the set-screw isn’t used.
wise to “mike” your’s before machining The photograph on the upper right

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 10

shows the coupling half assembled to the 4 socket-head screws. Sometimes we
the modified hub. Pete, also used 1/4-28 have to be a mixture of blacksmith and
socket-head cap-screws, inserted from brain surgeon to accomplish something
inside the hub, to attach them. He, also, like this.
cautions the builder to use Locktite Pete, also, machined the other cou-
(Red) on the threads. These little car- pler half to accept a brake drum. This
riages have a way of shaking every thing half is fastened to the axle extension
loose that isn’t secured by some locking with a piece of key stock and set-screw.
device. You, almost have to use aircraft This axle extends through the hub and
standards to carriages. the wheel is secured by your choice of
You will soon find that getting these methods. A nice way is by using a 1/2
screws threaded into the coupling half NPT pipe cap, drilled out to 3/4 ID and
is not an easy chore. A, ball-end, Allen cross-drilled, along with the axle to
wrench must be inserted through the accept a 5/32 dia. cotter-pin. Nice job,
opposite bearing hole in order to tighten Pete!

from each side.

The upper drawing shows how the
three inch long couplers are welded
into one, 9 inches long.
The lower drawing shows a cut-away
of the hub with coupler half welded in
place on both sides.
Gary used a “buzz-box” set to 60-70
amps and used 6013 rod.

Gary White of Sheridan,

Michigan, submits his ver-
sion of an attachment
method that is sometimes
used in one form or another.
Gary, obtained three 3/4
dia. couplers with keyways,
from Surplus Center. Since
they are 1-5/8 OD, he had to
machine them down to
approximately 1-3/8 OD to fit the hole in
the hub after the bearings are removed.
Using a length of 3/4 dia. shafting and
key-stock as a mandrel, he assembled
the three couplers, with keyways
aligned, and welded them into one
Now, by cutting this piece in two,
each half is at least 4-3/8 inch long. (This
depends on the width of the cut-off tool
used.) One of these is sufficient to reach
through the hub, with a little protruding

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 11

—More About Steering Geometry —
Editor’s note:
We applied the “Ackerman”
Principle to the one of the draw-
o ings in the previous article,
15 using a 46 in. tread and a 72 in.
46 wheelbase, as this is very typical
of the average homebuilt car-
riage. The diameter of the
wheels does not affect the geom-
etry involved. See Fig. 1.
It is interesting to note that
the resulting angle is 15 degrees.
72 My CAD program makes very
close measurements and it was
15 on the nose.
On page 3, there is an extensive article I think that many of us are guilty of vio-
about steering geometry. All of this is actual- lating good design in this area. I am guilty
ly known in the early automotive engineering and so is anyone who uses the Azuza
circles as the "Larkensperger-Ackerman- Engineering go-kart spindles. They have
Elliot Steering Principle,” usually referred to served our needs nicely, however, for reasons
as the "Ackerman" Principle. The main idea unknown to me, they have very little angle to
is that the two steering arms, instead of the steering arm. On my next use of them, I
extending straight back or forward from the plan on welding a steering arm extension to
spindle centers, should actually point exactly get 15 degrees.
to the, center of the rear axle.

Hints and Kinks

by Bob Kapela
Meet Bob Kapela, who comes to us from Michigan, where he spent years as a maintenance
engineer at the Rouge Complex of the Ford Motor Co. When you see some of Bob’s handy work,
you realize that he knows of what he speaks.

— Sprocket Ratios — non-dividing ratio like a 12 tooth driving a 25

tooth, for example, the flaw will be evenly
When setting up sprocket ratios, old distributed.
timers normally used the "hunting tooth"
method. This simply means that one should — Chains and Sprockets —
avoid using a sprocket, with a number of
teeth, that will evenly divide into the number Instead of using #41 sprockets and chain,
of teeth on the sprocket at the other end of try to use #40. It is the same pitch (1/2"), but
the drive, like a 10 tooth driving a 20 tooth, a has a much higher rating. For example the
15 tooth driving a 45 tooth, etc. The idea is #41 has a tensile strength rating on the chain
that if there is a flaw in one tooth or one of 2000# and the size 40 has a rating of
chain link, it will not return to the same spot 3700#.
on the sprocket over and over. If one uses a I always avoid straight bore sprockets.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 12

One only depends on the fit of the shaft and ed and will be addressed in a future E & W.
key and setscrew. If you do use them, try to
use two setscrews, one over the key and one — An Electrical Reverse —
120 degrees from it. The idea is to distort the
I.D. of the sprocket to keep it tight on the Both machines that I’ve built, so far, have
shaft. a torque converter and differential, driving
Never use three setscrews, as now you are the rear wheels. No reverse. On the last one,
using only the points of the setscrews to hold I pre-installed a pulley on the driveshaft and
the sprocket on. It is better, by far, to use a have a vee belt hanging. I plan to purchase a
sprocket with a tapered bushing, like a small 12 volt winch from Northern. Only
Browning or Woods. You multiply the grip- weighs about 12 pounds and costs a bit more
ping force on the shaft by some 20 times with than $100.00. I was thinking of mounting it
them. Plus, they are much easier to remove if upside down under the machine, and remov-
ever necessary. ing the cable setup, replacing it with another
pulley. It would be activated with a heavy
— Tubing and Truss Rods — duty starter switch and one would have to
mechanically tighten the belt, but I think it
On the 1" square tubing used on many would give you a workable reverse.
replicas, always use the heaviest duty avail-
able. It has 11 gauge walls (.120 "). Whenever Editorial Comments —
I make a front or rear axle, I always reinforce I believe that electric motors have been
it with a 3/8" round rod, welded underneath, used to achieve a reverse in some commercial
with the center portion raised approximately vehicle, possible a motorcycle. Maybe some-
1-1/2". This greatly strengthens the axle from one out there knows.
bending when under use, and adds little I’m sure many of us have considered using
weight an electrical motor for this, usually a small
starter motor. Since we won’t be pulling
— Ignition Switches — stumps in reverse, not much power is needed
— just a little sometimes when the parade,
When I have an electric start engine, I use for some reason, backs up. Most carriages are
a solenoid and a key start. The ignition high enough off the ground, that the old left
switch has to be special so the magneto is leg trick won’t work.
grounded when the key is in the off position.
I have used a Cole Hersee #95616 switch with — Some Thoughts on Spindles,
good success. Order through NAPA or others. Kingpins and Wheels —

Editorial Notation — On the steering, I have made good use of

Lawn tractor type ignition switches can shoulder bolts. They are precision ground
be found in the Foley-Belsaw catalog (See our and work very well. I use 5/8" dia for the
Links page on the website) They describe kingpins and 3/4" for the wheels to mount on.
them as to what tractors they fit. On the wheels, I found that the
Some engines, also, have a shut-off sole- Schynn/Workman industrial bicycle wheels
noid in the carburetor. This must be activat- are much heavier and better made than the
ed when running. When turned off, the ones from Northern or anyone else. If you can
spring-loaded plunger closes the fuel, causing find a source, they have heavy duty spokes,
the engine to positively stop. If so equipped, it etc. By driving out the ball bearing races, you
is controlled by relay in the electrical circuit. are left with a 1 11/16" I.D. hub. A Killian F-
Some of this circuitry can be a bit complicat- 700 flanged bearing will press in very well,

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 13

one on each side. They are 3/4" I.D., so fit on the unit was directly coupled to the engine,
the shoulder bolts very well. Each has a radi- avoid setting up a pulley arrangement, where
al rating of 157#, with a side load rating of the unit is now to be driven from one side or
50%. They pack with grease very well. the other. Doing so means that the input
shaft is now subjected to radial loads that it
— Steering Boxes — was not designed to accept. The possible
result is the rapid wear of the input shaft seal
On both machines that I have built, I used a and bearings, making the unit either a "leak-
steering box from an early Model T Ford. The er", or inoperative.
gearing is all at the top, by the steering If you cannot connect the unit in the same
wheel, and the extending shaft is 3/4" dia, way that it was originally, consider installing
which makes it very easy to mount a swing a pillow block bearing or a flange bearing to
arm onto, to connect to the tie rod. I have had act as a go-between , so the radial loads are
good luck purchasing them on line from removed. On the output shafts, it is not quite Makes a much more so important; most of these units had the
professional job than a tiller arm, and has the wheels directly-mounted on the output
ratio built into it. shafts, and allowed for radial loads. Caution
though, if you are extending the shafts a sig-
Editorial comment — nificant amount, then you should, also,
On page 5, we presented an idea of using install something to reduce the load on the
the little Northern differential as a steering shafts. Also, if you are now doubling the size
box. of the driven wheel or speeding it up signifi-
The Model T Ford steering column had a cantly, you may be increasing the radial loads
small set of planetary gears just below the beyond designed capability. Again, installing
steering wheel. The ring gear was fixed and a pillow block or flange bearing will reduce
the steering wheel was fastened to the sun these loads and allow you to have a long-life,
gear. The planetary gears were attached to non-leaking unit.
the steering shaft, which proceeded down to
the pitman arm. This gearing arrangement Editorial comment —
provided a 4:1 reduction, from wheel to pit- In our case, where the typical hydrostatic
man arm. Later it was increased to 5:1. transaxle is used, they are direct-coupled to a
By using the differential as in the fore- 26 inch dia wheel. Most manufacturers
mentioned article, we, get a 2:1 ratio. The design to drive a 20 inch dia., 8 inch wide
steering box is under the hood, out of sight. rear tires with turf tread. The potential slip-
ping of this wheel on a grass lawn is the
— Hydrostatic Drives — “safety valve” on which they depend to pre-
vent overloading their unit.
The use of hydrostatic drives on a home- While we are presenting 1.3 times the
built machine is popular and makes for a ver- potential torque load, we are using tires with
satile setup. One has to be aware of a couple a lot smaller foot print than the lawn tractor.
of cautions, though, to ensure that the units I always considered this to be a pretty fair
remain trouble free. Keep in mind that the trade-off.
manufacturers design the unit for specific — The Approach to Building
uses and do not normally build in "extra Your First Carriage —
capacity", otherwise their machine loses it's
competitive advantage. If I were just setting up to build my first
If you are setting up a hydrostatic drive, machine, there are a couple of steps that
note how the unit was originally driven. If could be taken to reduce the headaches. First,

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 14

after looking at several machines, and get- rience, quite a few of them do work on the
ting a good set of prints, I would try to get side at their home or other shops, and are
some supplier information. If you work in a willing to help you out at a nominal cost. One
big factory, talk to the maintenance guys and personal example that I can give is that own-
get to know the Supervisor, the Engineers, ing a Tree Farm, I also sell campfire wood.
and especially the Parts Buyer, usually the This is out in the country, and there are a lot
Maintenance Clerk. Ask them to obtain some of campgrounds. I have a machinist friend
catalogues for you. Most, if not all, of the who is, also, an avid camper. He is always
Vendors are eager to get as many of their cat- welcome at my farm to back up to the wood-
alogues into circulation as possible. pile and load up at no charge. In return, if I
I would try to get a Grainger catalog (lots need some threads cut, something machined
of good stuff), a McMaster Carr one (about 3 pretty precision wise, or whatever, we make a
1/2" thick, full of goodies), a Browning catalog trade, with no money exchanged. Once you
(sprockets, chains, couplings, hubs, keys, u- develop a relationship like this, your counter-
joints, belt drives, bushings, etc.), a book on part usually gets involved in your project and
industrial fasteners from the nut and bolt provides more assistance than you originally
salesman, a good steel supplier book, like imagined.
Ryerson, or others, and maybe a Cole Hersee
book. Also a full size bearing supply book is Editorial comment —
invaluable. The bearing salesman can get you Well, folks, that sums up what Bob shared
one of these and they are absolutely full of with us in just 2 emails. I, for one, want to
information. thank him for sharing this wealth of informa-
Many of these catalogs have short techni- tion with us. I decided to dedicate this entire
cal sections that provide you with free infor- issue to his thoughts.
mation. If you knew all of the stuff contained Since we have a number of fellows out
in them, you would be rich beyond imagina- there who are building their first machine,
tion, thankfully we don't have to have this the last chapter is, especially, timely. The
information memorized, it is in the books for only thing, I could add is this: While accumu-
us to look at, free. Of course, I would also get lating your library of catalogs, try to obtain 2
the standard books available through web- decimal equivalent charts, one for your pock-
sites, etc, like Northern, Witmer coach, etc... et and a large one to hang on the wall of your
Then, after I setup my workspace, and shop.
decided how to proceed, I would start to gath- While hanging things on the wall of your
er my materials. Having a Steel Supplier shop, I admonish every one to copy the two
book, for example, shows what sizes of steel, sayings of Henry Ford that I have at the
(like square tubing) are normally available beginning of my plans sets. Copy these with a
and in what lengths. If you are armed with thick felt-tip pen onto a 17 x 22 piece of poster
this info, you can buy steel in standard sizes. board.
If you go in to the place and just ask for a cer- Pin these to a wall in your shop that you
tain size, you may be paying the same can’t miss looking at daily!
amount for a 6 ft length, because of the cutoff
charges, etc., that you would pay for a full
“Nothing is particularly hard
random 20 ft length. This is just an example. if you divide it into small jobs.”
Also, very few of us have a full machine
shop at our command. I happen to own a farm “Before everything else,
and have a pretty nice farm shop, with quite getting ready
a bit of machinery, but not everything need-
ed. Get to know the Machinists. In my expe-
is the secret of success.”
— Henry Ford

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 15

— Bob’s Pet Peeves — they quoted my fellow student more than he
wanted to pay.
Many years ago, I was a knife, gun As a last resort, they brought it to me —
builder. I, also, worked at a large factory. after all, what harm could I do to a radio the
Sometimes a co-worker would come up to me shop said wasn’t worth fixing? I’ll always
and announce "I'm going to LET you build a remember the time I had to pull the radio
knife for me. (notice the emphasis on LET). from this guy’s car and I didn’t have the right
A month or so later, the same person may size wrench. He came up with a little cheap,
say "Hey where is that knife you OWE me". dime-store wrench that I used. After fixing
What a bummer. and re-installing it, with this same wrench.
Lately, when showing one of my handbuilt This guy told me, for fixing his radio, I could
cars, people somehow naturally assumed that keep the wrench! I only wish I had kept it —
it was built from a kit. There is a mental I would have it framed and hung it on the
block that a lot of people have that they do wall.
not conceive that someone can actually build My Quadricycle with about $1,000 and all
something from the ground up. It just gripes the work in it, was test driven up and down
me. my street. A neighbor saw it, thought it was
Bob Kapela neat and commented that his grand-kids
would go wild for it. He offered me $500 for it.
Editorial comments — Like Bob, I have had people, usually while
The same things have happened to me, I was assembling for a parade, come up and
many times. I’m sure most of us have a pet look a car over and ask where they could buy
story similar to Bob’s. a kit. I told them I built it. Then they wanted
I remember, in college, I fixed radios (yes to know where I got the plans! I just smiled
kids, the kind with tubes!) Everyone in the and said, “From a guy I know.” I’m surprised
dorm knew I did. I didn’t do it as a business, they didn’t want to know if they could copy
but more as a hobby. I observed that no one them! I always have some business cards in
really believed that the old farm boy could my pocket for handing to these people.
bring a silent radio to life. As a result, they It’s all human nature folks, get use to it. I
would usually take it to one or two “real” look at it as a source of entertainment.
radio shops. The shops either couldn’t fix it or Everett Moore
simply didn’t want to spend the time required
on a job they couldn’t charge enough. Or, else,

— Keep Your Eyes Wide Open —

When attending farm auctions, etc., keep

you eyes open for anything that can be adapt-
ed to our carriages. Pete Burger, of Ocoee,
Florida, obtained and stored away this neat
buggy seat.

Thus, when building his modified Jimmy

Woods’ carriage, he had a perfect seat for it.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 16

Wheels, Tires and Tubes
In issue No. 22 we hinted that we were inves-
tigating a new source of wheels, tires and
tubes. The company is Worksman Cycles, a
New York firm that, for over a 100 years, has
been in the business of manufacturing heavy
duty bicycles for industrial applications.
They manufacture wheels in either 20, 24
or 26 inch with 2.125 tires. They sell, not only
wheels, but, also, Kevlar belted tires and
thorn resistant tubes.
In order to be able to judge — hands on, I
ordered some 20 inch wheels/tires for a future
CDO project. I, also, ordered some 26 inch
Kevlar belted, tires and HD tubes for my
Quadricycle, that has become famous for it’s
flat tires! With it’s 36 - .120” dia, adjustable, spokes,
For the few of you who have never heard this 20 x 2.125 rear wheel assembly is
of Kevlar. It is a registered trademark of the ready for a 3/4 scale CDO.
Dupont Company. It was developed a few is 1-3/8 ID, a perfect fit for 3/4 ID x 1-3/8 OD
decades ago to serve as belting in automobile flanged, ball bearings.
tires. However, it was soon leading a double While they appear to be the same, they
life in bullet resistant body armor for police are a far cry from the garden cart bearing to
and military use. which we have become accustomed. They are
While several time stronger than steel, much more precision, with little to any play
Kevlar is many times lighter. Another feature of the free-turning hubs
Worksman wheels have hubs that are is that they have three, 1/4 in. Dia holes
built by welding steel flanges to a steel tube. equally-spaced on a 2-5/32” Dia bolt circle.
Worksman uses these to engage driving pins
on a flange welded to the rear axle of a tricy-
cle. We can use these for sprocket mounting.
On the previous page we displayed the
rear or driving hubs. Worksman’s application
for these is to put pedal power to one rear
wheel of a tricycle. This trike has a rear bed
to haul material in an industrial environ-
The hubs are designed to fit a 3/4” Dia
shaft containing a 3/16” keyway. This is
achieved by welding a 3/4” thick insert into
one side of the hub. This insert has a 3/4 Dia
hole, broached for the 3/16 keyway. On the
Just take the wheel asembly from carton opposite side there’s a 1/4” thick insert weld-
and slip onto your 3/4 dia axle with 3/16 ed that contains a 3/4” Dia clearance hole.
keyway! All machining & welding is done! The only area of concern I have with these
hubs is their 3/4 inch of keyway to transfer
driving torque. Worksman is transferring 1
For the front or free turning wheels, the tube manpower to one wheel. We’ll be transferring

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 17

several horsepower to both rear wheels.
However, I am willing to give them a
chance to prove themselves. It will be a while
before I have any machine on which to put
them. So, I’m counting on some of you brave
souls to try them!
I, almost forgot to mention — the hubs we
have described are the same, whether the
wheel be a 20 inch or 26 inch.
Worksman have another hub that con-
tains expanding brake shoes. However, it is
intended to be fork mounted and I couldn’t
see a practical application for our require-
On the following page we have two draw-

In the above photo we see the cross lacing

of the heavy duty spokes. They are 11
gauge (.120 Dia) and are secured by
adjustable nipples.
We, also, see the three 1/4” Dia holes in
each flange - a perfect place to attach a
sprocket, if desired.
have a sufficient roll-under to accept this
bead with no problem.
If you plan on retro-fitting your Northern
wheels, be sure and replace the rim strips
with ones from Worksman. While you have
your rims stripped down, feel the peened
ends of the spokes. I found enough small,
sharp burrs to warrant going over them with
The photo above shows the heads of the
a small flat file and smoothing them up a bit.
adjustable spoke nipples. Another feature
You will find the Worksman rim strips to
of their heavy duty rims is the clincher fea- be at least 1/8” wider and much thicker than
ture for a superior grip on the tire beads. those that come with the Northern wheel.
When I dis-assembled a Northern wheel for
ings shown, one for each of the described the first time, I found the strip not covering
hubs. We attempted to give a few dimensions many spoke ends. Hardly worth the effort of
to aid in fitting them to our applications. having it to begin with!
You will note on the following price sheet, I don’t really mean to cloud up and rain on
that Worksman will sell the wheels as com- the Northern, garden cart wheel/tires that
plete assemblies with tire, tube and rim strip have, almost, become universal with horse-
installed or simply, the wheel only. less carriage builders. They have served the
The tires, tubes and rim strips are, also, beginning, poor-boy, builder with an inexpen-
available to upgrade your exiting wheels, as I sive source of wheels. I, personally, have been
am doing with my fleet of vehicles. running ten of them for 2 years — with the
While Worksman’s tires have a pro- orginal bearings and tires. My only problem
nounced clincher bead, the Northern rims has been with the cheap, thin, tires and tubes
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 18
These heavy duty tires feature a clincher A deep diamond pattern gives these tires
bead for secure attachment to rim. an “old fashioned” look, just right for our
The recommended inflation pressure indi- horseless carriages. Both the 20 inch and
cated on the sidewall is 50 psi. 26 inch tires have identical tread.
To distinguish them from regular tires, the tic material.
words “Kevlar Belt” is printed on the side- On my Quadricycle, I will be installing a
wall. set of Kevlar belted tires and heavy duty
being vulnerable to punctures & flats! I tried tubes from Worksman. I will, also, install a
to help the situation with the addition of set of SpinSkin Kevlar liners between the tire
Slime sealant in the tubes. I have even and tube. However, I will not be adding Slime
advised others to do the same. to the tubes.
However, under a lot of actual usage, I On my Briggs & Strattion Cycle car, I will
found that even Slime has it’s limitations. On be installing regular new tires with a thick,
larger tires, Slime has time enough to seal knobby tread. The tubes will be Bell
before much air is lost. But, with bicycle size FlatBlocker inner tubes that are advertised
tires, you don’t have to lose much air to be 1/2 as being 300% thicker “where it counts.” In
flat! OK, you can still run — until — that sec- addition they come pre-filled with Slime!
ond thorn makes it’s entry into the tube. By Wal-Mart Super Centers have these at less
the time Slime seals this second hole, you’re that $10 each. In addition to these tubes, I
almost running on the rim! will be installing SpinSkin Kevlar tire liners
Aside from the Worksman products, for additional protection.
there’s some other products you should be On my parade trailer, I will be installing 2
aware of. Namely, tire liners, designed to be regular new tires with a traditional diamond
installed between the tube and tire, under pattern. These will have 2 more Bell,
the tread area. The apparent, top of the line FlatBlocker with Slime tubes and Mr. Tuffy
is a brand by the name of “SpinSkins.” They tire lines.
feature a tightly-woven belt of Kevlar! By testing all these combinations, I hope
Another one is “Mr Tuffy” liners. Constructed to be able to arrive at an optimum
of tough, plastic materal, they are advertised tire/tube/liner set-up. At least I hope to solve
as the answer to your flat problems. The most my own, Bullhead thorn curse that has
inexpensive liners are made by Slime. They, plagued me through 2 parade seasons.
like Mr. Tuffy’s, are made from a tough plas- In the illustrations on this page, we have

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 19

Spoke holes Worksman Hub - Free Turning

3/4 x 1-3/8 flange bearing

both ends
1 5
4 8
Equally spaced
on both sides - not in line

We have, illustrated above, a cut-away drawing of

the free-turning hub. The dimensions were meas-
ured from an actual hub. The one inspected had
three, 1/4” Dia holes in each flange. They appear to
be a way to easily attach a spacer and sprocket (if
desired) with 1/4” hardware.

disected each Worksman hub to

help you understand the construc- Spoke holes Worksman Hub - Driven

tion. 3
The dimensions were measured
from actual hubs and are approxi-
On the next page, we have pro-
vided a list of Worksman part
numbers and the current prices.
The phone number goes directly to
their order desk, where you can 3 1
order direct with your credit card. 3/16 keyway
4 4

If you prefer to send a check or 3

money order, they will give you the
total with directions on mailing it. This illustration shows a cut-away drawing of the driv-
Tell them you read about their en hub. They are designed to go onto a 3/4” Dia shaft
products in Engine and Wheels, a with a standard 3/16 keyway. Note that a key would
newsletter published by the old have to go through and contact the inside of the 1/4”
man in Arizona. insert.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 20

Worksman Trading Corp — Worksman Cycles Industrial Park
94 -15 100th Street - Ozone Park New York 11416 USA
Sales 1-888-394-3353 — credit cards accepted

20 x 2.125 wheel 26 x 2.125 wheel

With 3/4 Id Ball bearings - 3.5 wide hub With 3/4 Id Ball Bearings - 3.5 wide hub

Part No. 326A (w/out tire & tube). . $49.33 Part No 329A (w/out tire/tube) . . . $52.34

Part No. 173 3/4 x 1-3/8 replacement Part No. 173 3/4 x 1-3/8 replacement
flange bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3.28 flange bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3.28
_______________ _______________

With 3/4 bore w/3/16 keyway - 3.5 hub With 3/4 Bore w/3/16 keyway - 3.5 hub
Complete with Kevlar tire and PR tube. Complete with Kevlar tire and PR tube.

P/N M14023KVPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . .$99.26 P/N M14032KVPR. . . . . . . . . . . . .$102.60

20 x 2.125 Tires & Tubes 26 x 2.125 Tires & Tubes

Kevlar, Diamond Tread, Heavy Duty, Tire Kevlar Diamond Tread Heavy Duty Tire

P/N 4922KV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $19.00 P/N 4922AKV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$22.00

_______________ _______________

Heavy Duty Puncture Resistant Tube Heavy Duty Puncture Resistant Tube

P/N 6023 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12.16 P/N 6023A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$12.69

_______________ _______________

Rim Strips (covers spokes) Rim Strips (covers spokes)

P/N 1017A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $0.88 P/N 1017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$0.88

Note: Worksman Cycles has been in business for years, manufacturing commercial grade
bicycles for industrial use. The wheels they manufacture are of much higher quality than the
import wheels we have been using. The free-turning wheels are equipped with much better
bearings and have 11 ga (.120 dia) spokes cross laced with adjustable nipples. Their power
driven wheels come equipped with hubs, featuring a 3/4 dia bore with 3/16 keyway.
In addition to the 20 and 26 inch wheels, etc shown on the above list, they have 24 inch
wheels, also, available. Their tires are available in white-wall, however they are not Kevlar

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 21

— More About Wheels — Please note that this price is each in lots of 2.
To buy only one would raise the cost.
In the last newsletter, we introduced you
— Tires, Tubes & Strips —
to Worksman Cycle Co. and the great line of
wheels they have available.
Some of our group have expressed a
One of the biggest problems we have faced
desire to buy all wheels with the rubber
in the past was applying power to our rear
installed. Others have wanted to buy every-
wheels. We had to extensively-modify the
thing without rubber.
existing garden cart wheels to serve these
The prices that I have published, thus far,
have been exactly as given to me by
With the Worksman standard line of
Worksman. With the price chart in Issue 24
wheels, we had two different solutions; 1) to
and now, with this Issue, we have quite an
use their free-turning wheels, p/n 326A and
assortment. While all wheels can be pur-
329A by attaching a sprocket directly to the
chased with or without rubber, I believe to
flange, containing 3, 1/4” holes. (See the
create more price charts with all the possible
drawing on the next page.) and 2) their drive
combinations would only complicate things.
wheel p/n M14023KVPR (20”) and p/n
The price with rubber, naturally, includes
M14032KVPR (26”).
the price of the wheel, tire, tube and strip.
The latter wheel featured a 3/4” wide
There is, also, a labor factor added for mount-
insert welded in containing a 3/4” dia hole
with a 3/16 keyway. Some of our group were
Some of you will want white walls (no
concerned about only having 3/4” exposure to
Kevlar belt). Some will want empty wheels
a keyway. While serving Worksman’s 1 people
for painting to match their car. Some will
power application, would it handle the sever-
want to save $$ by mounting their own. I
al horsepower that we would be applying?
hope you can see why I didn’t go any further
I approached Worksman to see if there
with the price list.
could be a way to improve this without inject-
If you want a combination not shown,
ing excessive tooling and procurement of ven-
then you are free to discuss your needs when
dor-supplied parts. While growing, our group
phoning in your order.
of horseless carriage builders does not repre-
On my own “rolling stock,” I have been
sent a share of the market whereby we can
installing both Worksman and other brand
make excessive demands on manufacturers.
tires. I would like to say that the tires from
They suggested a possible solution that
Worksman are superior to the others. If you
would give us twice the keyway exposure.
think you don’t need “bullet-proof” Kevlar-
This modification would use existing parts
belted tires because you don’t have thorns,
they already have in stock, with only tooling
just wait till you run over a spilled box of
changes and assembly procedures. A drawing
pointed carpenters staples!
of this new wheel is shown in Fig 2, on page
For those who want 28” wheels, 3” wide
tires, or anything beyond the Worksman line
We now have a wheel that can be taken
as presented in Issue 24 and 25, you will have
from the carton and installed on a 3/4” Dia
to look elsewhere.
keywayed axle. Most agree that this would
I should mention again that Worksman,
handle the power we would be applying. This
also, has 24” inch wheels. However, I know of
new wheel is called a “Dual Drive Wheel.”
no one using this size, so this size wasn’t
On page 6 we have a price chart with
examined further. The rest of this newsletter
some new additions. This addition is at the
I will use to show some modifications we can
top of the list in both 20” and 26” sizes. They
do to standard Worksman wheels.
are priced without tires, tubes or strips.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 22

3/16 thick adaptor
Fig. 1 40 tooth #40 sprocket
Use 1/4 ID shim washers
4 DIA to space to .156 min to clear spokes
2 1
1 DIA Typical 3 places

1/4 - 28 NF x 7/8 Lg Socket, Flat Hd Capscrew


4 Holes,
Equally spaced

C'sink heads flush 1/4 - 28 Nylon lock nut (typ 3 plcs)

Spokes not shown for clarity

2.156 DIA
To match holes in wheel flange

Adapting a Worksman hub P/N 326A (20") or P/N 329A (26") to Jimmy Woods' Design.

The above drawing shows the details of an adapter plate to fit a sprocket to wheel. This
arrangement would mount flat sprockets to a Jimmy Woods’ design drive wheel. This
assembly should adapt the Worksman wheel to all existing Woods carriages.
Plain sprockets, made to be welded to sprocket hub can be found at Surplus Center. See
our Links page for a link to their catalog. The No. 40 sprockets come with a 2” dia hole. This
requires the adapter being mounted to wheel with flat head, socket head capscrews.
The new, Dual Drive
Wheel that Worksman is
willing to make for our Spoke holes Worksman Hub - Driven
requirements, in shown in 3
2 Keyed Inserts
Fig. 2. This has a 3/4 wide 4
insert welded on both
sides. The keyways are
aligned in welding fixture
to assure the key stock will
line up and go all the way
through the hub.
Remember, when using
this hub, we must allow for 3
the spoke protruding 3/16 keyway
2 places
approximately 5/32 beyond Fig. 2 3
the width of the hub.
I believe that 1-1/2 inch Above, in Fig. 2, we present a cut-away drawing of the new
of keyway exposure in each wheel that Worksman is willing to make for us. This new hub
of two rear wheels should has 2, 3/4 wide inserts giving us 1-1/2 inch total keyway contact
handle the average power which should be sufficient for power transmission to rear
we apply. And for those of wheels. Please note: To get the price given on page 6, they
you who doubt this, on must be ordered in pairs.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 23

page 25 & 26, I give you two
more options. However, Worksman Hub - With Bearing Cups
there’s some work involved Spoke holes Typical for P/N 78SA (26") & P/N 1008A (20")

in modifying. With the pre-

vious wheel, you simple
remove from the carton and
install on your rear axle.
It is more economical for
Worksman to sell the wheel
with bearing cups pressed
in, than to inventory the
hub without cups. (Fig. 3).
All we have to do is careful- Fig. 3
ly remove these cups.
Thus done, we can either
press in bearings as shown Above, in Fig. 3, the Worksman hub that uses bicycle type
in Fig. 4. or weld in inserts bearings (such as used in head and crank). The parts num-
with keyways as shown in bers given above and on page 26, have only the bearing cup
Fig. 5 & 6. installed. To use, we must remove these cups to, either weld
A 3/4 ID ball bearing with in our special hub inserts or a new ball bearing with a flange.
an OD of 1-11/16 is not a This gives us a sturdy hub to adapt to different applications.
common, off-the-shelf, item, however, Bob For a good installation of these bearings,
Kapela found a quality bearing that meets it may be necessary to increase the hub hole
this requirement. It is manufactured by slightly with a die grinder.
Kilian Bearing Co. and can be purchased for In Fig. 4, on next page, we see two Kilian
$6.40 each from: BDI Trading Group at: bearings pressed into the modified
ph (216) 642-9100 or online at: Worksman hub. You will now have a superior front wheel for your carriage.

Worksman Wheel P/N 78SA (26") or P/N 1008A (20")

with bearing cups removed and new bearings pressed in.
Spoke holes
.750 DIA (ref) 3-7/8 (ref)

1 (ref)

Kilian Bearing P/N F-700 (2)

Fig. 4

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 24

As we continue to look at some more pos- each modification to insure a proper fitting
sible modifications to this and another adapter. The length can be left as is or
wheel/hub on page 25 & 26, we show draw- machined to the same length as the hub.
ings of how this same basic hub can be modi- The drawing in Fig. 5 below, shows the
fied into a driving hub. adapter cut to the same width as the hub and
Few of our shops are equipped with a set welded in place on both ends. If you are using
of keyway broaches or the press necessary to a “buzz box” stick welder, I recommend plac-
use them. We must, therefore seek some ing a short piece of shafting material in the
existing (off-the-shelf) part that we can adapt bore to prevent “spatter” from sticking to the
to our needs. adapter bore.
I have found such parts available at Thus modified, this wheel should give you
Surplus Center in Lincoln, Nebraska. Phone the optimum in a driving wheel. This wheel,
(800)488-3407. Website can be seen at: however, is modified to fit a 1 inch dia axle. For those who are using 3/4 inch dia axles, we
The parts are known as “Keyed Shaft present yet another possible modification
Couplers” and are found on page 15 of their using a 3/4 inch dia insert. Unfortunately,
catalog No. 278. A coupler of interest to us this Surplus Center coupling is only 3 inches
would be Item No. 1-1563-E. This coupler is long.
bored to 1 inch with a 1/4 keyway through it. Some builders have welded three of these
The OD is 1-13/16 and the length is 4 inches. couplers together, end to end, using a piece of
This hub is modified by, first removing the 3/4 inch dia shaft with keyway to align the
existing set-screws and machining the Dia. to coupler keyways. When welded it can be cut
closely fit inside the hub (1-11/16 dia ref.) The into two pieces with sufficient length to fill
inside dia of the hub should be “miked” on the entire hub.
Spoke holes Worksman Hub - With 1 inch Keyway Insert
Fig. 5 5
To clear spokes
1/4 keyway 32
Both sides


1 DIA (ref)
3 (ref)

Make from Worksman wheels 78SA (26") or 1008A (20") by removing bearing cups.
Weld in keyed insert made from Surplus Center 1" shaft coupling, Item
No. 1-1563-E, by machining OD to match ID of hub (1-11/16 ref) and cutting
length to match width of hub (3-5/8 ref).

Fig. 5, above, is the detail drawing of the around hub as shown. To drill these plug
1 inch dia modification. Fig. 6, next page, holes, a right-angle attachment will be neces-
continues our discussion about modifying sary for your drill to reach through the
hub for a 3/4 inch dia keyway axle. In this spokes. These attachments are a common
illustration, we are showing only one Surplus and inexpensive item at most good hardware
Center coupling. Note how it fails to span the stores.
entire width of the hub. For ease of welding , To use this modified wheel, a spacer or
we recommend 4 plug welds, equally spaced washers can be used to expand the area of the

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 25

Fig. 6 to clear spokes
3 (ref) 32
Typical both sides

3/16 keyway


Weld all around 3

1 DIA (ref)

DIA (ref)

2 Plug weld (4 plcs)
Make from Worksman wheels 326A (20") or 329A (26") by removing bearings.
Weld in keyed insert made from Surplus Center 3/4 shaft coupling, Item
No. 1-1563-C, by machining OD to match ID of hub (1-3/8 ref)

axle not covered by the welded-in coupler. least, serve as inspiration to come up with
There are more variations possible, but your own custom design. If you do, please
we have presented the more basic ideas. send us the details so we can share it with
Hopefully, these will fulfill your needs or, at others.

20 x 2.125 Dual drive wheel 26 x 2.125 Dual drive wheel

See Fig. 2 for detail. See Fig. 2 for detail
With 2 - 3/4 bore w/3/16 keyway inserts - 3.5 With 2 - 3/4 bore w/3/16 keyway inserts - 3.5
hub. Without tire, tube & strip. hub. Without tire, tube & strip.
Please note: The price given here is each, Please Note: The price given here is each,
when wheels are purchased in pairs. when wheels are purchased in pairs.
P/N M14021 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$99.99 P/N M14033 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$99.99
_______________ _______________

20 x 2.125 Wheel with bearing cups 26 x 2.125 Wheel with bearing cups
See Fig. 3 for detail. See Fig. 3 for detail.
Without tire, tube & strip Without tire, tube & strip
P/N 1008A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$59.89 P/N 78A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$59.89
_______________ _______________

20” White Wall tire 26” White Wall tire

Please Note: White Walls do not contain Please Note: White Walls do not contain
Kevlar belting. Kevlar belting.
P/N 6023 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12.16 P/N 6023A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$12.69
_______________ _______________

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 26

— More Technical Stuff — $50.00 per hour on up for such work. Welding
can run you from beginning at $30.00 per
In the course of publishing this news let- hour.
ter, I receive a lot of email and phone calls A little math applied here allows you to
that never get published, from which I learn see the advantage of doing as much as possi-
and, also from the pictures that are submit- ble, yourself. If you must use an outside
ted. From all this input I can’t help but make machine shop, have your “ducks in a row”
observations and come to some personal con- before you go. Have a good drawing that tells
clusions. the machinist how your finished part must
This spring, we had a contest on the Yahoo look. If the part must interface with some-
group to determine who had the most clut- thing else, take that part, also, so the
tered workshop. The most revealing thing machinst can make them “fit.”
was everyone seems to have their “shop” Many times, it takes more time just “set-
crammed into a really small area, many ting up” than actually machining the part.
times sharing the garage with other activi- Knowing these things before hand can pre-
ties. My own shop is no different. With the vent you from fainting when you learn how
exception of a 12” lathe and a vertical milling much this simple little part is going to cost
machine, most every thing else has wheels or you!
casters on it. I jokingly say that to use one What I am trying to impress on you is how
machine, I must play “Chinese Checkers” much you should consider obtaining equip-
with two or three others to get to the one I ment and learning how to use it.
want! Yes, I even have wheels on a 140# After a drill press, a good metal-turning
anvil! lathe is the next tool you should add. I recom-
The contest pictures revealed the fact that mend a 12 inch model with a head bore of >1”.
most everyone was much “heavier” into wood I have a Craftsman that I have had for 25
working than metal working. This is a nor- years. Although the head bore is <1”, it has
mal transition. We all whittled before we served me well. You can find one today on
welded! Ebay for around $1,000. Try to find one local-
There’s a few shop tools that serve both ly to avoid expensive crating and shipping.
wood and metal working. The most common A closing thought — the advantage of get-
is the drill press. I consider a good, heavy ting together in small “clubs” is skills and
duty, floor standing drill press an absolute equipment can be shared. Maybe one fellow is
necessity. a machinist, another one, a welder and the
Even the most simply designed carriages third, a wood worker with painting skills.
require the cutting of several pieces of steel. Pool your resources and start building cars!
Therefore, the abrasive, cut-off, chop saw is
another “must have.” To take care of sharp — More How-To ideas from Bob Kapela —
corners, burrs, etc., a grinder (either hand or
fixed) is another “must have.” — Axles —
From that point on, when making metal We have discussed "dead" and "live" axles,
parts, you get into categories of welding, and their applications on the machines we
turning, forming, etc. These all require both build. There is a third type of drive axle, it is
equipment and skills in which you may be not commonly seen on our machines, but it
lacking. To continue making a carriage, could be. It is called a "full floating axle". In
requiring the above, you have two choices: 1) this type of axle, all of the bending stress, due
Acquire the equipment and skills and do it to static force and skidding force, is carried
yourself or 2) Pay someone else to do it for by a housing. The axle "floats" inside the
you. A commercial machine shop gets from housing and bears only the torque require-
ments of turning the wheels.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 27

— Differentials — — Comparing differentials —
Two differentials are commonly available
by Bob Kapela
for us builders. The Peerless unit is readily
The item we commonly call a differential available from Northern and costs about
could have just as easily been named a com- $70.00. It comes with axles attached. I have
pensator. It is necessary to fit an automobile taken three of them apart. They are pretty
with differential or compensating gears in well built, about the same quality as the
order that the rear wheels may revolve at dif- Comet one. For $70.00, I think it is a real bar-
ferent speeds when the car turns a corner. gain, and always keep one extra, just in case
The outside wheel, in a turn, has to travel they become unavailable. The axles can be
faster, because it has a longer distance to removed, or modified, while still attached to
travel than the inside wheel. To compensate the housing. To attach a sprocket, you only
for this difference, bevel gears on the ends of have to unscrew (4) nuts, the screws remain
the axle shafts mesh with the small bevel holding the differential halves together,
gears, called "compensating" or "differential" because the housing itself has tapped
gears. These gears do not turn as long as the threads. The screws are, also, conveniently
car is traveling straight and the resistance on long enough to attach a sprocket, while still
each wheel is the same, but when a corner is leaving room for the nuts. The only thing that
turned, the compensating gears turn in their I should comment on is that in all (3) cases of
bearings, allowing the outside wheel to trav- taking these units apart, I have noticed that
el faster than the inside wheel. In fact, the the factory puts a very minimum amount of
inside wheel could be stationary or revolve lubricant in the housing. It is not an oil type
backwards, if necessary. Now, for an engi- lubricant, but appears to be an EP (extreme
neering "law": If the car is traveling straight pressure) #1 grease. In each case, I have
ahead, with equal resistance on each wheel, added approx (1) cup of additional lubricant.
axle "a" and axle "b" are traveling at the same There is no provision to check, refill, or drain
rpm as the differential itself (in the case of a lubricant from these units, so once you have
Comet or Peerless, the outer housing). the machine all assembled, you are pretty
Therefore, we can say that the sum of the well stuck with it. If you ever see lubricant
rpm's of axle "a" and axle "b" equal twice the leaking, check the (4) housing bolts for tight-
speed of the outer housing. This statement ness, but if lubricant is coming out where the
will always be true, during a very sharp turn, axles leave the unit, you may have some
where the inside wheel is barely turning, the binding issues with the way it is mounted, or
sum of the rpm's of the two axles will still be the inboard, pillow-block support bearing are
twice the rpm's of the differential housing. If too far away from the housing.
you were to construct a car with no differen- The Comet differential is also available,
tial at all, just a straight axle, it would be but at a much higher price. In my opinion the
very hard to turn the machine and the stress- price is not justified. If you order from some
es on the axle would be very large. Also, if you regular suppliers, you will pay $150.00 or
were to build a machine with just one wheel more just for the bare unit, and that has no
drive, and say it was on the left wheel, I axles included, making it useless without
would be quite cautious about attempting a them. Axles are fairly expensive, $50.00 or
sharp left hand turn from a standing start. more apiece. Even if you purchase one
You can see from the engineering "law" why through E-bay, where they are regularly
this is so. If I was going to turn left, I would offered by a Dealer, you will pay $75.00 for
build up some momentum and not try to the unit, $35.00 each for the axles, and $1.75
"power through" the turn. A right hand turn ea for two required snap rings, (retaining
would be better. rings)., plus shipping.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 28

Be aware that to install the axles, you ings are mated together. Then, an hour or two
must disassemble the differential itself, weeks later, when you are reassembling, you
insert the axles through the bevel gears, then will be able to do it in the correct reverse
install the retaining rings on each. To install order. Some assemblies are sensitive to this
these rings, you must have a good quality and could be subject to lubricant leaks or
expanding-type, retaining ring pliers. Do not early failure, if not reassembled properly.
try to install the rings without one, or the Don't use a pencil or a grease pen, they
result may be one of four things: several are non-permanent and tend to get washed
blood blisters on your fingers, a snap ring in away, usually in direct proportion to their
your eye, a snap ring across the room that importance.
you may or may not find, or a distorted snap The Peerless and Comet units are not
ring that is no longer functional. If you have complicated, but these hints are good to
a differential and axles, but no snap rings, remember, if you are taking apart something
you can go the local bearing-supply house unfamiliar. If you are taking something apart
and ask for some Truarc 5160 series external for the first time, be careful when removing
heavy duty retaining rings, part number the last one or two screws. Use your fingers
Truarc 5160-75. They will probably cost and good judgement to be sure whatever you
about $.35 ea. The one Comet unit I had are removing is not "spring-loaded." This
apart also appeared, in my opinion, to have a may help you avoid an unpleasant experience
minimum amount of lubricant, and I, person- with some parts suddenly flying out and pre-
ally will add more. I have not heard about venting you from seeing how they were origi-
failures due to lubricant problems, but have nally assembled. A lot of times when remov-
had a lot of experience with lubricants in ing a housing half or cover, you will notice
gearboxes, etc.. The Comet lubricant appears more than one gasket. Sometimes they will
to be about the same as the lubricant used in be different colors. These colors designate
the Peerless. Both units seem to work with various (precision) thicknesses, and were
the lubricant supplied, although greases are used by the original assembler to properly-
known to "channel" under use, depriving the setup preload, clearances, etc., required by
gears from their benefit. There is no provi- the assembly. Be sure to reassemble all in the
sion on the Comet unit, same as the Peerless, same configuration. Sometimes, one or more
for checking, adding, or draining lubricant, so fasteners will be significantly-longer or short-
once again, when it is assembled and on the er than the others. There is always a reason
car, you are stuck with it. The only redeeming for this and you want to take note of it. When
value of the Comet, in my opinion, is that, in you remove a cover or housing that has a gas-
appearance, it resembles a traditional differ- ket on it, only remove it a very short ways
ential, as we know it, more than the Peerless and then note that either all of the gasket is
one. coming off in one piece, or all of it is "staying
put". Careful use of a sharp knife to encour-
— Taking apart these units — age the gasket to do either one of the above
If you are going to disassemble one of will help you avoid grief in trying to replicate
these units (or anything else unfamiliar to a torn one. Good luck on all your projects.
you), there are a few things you should do to
avoid possible problems: First have a clean Bob Kapela.
area on your workbench to lay things on
when the unit is taken apart. Then take a
center punch or a carbide-tipped, scratch-awl
and make a line of punch marks or a major
scratch across the part, where the two hous-

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 29

Nuts and Bolts #1 brackets to hold up the seat back. The force
pulling the seat back is balanced perfectly
By Tom Moore against the two brackets between which it is
sandwiched. There are no forces trying to
Weasel Words: The following information rotate the bolt, and put more load on one side
is my opinion only. Approach what I say as of the bolt head or washer or nut. Gravity and
you should approach everything you read on the weight of a wooden seat back being what
the internet — with a healthy dose of skepti- it is make this example ridiculous, but it
cism. These thoughts should be a catalyst for illustrates the principle of single shear and
you to further research safe ways to build double shear.
your replica car.
Fasteners are one of the most important F F
parts of your replica car. Fasteners hold all

the different systems together, and make it

possible for your car to accelerate, stop, and
steer under your control. If a fastener system
fails, you may be in for an interesting ride. F
Choosing and utilizing the correct fasten-

er system is not rocket science. Never forget

my advice; pay attention, and think ahead. DOUBLE SHEAR
The term, fastener system, may seem like it

is just a fancy way of saying nuts and bolts. It

is important to think of all your fasteners as
being able to work together to achieve a safe The most common bolts to use for assem-
car. A bolt needs to hold two items together. A bly are grade 5 and grade 8, hex head cap
nut is important to apply some clamping screws. Three radial lines on the head identi-
force, and possibly secure the system. fy grade 5 cap screws, and grade 8 bolts have
Washers are needed to spread clamping-force six radial lines. I don’t know why. If you are
and keep the various parts together. really curious about this, do some research.
Bolts come in various sizes and flavors. I Grade 8 fasteners are stronger than grade 5
have always thought of bolts as being in ten- fasteners. On first glance, we should use only
sion or in shear. Examples of bolts in tension grade 8 bolts and forget about grade 5 bolts,
would be connecting rod bolts or head bolts. right? (Sound of buzzer) Maybe not. Grade 8
Bolts in tension have heads designed for that bolts are stronger, but they are, also, more
use, or when studs with special nuts are brittle. Grade 8 bolts snap suddenly when
used. Bolts in shear are inserted through failure load is exceeded. Grade 5 bolts tend to
holes in each of two pieces being joined, and bend and stretch before letting go. This is
opposing forces try to shear the bolt into two called a warning. If more strength is needed,
pieces. This is single shear, and an example go to the next stronger grade.
of single shear would be the vertical brackets Do not use fasteners threaded from under
that hold the seat back to the seat base on a the head to the other end. This puts threads
Thevenet-designed CDO. Single shear is an in the pieces you are trying to hold together.
unbalanced load. A large load tries to rotate Threads tend to act like little knife blades or
the bolt. The head end of the bolt wants to go rasps inside the hole. When assembled with
with the material it adjoins, and the nut end the proper washers, no threads should be in
of the bolt wants to go with the material it the pieces being held together. Do not use a
adjoins. Double shear is better. It is a bal- big stack of washers to accommodate a too-
anced load. An example would be two vertical long bolt. It looks like what it is; making do.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 30

The purpose of plain washers is to spread out truck. Don’t look under the hood of a front
the load. For instance, the head of a bolt, wheel drive car. I get sort of nauseated when
drawn down against a wooden panel, will dig I do. Moving steering components are held
into the wood and, eventually, get loose as the together with castellated nuts, sometimes
wood is compressed. A washer applies the called castle nuts. The threaded part of the
load over a greater area. Remember, if bolt or stud has a drilled hole through which
designed correctly, the bolt is in shear. You a cotter pin is inserted to stop the nut from
don’t need to tighten the bolt until the wash- turning off. I always check castle nuts when I
er digs in, just enough to keep things togeth- inspect stock cars before a race. I witnessed a
er. wreck when a stock car steering component
When drilling holes in metal for fasteners, came apart. The car immediately turned
take time to deburr the hole. An extra little right towards the concrete wall. This hap-
piece of metal just messes up assembly. I am pened near the end of the back straightaway,
not suggesting that you need a precision, just before the braking point. The car never
reamed hole, but try to make a hole that is touched the wall because another car was on
not too tight and not too loose. the outside. He hit that car instead. Four
Other types of washers are star washers, more cars piled into these cars. Six smashed
with internal and external serrations, and race cars, a couple of sore drivers, all for the
split lock washers. These should go against a lack of a cotter pin. Pay attention and think
metal surface. There is a debate over whether ahead.
split lock washers should be tightened until For assembling rotating steering compo-
they are completely flattened out. The “don’t” nents on our little cars, I would suggest
side says that when completely flat, the ends drilling your own bolt end and inserting a cot-
of the hardened washer can’t dig in and stop ter pin. Make up a vee block from wood to
rotation. Do some research, and decide for hold the bolt securely, and use a small drill
yourself. bit in a drill press. With a drill press, you can
Nuts can be plain, in several thicknesses, keep the bit straight and control the drilling
or with a nylon collar, which actually is pressure. You could use a “hairpin” clip
chewed up by the bolt threads and resists instead of a cotter pin, but what happens
turning. This is a good thing. In aircraft use, when you drive through weeds and the clip
these nuts are discarded after one use, in gets pulled out? Think ahead.
other words, not reused. Do not use if the If your car has any wood in its construc-
nylon is really used up. To be authentic, your tion, you may need nails to supply clamping
runabout should not run silky smooth. It force until the glue sets. After the glue sets,
should rattle and shake a bit. Nylon insert the nails are “along for the ride.” In the con-
nuts will give you more peace of mind. struction of wooden homebuilt aircraft, some-
Threadlocking chemicals are a great times office staples made of round wire are
invention. Use as per the manufacturer’s used and pulled out later. All in the name of
directions. Also, don’t use the “more is better” saving weight!
philosophy. There are threadlockers that Pop rivets, wood screws, or sheet metal
require the use of a torch to disassemble a screws could be used in runabout construc-
joint. Think ahead, you may need to take tion. I would advise against the use of wood-
things apart some time. You really don’t enjoy screws or sheet metal screws, because, in my
stripped nuts and bolts and another chance experience, I have never seen one of these
to use your blue vocabulary, do you? vibrate tight. I designed a bolt with a head on
For really critical applications, specialized both ends so it would always vibrate tight,
locking methods are required. Look at the but I have given up on this idea as installa-
steering components on a rear drive auto or tion has proven to be a big problem.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 31

In closing, I want to thank Lee Roy I hope this article has been of value to
Thevenet, the Cajun CDO builder extraordi- someone. I do not profess to be an engineer or
naire, for coming up with the name for this a designer; I am passing on what I have
column, and Everett Moore for publishing learned.
Engine and Wheels. I am not related to
Everett, but I think I will introduce him as "Safe Motoring is Happy Motoring"
my older brother! I know there are other ded- Tom Moore
icated people who give a lot of time to make
all this happen, thanks to them, also.

— More on Steering Geometry — ply mounting the lever arms so they each
by Bob Kapela point exactly to the center of the rear axle (on
our cars, approximately 15 degrees), it would
We have all read various articles about make a dramatic improvement in the steer-
steering geometry on our self-built vehicles. ing. Here is how it works: Due to the geome-
Words like "camber", "toe-in", "caster", and try of the Ackerman setup, when you turn the
lately, the "Ackerman principle". In my opin- wheels to the extreme in either direction, the
ion, because of our (limited) ability to make inside wheel will be turned up to (10) degrees
super precision setups, and the slow (12 to 15 more than the outside wheel. This allows the
mph) speeds of our vehicles, there is only one inside wheel to freely-turn in a smaller circle
principle that we should always use when than the outer one. This greatly reduces the
building our vehicles, and that is the strain on the steering gear, makes the turn
"Ackerman principle", and this is why: (first, easier for the operator, and makes the turns
it is assumed that you have constructed the much smoother. This is a very simple thing to
front axle properly, square and tight, with do when setting up your steering and costs
reamed kingpin bushings so there is no nothing, it is highly recommended.
"slop", etc..)
When you are at the point of attaching the Camber, toe-in, and caster
lever arms to the spindles to make the wheels on vintage vehicles:
turn, it is a natural thought to position the
lever arms straight back, because it "looks "Camber" is where the spindles are "cam-
right". Now, when you have the tie rod bered" in about (2) degrees, that is, the front
attached and turn the wheels, both will turn wheels are closer together at the bottom than
the same amount of degrees. they are the top. The idea of cambering is to
However, when you decide to make a turn, reduce steering effort, as the center of the tire
the inside wheel must travel in a smaller cir- at the ground will more closely intersect an
cle than the outer wheel. If you were turning imaginary-line drawn through the spindle
on snow, ice, or sand, for example, and looked bolt (or kingpin)-
back at the tracks after you turned, you
would see that the tracks were not "undis- "Toe-in" is used to offset the wearing action
turbed". One or both wheels skidded or of the camber on the tires. The tires are setup
dragged a bit through the turn. If you were to be slightly closer together at the front than
on blacktop or concrete, the tires may squeal at the rear.The term "gather" is sometimes
a little, or you can notice that one or both used instead of toe-in.
tires are being "pulled" away from the rim
during the turn. About one hundred years "Caster" is where the king pin (spindle bolt)
ago, an early automotive engineer named is setup with the bottom inclined-slightly for-
Ackerman (among others) found that by sim- ward. A straight line drawn through this will

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 32

meet the ground a little in advance of the Anyway, I layed-out a relatively quick fix
point where the wheel contacts the ground. for this that will inject the Ackerman princi-
This is what allows a bicycle rider to say "Hey ple back into an existing carriage.
look ma! No hands!" In this arrangement, Using the drawing in the upper left
turning the wheels in one direction actually (below) layout 2 on 1/8” thick bar stock. You
raises the body of the vehicle slightly, thus have the choice to either drill mounting-
the weight of the vehicle tends to bring the holes, as shown, and drill a mating hole on
wheels back to the straight position. Proper the steering arm, 2 inches forward from the
caster is useful to help prevent steering existing tie rod hole. I haven’t specified hole
"wander", and is useful, for example, if your diameters because different diameters may
hands momentarily leave the steering wheel. have been used.
— Straight steering to all — An alternative method would be to clamp
Bob Kapela the new part in place and weld. The option is
__________ yours.
The tie rod and/or drag link will attach to
This looks like an opportune time to add the new, inboard hole and will require a bit of
the following “fix” for the go-kart steering shortening of these rods.
spindles that we all have used, because they You should obtain good, steering-geome-
were available and inexpensive. The price we try on most of the carriages where these spin-
paid was having a lot of slop and horrible dles have been used.
steering geometry. I would appreciate any feed-back on this
For some reason they were manufactured subject, which you might have after you try
with straight back, steering arms. I called this out.
them out on my plans because they required Next month I hope to address the sloppy
no welding. Good, steering-geometry seemed king-pin situation that’s, also, present in
a moot point with all the other drive train these spindles.
problems we had to solve. Everett Moore

2.000 .500 R



15 degrees

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 33

— More Design Thoughts and Advice — Clean them up and these are your spindle
from: Bob Kapela yokes. You can weld them to the ends of the
axle beam now. If you are careful, you can
Possibly the most difficult item to layout setup a bit of "caster" (see article about cast-
and build, correctly, on your machine is the er in issue #33). Caster is what allows you to
front axle assembly. I have built (5) complete go to the U-Haul place and rent a simple
units, and each is strong, good looking, and device called a "tow bar" and tow another
has minimum "looseness". Here are some vehicle all over the country. If your machine
observations and ideas on building your own. ever breaks down (heaven forbid) and you
I have a large farm shop with quite a bit have to be towed off the parade ground, cast-
of equipment and realize that not everyone er will allow your vehicle to "follow the tow".
has access to the same, but if you want to
build a "first-class" assembly, here is how to
do it.
First, some comments on the readily
available "off the shelf" spindles: They use a
fine thread, hex head, bolt for the axle. I have
found that this type of bolt is usually under-
size on the unthreaded portion by .005" to
.007". This gives you some wheel slop right
out of the box. Also, the thin, nylon type king-
pin bushings are unimpressive. My axles are
similar to the "Woods" design. I start with
either 1" square heavy-wall tubing, or 1-1/2"
square. If I am using the 1", I always rein- Now get two pieces of 1" OD X 3/4" ID
force it to prevent bending. round steel tubing, 2 1/2" long. Weld a 3/4" X
I weld a 3/8" diameter round rod under- 4" shoulder bolt onto each piece of tubing,
neath, anchored near each end, with a 1 1/2" centered at 90 degrees, for your axles. You
high "standoff" at the center to form the truss will find that the shoulder bolts are ground
effect. The first car I built, the brown one in very close to actual OD, so slop is minimized.
issue #22, had to have the axle reinforced Also a 5/8" nylock nut will hold the wheel on.
after about one week of riding it around, due (hopefully a Worksman wheel with Kiliam
to bending, probably because of the 1/2" bearings).
diameter hole drilled in the center of the For the lever arms, I use 1/4" X 1" flat
beam for the pivot point. stock. I put each in a vice and slowly-twist
After you have built up the beam portion,
it is time for the hard part, the spindles. Try
to locate a short piece of 1/4" wall thickness
rectangular tubing, 3" X 4". It only has to be
1-3/4" long. If you find a piece, cut it exactly
in half, and you will get two yokes. You will be
cutting through the spot where it was
machine-welded together. If you can't find
this size, 3" X 3" is ok, but you will only get
one yoke out of each. Set each up in your drill
press, then drill/ream through each ear of the
yoke to 5/8" (.625"). Drill on center, 1" away
from the inside wall of the vertical portion.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 34

them in the center so each end is at 90 I have, also, tack-welded antique looking
degrees to the other. This allows me to weld grease cups on top of the kingpins, and a
the vertical portion to the tubing, giving me spring-loaded, hinged-covered oil cup on the
maximum pivoting without interference, and center pivot pin of the axle. All look tasteful.
the horizontal portion is where the tie rod From Grainger, a nice 56 piece kit of var-
attaches. Be sure to weld on with the ious sintered bronze bushings is available
"Ackerman" angle. (Dayton 1X968) or you can get individual
Then drill a 3/16" diameter hole in the bushings(3/4" X 5/8" X 1", Dayton 1X867).
center portion of the tubing and press in a A note on greasing the spindles: Greasing
"drive" type zerk grease fitting. Be sure the steering spindles is a kind of paradox — if
fitting has a check spring and ball in it to you have constructed your spindles per these
keep the grease in and the dirt out. Some instructions and have reamed your drillings
have no check balls and are no good. Stick where indicated, your assembly should be
with me, it is all a lot of detail, but is the best nice and tight. Now when you give it a pump
I have been able to develop. or two of grease, it will actually make the
Now get some 3/4" o.d, 5/8" i.d, X 1" long steering tighter and smoother due to the vis-
bushings and press one in on each end of both cuous shear of the film of grease. However, if
pieces of tubing. Ream to 5/8" (.625") through you have a sloppy setup, the grease will actu-
both bushings. Use a 5/8" X 3" shoulder bolt ally make it seem worse, even looser.
for the kingpin with a 1/2" nylock nut to hold
it in place. You can even get fancier by cut- — Straight steering to all. Bob Kapela
ting the tubing a little shorter, then installing
thrust washers.

— How to improve an existing Azusa 11/16. Drill this out to .750 dia. x 3/4 deep at
go-kart steering spindle — each end. Into this hole, press a bronze bear-
ing 5/8 x 3/4 x 3/4 long at each end. This will
In the last issue I promised to address the be a snug fit with our new kingpin.
“sloppy” spindle that a lot of us are using. We This would be a good time to add a grease
learned how to make an alteration to add the zerk fitting. So, drill and tap a 1/4 - 28 hole
Ackerman Angle to the steering arm. Now through the side of the spindle tube, about
let’s try to take out some of the slop in the 1/2 way between the new bushings. Now, you
kingpin. can lubricate the kingpin.
As Bob Kapela stated, the body of most If you’re using the Northern garden cart
Cat 5 bolts will mike a minimum of .006 wheels on your spindles, there’s so much slop
undersize. This, added to the misearable lit- in the bearings, coupled with the undersized
tle nylon bushings, is horrible. spindle, there’s not much we can do here.
You can replace the 5/8” kingpin bolts But, at least, the kingpin is tightened up.
with a shoulder bolt of correct length.
The existing spindle tube is drilled at — Everett Moore

— Another Way To Ackerman — be used to achieve this correction. I think it’s

worth experimenting with.
Don Richardson submitted an idea for cor- We welcome receiving ideas like this.
recting the Ackerman angles when using the, Think out of the box! Soon we’ll have Detroit
un-altered, Azusa go-kart spindle. reading this newsletter to keep up with the
The drawing, on the next page, shows how latest in automotive technology! ! ! !
a longer and widely spaced pitman arm could

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 35




90° 30°
22.00 22.00

22.00 22.00

6.00 15°


from Art Chevalier

You got me thinking on the brake system.

I’m in the process of changing them, Going to
install the disk directly to both wheel sprock-
ets (See Pictures) As far as the front wheels,
I'm going to wait until after it’s all done. Art

After reading the Engine & Wheel (No.

34) on brakes I decided to change my braking
system. I'm mounting the disk to the sprock-
et. I'll be adding brakes to the front wheel
later and will have to redesign the front axle.
I will be using the brake on the jackshaft
as a parking/emergency brake, in addition to
the two disc brakes on rear wheels.

WOW, This guy dosen’t waste time.

Congratulations, Art, for being one of the first
to put the brakes where they should be! Also,
you’re leading the pack by adding brakes to
the front axle, also.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 36

The photos to the left show various views
of Art’s upgrade to disc brakes.

The photo above is his (almost) finished

version of Jimmy Woods’ single seater.

Before I could get this issue put together,

Art sent the above picture of his finished
carriage. This photograph shows his front
wheel disc brakes.

The photo above shows Arts first design We’re getting photos from others who are,
on his front wheel brakes. also, adding front wheel brakes. They will
be featured in latert issues.
For his disc brakes, Art used salvage
brakes from salvage Cessna aircraft.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 37

— All About Roller Chains —
By Robert Kapela
I have read about some roller chains When roller chain drives are rated, the
breaking. This is disturbing, and depending engineer looks at the application to put a
where the brakes are located, can be — and "factor" in his rating. If an internal combus-
has proven to be — dangerous. Some infor- tion engine is involved, the rating has to be
mation about roller chains: Roller chain downsized by a factor of 1.4, if the engine is
drives are intended for power transmission driving a hydraulic unit, and as high as 1.7, if
between two or more parallel shafts on short it is driving a mechanical setup (most of ours
or medium centers, with relatively low speed are in this category?) I did a few horsepower
driving units. ("Browning chain drive engi- ratings just to show how chain size changes
neering"). The capacity of a chain drive is the ratings and they are as follows: A 20 tooth
determined by the speed of the smaller small sprocket at 300 rpm: Size #35 chain =
sprocket, the number of teeth in the smaller .93 hp, size #41 chain= 1.21 hp., and size #40
sprocket and the chain size. Horsepower rat- chain = 2.21 hp. These readings are before
ings are based on a normally-lubricated the factors are considered. They are not too
setup. useful to us as shown, but demonstrate the
improvements in ratings when chains are
A lot of the replica cars use #41 roller
chain (maybe, because it is easily available
from Northern and others?). Size #41 chain The other thing that has an effect on
has a tensile rating in pounds of 2000. Even chains breaking is the tension in which the
size #35 (I can't figure this out) has a rating chain is running. Initial installation should
of 2100#. However, if you upsize to size #40 have the chain slightly tight. After a short
(same 1/2" pitch as #41) your tensile rating amount of use, the pins, etc., will "seat" and
just about doubles to 3700#. Size #50, maybe you should have a operating system with just
an overkill, is rated at 6100#. I really recom- a bit of slack in the idle side. Avoid loose
mend using size #40 sprockets and chain, and chains, they can easily be the cause of double
good quality chain at that. I wouldn't settle the amount of shock delivered to the chain by
for what's in the Northern book, you can find the power unit, when it is suddenly accelerat-
size #40 pretty easily. I would never even con- ed or slowed. If the alignment of the drive is
sider size #35. If you live in a farming area not what it should be, loose chains can easily
where there is a Tractor Supply Co., they "jump off", and we will maybe read about
have size #40 sprockets that are hubless, and this.
you can buy a bored hub to fit, meant to be
Good practice includes keeping the chains
welded into the sprocket. There are other
lubricated. Of course, the initial setup should
agri-supply places around, or you can go to
have everything in alignment. Avoid "offset"
the internet and look up where Browning,
or "half" links. They are usually used because
Morse, Woods, or others can be purchased. If
the person that first installed the drive did
you go way back to issue #23, one of my first
not do his homework. When I setup a drive-
articles, I talk about it being important to
on the mounting plate, I always mill some
gather up a small library of supply catalogs.
adjusting slots in it so the drive can be
This practice proves to be very helpful, also
adjusted in the future. I put the chain on
the technical articles are golden. This may be
temporarily, between the two shafts and
the only car you will ever build, so take a lit-
check to be sure that the chain will be tight
tle extra time to get the sprockets and chain
when I weld the mounting plate down, with
with which you will be more comfortable.
plenty of adjustment left for the future.
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 38
If you are using a very small sprocket to is a little wider and will actually fit on #41
drive a large one, and the distance between sprockets. Size #41 will only fit on #41
the two is short, you may have a problem. At sprockets. I don't recommend at all anyone
least 120 degrees of the driving sprocket putting #40 chain on their existing #41
should have "chain wrap". That is, at least sprockets, thinking that they have just
1/3 of the teeth should be engaged. Very small upgraded the capacity of their drive unit.
sprockets (number of teeth) should always be Doing so just opens up a can of worms, and
avoided as much as possible, as they are the not only is the capacity of the drive compro-
most important factor in figuring horsepower mised, now you would have to deal with side
ratings, capacity, etc.. slop and possible "chain climb". If you are
going to upgrade, do it all the way for your
A word of caution: Roller chain sizes #41
and #40 have the same (1/2") pitch. Size #40
Keep your chains adjusted. Bob Kapela.

How we get “Standards” were all alike in the matter of wheel spacing.
The United States standard railroad gauge of
Does the expression, "We've always done it 4 feet, 8.5 inches is derived from the original
that way" ring any bells? The US standard specifications for an Imperial Roman war
railroad gauge (distance between the rails) is chariot. And bureaucracies live forever.
4 feet 8.5 inches. That is an exceedingly odd
number. So the next time you are handed a specifica-
tion and wonder what horse's ass came up
Why was that gauge used? Because that's the with it, you may be exactly right, because the
way they built them in England, and English Imperial Roman war chariots were made just
expatriates built the original US Railroads. wide enough to accommodate the back ends
of two war horses. Now the twist to the
Why did the English build them like that? story...
Because the first rail lines were built by the
same people who built the pre-railroad There's an interesting extension to the story
tramways, and that's the gauge they used. about railroad gauges and horses' behinds.

Why did "they" use that gauge then? Because When we see a Space Shuttle sitting on its
the people who built the tramways used the launch pad, there are two big booster rockets
same jigs and tools that they used for build- attached to the sides of the main fuel tank.
ing wagons, which used that wheel spacing. These are solid rocket boosters, or SRBs. The
SRBs are made by Thiokolat at their factory
So.....Why did the wagons have that particu- at Utah. The engineers who designed the
lar odd wheel spacing? Well, if they tried to SRBs might have preferred to make them a
use any other spacing, the wagon wheels bit fatter, but the SRBs had to be shipped by
would break on some of the old, long distance train from the factory to the launch site. The
roads in England, because that's the spacing railroad line from the factory happens to run
of the wheel ruts. through a tunnel in the mountains. The SRBs
had to fit through that tunnel. The tunnel is
So who built those old rutted roads? Imperial slightly wider than the railroad track, and
Rome built the first long distance roads in the railroad track is about as wide as two
Europe (and England) for their legions. The horses' behinds.
roads have been used ever since.
So, a major Space Shuttle design feature of
Roman war chariots formed the initial ruts, what is arguably the world's most advanced
which everyone else had to match for fear of transportation system was determined over
destroying their wagon wheels. Since the two thousand years ago by the width of a
chariots were made for Imperial Rome, they horse's ass.
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 39
— Front Wheel Brakes —

Note how he made an extension from the

steering arm to engage the tabs on the back-
Here are the pictures I promised to send ing plate.
you on how I have mounted the Honda 250
dirt bike brakes on the front of my CDO. I'm I, also, note a precision shoulder bolt, used
going to use the Honda brake shoe, mounting for spindle and bronze bearings for the king-
hub for a while to make sure this method pin. Suggestion: use a shoulder bolt for the
works satisfactorily. I then plan on making kingpin, to tighten things up a bit.
plates to mount the shoes to of my design so
that both (front and rear) brake actuating To top it off, a good welding job. When an
arms are operating in the same direction. I assembly looks good without paint, you know
may also make them hydraulic actuated at you’re on the right track!
that time. Don Richardson Thanks, for the very instructive input,
Don. Keep em coming.
Don, in the four photographs above, shows
Everett Moore
a perfect way to adapt a motorcycle front
wheel to a typical replica front axle.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 40

— More About Roller Chains —
By Robert Kapela

Chain drives, properly-sized and installed, maintenance engineer at Ford, I could get a
are a very reliable and inexpensive way to $50,000.00 project approved for a new con-
operate a power transmission system. Setup veyor chain installation, based on a the meas-
your drive correctly, maintain it, and enjoy urements of a couple of 10 link sections of
the rewards of trouble-free operation for your chain alone. That is how reliable and recog-
efforts. nized this test is. To further explain this, for
example, your size #40 chain has 1/2" (.500")
(For effect, I will describe some extreme pitch. The chain, usually, wears faster than
situations, found in industrial operations, the sprocket teeth, which remain at proper
that operate mostly non-stop, for extended .500" pitch longer, unless the sprockets are
periods.) very soft. As chain-wear progresses, it's true
pitch distorts , measured across several links
You should only have to readjust your from .500" to .505", then .510", etc..There
chains once per year or season. If you find comes a point when you cannot properly
that your chains need adjusting frequently, adjust the chain to make up for this wear. As
this is something you cannot afford to ignore. you tighten the chain, it will start to climb up
It could mean that your drive is under-engi- on the sprocket teeth. Replace long before
neered and needs upsizing from size #35 or this.
#41 to size #40 or larger. If you are already at
size #40, and still have problems, you have to Other factors that accelerate chain wear
do additional troubleshooting to see what is include: combinations of a very heavy
causing the problem. Where did you get the machine or one that has more than normal
chain? If it is very inexpensive chain from resistance to rolling (this would usually cause
some hard to pronounce country, this could be engine overheating), a machine carrying a
the problem. "Made in America" still means heavy load, pulling a trailer, extended opera-
something; use high quality, name brand tion in sand or soft ground, machine is over-
chain. Is the chain dry and shiny and does it powered, or engine not running smoothly.
kind of "snap" around the sprockets? This
indicates that the chain is dry and needs Again, avoid half or "offset links", remem-
lubrication. The proper way to relubricate a ber that a chain is only as strong as it's weak-
chain is to remove it and soak it in medium est link.
weight oil overnight. When re-installed, how-
ever, centrifigul force may throw some oil on Chain takeups or tensioners are meant to
your driveway and the underside of the keep tension on the slack side of chains only
machine.When you have the chain off, hold it beween periodical mechanical adjustments.
in your hands and see if there is significant They are nice, but not a cure-all and certain-
slop between each individual link. This will ly not meant to compensate for unlimited
indicate the amount of wear. Lay the chain chain wear and stretch.
down full length and count the number of
links. Then, compare the extended length of Check your sprockets. In industrial use,
the chain section with a brand new section Engineers commonly specify sprockets with
with the same number of links. The extra hardened teeth. They resist wear and main-
length of the old chain will soon tell you tain proper profile for much longer than plain
if/when it is time to re-chain. When I was a spockets (double this life). They are readily

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 41

available. Look on Everett's website for link or between two sprocket teeth. You can
sources for quality parts. I don't think you correct this during your pre-ride inspection.
will find them in the catalogs that are com- If, during an inspection of your machine, you
monly mailed to your home. Combined with find a broken link, missing roller, or some-
low quality chain, soft sprockets can be a real thing else, it is a poor practice to just replace
problem. The builder loses in the end, the one bad link. Go all the way and replace
because, now, he has to buy better quality the entire chain.
parts to replace the original, or use the exist-
ing machine, sparingly. Soft sprockets with Try to use sprockets with split-taper bush-
only 10-12 teeth can be especially trouble- ings instead of straight-bored ones. They cost
some. Due to the torque of the drive, the teeth more, but are far and away the better choice.
can distort and develop "hooks" at the outer Split taper bushings, properly-installed, grip
tips. If you start to hear "snapping" sounds or the shaft some 20 times greater than
the chain does not go around the sprockets straight-bored ones, yet are much easier to
smoothly, check for this. remove or readjust.

Now we are all experts on chain drives!

Although not common, a stone or other
piece of foreign material can get caught in a Good driving. Bob Kapela

— Stay Inside The Parameters —

By Bob Kapela

Everyone that builds a vintage-type repli- and tight? Is the brake linkage reliable? Is
ca, like ours, is proud of the accomplishment. refueling convenient? The list goes on and on.
No matter if you followed purchased plans I wish we had standardized-guidelines that
exactly, modified them to fit your needs or we could all follow, maybe that will come
used your own ideas from start to finish; you sometime.
should keep in mind that a "robust", good
looking machine being your goal, you should There is one law of nature with which I
also stay within certain guidelines, to ensure think we are flirting and that is the law of
that the history of your machine is always a gravity, in our application, it is the center of
pleasant one. gravity and inertia. I am not a physicist, but
my imagination goes to work if I see a narrow
There are a lot of building parameters for track machine, with a seat high above the
which to be aware and designers that present engine, and (to fit two adults more comfort-
plans should use these parameters. They ably) the seat widened beyond the vehicle's
include, but are not limited to, wheel tread design. A person, alone, operating a machine
(width), seat width, seat height, maximum like this, sitting close to the outside, clipping
steering angles, maximum-operating speed, along at a good pace, suddenly turning
brake arrangements, etc. These parameters sharply, has inertia that wants to keep going
help to assure that we build a safe vehicle, forward. Just be aware of this and build
but there are many more where we simply accordingly.
have to use our good judgment: How good is
our speed control (throttle) setup?, Does it I am building my third machine at this
have a positive-return to idle? Is there a "kill" time, and am implementing improvements
switch, easy to access? Is there an fire that are not on the second one, and, certainly
extingisher on board? Is the steering smooth not, on the first one. I, frequently, refer to the

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 42

earlier machines for benchmarks, and consid- I put a woven kevlar sleeve over the
er it to be an accomplishment if I can make exhaust pipe to help keep the interior of the
something clearly-better. Following, is a list machine from overheating. This machine has
of some of the improvements: a sheet metal body. My earlier machines both
had wooden bodies. I picked up two sheets of
I have the engine/torque converter unit
18 gauge, cold rolled, oiled stock, from a steel
mounted 4" lower than on the previous
supply company and took them to a, local,
machines, where it was evenly mounted with
sheet metal shop. Working with the owner on
the frame rails. This allows everything else to
Sunday afternoons (he developed an inter-
follow, and lowers the center of gravity. I
est), we cut and bent the stock. I, then, had
went for 48" tread width, because, I, too, have
the hood louvered. I hope that I hit a home
widened my seat so two of us could fit more
run on this one, but even Babe Ruth didn't do
comfortably. I have preached about putting
that every time at bat.
the brakes as close to the rear wheels as pos-
The last improvement is one about which
On this vehicle, I have a Comet disc brake I am pretty excited., That is the tires and
assy placed right next to each rear wheel, on wheels. I can't really go into it, because they
the same shaft, with the same piece of key. are not, actually, mounted yet. Everett and
The only way I can get them closer is to incor- myself have, jointly, been working on getting
porate them right into the wheels. There is a these wheels, so I will defer to him to
nicely-routed cable setup to the brake pedal, announce them at the proper time, but I
which is mounted on two pillow block bear- believe that they will set a new standard of
ings, and has an equalizer. excellence for us. They promise to be that
good in every way.
On the steering, a lot of guys go with a
tiller. They are simple, and authentic for One last thing: I have (you probably do
many models, but they, also, are very quick too) had several people make suggestions to
acting. There are a few things you can do to me that building these machines and offering
the steering geometry to improve this, but it them to the public would be "profitable." I
is limited. There were, also, a lot of early have never been tempted one iota to consider
vehicles built with steering wheels, and this this. Two reasons: one, I have been in this sit-
is what I always use, a Ford Model T steering uation before and don't care to work for $1.00
box. Because all of the gears are located in a per hour. Two, I own a small business, and, as
little housing under the steering wheel, they such, have read enough articles on a subject
are relatively inexpensive at this time, and called "product liability." When you get into
they are very easy to mount. The steering this, it is quite scary and can/will quickly
housing has a flange about 6" in diameter, dampen your enthusiasm for this idea. Let’s
located about 2/3 down, with 4 pre-punched all continue to build them safely, improve the
holes for mounting. It, originally, bolted to designs and our building skills and enjoy
the vertical firewall, with no other support them with our families and associates. That's
needed. For our use, you rotate the unit 180 what it is really all about.
degrees, and, now, you can bolt the flange
directly to the floorboard. A 3/4" dia. shaft Good building to everyone. Bob Kapela.
sticks through the floorboard, same as a tiller
shaft, on which it is very easy to mount the
lever arm, to complete the steering setup.
Having a 4 to 1 (later ones have a 5 to 1) ratio
makes the steering-procedure similar to a
modern car.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 43

Re-inventing the Wheel!
There’s an old cliche about not re-invent- Most carriage builders are familiar with
ing the wheel. Who ever said that had never them as a source of elliptical leaf springs
build a replica horseless carriage. But, he used in the Jimmy Woods design carriages.
didn’t say you couldn’t re-design a wheel.
I ordered a buggy wheel hub from them
During the past year, I approached build- just to have something to feel, touch and
ing wood spoke wheels from several direction, measure. My next design was to fit my spokes
most requiring equipment I didn’t have. The to this hub and cut the spokes to a precise
first question to be answered was: What tire diameter to fit snugly inside the rim I had.
should the rim fit? Economics dictated that
suppliers. such as Coker’s, were beyond my I spoke by phone several times to Eldon
budget for the application. Witmer about what I wanted to do. Early this
summer, Ron Shutter was visiting his moth-
I guess you could say I started from the er in Pennsylvania and, personally, visited
outside and worked in or it might be better Witmer's shop. Eldon expressed to him that
said that I started at the road and worked up. he wished that I would let them mount the
rim to the wheel by terminating the spokes
The tire chosen was a 3.50 x 19 motorcy- into a bent hickory felloe, and then heating
cle tire made for front wheel use. They were and shrinking the rim onto the fellow. The
economical, costing less than $40.00 each. rim would be finally-secured by flat head
The next quest was for a suitable rim. screws into the felloe. All we would have to do
was drill a hole for the valve stem.
I dislike designing something for someone
else to build based around junk yard items. All this time I was in email and phone
It’s different for a “one-shot” deal, but creat- communications with Bob Kapela, discussing
ing a wheel that could be duplicated dozens of all phases of the “New Wheel.” We ended up
times by countless people, demanded a more in total agreement as to the approach needed.
conventional source of supplies. A motorcycle
rim was needed but not with dimples and We both ordered 4 rims from California
holes. A rim with a flat area to blend nicely and had them shipped directly to Witmer's.
with either wood spokes or a wooden felloe, as Then came a long wait for things to happen.
the case might be. I struck pay-dirt with a It was nearly the first of September before
California company that manufacturers the the finished wheels arrived. Bob Kapela, liv-
very rim I needed and at a reasonable price. ing in Michigan, received his wheels several
days before mine arrived. Bob immediately
I had located a source of spokes after first emailed me as to how thrilled he was with
considering making my own. The hubs I was the final results, including the quality work-
considering were of the go-kart variety. These manship that you don’t often find.
had a lot of short comings and still didn’t
light my fuse! During his wait, Bob had a chassis and
body almost ready to put on the wheels. I had
It was at that juncture that I began shar- other projects diverting my time and I am
ing ideas with Bob Kapela. Bob had already happy that, with Bob’s help and input, we
used some high wheels made by the Witmer finally have something for “show and tell.”
Coach Shop of New Holland, Pennsylvania.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 44

The photos
on the next
page show
more details of
Bob’s new ride.
I am as excited
about this seat
as I am the
w h e e l s .
these, rounded
seats with
curves, is
something we
have needed to
the design of
antique car-
riages. Now,
they are a real-
ity that won’t
bankrupt us,
either. More
Bob Kapela sits proudly in the fine upholstered seat of his newly finished, about these in
bright red “Speedster.” The first car using our new wood spoke wheels! a future E & W
The overall profile of the wheels looks
rugged with its 16 spokes. To answer those The paint job on Bob’s sheet metal body,
who will say, “Why did you use 16 spokes glistens in the sun. The rear deck has been
when most antique cars used 12?” The decorated with a “Ma & Pa Kettle” hand
answer is simple. Available buggy hubs use painting.
16 spokes. They are cast from mallable iron
with a tenon pocket for each spoke. Bob’s previous, high-wheel, carriage is
showing in the background. As with life,
In the photo above, you will note that Bob when the newer car rolls off the line, the
added a siren. Now he can clear the rabbits older ones move into the background.
and other critters out of the way as he travels
around his Pioneer Tree Farm. Now, I think I’ll turn the mike over to Bob
Kapela to tell, in his words, about the neat
Later in this letter, Bob will tell you more little red Speedster.
about the features of the Speedster. _______________
Attached are photos of my last replicar,
We will go into more detail of the wheels, which represents an early 1900's "speedster".
including how we got power from live axles to It is, in my opinion, the finest of the three
the rear wheels. The buggy hubs come with replicars that I have built. It drives very
tapered roller bearings. smoothly and quietly, steers perfect, has a
short turning radius, and, I think that it
looks good.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 45

Specifications are: Motorcycle 3:50 X 19
tires, with individual load ratings of 515#,
wooden spoke wheels from Witmer, with
Timken type, tapered roller bearings on the
front wheels and machined adapters for the
rear (live) axles. Steering axle is handmade
with 1-1/2" square tubing, reamed brass
bushings, ground shoulder bolts, and
"Ackerman" lever arms. A Model T Ford
steering box is utilized. The wooden steering
wheel rim was bent by the Amish. The rear
axle member is also 1-1/2" square tubing. I
used pyramid type floor covering, and under
the hinged seat there is a fire extinguisher
and a first aid kit. The (fiberglass frame) seat
was upholstered by another Amish company
and has diamond type, buttoned-style on
black vinyl. The wheel tread center to center
is 52". The wheelbase center to center is 63".
The drive ratio is 12:1, which makes it a Comet disc brakes are mounted directly at
little speedy. It can easily be altered to 16:1, the rear wheels.
by changing the final drive sprocket from a
16 tooth, to a 12 tooth. All chains and sprock- The body is fabricated from 18 gauge cold
ets are size #40. The 8 hp., electric start, rolled steel sheet. I made contact with a local
Briggs & Stratton overhead valve engine is sheet metal Co., that developed an interest
hooked to a Comet TAV2 torque converter, and worked with me on Sunday afternoons to
which drives a forward/reverse transmission. cut and bend the steel. I had the front hood
This drives a Comet differential, with extend- louvered, and installed a false radiator and
ed 1" shafts directly pressed into the Witmer filler, complete with a temperature sensor
wheel hubs and adapters that I have made to (motor-meter). To shift from forward to
fit. The (4) pillow blocks for the rear axles reverse, there is a cable-operated shift lever
were made by using a CNC mill to machine located near the driver's left foot. The body
53 mm. holes in 5/8" X 3 1/2" stock, then can be easily removed. I installed a
pressing in Sealmaster ER 16 bearings. speedometer drive gear on the right rear axle

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 46

in anticipation of installing a speedometer I always liked the design of Jimmy Wood's
(Model T Ford) in the future. I wired the suspension, and I freely borrowed from this
machine with (4) separate fused circuits. At on the spring setup and the front axle pivot. I
the present time, 3 are used, 1 is a spare. I worked on this machine, on and off, for the
had the body painted by a local custom car last year, and am very satisfied at the final
guy, and the pin striping etc., done by a high- outcome. I hope you guys like it.
ly-recommended artist. Bob Kapela

We start with the rim. It’s a 2.15 x 19 Next:

motorcycle size that takes a 3.50 x 19 tire.
These come from: Spin Works, 16918 Gridley Contact Eldon Witmer at: 1-717-656-3411.
Place, Cerritos, California 90703. You can Explain that you want to have him build you
order by phone, using a credit card. Call 1- a set of wheels like the Everett Moore/Bob
562-467-1522 and ask for Joe. Tell him you Kapela wheels. He will understand what
want the above size rim. You can further you’re doing. Inform him that you’re having a
explain that you’re building a replica car and set of rims shipped directly to him.
are using the rims in a similar fashion as did At this time you’ll need to order from
Everett Moore and Bob Kapela. Witmer’s, 2 hubs for this size wheel (p/n 20-
We had our rims shipped directly to 996). Also, get 2 stub axles (p/n 1-763)(they
Witmer Coach Shop, 1070 W. Main St, New include roller bearings, seal and castle nut).
Holland, PA 17557. This saves re-shipping If you plan on using the brass hubcaps sup-
later. Be sure and let Witmer’s know that plied by Witmer’s, order four of these at this
you’re doing this so they can set them aside time. (p/n 21-123B)
for you. As we get deeper into building these
wheels, you can appreciate the amount of These 2 hubs you’ll modify to fit a keyed
coordination that is necessary. 1” dia rear axle, as we show you later in this
newsletter. When this is done, ship these
The cost of these rims had best be deter- back to Witmer’s for finishing.
mined when ordering. The nominal retail
price is in the neighborhood of $54.00 each. The 2 hubs will come with the outer bear-
However the price of steel can fluctuate ing races pressed in. You will need to gently

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 47

tap these out, using a hammer and punch. Checker Auto) will be necessary to reach thru
Tap lightly, continually around the edge, so the felloe. Drill this hole no larger than nec-
as not to damage the hub. Save these races essary and take care to have it exit the felloe
for “miking” when machining the drive in the center. Use a smaller pilot drill to
adapters. begin. This way you can see how centered you
are, and if necessary, a little “hoochy chooch”
As soon as you have completed these 2 can be applied on the final drilling.
drive hubs, per the drawings in this newslet-
ter, ship them back to Witmer’s. It would be a Don’t mount the tires until the paint has
good idea to tag these with you name. thoroughly-cured. A simple mounting tool can
aid greatly to mount the tires, not only mak-
Depending on the season, there can be a ing it easier but, also, to prevent scarring the
long lead time before you get your finished wheel while wrestling it on the floor! I have
wheels back, so utilize this time to work on included the plans for a simple mounting tool
the balance of your carriage. Your front axle I made to fit the hardie hole in my anvil. If
can be completed, using the axle stubs at you don’t have an anvil, weld a mount plate
hand. Also, the hub caps can be completed for bench mounting.
per the drawings in this newsletter.
Before mounting your tires, invest in
Work on the balance of your car and don’t some motorcycle tire tools (JC Witney). DO
worry about your wheels. They are in good NOT use the typical flat blade screwdriver!
hands at Witmer’s and I guarantee that The reasons are so obvious, I’m not going to
you’ll be overjoyed when they arrive! The mention it again!
hubs will be primered, the spokes and felloes,
natural hickory. If you plan on using a natu- Borrow some of your wife’s dishwashing
ral finish on the wood, do this as soon as you detergent and add to small can of water. Use
get the wheels. Wood can get smeared in your a sponge to apply this “slickem” to the edges
shop from dirty hand and various hazards of the rim and bead of the tire. This will make
just waiting to mark them for you! tire mounting much easier and aid in the
final “seating” of the tire when inflating. It
All you will have to do to the wheels before will take about 50 psi to “pop” the tires onto
final painting is drill a hole in each (thru the the rim.
rim and felloe) for the valve stem. Because of
the thickness involved, extensions (from Mount tires with outside of wheel down so
any scratches will be on inside. Retouch any
marks on paint.

Inner Bearing Race The drawing at the left

Outer Bearing Race
shows how your 2 hubs will
look. The 2 bearing races are
shown and must be removed

The stub axle is shown

below. They come about 14”
overall length. Cut off and
build your front spindles with
these. Save the cut-off portion
for future use.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 48

1 (ref)

1 (ref) 5/8 x 18 Thd


2.000 DIA 1.968 Dia

1.625 Dia

1.000 DIA 7
1 (ref)
1/4 std keyway 16

Driving Insert
Make from Surplus Center X1B Hub, Item No. 2343

It is a good idea to protect the machined you having to broach a keyway.

area with a wrapping of tape or other means
of protection as you make the spindles. You will need to machine 2 outer pilot
______________ rings, as shown in the drawing. These replace
the outer bearing. Any free machining steel
The drawing above is for the driving can be used. As with the driving adapter, the
adapter that must be made and installed in outer diameter (1.570) should be machined to
the 2 rear hubs. The 2 diameters: 1.968 and fit with about a .001 to .0015 interference fit.
2.000 should be machined for a slight press The same heat/cool process can be used here,
fit into the hub. About a .001 to .0015 inter- also.
ference should be sufficient. One way to When both the driving adapter and the
install is to place the adapter in the freezer of pilot ring have been secured within the hub,
your refrigerator and the hub in the oven, set they should not shake loose or fall out.
to a minimum temperature. When sufficient-
ly heated and cooled, the parts should fit by Bob Kapela recommends applying
hand. When cooled, they should be well Locktite to surfaces before pressing in for
secured together. Gently tap with a dead blow added retention. Use Red loctite.
hammer to insure their being fully seated.
The hub/driving insert is further secured
You will note that the driving insert is by line-drilling and using .250 x 3/4 long roll
made from a sprocket hub. This eliminates pins driven in until flush with the inside (1”

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 49

dia) diameter.
1.570 DIA
Thus assembled, the roll pins can be driv-
en on through, should you ever wish to dis-
.750 DIA
assemble this hub.

We chose to do this before the spokes are

assembled for ease of working with the hub.
This is the finished hub you will send back to
Witmer’s to complete your wheel.

Outer Pilot Ring


Driving Insert
Section A-A
After assembly of driving insert and hub,
A line drill 4 - .250 Dia holes as shown.
Press in 4 - 3/4 lg Roll Pins flush with inner diameter.

A Hub
Grease Seal

Spindle Outer Bearing

Inner Bearing Section A-A

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 50
The bottom drawing on page 50, shows how We decided to add the above drawing just
your front wheels will mount to the spindle. to tease you! What you see is an 8” brake
The axles come with a castle nut and cotter drum, fitted to this wheel. Yes, a lot of horse-
pin. However, a nylon insert, locking nut drawn buggies have hydraulic brakes on the
could be used. rear wheels.

Above is an assembled wheel, cut-away at They come in kits, which include 2 wheel
the spokes. You will note the conical shaped setups plus the master cylinder assembly,
disk that clamps the spokes firmly to the hub which even includes the brake pedal!
with 8 - 5/16 bolts. The results in a wheel that
would match most originals for strength. More about hydraulic brakes in a future E
& W newsletter.

— Summation — the true scale of .93:1 Only the purist will

notice or complain. I would not hesitate to
I’m sure some will wonder why we didn’t put these wheels on a nearly “full size” repli-
use the typical 12 spoke arrangement. The ca.
reason is simple. Buggies, because of their
skinny profile, use 16 spokes for additional We are utilizing standard products and
strength. The cast iron (malleable) hubs are manufacturing techniques. Bob Kapela and I
made with sockets for the spoke tenons to fit explored many avenues and settled on what
and are drilled with 8 holes (one between you have before you.
each two spokes. So, please don’t pester either Spin Werks
This was a case where we had to compro- or Witmer Coach Shop with requests to make
mise in favor of the practical. The same it a different size or way. We are small tails
applies to the 3.50 x 19 motorcycle rim we trying to wag big dogs. We do not represent a
chose. They were available and relatively market place big enough to impress anyone.
inexpensive. So, graciously, accept what they are willing to
do for us without rocking the boat.
Again, the typical tire on the prototypes of
which we want to make replicas is approx 28” What is a set of four of these wood spoke
OD. Our tire is 26” OD. This puts us back in replica wheels going to cost?

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 51

Well, we must add several items together to In a future newsletter we will examine the
get the bottom line. hydraulic brakes made to fit these hubs. If
you want to incorporate these into your
1. The rim = approx $54.00 each. design, add about $250 to you budget.

2. The entire wheel including shrinking and I realize that we have moved up and
fastening the rim is approx $110.00 beyond the garden cart wheel beginner’s car-
riages and are talking about a carriage that
3. The tire, tube and rim strip should run
could cost over $2,000 to build. But compared
under $50.00 each.
to other hobbies, we’re still in the economic
This gives us a total of $214.00 per wheel
ballpark if you consider what some people
ready to mount onto your carriage.
spend on golf, hunting, fishing, boating, ham
radio, photography, flying RC and real air-
We did not factor in the shipping cost
planes, etc. My problem is I like to do all the
which will vary depending upon where you
above on a Tiddly-Wink budget!
live. The biggest shipping is the UPS from
Witmers, located in Pennsylvania.
I hope you agree that the wait for this
issue has been worth it.
Another expense not factored in is the
machined-adapters for the driving wheels.
This will depend on whether you machine
your own, have a friend do them for you or go
Any questions? Please email me.
the expensive route at a machine shop at
Everett Moore
$50.00/ hour.

Make from 3/4" x 10" bolt

4" OD x 3/4 ID x 1/4" thick (make 2)

4" OD x 3/4 ID x 1/4" thick rubber washer (make 2)

Weld all around Plug Weld

1" x .120 wall Sq Tube

Heat 2" length of tube red hot.
Drive into hardie hole of anvil
to produce taper matching hole

Tire Mounting Fixture For Use With 1" Hardie Hole

The above drawing depicts a “tool” I made to surface. I, also, have used it to change front
mount my tires to the rim. Since I have a tires on a riding lawnmower and mount tires
140# anvil, I simply designed it to fit the on bicycle type wheels. This handy little tool
hardie hole (square). Otherwise, a flange works so well I only wish I had made one
could be welded to mount to some other solid years ago!
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 52
— Extended Hub Caps to Fit Witmer Hubs —

2.5 Holes for spanner wrench


1.5 2.0

.125 (ref) .250 R

1.750 x 18 Thd

The drawing above depicts an extended holes to accept a spanner wrench for ease of
hub cap necessary to clear the rear axle. installing and removing hubcaps.
Besides, they look more correct than the flat
If you use a different rear axle arrange-
brass hubcaps made for buggys.
ment, it might not extend far enough not to
These are machined from a piece of 2” dia use the regular brass hubcaps available from
brass stock. For simplicity, we use two blind Witmers.

— Getting Started —
by Bob Kapela

Do you want to build and enjoy a replicar? make a note of certain articles for future ref-
Maybe you have read all of Everett's publica- erence, and keep it handy. Experts tell us
tions and have followed the group's progress that we do not retain a real high percentage
through the E-mail messages, etc., and of what we read, and time dilutes that even
maybe you have even obtained plans, but just more. There is valuable information available
haven't "broken ground". If it is any consola- in the publications, with many good articles
tion to you, be assured that many others, and photos of machines, completed, and in
including this writer have had initial reser- various stages of construction. Sit down
vations before putting the first two pieces of beforehand and make a written plan, stating
steel together. After "breaking the ice," your goals in building your replicar. State
though, it starts to get more interesting and what kind of machine you want to build, how
you will find that building your replicar you are going to power it, and the general lay-
starts to stimulate your thought processes to out. This can guide you to a good start and
the point that you can't wait to get back out you can refer to the plan throughout con-
in the shop and make some more progress, struction. Most small businesses, and all
everyday. large corporations have written plans of
Do it right. Even if you have read every action and goals. If this group were to some-
issue of "Engine and Wheels", do it again, day organize and form a club, we would have

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 53

a written plan. I am certain that one of the reamed bushings, Ackerman steering arms,
goals would be to encourage the use of better etc..
materials and methods as they become avail- Keep going in the right direction.
able. Another goal would be that machines Depending on your choice of drives, there
built by the "Engine and Wheels" group will, probably, be some chains and sprockets
would have a reputation for quality and safe- involved. Use size #40 as a minimum. Locate
ty, and minimum standards would be intro- the brakes right at the rear wheels. Soon,
duced. front wheel brakes will be seen on some vehi-
Do it first class. The foundation of your cles. If your design permits, consider using a
machine meets the pavement; the wheels and steering wheel in lieu of a tiller. Maybe a
tires. I do not intend to alienate the folks that friend of yours has a worn out lawn tractor,
have used Northern and Gempler type available for purchase at a reasonable cost.
wheels in the past. They were the norm for In some cases, certain parts can be used, such
several years, being easy to get, and inexpen- as a good condition hydrostatic drive, but oth-
sive. but now, better quality materials are erwise, resist the temptation to use the worn
available. There is no comparison between out engine and linkage. It will involve impro-
the Chinese-made cart wheels and the vising and compromising to make it work-
Worksman or Witmer wheels, in quality, able. If your budget possibly can handle it,
strength, precision, and especially the bear- buy a new engine and other parts. It is
ings. I really urge that these materials assumed that if you are going to build a
become the new standard for construction of replicar, you have a bit of disposable income.
replicars. Remember, that above everything If you use this wisely, by avoiding expensive
else, your newly built replicar will be a repre- paint jobs, custom upholstery, antique brass
sentation of you and your abilities as a crafts- lights and horns, and by doing all the work
man. You will want it to be the very best you yourself, (or bartering), you can be pleasant-
can do. ly-surprised at the final cost. Document con-
Don't stop with the wheels and tires. struction throughout the project and build
Continue your "first class" project, when you the "provenance" of the vehicle. You can cre-
build the steering. Avoid using the off-the- ate a family heirloom by doing it right. You
shelf spindles. We have covered the problems will be proud of your efforts for years to come.
with them in the publication. Build your own, Now get started.
using the guidance of the article in the publi- Bob Kapela.
cation, (#34), with ground shoulder bolts,

— "Provenance" - "Place of origin" — small group of people that build replica cars.
Bob Kapela Who can foresee the future? What if this
changes if the right conditions happen? We
Watching "Antiques Road Show" a few could organize into a national club, become
days ago, my interest picked up when I charter members of it, publish a monthly
noticed a pattern in the expert appraiser's magazine. Who knows?
valuation of an item if it had "provenance". My point is: include provenance as part of
An example would be a Civil War pistol; by your vehicle's history. Get a nice heavy duty
itself it may be valued at, say, $2000.00. With folder from one of the office supply places.
provenance, like an included diary or photo of Put any pictures you took during construc-
the original owner, together with the person's tion or plans you used to build the machine
or military unit's history, the value placed on inside the folder. If you were in a parade(s)
the item may double. and there was a picture of you and your vehi-
How does this apply to us? We are still a cle in a local publication, put it in. Above all,

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 54

if your vehicle is ever pictured in "Engine and ond generation of quadricycles" and eagerly
Wheels", print the entire issue, date it, and sought by collectors? (We could, actually,
put it in. Include all of this information and finally make a profit). Doesn't a vehicle with
make it part of your machine by putting it in provenance contrast with the spectacle we
the storage compartment, or making it readi- recently observed on the E-bay quadricycle?
ly available. Make an oval brass plate and Don't underestimate what we are doing, we
attach it to your machine. I have plates on all are constantly evolving into building more
of my machines, stamped with "Pioneer 1, 2, sophisticated and dependable, safe machines.
& 3, 2001. 2004. & 2005, R Kapela". Hey It could catch the public's "eye" and take off.
everyone, we could be the pioneer group of Paperwork is not too many persons’ forte.
something real big! Wouldn't it be great if, 25 You can do this on a weekend during the "off-
years from now, "Engine and Wheels" season". Invest the time, it could be a wise
machines, with provenance, Everett's com- decision.
ments included, are referred to as the "sec- Safe driving to everyone. Bob Kapela.

— Building the Chassis —

by Bob Kapela
When you build your replicar, generally and level, complete the welding and gusset-
you will start with the frame and running ing process, checking throughout the job.
gear (chassis). When that is finished and When joining two pieces of square tubing
tried, you will finish up with the body. together, I like to clamp a flat piece under
Throughout the process of building the chas- each, with a pair of "C" type vise grips, then
sis, it is very important to keep everything clamp the individual pieces of tubing. This
square and level. Besides being pleasing to keeps the pieces together evenly and pre-
the eye and showing good workmanship, vents you from welding something that has
there are practical reasons for this. It is easi- an unseen twist.
er to cut and fit the various components
together, neatly, and it will make the weld You can't assume now that everything
connections stronger and look more profes- will, automatically, stay this way. For exam-
sional. It will also minimize stress points in ple, when installing springs next, and using
the frame and body that could be a problem the available buggy seat springs, I have
down the road. found that these vary in height by as much as
3/4 inch. Match them up and if you are using
Start with a clean, new 4' X 8' sheet of two at the rear, put the closest ones there,
plywood at least 1/2" thick, which will lay flat then put the third one in front (if you are
on the floor in the assembly area. The factory building a "Woods" style). Then, when you
cuts are square and straight. You can draw fabricate the body hangers that bolt on top of
some center lines for guidance, but it works the springs, you can make allowances to keep
just as well to use one end and one side from everything level. Check the spring length,
which to work. Layout your basic frame on also. A set that I purchased recently are more
top of the plywood, keeping everything than 2" shorter than previous sets I acquired
square, and tack-weld everything together. from the same supplier. It appears that they
Then use some equal height spacers (like have a new source.
short pieces of 2 x 4's) to raise up the frame
from the plywood. Use a 36" carpenter's level, When installing the springs, it is very
and check/adjust for level in every axis. When easy to get them out of level or twisted. When
you are satisfied that everything is square you make the curved bases for the springs
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 55
and bolt the springs to them, you are ready to mounting plates on the top of the springs,
weld the bases to the frame member. I just they need to be checked for level — front to
tack weld the base, then check for (3) differ- back and from one mounting-plate to the oth-
ent things: being sure both rear springs are ers. You see why it is necessary to keep the
parallel to the length of the frame, and both frame level throughout the process. This is
are level in the upright position where an where you make any adjustments on the body
imaginary line would run through the top mounting plates to account for differences in
and bottom mounting holes. Be sure they are spring height. Now, when you start fabricat-
both level from the pivot "eye to eye". Then ing the body, you have a level platform from
put a 36" carpenter's level on the pivot bolts, which to start.
where they protrude and check this. It is very
easy to get things out of "plumb" at this point. Keep your square and the level close to
Recheck your layout and then make the final the job throughout the building process and
welds to the mounting-bases. Use the same recheck the work, frequently. You will be
procedure on the front spring if you have one. pleased with the results. Now get started!
Now, when you fabricate and install the body- Bob Kapela

— Carriage Designing — Then and Now —

by Everett Moore
Winter is upon us again and many are some of the laws that are still on the books in
simply “frozen” out of their workshops. This some city’s today. Some of the more notable
is the perfect time to read, study, think and were the typical 5 mph speed limits and the
design. requirement, when approaching a horse, to
disassemble your carriage and hide the
It is an interesting mental project to think pieces so the horse couldn’t see them and
back over 100 years and put ourselves in the become excited!
shoes of Haynes, Ford, Olds, Benz and other
notable, horseless carriage designers of that Today, the automobile has a new antago-
era. What influenced their design thinking? nist and that is the enviormentalist move-
No doubt it was what had been done before ment, such as the Sierra Club. These das-
them — actual machines that had been built tardly groups have driven automobile manu-
and worked. facturing from our shores, stopped the
drilling for oil in our own country, along with
As the name implies, a horseless carriage a shortage of refineries. The automobile still
was simply a buggy, where the horse had remains the villain. Has anything really
been replaced by an engine, either steam, changed?
electric or gasoline. Even Ransom Olds’ first
advertisements for the CDO related to how Sorry to digress from the theme, but those
his machine was easier and cheaper to main- tree huggers really light my fuse!
tain than a horse!
—The Chassis Came First —
The horse did not go away easy. In most
peoples eyes, the horse was king and the new The early designers were practical men
fangled, noisy carriages (automobiles) were a and, naturally, focused on the chassis first.
satanic device, whose main purpose was to Once the chassis and power train were func-
scare horses. All legislation of that day was tional, the body came next. Again, the body
pro-horse and anti-auto. Most of us have read was designed to be practical first and “pretty”

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 56

The influence of the horse-drawn buggy the automobile had advanced to where it
shows heavily in their designs, from the could no longer be produced by a cross-roads
wheels, suspension, seat and even the canopy blacksmith shop. Large punch presses were
top. Only the front axle was designed to have required to form body parts and forge steel
steerable-spindles rather than turning the parts. Foundries were required to pour iron
entire axle, as in their horse drawn counter- castings for engine blocks and other parts.
The Body Now Becomes First
What body they used served as a place to
mount the controls necessary for the driver. With the chassis more or less taken for
They were, usually, in a position to be within granted, attention to the body design became
easy reach of the driver. the focus of the manufacturers. Cars sudden-
ly had to start looking “pretty” to maintain
As with some of our designs, brakes were market status. Gradually, women became a
minimal to non-existent. Ford had none on factor in the marketing atmosphere. “Honey,
his Quadricycle, other than rubbing his shoe I want that pretty little blue car over there.”
soles on the front tires! Olds placed a brake How many of us have bought a particular car
band near the differential in a greasy inv- because of input from our wife?
iornment. Such placement provided a very
minimal amount of brake power. I can remember when brochures for new
cars always had a center fold, featuring the
Just as we do today, they sought available frame and chassis, complete with x-ray views
and existing parts to use from sources such of all the hidden, mechanical features that
as buggies and bicycles. purported to make this car superior to the
competition. Try to find such detail today! All
After the turn of the Century, more atten- the focus is on the exterior “beauty” and crea-
tion was given to the body and creating a ture comforts.
pleasing, while practical design. Passenger
comfort was considered, along with means of I think that one of the attractions to our
carrying items needed for a “road trip.” hobby is the fact we can and do focus on the
chassis. As the name of this newsletter
Sheet metal body parts started having states: Engine and Wheels!
compound curves and in a few short years,

— A Natural Problem With Vertical Shaft Engines —

Have you experienced starting problems to be competitive. One such way they do this
with your small hp vertical shaft engine and is to decrease the size of the flywheel. Since
wondered why? most of these mowers have the blade
attached to the engine shaft, the blade acts as
If so, one of the first things to consider is a flywheel.
a natural feature of these engines that were
designed, primarily, for push type rotary Remember your model airplane engine
lawn mowers. These mowers have decreased you had as a kid? The propeller was neces-
in value until they are virtually a throw away sary to be able to run it. If placed in a model
item, not worth any sizable repair bill to fix. boat or car, it was necessary to add a fly-
To keep the cost competitive, some engine wheel.
manufacturers have cut every corner possible When we, merely, attach a pulley to the

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 57

shaft, the engine suffers from insufficient fly- add sufficient weight to act as a flywheel. If
wheel and the result will be difficult starting, desired, the sprocket teeth can be machined
sometimes backfiring. Without the necessary off.
flywheel action, pull-starting will be difficult.
The engine will not start, but will still inhale Since Tecumseh engines seem to be the
fuel from the carburetor, resulting in easily greatest offender, replace it with a Briggs &
flooding the cylinder and plug. Stratton or Honda.

A quick fix is to add more weight to the If your engine is driving a hydrostatic
shaft. Use a double groove pulley for extra transmission, you may not experience as
weight. If shaft length permits, add a chain much trouble, since the belt and driven-pul-
sprocket in addition to the pulley. With a ley is adding to flywheel weight.
sprocket of about 6 inches diameter, it should

The Wheel Is Re-invented The following pictures show the tires

— Another Time! mounted on his CDO. It’s easy to note how
the increased size more fully duplicates the
Just when I think we can go no further in original size tires. The OD of the Kenda tires
improving our wheel/tire situation, I am is 27.5 inches OD. We recommend they only
pleasantly surprised. Such was the case be mounted on Worksman or equal quality
recently when an email from Gerry Williams wheels.
of Prescott Valley, Arizona, alerted me to a
bicycle tire that we all have overlooked. Have your local bicycle shop order them
for you. If they tell you there’s no such size,
We have been limited by the standard politely have them search their catalogs.
“balloon” size (26 x 2.125) bicycle tires. They are reasonably priced at less than
Measuring 26 inches overall diameter, they $25.00 each. Another brand has this size with
fell a bit short of duplicating the original 28 knobby tread for less than $50.00 each.
and 29 inch diameter tires of the antique car-
riages we try to duplicate. Also, because of Kenda, also, make 3.00 tires in 20 and 24
their thin construction, flats are a curse. inch rim size. Another company make 26 x
3.00 tires with knobby tread.
Gerry owns a “Merry Oldsmobile” CDO,
made in the 50’s by Air Products of Ft When visiting a bicycle shop, remember
Lauderdale, Florida. Being a perfectionist for that any retail establishment is only going to
detail, he was never happy with it’s smallish stock what sells. Therefore, they are going to
tires. A search at a local bicycle shop revealed have to special order these for you.
that there was a size of tire made for heavy-
The photos, on page 59, show the Kenda
duty mountain bikes. The size is 26 x 3.0
mounted on a 26 x 2.125 rim. Bear in mind
made by Kenda. They are the Flame model.
that the tires you see here have a 26 x 2.125
The large profile of these tires allowed tire inside them as a liner! Inflated with a 26
Gerry to use his original 26 x 2.125 tires as x 2.125 heavy duty, slime-filled tube, you are
liners, by cutting off the bead. This was fol- looking at a “bullet-proof” set-up.
lowed with heavy-duty, thorn-proof tubes
filled with slime. With this “bullet-proof” set- Notice how much they resemble the
up, the bullhead thorns, that have plagued antique tire on the original prototypes. Sorry,
our Cottonwood parade, met their match! guys, they aren’t available in all white!

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 58

These photos show a
set of 26 x 3.0 Kenda
Flame tires on the
road, carrying a “man
size load”

Gerry Williams is at
the tiller while yours
truly hitches a ride. I
have so many grand
kids in the area that
want to drive
Grandpa’s cars, that I
had to thumb a ride!

— Changing Wheel Size On An Existing Carriage —

There exists a sizable amount of, what I of his collection.
call, Fort Lauderdale replicas, that were A careful examination indicated that the
equipped with 20” bicycle size wheels and 20 inch wheels could be replaced with 24
tires. With the body scaled down a tiny bit, inch. Of course, this would increase the
they look a bit small, especially when driven potential top speed while lowering the torque
by a full size guy like Ron Shutter. to the road unless drive train ratios were
Ron decided to change things a bit on one altered. Ron left them as is on this change.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 59

The above photo shows Ron Shutter’s
CDO as he drove in the Cottonwood Parade After
last year. This little two seat carriage has it’s
heritage tied to Ft Lauderdale, Florida. It’s The front wheels, with the brake drums
blood line was a family of slightly-scaled an intregal part of the hub, presented a dif-
down carriages that came equipped with 20 ferent problem. Ron obtained a couple of 24
inch bicycle-size wheels. Thus equipped, the inch Worksman rims and a handful of heavy
CDO looked too small, especially when driven duty spokes and began the arduous re-spok-
by a “full size” guy like Ron. ing these two wheels.
To improve things a bit, he adapted 24 The photo on the right shows the improve-
inch Worksman wheels to the rear, by weld- ment this larger wheel made to the overall
ing an adapter as outlined in E&W issues 24 appearance. The addition of a beautiful sur-
& 25. rey top completed the beautification of this
neat little car.

— Amish Buggy Brakes — about this and learned that, yes, the Old
Order Amish, who use steel tires on their
At the present time several builders are buggy wheels, do place the hydraulic brakes
concentrating on the use of hydraulic brakes on the front wheels. The reason being that
on our replica carriages. Bob Kapela and I the weight transfer lessens the ground con-
are using the brake kit intended for use on tact on the rear wheels and they simply slide
Amish buggies. They are high quality and as sleigh runners.
relatively inexpensive, with the additional However, on buggies used by the
feature of fitting the wood spoke wheels men- “English” and others, equipped with rubber
tioned earlier in this issue. tires, the brakes go on the rear wheels. With
In my study of these brakes, I was sur- rubber tires, the front wheels would transfer
prised to see a lot of Amish buggies have the too much braking torque to the front axle and
drums installed on the front axle, as opposed possibly damage the fifth wheel, where the
to the rear. Some of you who live where the axle pivots to steer.
Amish are prevalent or who have seen the It is interesting where we “rocket scien-
Harrison Ford movie, “Witness,” may have, tist” have to go to learn what’s really happen-
also, noticed the placement of brakes. ing!
In a recent conversation with Eldon This is something to consider for those
Witmer, at the Witmer Coach Shop, I asked who plan to add brakes to the front axle.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 60

— Caveat Emptor —
Latin — "Let the buyer beware" — by Bob Kapela
There is a principle in commerce that the realizing that there are experts on virtually
buyer is responsible for assessing the quality anything ever made, written, designed, or
of a purchase before buying. The opposite of thought of? In the case of the replicar, the
this is "Caveat Venditor" (vendor), "Let the photos of two different vehicles convinced me
seller beware". (This may have to do with that this could have been the case.
accepting third-party checks, etc., I'm not too Sometimes, though, an item has a "legend"
sure) There are variations of "Caveat", like that goes with it, and the legend grows over
"Caveat Lector" (reader), "Let the reader time. The seller thinks he is selling a vase
beware". A prudent person in this day and from the Ming Dynasty, when, in fact, it is a
age would be wise to observe all of these time- piece of Carnival glass. Either way, though,
tested principles. the buyer can get fooled and not get value for
Recently a replicar was offered on Ebay. his money. Will the legend of the
Many of us saw it and commented on it. It "Quadricycle" now grow even more: will we
was presented as an "Exact copy of Henry see it on Ebay again, with an even more excit-
Ford's 1896 Quadricycle". After the item(s) ing write-up??
appeared on auction, there was silence for a I looked on the "Google" site, under
short time, then the comments started pour- "Caveat Emptor", and page after page of
ing in, expressing our collective disgust at the information popped up, with items like
obviously fraudulent claims of the item's Estate sales seeded with fake antiques, fake
legitimacy, contradicted both by the written Family History searches (useful if you collect
claims, and the photos of two different vehi- old telephone numbers), on and on and on,
cles. It almost became a contest among us to all with a common theme, which sperates us
see who could find the most discrepancies. It from our money. This site is probably visited
appears that the item was purchased for more often "after the fact". In a recent issue
$2600.00. At least it didn't go sky high, or it of "Popular Mechanics", the magazine
would have been a worse shame. This whole exposed several fake vehicle "gas mileage
matter stinks and does not do our group any extenders". Every single item failed to
good. The seller has nothing to do with our increase mileage, and some even reduced it.
group. At the end of the article, the magazine stated,
Unfortunately, there are too few of us in that paradoxically, sales of some of the items
our hobby. We are not that well known to could actually increase, as the clever seller
have a major effect or to be a well-known will readvertise elsewhere, citing, in the ad
source of information for someone trying to "As shown in Popular Mechanics".
determine the value and correctness of a If you have never built or owned a
replicar. Maybe this will change in the future, replicar, and would like to enjoy one, except
as we grow in size and stature and become you don't have the mechanical skills, time,
known. Sometimes, though, the prospective tools, or whatever to construct one for your-
buyer is so "pumped up with enthusiasm", self, there are some guidelines that you can
that it wouldn't make much difference what use to help you get true value for your invest-
they were advised, anyway. Sooner or later, ment. Sales of replicars are not every day
although too late, the buyer will discover occurances. If you come across one at an
what was really purchased. estate sale or other means, try to determine
How does an item get to be advertised and it's lineage, who built it and when, if plans
sold, when it is so inaccurate? Is the seller were used, and any other information you can
deliberately trying to deceive the public, not determine. Can you see it start up and run,

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 61

and can you drive it? Push on it sideways equipment in it, and other machines, trac-
with your hands and see how much slop is in tors, etc., on the property. They can be a sort
the steering and chassis. What kind of motor, of indication of how the person builds and
drive, clutch, brakes, steering, etc., does it maintain things. If you are really lucky, you
have? Are there provisions for adjusting could stumble upon a "Rip Van Winkle", that
chains, brakes, and steering? Check the is the term for something built a long time
frame for quality and above all, check the ago, and stored away out of sight. That could
welds. Poor quality welds are a dead give- be exciting for all of us.
away to poor quality construction. There are Value — How can we assign a true value
parts of a replicar that should all be welded on one of our replicars? I am at a loss here
and there are parts that never should be. Be and welcome some suggestions. Even if I was
able to pick these out. Are there grease fit- inclined to sell one of my machines, what
tings at obvious wear points? This is not a would be a fair price? For now, forget about
complete checklist. If you have faithfully read time spent, concentrate on supplies and serv-
all of Everett’s "Engine and Wheels" issues, ices. I am going to throw a guess out there
you will have a very good idea on how to that most of us have at least a couple thou-
judge a quality machine. Our group has sand in real money invested. Or more. Much
many serious, friendly builders, with a com- more in the case of my hi-wheeler (issue #22).
mon goal of constantly increasing the quality (maybe my wife won't read this or I may be
of our efforts. Talk to one of the group that buying some new carpet or something) . My
lives near you or email any of us. If we don't first car is insured with Hagerty for 5K and
have the info, we can direct you to someone the hi-wheeler for 10K. That is what I esti-
who does. If you see a newly built machine, mate it would cost to hire a professional to
but it lacks any of the improvements that we build and replace one of them.
have talked about in the publication, use cau-
tion. Also, look at the person's workshop, the — Caveat Emptor — Bob Kapela

Buying and Selling a Replica Horseless Carriage

by Everett Moore
During the past year and, no doubt, such as car-man (13) for example. By clicking
increasing in the future, is the selling of on the 13, you can observe his buying habits.
homebuilt replica automobiles, mostly of the Always look for a sniper (more on this later).
“brass era.” Usually found on Ebay auction, The typical beginning bidder will start bid-
the description is many times deceptive. ding 2 or 3 days or more before the close of
Most of us can recognize a carriage built the auction. Such action tends to cause
from Jimmy Woods’ plans. Yet, they will show excitement amongst other bidders and they
up on Ebay as Oldsmobiles, Fords, Curved will follow suite by raising the bid, long
Dash Olds, etc. and claiming to have been before they should. This can sometimes have
build in 1902, etc. If a prospective buyer, with the same effect as at a real, auctioneer run,
little knowledge of our hobby, were to read auction — it will sometimes get the bid high-
the advertisement, they could easily be mis- er than the item is worth. Good if you’re the
lead by such, less than honest, advertise- seller — Bad if a buyer.
ment. The auctions to be wary of are those with
When buying, anything on Ebay, always 2 or 3 bidders with zero or only 1 or 2 feed-
look at the bidders feedback — this can tell backs. They will almost, invariably, run an
you a lot. There will be the bidder’s user item higher than it is worth, simply because
name, followed by a number in parentheses they haven’t yet learned how to bid.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 62

If you plan on buying on Ebay at a price in the confirm button until about 2 or 3 seconds
your favor, you must learn how to snipe. I before “pulling the trigger.” The reason is to
understand there are computer programs prevent accidently bidding too soon.
created for this. However, it can be done very The second hand is counting down from 1
easily without the help of anything except a minute 15 seconds until it, again, reaches
watch with a sweep second hand. your “Magic Bidding Spot”. As it approaches
The term “snipe” simply means to wait to this spot, carefully position your curser arrow
bid until there’s only about 15 seconds left over the “confirm” button and when it
before the auction closes. Should this bid arrives, click your mouse and place your bid.
place you as the high-bidder, no one else has This is when you feel your heart beating
the time left to raise your bid and you win! and your hand is starting to shake. Your bid-
The method I use is to bring up 2 screens ding screen should renew with either:
on my monitor. On one have the actual auc- “Congratulations, you are the high bidder” or
tion page. On the second screen, go on to the “you have been outbid.”
bidding page, enter your bid and advance this Switch back to your auction screen and in
screen to where all you have to do is click a few more seconds, refresh it. It should now
“confirm..” Careful — don’t click this button indicate whether you won or lost. If you lost
yet. it simply means there was another sniper in
Now, go back to the auction screen. You the game the same as you and he/she either
next want to establish the exact time (on your bid the same amount as you only a second or
watch) that the auction closes. When the auc- so sooner or had a maximum bid higher than
tion gets down to 1 hour or less remaining, yours.
the screen will show the minutes and seconds If you won, congratulations, you have
remaining. your first CK (confirmed kill). Happy sniping!
Your next chore will be to determine Just a closing thought on your maximum
where on your watch dial the second hand bid. Assess the item you’re going to bid on
indicates X number of minutes and 15 sec- and determine, to the best of your ability,
onds. This is your magic bidding spot. You what it is worth to you. Never place a sniping
want to place your bid at approximately 15 bid over this amount. For example, if an item
seconds before closing. It is best to do all the is setting at $75.00 and you would be glad to
preceding at least 10 minutes before closing. buy it for $120.00 but no more, go ahead and
Now relax, remain calm and start refresh- place a sniping bid of $120.00. You can’t lose
ing your auction screen by clicking the by having to pay too much and the chances of
refresh button on the magic dial spot you another, unseasoned, sniper bidding much
have previously-determined. Lets say you over $85.00 to $100.00 is slim.
start this at approximately 10 minutes before
closing. After clicking at the right dial spot, Never forget to factor in the shipping cost
your screen should refresh and show 10 min- into your total outlay. Good luck.
utes 15 seconds remaining. Wait another
minute and repeat. The screen will now say 9
minutes, 15 seconds. You don’t have to do this
every minute until there’s only about 4 min-
utes left.
The remaining time you’re now looking for
is 1 minute, 15 seconds remaining. Now,
casually switch over to your bidding screen,
while continuing to watch the sweep hand on
your watch. Don’t place the curser arrow over

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 63

Licensing and Registration
Arizona's HB 2017, has been intro- Our only concern should revolve around
duced for the 2006 session to revise the driving in parades and similar activities. Any
state's old-car registration statues. sanctioned event will usually be covered by
It provides for a $16 one-time registration the sponcering orginization’s insurance. This
fee for vehicles 25 years old and older. The needs to be examined further.
bill, also, provides for a $50 one-time license- Most parade instructions will clearly
plate fee and a one-time $34 vehicle-license describe the start, route and place of finish.
tax for these vehicles. Period! End of Parade! You will usually be
The measure, also, allows the director of instructed to have a pickup vehicle or trailer
the state’s Department of Environmental at the parades end.
Quality to enact an exemption from emis- The blanket insurance under which you’re
sions inspections for 25-year-old and older driving the parade, ends when the parade
vehicles. ends. A lot of replicas will drive a return route
A minor side note of the bill is a descrip- to the starting point rather than take the
tion of a "collector" class of vehicles, in addi- trouble to have a pickup vehicle.
tion to the usual "classic" and "antique." The danger here is: they are driving the
Collector vehicles are defined as either return route, perhaps with police approval,
A.) At least 15 years old and "of unique or but, without insurance, unless they have
rare design, of limited production and an their own. To make matters worse, this
object of curiosity," or return route is sometimes along the same
B.) "Maintained primarily for use in car parade route. There can still be children run-
club activities, exhibitions, parades or other ning into the street, picking up candy, etc.
functions of public interest or for a private We are dealing with two entities,
collection and is used only infrequently for Licensing by a government organization and
other purposes," and have "a collectible vehi- insurance by a commercial company. You
cle or classic automobile insurance coverage should have no trouble figuring out where the
that restricts the collectible vehicle mileage most effort will be needed.
or use, or both, and requires the owner to
have another vehicle for personal use." When dealing with any government
The main purpose of this definition is agency just remember the Latin phrase:
related to legislation enacted last year giving
these cars an exemption from emissions “Non-Bastardus Carburundum”
inspections (EPA approval is pending).
Courtesy of Hemmings
Legislation is slowly being improved.
However, everything is predicated around
real, original horseless carriages and/or cars
that fit the age requirements.
It seems that about 1 out of 5 emails I get
about our replicas, concerns licensing and
registration, usually for the wrong reason! It
seems everyone wants to be able to drive the
streets with their replica.
I am growing tired of giving the reasons
why we shouldn’t try to mix with normal traf-
fic, legal or not!
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 64
— Wiring Hints —
by Bob Kapela
There are several ways to do the electrical solenoid will be grounded when mounted on
wiring on a replicar. Some may be simpler the metal frame and normally does not need
than the one I describe, but no single plan a separate ground wire. When you first pur-
will work for every possible situation. This chase it, if your engine has a built in charging
one works for me and I used it. In any event, alternator, there is usually a red wire that is
the key to a good, professional-looking job is not connected to anything. This wire is to be
neatness. Run your wires together in a loom connected to the positive terminal of the bat-
as much as possible. You don't want to see tery, or if closer, to the battery connection of
individual wires criss-crossing each other all the starter solenoid. If you want to get fanci-
over the finished job. er, you can install an ammeter in the circuit.
Instructions, usually, come with the engine if
It is assumed that someone doing this has
purchasing new.
a basic knowledge of automotive wiring, how
to properly crimp terminals, make connec-
If your body is wood, you must be sure that
tions, strip wires, etc.. Don't use solid core
you "ground" the accessories, such as lights,
wire, use regular stranded automotive
horn, etc., to complete the circuits. Run wires
wiring. It is available at Murray's, regular
from each to the metal frame or back to the
Hardware Stores, etc, in 50 and 100 ft. long
engine, whichever is more convenient/neater.
spools. Use size #16, or #14, at least, and get
The ignition switch will, also, have to be
a roll of red and black, as a minimum. Get
grounded, in order to be able to turn the
terminals, some small wire ties, and 12 or 15
engine off. (I will use the term "ignition
ft. of "loom" to run the multiple wires inside
switch" throughout the article. Ignition
of, for neatness. I also got two fuse holders
switch and starter switch are one and the
from Witmer (Part #51-173 @ $2.60 ea. Each
holds two glass automotive fuses. Use 10 or
15 amp ones. Cole Hersee #M-414, or M-415
Sometimes the ignition switch, light
fuse blocks will work, as well as several other
switch, horn switch, etc., are located near the
engine, usually on the exterior, under the
seat area. Another location is at the front
Start with the battery. Ground the nega-
"dashboard", near the steering wheel/tiller.
tive terminal of the battery to the engine
Either location works fine with these plans.
block with a proper battery cable. Then run a
Continue by mounting the 2 fuse holders
smaller ground wire, also, from the engine
near the engine and battery, where they can
block to the metal frame. This will make it
be easily accessed in the future. Cut 4 pieces
more convenient, when you are grounding
of wire long enough to run from the fuse hold-
the individual lights, horn, etc., to complete
ers to the positive terminal of the battery, or,
the various circuits. Then, connect the posi-
better yet, to the battery connection of the
tive terminal of the battery to one of the large
starter solenoid, if it can be easily reached.
terminals on the starter solenoid. The other
Put the wires inside the loom and connect
large terminal is connected to the starter ter-
them to one side of the fuse holders, so each
minal. If your engine doesn't have a regular
fuse holder has one wire connected to it. Now
starter solenoid, purchase a 12 volt one.
at the battery end, twist all 4 wires together
There are more than one type; for this job,
and crimp them onto one larger terminal con-
purchase one with two large terminals and
nector. This connects to the positive terminal
two small terminals. If you buy one with just
of the battery or the battery terminal on the
one small terminal, it usually means that the

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 65

starter solenoid. Now you have made a "load" for future use. Wire #4 connects at the "S"
or "power" center, with 4 individual fusible (starter) terminal on the ignition switch, and
circuits available, which is more than ade- at the small terminal of the starter solenoid.
quate for most replicars and usually leaves (The second small terminal of the starter
one "spare" circuit. Caution, this short sec- solenoid is connected to ground.) If no second
tion of wiring does not have fused protection, small terminal, the solenoid body is ground-
so be really sure that the wire loom will never ed, but, probably, has to be mounted or con-
rub, catch, or be pinched by anything, or be nected to the frame/engine block). Wire #5
stretched in the future, causing a short-cir- connects to the "M" (magneto) terminal of the
cuit. ignition switch and at the (usually black in
color) magneto wire at the engine. (When you
It is nice to have brake lights during turn the ignition switch to "off", this
parades, so I mount a mechanical brake "grounds" the magneto, preventing spark
switch that will complete a connection when production, thus shutting the engine off. Wire
the pedal is depressed. I use a Cole Hersee #6 connects to the "L" (load) terminal of the
#8486 or #8487 (there are others). Run a wire light switch and because this wire goes back
(mark it #1) from the #1 fuse to one terminal through the loom to the load center area, it is
on the brake switch and from the other termi- continued on and hooked up to the tail light
nal of the brake switch back to the stoplight wire (usually the black one). You need to hook
at the rear of the machine. (Normally, you a second, individual wire to the load terminal
will be using a combination brake light/tail on the light switch and run this to power the
light unit. The unit’s body is usually ground- front lights. You probably will have a light on
ed and has two wires, one red, and one black. each side of the machine so you need to "Y"
The brake light wire is commonly the red one. connect the wire at a convenient spot so each
Check it to be sure, it is the brightest of the light will have a source of current. Be sure
two filaments.) Connect the brake wire, both lights are grounded. Some push-pull
install a fuse, and if the unit is properly switchs have two load terminals, if they do,
grounded, your brake light is now functional. use one for the tail light wire, and one for the
Remove the fuse and leave all the others out front lights. If there is only one load terminal,
for now, and disconnect the battery for safety. both wires will have to be connected to it.
Wire #7 connects to the ignition switch
Next, mark six separate wires so they can mounting plate (metal) and to ground. If your
be identified at both ends, from #2, through replicar has a metal body, the ignition switch
#7, put them inside the loom tubing, and may already have a connection to ground. In
route the loom neatly from the load center this case, wire #7 can be left in place for a
area to the area where the ignition switch, spare. You can, also, run a spare wire during
light switch, horn button, etc., are located. It the initial setup if desired, at the time you
takes a special ignition switch for a magneto route the loom to the dashboard.
equipped (ours) engine with an electric start
to properly start it and shut it off. I use a Cole There is an "A" (accessory) terminal on the
Hersee #95539 or a #95516. I prefer the ignition switch that has power, when the
#95539 because it has a better key rather switch is in the "on" position. This terminal
than a generic one. Wire #2 connects at fuse can be used to power the horn or other acces-
#2 and at the "B" (battery) terminal of the sory (radio?). On the use of a horn, if it is just
ignition switch. Wire #3 connects at fuse #3 a small, low power unit with which you prob-
and at the battery (input) connection of the ably will be able to operate with just a horn
push-pull light switch. Now, you have 3 fused button. Run power to one side of the horn
circuits being used, leaving one for a spare, from the "A" terminal, then complete the cir-

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 66

cuit by running the ground wire through the load center to complete the job and for future
horn button and to the second wire or frame troubleshooting (rare). Put a fuse in the spare
of the horn. However, if the horn or other sig- unit and you will have one with you if you
nal uses significant current, then you will ever need it during a "run".
have to install a horn relay to handle the cur-
rent (simple to do). You will know if you need Happy Wiring!. Bob Kapela.
a relay if, after some use, the horn button
kind of "sizzles" when you press it, or has to _______________
be "twisted', pushed hard, etc., to complete
the connection, or if the horn "stutters". Below, there’s a schematic depicting the
wiring that Bob just described. Since there
This is a basic, generic-wiring setup, but it will seldom be two carriages with identical
works for me. Run all your wires neatly so wiring, this schematic is one way to do it.
they won't rub, be pinched, or stretched in Since there’s an infinite number of ways to
the future. Use wire ties to make the instal- wire a carriage, it is intended that this article
lation neater and more professional looking. will provide the necessary basics that will
Don't install the fuses or battery connections enable you to better layout your own particu-
until the job is completed. Common safety lar wiring situation. Both Bob and I welcome
practices mean using correct terminals and any and all feedback and will try to answer
workmanship. Also draw a schematic on a any questions that might arise.
hard card and attach it to the body near the Everett Moore

Right Tail light
Head Alternator Stop light
Light SW
Starter Solenoid Fuse

Stop Light SW

To Mag.
Spare Fused Circuit

Horn Fuse
+ -
Horn SW Battery
Ignition SW Left
Left Tail light
Head Stop light

Wiring Schematic

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 67

— More Electrical Stuff —
Engine Wiring — Our engines will usual- Some engines will be equipped with a
ly come from two sources; new and used. In multi-terminal plug, where some wires will
the horsepower range which we use, they will terminate. It is a good idea, at this time, to
have some degree of electric wiring, peculiar make a drawing of this plug, noting to which
to that particular engine. Unfortunately, terminals the particular wires go. Although
most owner’s manuals will have nothing an engine can be “hard-wired” in place, a plug
about the electrical system. Even the pull- and receptacle make removal and installa-
start models will, usually, have a kill wire, tion of the engine a lot easier, plus looking
that when grounded, will kill the engine. On more professional.
electric start engines you can have several
Most engines will have wiring for spark
varieties: 1) No alternator, 2) Alternators,
producing and the alternator. Small engines,
ranging from 3 to 20 amp. Some snow blower
originally, had conventional breaker points
engines are equipped with 110 vac starters,
and condensers similar to earlier autos.
to be plugged into a receptacle to start.
Battery charging was accomplished by
Naturally, no alternator or battery needed.
attaching a DC generator via a “V” belt. An
The smaller horsepower engines, with automotive type voltage regulator was used
12vdc electric start, may not have an alterna- to charge the battery. The spark was pro-
tor. The battery on the equipment is charged, duced by an automotive type spark coil.
from time to time, by a separate charger,
plugged into 110 VAC. Today, these same engines have solid-
state ignitions, which eliminates the points
Most large riding lawnmowers will have and condenser and the periodic replacing and
the blade(s) turning on jackshafts, belt driv- adjustment, necessary in years past. A mag-
en from an electric clutch on the engine shaft. neto is accomplished by embedding a permi-
Since there is substantial electric draw, when nante magnet into the flywheel. It was only
the clutch is engaged, most engines will be logical to place a fixed stator with more coils
equipped with a 16 or 20 amp alternator. and utilize this rotating magnet to produce
an AC voltage. A small, solid-state, bridge-
Now, if you aren’t confused enough, some
rectifier is used to convert the alternator volt-
of the more high dollar engines will have a
age to DC, outputting directly to the battery
fuel shut-off solenoid, on the bottom of the
charging circuit.
carburetor. This solenoid must be energized
for the engine to run. When the ignition Our engines are 4 cycle, while the fly-
switch is turned off, the solenoid is de-ener- wheel/magneto produces a spark, with each
gized and a spring closes the valve, instantly revolution. However, only every other spark
killing the engine. Without this, some older is used for ignition. This means that 1/2 the
engines with a carbon buildup, will continue sparks produced are not used. This is
to run a little, even with the ignition off. This referred to as “wasted spark” type ignition.
is referred to as “dieseling.”
There’s so many different situations that
I recommend that, before installing your it is impossible to present a useful schematic
engine (either new or used), you remove some or diagram to fit all requirements. So, again,
of the shrouding to expose the routing of I suggest that you make a diagram of your
every wire associated with your engine. At particular engine and keep it with your other
this time make a wiring diagram, noting the documentation.
color of each wire and where it terminates on Everett Moore
the engine. In previous pages, we introduced a practi-
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 68
— Witmer Hub Modification Improvement —
cal, wood spoke, wheel. Since these were built
by combining a motorcycle rim to an Amish 19°
buggy hub, spokes and felloe, some adapting .500 1.500 DIA
had to be done to fit to a 1” dia., keywayed 1.160 DIA
axle shaft.

The hub only comes with the bearing .750 DIA

races already pressed in place. Originally, we
removed both of these and fit a drive adapter
instead of the inner (large) bearing. The outer Make from 6061 - T6 Aluminum or Eqv.
bearing race was replaced by an outer pilot

So modified, the hub would now fit onto a used, machine a dummy outer bearing as
go-kart type rear axle, where the outer 2 depicted in the drawing above. This elimi-
inches are machined to .750 and threaded. nates the tight machining required by the
These axles provide a least expensive way to pilot ring.
make rear axles. (Caution: Don’t use one from
Northern as they are imported, poorly made Without words, the assembly drawing
and then painted, making them oversized. below shows the dummy bearing in place.
Use an Azusa axle, available from
Manufacturer’s Supply) What you’re seeing here is from future
plans that will incorparate an enclosed rear
We feel an improvement is presented on axle, complete with hydraulic brakes.
this page. Simply, leave the outer race intact
and in place of the outer pilot ring previously At some stage of building a replica horse-

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 69

More Electrical Stuff applicable to
Horseless Carriage Replicas
At some stage of building a replica horse- builder will have to figure out his individual
less carriage, the builder is likely to start wiring diagram. Of course, both the diagram
thinking about lights — more precisely, head- and schematic will have to match. In this
lamps and tail lamps. Some, who use Yankee article we will be looking only at the schemat-
starting engines, don't require a battery and ic.
therefore may only add dummy, non-func-
tioning lamps to their carriage. After all, how In Fig. 1 we see a schematic of about the
many of us are actually going to be driving at simplest lighting circuit that you could use.
night and need working lights? Besides the lamps and wire, the only other
parts are a fuse holder and a SPST (single
If you have an electric starting engine, pole - single throw) switch. This switch can be
most likely you'll have a battery and charging either a toggle, push-pull or rotary, depend-
system. So, why not add a bit more realism by ing on your desires.
having working head and tail lamps. This
article is not about building these lamps, but In the real automotive world, the tail
is about the wiring of the same. lamps would be on a separate, fused circuit.
This is so if there’s is a short in this circuit, it
I realize that I may be addressing people won’t, also, wipe out your headlamps. Due to
with zero electrical knowledge to someone the simplicity of our carriages, fusing the
with a PHD in electrical engineering. entire circuit would probably suffice.
Hopefully, all can benefit. We're going to look
at about the simplest lighting circuit that you However, if you contemplate night opera-
could use. The headlamps are, typically, sin- tion, where the loss of your headlamps would
gle filament seal beams, such as used on farm present a hazzard, then by all means, fuse
implements. Check the wattage and use only the tail lamps separately.
those that draw the minimum amperage Some will say: “I want brake lights, also.”
from our fragile electrical system. We don't Ok, brake lights are a great feature, especial-
need high and low beams on our basic ly, when driving in parades. It is just common
machines. The tail lamps are, again, single courtesy to alert the person behind you that
filament such as clearance lamps. We also you may be slowing down or stopping.
want to choose the ones with the least cur-
rent draw. While it would be a simple matter to have
2 filament tail lamps, such as the ones used
What we're showing is what is known as a on trailers. We’re going to show a simple,
schematic drawing, not to be confused with inexpensive way to have brake lights by the
an actual wiring diagram. A schematic only addition of a stop light switch and a 4 ohm -
shows the actual electrical pathway, where 10 watt, wire-wound, resistor (See your Radio
the connections shown, may or may not corre- Shack Store).
spond to the actual hook up.
Fig. 2 shows the simple change to our
A wiring diagram can be a photograph or basic shematic. By studying this, you should
drawing, where the actual path of the wires see that when the brakes are off and the
and their terminations are shown. Since no lights turned on, the current will flow
two carriages may be exactly alike, each through the 4 ohm resistor to the tail lamps.
This drops the voltage to them, resulting in
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 70



Fig. 1





Fig. 2 10 WATT

their being dimmed, however, sufficient to switch is a motorcycle shop that carries a lot
function as tail lamps. of aftermarket products. They will, usually,
have an inexpensive switch, designed for
When the brakes are applied, a SPST motorcycle operation.
switch is closed. This shunts out the 4 ohm
resistor and delivers the full 12 volts to the
tail lamps, making them brighter.

All this is done with an inexpensive, sin-

gle filament, tail lamp. You’ll need a SPST
on/off switch and fuse holder from any auto
supply store, a 4 ohm - 10 watt resistor
fromRadio Shack and a brake-activated
switch. Pictured here is a sample MC switch. It
comes in a kit with a bracket for attaching
If you have hydraulic brakes, then, you’ll one end to somewhere on the motorcycle
need an appropriate switch to plumb into the frame. The switch plunger is attached to an
brake line, usually at the master cylinder. extension spring, the other end of which is
attached, with a bracket provided, to the
For mechanical brakes, a good source for a brake actuating rod.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 71

A good lever arm mechanical switch would 0.620
be a Cole Hersee 8486 or 8487. These cross to 15.74
Delco D851, D852, D853, D854, and #10-32 UNF-2B

Motorcraft SWG317 and SWG318


A real good one is a mechanical push or


pull n/o spst Cole Hersee 8466. The plunger

can be either pushed or pulled to "make", and
has drilled mounting holes. This looks like
the best mechanical one.

There are many available for hydraulic

brakes. One good one with 1/8 pipe dryseal
thread is a Cole Hersee 8626, Delco 476S or
4760. GM 403936, or Motorcraft SW311.
These all "make on rising pressure" and are
n/o spst.

Advanced Wiring
for Replica 0.450 ø

Antique Cars







Fig 1

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 72

In some of the last few issues of Engine &
Wheels, we covered the basics of replica
antique car wiring. In this issue we want to
include a few more features that might be
desired on a well-equipped project.

The schematic in Fig. 1 depicts a carriage

with a fairly well equipped electrical system.

We left off in issue No. 43 with a pretty

simple lighting circuit for those cases where
that was sufficient. In this article, we want to
add to that circuit with such items as: A key
start switch; a starter solenoid; a kill circuit Fig 2
to stop the engine, when the key switch is
turned off; an amp-meter to indicate charging
turning! They have been added to the circuit-
or discharging; Turn signals; and a horn or
ry for those who want to go all out with the
sounding service of your choice.
finishing touches.
Fig. 2 shows the ignition switch we
Fig. 3 shows 2 - 1 ohm 10 watt, wire-
referred to in this article. Also, pictured is an
wound resistors. We called for a nominal 4
available wiring harness that’s available for
ohm resistance. However, Radio Shack only
this switch. This helps make a neat installa-
stocks this resistor in 1 ohm and 10 ohm val-
tion and can be easily unplugged for trouble
ues. We have chosen to hook 4 of these in
series, resulting in 4 ohm. We are dealing
with some variables in this circuitry because
Adding turn signals can be done several
of the type of lamps you might be using for
ways. Schematically, we have shown the use
stop lights. By hooking other than 4 in series,
of a typical, combination tail/stop light where
you can control the difference in brightness
a dual filament bulb is used. The filament
between tail and stop lights. You might want
intended to be used as a stop light, will be the
to experiment here to obtain the desired
brighter of the two. It would be best to use
this filament as the tail/stop light and use the
lesser filament for the turn signal. The rea-
Below, Fig. 4 shows, schematically, what
son is, for replica carriage use, a bright stop
we mean by connecting these resistors in
light is more important than a turn signal
series. The total resistance (in this case-4
light. For parade driving, the stop light is
ohm) would equal the number of 1 Ohm resis-
important, while the turn signal really isn't
tors hooked in series.
needed, as we all know where everyone is

4 Ohm

1 Ohm 1 Ohm 1 Ohm 1 Ohm

Fig 3 Fig 4

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 73

If you're adding to an existing wiring sys-
tem where only a single filament tail lamp
has been used, (as shown in previous article),
a separate lamp could be used, strictly as a
rear turn signal (as on the front).

The ignition switch, used here is a typical

one found on many riding lawn mowers. The
key offers only token security, which should
be sufficient for our application. It has no
"kill" terminal; therefore, we use a small, Fig 6
inexpensive relay to ground the magneto,
when the switch is turned to the off position. are constructed of wood, mounted to a steel
frame. Some of the wiring can be grounded to
this frame, however, the negative terminal of
the battery should be connected to directly to
an engine mounting bolt. Subsequent ground
wiring can be, also, attached to this same
A schematic of the ignition switch is given
in Fig. 7. The switch has three, key switched,
positions: off - run and momentary start. You
can see which terminals are energized with
each key position. In the start postition, ter-
Fig 5 minal A is momentarily-disconnected to
remove the engine altenator from the circuit.
The S terminal is momentarily energized to
Fig. 5, above, shows the relay we chose for
activate the starter solenoid.
our circuitry. As called out on the part list, it
comes with the wiring harness and plug as
Fig 7
shown. B

On the preceding page, Fig. 6 shows the S

amp meter used in our circuitry. While, you A
could wire this circuit without an amp meter, I
it is an excellant addition to monitor your
charging system vs. the drain imposed by the
electrical equipment.

While no politary is shown, it is quite easy SW

to hook up. If the needle deflects in the wrong POS

direction, simply reverse the terminals. B

Refering back to Fig 1, you will notice
that all ground connections are depicted a tri- I
angle symbol. In an all metal body car, most R
of these connections could be made to the
body itself. However, many of our carriages

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 74

I highly-recommend using the available core solder from his dad’s tool box. Naturally,
plug/harness to connect to this switch. this voided any warrantee. This must have
happend more than once, because you old
If any soldering is done, I want to caution timers can remember when Heathkit started
you to be sure and use rosin core solder for all packaging rosin core solder with all their
electrical connections. This may sound a bit kits.
juvenile, however, I have seen some expen-
sive eletronic gear destroyed by a fellow who If anything confuses you or if you have
was building his first amateur transmitter, a further questions, don’t hesitate to email me.
Heathkit AT-1. Helping him troubleshoot it, I
got a finger in my mouth and, immediately, I I recommend everyone obtain a Foley-
knew the trouble. This was shortly before Belsaw catalog. It is a great souce of lawn
Heathkit started putting rosin core solder in mower parts, all usable on replica carriages.
their kits. This young fellow had used acid

Electrical Parts List

Description Vendor Code Part No.
Ignition Switch FB EGR5979034
Harness, Ignition Switch FB EGR5979833
Starter Solenoid FB EGR5979578
Amp-Meter 15-0-15 FB EGR5979914
Kill Button (use for horn switch) FB EGR5978252
Relay (RY-1) (includes harness) JCW BM149433
Flasher (turn signal) JCW BM132596
Antique-Style Horn (optional) JCW BM377204
Turn Signal Switch RS 275-0654
(spdt - center off)
Resistor RS 271-131
1 Ohm - 10 Watt Wirewound

Vendor Code = FB Foley-Belsaw

P.O. Box 419593
Kansas City, Mo 64141
Vendor Code = JCW JC Whitney
Vendor Code = RS Radio Shack
Local Store
Always check our website: for links to the latest in suppliers.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 75

Kaw-Liga . . . .
. . . . . . that poor old wooden head . . . . . .
Ever positioned a brake pedal that put
your knee into your chin? Come on, be hon-
While perusing an art supply store, I
found Kaw-Liga, an articulated artist model
for human motion study pursuant to sculp-
He measures 12 inches in height — a per-
fect 1/6 scale man. It so happens that I have
a 1/6 scale model of Ford’s Quadricycle.
I realize that few of our designer/builders
have a 1/6 scale model of what they are build-
ing. However, most will have a sketch or scale
drawing, hopefully to scale. If you would con-
How many designer/builders ever wound struct from cardboard (a file folder will do) a
up with a lever or control you couldn’t reach? flat, articulated man to place over your draw-
Has anyone located a steering wheel that ing, you can easily see if the placement of
interfered with their stomach? Remember controls, etc. is within easy reach of your
the Ford Model T Fat Man Steering Wheel? Kaw-Liga. You can either make a generic 6
This clever, after-market product made get- footer or make it to your own measurements.
ting behind the wheel easier.

Using Franklin-MintScale Models As a Source

Of Accurate Dimensions
issues of E&W, we have suggested this same
source of accurate dimensions for building
your “practical replica” of one of the old brass
They are, typically, priced at about $150
each. After they have been available for a
while, they, sometimes, show up on Ebay auc-
tion. I obtained both a 1896 Ford Quadricycle
and an 1886 Benz off Ebay, myself.
Pauls Model is 1:24 scale. Using a digital-
reading caliper, measurements from this
model, merely, have to be multiplied by 24 to
have the actual dimension.
Dimensions thus obtained are generally,
Pictured above is the Franklin-Mint 1910
sufficient for our purpose. The Franklin crew
Cadillac Roadster that Paul is using.
will, usually, find a prototype in a museum
One builder, Paul Norman mentioned and, with permission, photograph and meas-
using a scale model of a 1910 Cadillac that he ure in preparation for making the dies to cast
obtained from Franklin Mint. In previous parts for the model. The only inaccuracy I

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 76

have noticed was on the Ford Quadricycle, 1905 Rolls Royce
where they have the crankshaft arms at 180 1907 Thomas Flyer
degrees, when actually, they are the same — 1907 Rolls Royce Silver Ghost
both pistons travel together, only fire oppo- 1910 Cadillac Roadster
site. But, this is a moot point unless you were 1915 Stutz Bearcat
going to use the model as a guide to build an
actual engine. While the price is not cheap, they might
In perusing their online catalog, I found be a wiser investment than buying gas to
models of the following “old cars” that might travel to a museum, where you might not be
be of interest our readers: able to get beyond the rope line.
They are fully-detailed inside and out.
1886 Benz You’ll find hidden detail to, perhaps, answer
1904 Mercedes Simplex some un-answered questions.

Are we really building replica’s or what?

Replica <noun> an exact replication of generic. Kapela’s wisely-named his; Pioneer 1
something, carbon copy, clone, dead ringer, thru 4, after his Pioneer Tree Farm.
double, duplicate, facsimile, isomorph, like-
ness, replica, reproduction, simulacrum, spit It is interesting to note that many
and image, twin. builders of the Woods’ design, made a few cos-
metic changes and called their carriages
Simulated <adjective> serving as a cheap or Oldsmobiles, Fords, Ramblers, etc. All it took
inauthentic substitute <synonyms> artificial, was a “nose job” and it did resemble it’s new
bogus, dummy, ersatz, fake, false, imitation, name sake.
mock, phony, pseudo-, sham, simulated, spu-
rious, substitute [antonym] genuine. Over the past year, I have been designing
on what I, originally, called a Ford Model “T”.
Practical <adjective> readily serving a pur- It has undergone more changes and
pose <synonyms> functional, handy, practi- “improvements” than you can imagine.
cal, useful, However, I cannot honestly call it a Model T.
While it will resemble, to the untrained eye,
It was recently brought to my attention a “T”, how can I call it a T replica, when it
that we might be in error in calling our will have a Briggs & Stratton engine, several
handy-work “replicas.” Almost all of us, versions of transmissions, a roller chain
including myself, use this word, continually, power train and hydraulic brakes?
to describe what we do. It has become second
nature to call our carriages replicas. The only “T” items will be a radiator filler
neck & cap and a steering wheel. I wouldn’t
If you will look in a dictionary you will have to use these except for the fact I already
find definitions similar to what I have listed have them!
above. Following the actual meaning of Henry Ford, naturally, called his cars
“replica” there’s none of us who have built Fords. So why can’t we name our cars after
true replicas. Jimmy Woods and Bob Kapela our selves? At the risk of sounding vain, I am
are the exceptions, because they didn’t pat- considering calling my next creation, a
tern their carriages after a particular make Moore. Granted, the casual observer will look
and model. The Woods’ carriages are truly at it and say, “Look at that little Model T
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 77
Ford.” However, the fact remains, it will fea- built this “replica” from the ground up! You
ture my design on the steering, power train are very proud of your T — you did a magnif-
and rear end. Only its profile and rough icent job. But, friend you are not standing in
appearance will resemble a T. It will, also, front of a replica Model T — you are stand-
resemble a dozen other similar looking brass ing in front of a RESTORED Model T.
era cars — it’s just that the T is more recog-
nizable. Trying to build a replica of a car that was
built in the millions — where thousands may
While we’re rambling in the abstract, exist today, is traveling a very thin line
another question arises: Just how close does between building a practical replica or mere-
a replica have to be to, honestly, be called a ly restoring.
replica? Taken to ultimate, literal meaning, a
replica would have to have every last detail When George De Angelis built his replica
duplicated as closely as humanly possible. of Henry Ford’s Quadricycle, he didn’t have to
face the restoration issue just discussed.
How about adding the adjective “practi- There was only one car in existence. What he
cal” to the noun “replica” and we have a built was going to be either a true replica or
“Practical Replica” — an adjective phrase, to a practical replica. His easily falls into the
better describe some of our carriages. category of true replica.

Let’s say you’re attempting to build a Bob Shook’s Quadricycle, featured in

replica Model T Ford. To do so, you would, Issue 46, page 3, would easily fall into the
naturally, obtain many spare T parts. If you category of being a practical replica.
had to make a part or parts, you would be
obligated to make them to appear and func- Bob Kapela’s Maytag Toy Racer will, also,
tion as the original part. be a practical replica. While the casual
observer will call it a Maytag, a close exami-
No Briggs and Stratton in this baby! You, nation will reveal how Bob substituted and,
again, are obligated to either rebuild an exist- in most cases, improved the original design.
ing, 4 cylinder, T engine or to make casting
and machine your own. To be a true replica, On my upcoming project, I am going to
your finished car must appear to the trained avoid the replica/restoration issue, altogeth-
eye to be a genuine Model T Ford. er. It will be a brand new, 2006, Moore Model
A! Think about doing the same with your
You take your creation to an antique car projects, if they fall into the “replica” catego-
show and while stretching your suspenders, ry.
you proudly exclaim to passerby's, that you

How many of you old timers remember

the famous Burma Shave signs that were NO MATTER THE PRICE
prevalent on our highways when we were NO MATTER HOW NEW
Burma Shave
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 78
The wheel that got a lot of us started in this hobby
The old faithful, Northern Tool garden 5th Issue of Engine & Wheels newsletter.
cart wheel, tire, tube, strip and ball bearings They will carry an amazing load, while trav-
— all for $27.99! As we all seemed to have eling in a straight direction. It’s cornering,
moved to the high road of horseless carriage where we meet our “Waterloo.” If you analyze
design; it is all too easy to point an accusato- the loading on any cycle wheel, you have to
ry finger at the very wheel/tire combination realize that bicycles and motorcycles turn by
that got a lot of us started in this hobby. leaning into the turn. Analyze the load vec-
tors presented, and you’ll find the largest per-
centage of loading is still radial with a much
less amount applied transversely.

Any vehicle that doesn’t “lean” presents

almost a reverse of the loading that a cycle
places on it’s wheels. This makes slow speed
operation so important. Combine high
speed and sharp turns and you’re asking for
an ambulance ride to the emergency ward!

Would I recommend this wheel/tire combo

to a new builder? The answer is a qualified
YES. Because of budgetary limitations, you
absolutely can not afford more $$ for wheels,
— I would nod, yes. However, don’t complete
your carriage and then send me pictures with
the notation that, with an 18hp Kohler twin,
this bad-boy hit 35 mph and was still acceler-
This wheel was never designed or intend- ating!
ed to be used on any fashion of motor vehicle
— even a low-power parade machine. While
Northern still lists them under grounds
maintenance, I’ll venture to guess their main
customer of this product is someone trying to
build a horseless carriage on a budget. I’ll
even go further out on the limb and wonder if
these wheels had been available in 1896,
would Henry Ford have used them on his
original Quadricycle?

Both Jimmy Woods’ designs were built

around these wheels. All my first plans were
predicated on the Northern wheel. But, my
problems stemmed from the thin tires and So, lets not totally forget the wheel/tire
tubes being susceptible to punctures. that got a lot of us started. However, quoting
Dirty Harry from Magnum Force, “A man
Jimmy even “torture tested” the Northern has to know his limitations” — in this case,
wheel for load-carrying capabilities in the also, his wheel/tire limitations.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 79

It may seem to some that I am always ing chips while we look admiringly with our
griping about something. I’ve even been naked eyeballs! ! !
accused of being paranoid! So be it. When I
see unsafe design and operation of our home- Most safety devices that come with power
built carriages, I would feel irresponsible if I tools are well thought out. However, there’s
didn’t point to the problem. If I am at fault it one exception and that is the blade shields
is probably my, sometimes, poor way of com- that accompany all new table saws. I am cer-
municating. Forgive me — I’m too old to tain that manufacturers add them for only
change! one reason — product liability — strictly a
CYA situation. The one item that should be
I was watching one of the motorcycle used with all table saws is a pusher stick.
building shows on TV, recently, when I
noticed some horrible safety violations. I’ll One item worthy of adding to a table saw
never understand why, to appreciate motor- is a magnetic switch. Since you’re already
cycles, one must have long hair and tattoos! wondering? “What’s a magnetic switch,” let
Forget the tattoos — it’s the long hair that me explain it like this: You’re in the middle of
was creating enough safety violations which a sawing or dadoing operation on your table
would have gotten this guy thrown out of any, saw and your electric power suddenly goes
well supervised, manufacturing shop. off. Naturally, your table saw stops. Your
attention is diverted to determine what “cut
He was shown operating several rotating the power.” You look for that thrown breaker
machining tools — his long hair almost or blown fuse. Soon you learn the neighbor,
touching the rotating part! Some operations also, lost power. Oh well, time for a cold one.
were producing sparks that could have set his
hair on fire! As you go about doing some non-power
I got to thinking about our hobby shops requiring job, what is the one thing you most
and the safety hazards we encounter. The likely forgot to do? That’s right, Bubba, you
universal problem we all face is having ten forgot to turn OFF the power switch on the
pounds of stuff in a five pound bag. Most of table saw! When the power comes on minutes
our shops are cluttered. Sometimes my own or hours later, you may not even be in the
shop isn’t safe to walk through, let alone shop. The part on which you were working is
operate machinery! So, if I point a finger at still on the saw, with the blade engaged.
you, I have three fingers pointing at myself! Guess what — the saw starts running again.

Proper eye protection has to be our num- A magnetic switch, outwardly, operates
ber one concern. We can still function with the same with one exception: it has an elec-
nine fingers, but without our eyes, it’s white tro-magnet that is energized, when the
cane time. Eye shields and goggles are rela- switch it turned to ON. The switch contacts
tively inexpensive — get plenty and have are held closed until you turn the switch off
them at each work station, readily available. or — loss of electric power de-energizes the
magnet, thus breaking the contacts. This
Besides having eye protection, getting switch will remain OFF — until you purpose-
into the habit of using them must be devel- ly turn it on again.
oped. We are, usually, enthused about what
were doing and it’s easy to be concentrating Second to a magnetic switch, use self-dis-
on the job at hand so hard that we start mak- cipline and always unplug your saw when

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 80

such a power outage occurs. Just because you are out in your own shop
at home doesn't mean that you can drop your
Most metal working produces sparks and guard and ignore the use of ppe. You should
sparks can cause fires. Always make sure always wear safety glasses, when performing
your spark path is free of “kindling.” Have almost any mechanical operation. I, recently,
fire extinguishes in handy to reach locations. saw a photo of a person operating a drill
motor. The long hair hanging down and the
Home workshop safety is largely a matter loose clothing were recipes for disaster. If you
of common sense. Take the time to analyze have ever witnessed the aftermath of a trau-
your own situation. matic removal of a large portion of someone's
scalp, or a similar injury from hair or clothing
For the balance of this article, I’m going to caught by a rotating machine, you know
let Bob Kapela speak to that which he knows. about what I am talking.
Bob was a supervisor in the shops of Ford
Motor Company for over 30 years and is a Be careful in your shop. If you are weld-
recognized authority on shop safety. ing, don't wear polyester clothing. Loud oper-
ations call for hearing protection. Grinding,
************************ sanding, painting, etc., all require proper face
Shop Safety mask/respirators. Put safety stands under
elevated projects before working underneath.
If you have ever been employed at or even Don't go out on a Sunday morning with your
visited a large industrial plant, you know tie still on, and start up an engine. We all
that even before you can step onto the pro- want to be exchanging messages with each
duction floor, you will be required to don your other for many years. Let's all do our part,
"ppe". (personal protective equipment). This and set examples for each other, so we can
is done for your own protection and the achieve this.
Company's interest. In many cases, the ppe
consists of safety glasses (almost a 100% Sometimes it is, almost, necessary to have
requirement, everywhere), and hearing pro- a "safety standown" in your own shop, espe-
tection (ear plugs), but may, also, include cially after a "near miss". A safety standown
safety helmets, safety toe shoes, shoes with requires you to make an in-depth inspection
metatarsal guards, confiscation of matches of your work area and practices. Typical
and lighters, and on and on. things to look at are tripping hazards,
improper storage of flammables, outdated
Through the use of statistics, accident and fire extinguishers, obsolete emergency phone
injury reports, and common sense, it has numbers, blocked exits, tools that need repair
been proven many times over that the proper (chisels,etc.), frayed electrical extension
use of ppe reduces injuries. But, for some rea- cords, frayed air hoses, and so on.
son, there is always a core group of, other-
wise, excellent employees who resist using Don’t ever allow horseplay in your work
ppe. In over 30 years of being a Supervisor, I area. A simple air nozzle blow gun can
probably reminded people to don their ppe become a deadly object if used in horseplay. A
thousands of times. In really hard cases, the balloon filled with acetylene may be some-
disciplinary process is used to correct improp- one's idea of a joke, until it blows up in your
er behavior. When this person is called to face.
task about this, they often rationalize and
Be safe and build more replicars. Good
become defensive. It takes tact when remind-
building to all.
ing a person so they will accept your sugges-
Bob Kapela.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 81

Small Engine Wiring
In past issues we have had articles on the Pulling the flywheel may, also, be necessary.
entire carriage wiring, without getting deeply
into the engine, itself. Recent events indicate With the flywheel off, you will see two,
to me that this is a subject past due. A builder separate electrical systems that operate inde-
came to me with questions about correctly- pendently of each other. They are two differ-
hooking up his engine. The conditions he ent animals living in the same barn, so to
faced were about as complicated as you will speak. One will be the ignition module — the
find when dealing with a used engine. other will be the stator assembly of the alter-
We were dealing with an 11 hp Briggs & nator. Both these systems share a common
Stratton that, from all indications, had been item — the embedded magnets in the fly-
a replacement engine on a low-end garden wheel. Some engines will have both of these
tractor/mower. It had a starter and alternator under the flywheel. Others will have the
battery-charging system. alternator stator inside the flywheel and the
ignition module on the outside.
It’s ignition magneto was a solid state, no
points or condenser, variety that indicated On more modern engines, old timers will
the engine wasn’t too old. All the mechanical be perplexed when they fail to find the old
functions were in great shape and, was an standard points and condenser. One of the
excellent choice with which to power a Jimmy greatest improvements was when manufac-
Woods’ carriage, once it was wired correctly. turers started using solid state ignition tim-
ing. While inexpensive modules are available
The project became challenging because to replace points and condenser on older
he lives on the east coast, while I am in engines, today's engines feature this all con-
Arizona. It took quite a bit of emailing, JPEG tained in the magneto module. The "trigger-
and PDF to convey information back and ing" circuit consists of a transistor and dis-
forth. The one thing that was really compli- crete components all "potted" together with
cating everything was how the former owner the magneto coil. Part of this circuitry is a
had wired this replacement engine to the "triggering coil," which senses the position of
tractor. No matching color or wire size. No the piston by the passing flywheel magnets.
connectors — just pigtail and tape — most of By the "solid state" switching of the transis-
the time. A bare wire didn’t seem to bother tor, it fires the spark at the correct time.
that shadetree mechanic. It was during this As you may have guessed, this type igni-
adventure that I realized that an article on tion produces a spark with each turn of the
small engine wiring was in order. crankshaft. Since our 4 stroke engine only
needs a spark every other revolution, this
Let’s examine the wiring associated with type of ignition acquired the name "wasted
the typical lawn tractor engine. We will spark."
assume the engine has an alternator and
starter. On first examination you will find dif- A typical magneto ignition module (See
ferent colored wires coming from strange Fig. 1) only has 2 wires coming from it — a
places on the engine. Tracing them will high-tension wire that connects to the spark
reveal they, usually, all come from under the plug and a kill wire or terminal. When this
shroud covering the flywheel. At this stage of wire is connected to chassis ground, it will
the game, it may be good for you to pull the ground out the magneto and kill the engine.
shroud off, in order to better trace the wires.
What we have described thus far, is typi-
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 82
Fig. 3
Fig. 1

A typical ignition/magneto module is

shown above. You will note the high-ten-
sion wire will usually have a clip on it to
attach to the spark plug. You will, also,
note the terminal spade top center. This is
where the kill wire attaches.
cal of all modern, lawn tractor, engines
whether they are pull rope started or have a
starter/alternator charging system.

Now, let us examine the charging system.

You will find, neatly hidden under the fly- Fig. 4 18 VAC output
wheel, the alternator stator assembly. to rectifier
Alternators are, thus, named because they
produce alternating current (AC). This is In Fig. 4, above, a typical stator assembly
accomplished by the flywheel magnets rotat- is shown, schematically. Note that the
ing around the coils of the stator assembly. coils, that surround the outside of the
The pictures in Fig. 2 and 3 show a typical assembly, are all wired in series with two
wires going to the outside world (in our
case, the rectifier/regulator module)
When the flywheel is re-installed, the stator
assembly is completly hidden inside it.
While the engine is running, a voltage
check can be made across the two wires to
ascertain that AC voltage is being generat-
ed. Continuity would, also, show here.

Briggs & Stratton stator. The red and black

(other color wires may be used) wires termi-
nate in a two prong connector to continue on
to the rectifier, where a nominal 18 VAC will
be changed into 12VDC that will be used to
charge the battery.
Fig. 2

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 83

they can take advantage of some of the cool-
ing air. They, typically, will have three termi-
nals — ground is achieved by one of the
mounting-screws, connecting to engine/chas-
sis ground. Of the three terminals, the outer
most two are connected to the two leads com-
ing from the stator coils. (No polarity
required as this is AC) The center terminal is
for providing 12 VDC.

Fig. 5 Some engines may have a solenoid valve

located beneath the float bowl. A single wire
or terminal will come from it. The purpose of
this valve is to prevent the engine from run-
18 VAC input
From Stator
ning after the ignition is shut off. This is
more typical of engines with some hours on
them which caused a carbon build-up in the
combustion chamber. While running, some of
gnd to chassis
this carbon deposit may become glowing-hot
and, when the spark ignition is shut-off,
serve as a "glow-plug" that keeps the engine
running semi-diesel. With a lawn mower this
could be a very unsafe situation. When this
valve is de-energized, a spring closes it to pos-
itively-stop fuel flow.

Other, high-dollar engines may have a

Fig. 6 12 VDC out wire or terminal, coming from an oil sentry
sensor. This will light an indicator lamp on
In Fig. 4, above, a typical stator assembly the dash, should oil pressure drop.
is shown, schematically. Note that the
coils, that surround the outside of the We, now, have only one item left and that
assembly, are all wired in series with two is the starter. This is, simply, a smaller ver-
wires going to the outside world (in our sion of what you would find on your automo-
case, the rectifier/regulator module) bile in the driveway. The only electrical con-
When the flywheel is re-installed, the stator nection will be in the form of a large copper
assembly is completly hidden inside it. terminal and nuts. While it is possible to find
While the engine is running, a voltage a starter with an attached solenoid, this is
check can be made across the two wires to usually not the case. This large terminal will
ascertain that AC voltage is being generat- attach with an equally heavy wire/terminal
ed. Continuity would, also, show here. combination to one of the heavy terminals on
a remote mounted solenoid switch. The other
The rectifier/regulator module is a small, heavy solenoid terminal will attach with
encapsulated device that contains 4 diodes to another heavy wire/terminal combination
make a bridge rectifier, as shown physically directly to the positive terminal on the bat-
in Fig. 5 and, schematically, in Fig. 6. Since tery. A typical solenoid is shown in Fig. 7.
these devices emit some heat, they are usual- The two large terminals are shown on the
ly found attached to the air shroud, where top. On the base, you will see a small spade

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 84

What we have tried to do is describe in
terms applicable to a typical engine set-up.
There are several makes of engines and
dozens of models and versions. Of all the
engines available, Kohler seems to be the
very best in many areas. Typically for Kohler,
they have standardized their engine wiring
as much as possible and provide a color coded
chart to help the consumer. A copy of this
chart is shown below.

Besides the small engine electrical sys-

tems, just discussed, we should examine
some different type systems that you may
Fig. 7 encounter. In order to meet competition,
some engine manufacturers, have done some
lug for attaching a wire to the starting cir- pretty clever things to cost reduce their
cuit, either on a combination key switch or to engines. We, previously, mentioned the intro-
a simple push-button switch. In either case, duction of solid state ignition timing. That
12 VDC is applied, momentarily, to this ter- was a win-win situation — they produced a
minal, where it will cause contact between cheaper engine and the consumer got a better
the two heavy terminals, completing the cir- engine.
cuit from the battery to the starter.
To lessen the heaver DC requirements of
This particular solenoid switch is for side the alternator circuitry, when supplying all
mounting. You may encounter other type the tractors electrical needs, they developed a
mountings. However, the basic operation will dual circuit alternator. The alternator has
be the same. two windings — one pure AC and the other
with a diode included to produce about 3
amps DC.

The AC circuit was intended for lights

only. You could have headlights any time the
engine was running, battery or not.

The minimal DC output was sufficient to

keep the battery charged

We wanted to include information on this

system for the benefit of anyone trying to
decode a used engine with unknown heritage.

Fig. 8, on the next page, was taken from a

Briggs and Stratton service bulletin. It, clear-
ly shows the wiring schematic for a typical
lawn tractor using an engine with a dual cir-
cuit alternator. It shows a carburetor cut-off
solenoid valve that may or may not be pres-
ent on your engine.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 85

Fig. 8

One clue to look for when you are “de-cod-

ing” your used engine is to observe the color
of the wires coming from the alternator
stator. If you are dealing with a normal, Fig. 9
AC alternator that is going to a separate
rectifier, both the wires will, normally be
of the same color, since there’s no polari-
ty needed. However, if your engine has a
dual circuit alternator, the two wires will
be different colors. In the case of Briggs
and Stratton, they are usually black and

Using a voltage meter, you should

observe about 18 VAC when measuring
between the black alternator lead and
the engine crankcase. Measuring from
the red lead to engine crankcase should
indicate 12 VDC.

No separate rectifier is needed as this

has been accomplished with a diode in 18 VAC output 12 VDC output
the stator itself. to head lamps to charge battery

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 86

One thing of importance, when installing You can see how each circuit depends on a
any engine in a homebuilt, horseless car- chassis ground. When using a carriage with a
riage, is to make sure the crankcase of the wooden body, such as the Jimmy Woods car-
engine is thoroughly grounded to the frame riages, ground must be wired to any electrical
and negative terminal of the battery. component such as lights, horn, radio, PA sys-
The schematic in Fig. 9, on the previous
page, depicts a typical dual circuit alternator.
We chose red to indicate the AC circuit and
green to indicate the DC circuit. This has
nothing to do with what wire color you find.

— Thoughts on Ignition Switches —

As you dis-assemble your used lawn trac- switch and it is all too easy to connect your
tor to obtain items that can be used on your kill wire to the wrong terminal and instead of
new buggy, you will, naturally, encounter the grounding the magneto, you give it a jolt of 12
ignition switch. A word of caution is in order VDC. By playing Russian Roulette in this
here. manner, you have just lost $55.00 for a new
magneto module.
It is not uncommon to find the tractor
manufacturer has used a switch made espe- Unless your ignition switch is so designed
cially for them and may not conform with and has a terminal clearly marked for the kill
what you expect. A bad situation is where wire, you might want to consider using a
they terminate the magneto kill wire to a seperate relay to ground the kill wire.
switch terminal. No doubt their custom While fuses aren’t shown in the B&S
switch connects this terminal to chassis wiring diagram, it would be good practice to
ground when the key is in the off position. have an inline fuse in the light circuit and
However, there’s other terminals on the another in the wire to the ammeter .

— Some Thoughts about Used Lawn Tractor Engines —

This issue looks like a good place to inject Competition and mass production have done
some thoughts about the selection and use of wonders getting the price of new riding lawn
a used lawn mower engine. I think I would be mowers down from several thousand to
safe in saying that the vast majority of home between 1 and 2 thousand dollars.
built, horseless carriages are powered by an Manufacturer's demands on engine produc-
engine that served its first life cutting grass. ers have resulted in a lot of cost cutting.
Budgetary restraints force most to carport
sales, want ads or a friend cleaning out the Riding lawnmowers seldom use engines of
garage or storage shed. Typically, there'll be a their own manufacturing. Even John Deere
used riding lawnmower, with a price tag ask- riders, typically, use Kohler engines. Bottom
ing for what the owner perceives as a "good of the line may use Tecumseh. Those in
price." between will use Briggs & Stratton and
Before you grab your wallet, let's take a
few minutes and think about this. Caution when it comes to John Deere —
Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 87
the name and green color will sometimes and used, as is. This is great for ascertaining
raise the used price. Don't be fooled — the the functioning of the engine, but may carry
engine is, usually, a Kohler with the trans- a higher price tag. 2) It has been drug from
mission made by Spicer, Peerless, Hydro- the fence corner, where it has been sitting for
Gear, Dana or other. Inside, a JD is no differ- some time. The battery, if there, will be down,
ent than any other rider. the tank dry (possibly rusted), at least one
tire is flat and it can't be started. Here's
The same applies to other "Big Name" rid- where you can really get a bargain, if — you
ers such as: Snapper; Wheel Horse; Troy- adapt the right frame of mind. You have to
Built, Toro, Allis Chalmers and others. assume that, in the worst possible case, it is
Remember, you're after the engine and a total piece of junk, the engine isn't worth
maybe the transaxle, only. Sears & Roebuck's fixing and the transaxle is iffy. Don't — I
Craftsman riders will be found in a lot of car repeat — don't pay more than you can recov-
port sales, simply because they sell so many. er by selling off a few items on Ebay.
Since Craftsman riders are made for Sears by
other manufacturers. I am including a list You have to assume that the seller is des-
that matches Sears' model No. prefixes to the perate to get rid of it. It's going to cost him to
company that made that particular series of take it to the dump. The dealer, where he got
equipment. the new shiny replacement, didn't take trade-
ins. Now his wife wants the eye sore gone.
Prefix Manufacturer The poor fellow would almost pay you to haul
it off. Offer him $20, take it or leave it.
247 MTD Remind him that it's a gamble for you, since
it's not running and the fact he replaced it,
809 AMF tells you something. Don't be surprised if
you're soon riding home with a $20 riding
536 AMF tractor in your trailer, which you convenient-
ly brought with you. Deal fast and be gone.
502 Murray Always have a $20 in your shirt pocket and a
trailer or other means of immediately haul-
131 Roper ing it.

917 Roper / AYP Later, you find that you can get it running
with a minimum of expense for a new fuel fil-
143 Tecumseh ter, spark plug(s) and replacing the kill wire,
as the old wire had a worn spot in the insula-
358 Poulan / Weed Eater tion, allowing it to contact the tractor frame.
You have a smile from ear to ear. So does the
200 Tecumseh Two-Cycle guy you bought it from. With his $20 he has
stocked the fridge with his favorite brew and
Sears carries a large amount of repair his wife is now happy!
parts and, if you have the model number, you
can go on line and look at assembly drawings Well, in real life, things don't always go
and order needed parts. They are not always that good. However, the point being made is
cheap, but at least they have some of them. to never pay more than you can recover, if you
bring home a pile of junk.
You'll find riding lawn tractors in one of
two conditions: 1) It will run, can be started Now, if you’re looking at a push mower

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 88

with a 5 to 6 hp engine, sitting in a carport observed problems with two of my neighbor's
sale, go real easy here. Remember, these 13 hp single cylinder engines. The fins on the
things sell at Wal-Mart or Sam's Club for not flywheel are plastic, they just snap onto the
much over $100, brand new! In this case, $10 flywheel. Also the magnet segments on both
would be a most generous offer. the charging circuit and in the starter are just
epoxied on, instead of being cast-in. I have
These little lawn mower engines have to seen both rectifiers on his engines fail, and
be the most abused devices ever made. Oil is one starter — due to the segments falling off.
seldom changed, only added. In most cases, I pulled the flywheels for him and we removed
these shouldn't be brought home, even if the stator parts. Now he has to re-charge the
someone offers to give it to you. battery between uses."

Engines removed from push type mowers I first learned of the flywheel/starting
or even new engines designed as a replace- problem from corresponding with a builder
ment engine for these mowers all have the who was using a Tecumseh engine. From
blade coupled to the vertical engine shaft, other input, it seems they lead the list in cost
with an adapter and cap screw into the end of cutting measures to be able to compete. I
the crankshaft. The attached blade acts as an realize that many of you are using Tecumseh
added flywheel on the engine. Remember the and I hate to bad mouth your choice of
model airplane engine you had (or may still engines. If this case, I have no first hand
have). You didn't dream of starting it without experience with this brand engine and am
the propeller attached. The propeller acted as merely reporting information that I have
a flywheel. If you put this engine in a model received from others.
boat, a small flywheel had to be added.
I consider Kohler the Cadillac of small
Some engine manufacturers, in order to engines. You'll even find hydraulic valve
make their engines cheaper, have lightened lifters on them. Couple this with solid state
up the flywheel and use the presence of the ignition timing and about all the servicing
rotary blade to complete the flywheel require- necessary is the normal — check the spark
ment. Now, when we replace the blade with a plug(s), air cleaner and oil. No point or valve
small V pulley, we are not adding much "fly- lifter adjustment required!
wheel." To compensate, always use a cast iron One more thing before I close this article
pulley and, if the length of the shaft permits, —Alternator output — on engines thus
add something in addition to the flywheel, equipped, you'll find 3 amp; 10 amp and 15 or
such as a larger cast iron pulley (unused) or more amp alternators. When judging a used
even a large brake disc - anything to add "fly- lawn tractor, look to see if it has an electric
wheel." clutch to stop the cutting blade. Since this
requires more current to keep the clutch
This is a good place to discuss brands of engaged, it is common to find the engine,
engines. Today, we are blessed with a huge also, has a higher output alternator.
selection of engines from which to choose.
From my own, personal, feelings generated There's more that could be written on this
from experience and input from other such as subject. However, with these few bits of wis-
this recent email: dom, I think I save more for later.

"On engines, I particularly do not like

Tecumseh products. They are very tempera-
mental when starting, and I have, personally,

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 89

— The Anatomy of a Wreck —
Everyone who reads this newsletter has Woods carriage, the transaxle is mounted off-
heard about James Kesler’s nearly fatal set so the axle on one side is connected to a
wreck earlier this year. I have editorialized driving-sprocket. The opposing axle is too
about this and some of the contributing fac- short to reach the other side, so a piece of
tors such as inadequate brakes. 1.00 dia shafting is coupled to the axle.
Just recently James sent me a CD of sev- Now, we get to the problem that several of
eral pictures of some of the elements of his you have faced which is obtaining a transaxle
wreck. that doesn't have a keyway. Instead, we will
The picture below shows the hill where find a small spline or, in some more inexpen-
his carriage lost it brakes. Looking down the sive lawn tractors, a double “D”.
street doesn't reveal the slope, until you look In the photo, top of next page, we have a
at the spacing and offset of the mobile homes short piece of 1.00 dia ID tube welded to the
on the left side. extension shaft. The tube and axle are then

I estimate the road to be approximately a drilled to accept a 5/16 dia bolt.

12% grade. This is twice the typical 6% grade We now have injected two problem areas:
common to interstate highways that trans- 1. Drilling a .312 hole through a 1.00 dia
verse mountainous terrain. shaft reduces the cross-sectional area of the
The smoothly paved surface plus easily shaft by almost 40%. Using a bolt where the
rolling bicycle size wheels, offer little rolling threads intersect the shear surface of the
resistance. A transmission connected to the shaft and coupler, the cross section of the bolt
engine with a typical, belt-tightening, clutch, is, also, reduced. A .312 dia hole in a .750 dia
coming off the throttle should allow the shaft, reduces it’s cross-sectional area by
engine to offer enough resistance that only a nearly 50%!
slight amount of braking would have been 2. The bolt demands a Nylon lock nut and
necessary. cotterpin (as we see in the photo).
However, lose the coupling to both engine Typical, of all of us are so anxious to take
and brake, and you have a run-away machine that first ride abound the block, that we over-
that would tend to accelerate quickly. look some simple things like locknuts.
What we see above is the shaft coupling We have all been guilty of this. On my
on James’ carriage. Typical of the Jimmy first run of the Quadricycle, I had some parts

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 90

attached with only hex nuts (no lock washers the front wheel curled under from the sudden
or lock nuts). When I got back from my run, I side load, bending the rim but not dislodging
was missing a bracket and hardware. I any spokes.
retraced my path but never found it. I had no The rear wheel was a different story. With
choice but to make another! the weight of the engine and power train
On the bolt shown here, it is well secured. more to the rear, the spokes were, literally,
However, prior to the wreck, only a hex nut ripped from the rim. This allowed the right-
was used and the locking nut was forgotten. rear axle to dig into the pavement and upset
These little carriages have a lot of vibra- the carriage, throwing James, violently, to
tions going on throughout the chassis. Just the pavement, resulting in a concussion.
the right condition to loosen and back off a Photo No. 3 shows the body damage, pri-
hex nut, which is what happened in James’ marily to the seat which impacted the pave-
case. ment.
At the beginning of his downhill run, the Photo No’s. 2 & 4 show the total destruc-
bolt fell out, completely separating the drive tion of the right-rear wheel. It is interesting
train and brake (1) from the rear wheels. The to note that both wheels never lost inflation
carriage suddenly became a free-rolling skate which is many times typical of full size auto
board! wrecks.
James had little choice except to try and Nearly everyone has used the Northern
ride it out. However, near the bottom of the Tool garden cart wheels at one time or anoth-
slope there appeared an obstacle. He avoided er. They were inexpensive and from tests run
it by steering sharply to the left and the rest by Jimmy Woods in an early issue of E&W,
is history! they withstood a tremendous radial load.
The following pictures depict the forces These cheap, Chinese-made wheels have
imposed on the right wheels and how they no nipples on the spoke ends. They are, mere-
failed. ly, staked on the inside of the rim, which
In Photo No. 1, next page, we see the resulted in their being easily ripped out.
damage done to both right wheels. Note how Although we will never know for sure, I
can't help but wonder had the rear wheel not

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 91

1 2

totally collapsed and allowed the rear axle to
dig into the pavement, would the carriage 4
have remained upright, skidding sideways to
mph is satisfactory.
a stop?
I, personally, think it’s time to rethink our
A bicycle-type, spoked wheel is designed
sense of values, when it comes to using the
to take a great radial (perpendicular to axle)
Northern garden cart type wheels. Yes, the
load. When a bicycle or motorcycle turns, it is
Worksman wheels cost more, but not nearly
leaned into the turn, proportional to radius of
as much as a trip to the emergency room at a
the turn. This allows the load on the wheel to
hospital! I would give odds that had James
remain radial, with little side load. However,
used Worksman wheels, the spokes would not
when the same wheel is placed on a 4 wheel
have pulled from the rim. Their stronger rims
vehicle, there is no leaning, when steering;
might not have folded-up either.
therefore placing a side load on the wheel.
Would this have prevented a roll-over?
When the speed of the vehicle is kept rea-
Possibly, and certainly not, by the rear axle
sonable, the side load will seldom exceed the
digging into the pavement! Our carriages,
strength of the wheel. However, when speed
like the originals we copy, all have an exces-
is increased, the side force on the wheel
sively-high centers of gravity. This, coupled
increases on a non-linearer curve. This is
with a relatively narrow tread width, gives
why the leading designers in our hobby are
the perfect formula for a roll-over, when turn-
constantly preaching against building “fast”
ing at excessive speeds.
carriages. We all agree that a maximum of 12

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 92

— Bail out time! — How about shrubbery in some of the front
yards? How about the support posts to some
I realize that its easy to “Monday morning of the carports? Before the speed picks up,
quarterback” situations like this one. make a wide turn and go into an up-sloping
However, let’s think for a minute about what front yard.
anyone in a similar situation could have done Not a real good way to meet your neigh-
to avoid the nearly-fatal results. bors by defoliating their prize shrub or
When flying an airplane and an “off field knocking down the corner of their carport,
landing” (a nice way of saying crash!) but, it would still be cheaper to fix the dam-
becomes inevitable, you have only seconds to age than go to the emergency room . . . . or the
survey your terrain and observe the rule of mortuary!
thumb which is — if you’re going to hit some- My only hope is to have this visual repre-
thing on the ground, pick out the softest and sentation impact the mind-set that many
most inexpensive object. A hay stack is better may have developed.
than a concrete grain elevator. Of course, if A special thanks to James Kesler for shar-
you can avoid both and land in a wheat field, ing his mishap with us. Having done so, he
so much the better. may be responsible for saving a life someday.
Now, go back to the picture on page 1 and
try to find the softest, cheapest objects to use
to decelerate your run-away carriage.

— Drawings - Plans - Blueprints —

These are terms we see all the time — probably never saw or even knew where the
perhaps without giving it much thought. part he was making would go. All he needed
However, the term blueprint is really an out- to know was on the drawing in front of him.
dated term that still is embedded into our
In the past, the draftsman created the
thinking processes. Think about it — when
original drawing on a translucent material,
was the last time you saw a "blueprint?" A
which was reproduced by placing it on a piece
blueprint was simply a method of reproduc-
of photosensitive paper and running them,
ing a drawing, unlimited times, for distribut-
together, through a machine where they were
ing to others in the manufacturing operation.
exposed to a bright light. Where lines and
It was, almost, solid blue with the defining
printing appeared on the original, light
lines, dimensions and pertinent information
would not pass. When exposed to ammonia,
appearing as white lines. Many times they
the paper would "develop" with the area, not
were difficult to read because of lacking in
exposed to light, remaining white, while the
remainder of the paper turned blue. Thus,
Beginning with the industrial revolution, this acquired the name "blueprint."
drafting became an important link for engi-
In about the 50's better printing methods
neers to communicate with machinists,
and machines were developed, whereby the
assemblers and everyone else involved in cre-
finished print was now white with lines and
ating a finished product. To be valid, a draw-
printing appearing as dark blue or black.
ing should convey enough information that
Therefore the old term "blueprint," became
the pattern maker, foundry, machinist etc.
obsolete. The basic technique of drafting
could make a part that would fit and func-
remained about the same. The only change
tion, as desired. If the part was manufac-
worth noting was the material on which to
tured by an outside vendor, the machinist
draw the original.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 93

Also, changing through the years was the shop, they simply sent them a sample part
overall concept of where drafting fit into the with the instructions: "Make like this one."
overall engineering process. From the turn of
the century until the 50's, drafting was a Enough history lesson — Where are we
highly respected and important part of the today? If you’re still using a drawing board, T
manufacturing process. Top of the line com- square or drafting machine, you are simply
panies such as Caterpillar Tractor Co. operat- doing it the hard way. With an inexpensive
ed with the idea that a machinist would be CAD program, your computer becomes an
more inspired to make a quality part, if he entire engineering department for you.
was looking at a clear and well-done print of
that part. This placed the burden upon the Is there anything worse? Yes! Those who
draftsman to produce quality drawings, to go to all the effort to design and build a car-
rigid company standards. riage or anything, without documenting it so
if someone else wants to build one, you mere-
The opposite extreme to companies such ly hand him copies of your drawings, even
as Caterpillar were little 3 - 4 man outfits, sketches.
where drafting was considered a necessary
evil! Many times their documentation con- Spend $39.95 and get a copy of Delta Cad
sisted of some hand drawn sketches on what- (see the links page) and learn how to use it.
ever was in front of them on which to draw. If
parts had to be made by an outside machine

— Yes —

May Have




Design ! !

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 94

Period Costuming
By Ted Wagner

This is a subject right up my alley. I’m a

Civil War re-enactor and participate in
Living History Events in the Midwest and
occasionally at some Civil War National
Battlefields. For me, driving a replica horse-
less carriag and dressing the part go hand-in-
hand. Some of you maynot prefer this route,
but for me it’s all part of the fun.

Deciding what to wear takes a little bit of

background information and planning. For
the sake of a general time period, I will refer
to the year 1900. There are 1900 era patterns Normally, we pull on our jeans & T shirt and
for making clothing. Most are for women, but then head for the parade, with little thought
you can get lucky. I will provide a list of about how we look.
resources at the end of this article.
It was refreshing to see the photo of
When thinking of attire, you have to think Kenneth Lewis’ family in full period attire.
of several factors. First, one must understand This can really add to the presentation of
context. We generally take day-to-day events your carriage.
and our day-to-day actions for granted.
Clothing, language, food, transportation, etc. 1900 standards. You wouldn’t find too many
are part of our daily activities. We think farmers or factory workers buying a horseless
nothing of putting on a pair of jeans and ten- carriage. It wasn’t until mass production,
nis shoes today. But, even today, the key to several years later, that the average person
what we wear is context. Are you going out to began buying the automobile. A middle to
dinner at a nice restaurant? Are you going to upper-class gentleman, who would have
Church? Jeans and tennis shoes are probably owned a horseless carriage in 1900, wouldn’t
not appropriate. Are you going to the office? have worn bib-overalls.
What’s the dress code at your office? What do
you wear when you work in the garden? What Third, one must consider the environ-
do you wear on a day-to-day basis if you are a ment. What clothing was worn for traveling
farmer? These are all questions you should by horse and carriage? What clothing was
ask and consider the answers. You must worn in warm weather? What clothing was
answer these questions when dressing for worn in cool weather? For answers to this
1900. question, you can find many photographs. We
must take into consideration context and eco-
Second, one must consider economic sta- nomic status before adding environment.
tus. Most of the country in 1900 was agricul-
tural. But, also, remember that in 1900 the In 1900, travel on foot, by horse and horse
class society in America was still quite & carriage were normal modes of transporta-
strong; much more so than today. Take a look tion. In the west, dusters were primarily
at who was purchasing cars in 1900. In worn to protect the traveler’s attire. Those
Indiana, where I currently reside, most of the who could afford an automobile of this time
horseless carriage owners were wealthy by period wore “proper” attire nearly on a day-

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 95

inclement weather, the heavier the better.
Dusters can also be worn. Although more
appropriate for those west of the Mississippi,
they would be appropriate for any driver.

Shirts were primarily cotton in 1900.

Fancy shirts were linen, and a bit more
expensive. Many shirts were collar-less at
this time. Adding a collar was necessary for
wearing a tie. Print shirts were still in fash-
ion by 1900. However, most gentlemen pri-
marily wore white cotton shirts as they were
cheapest for all classes of men. Ties were
becoming quite varied in both the style of cut
and materials from which they were made.
Ties of simple patterns were most common;
stripes, polka dots, etc. However, many were
plain colors; the most common color of the
neck-tie was black. Bow-ties started to hit the
It doesn’t have to be a parade. Don Terry
fashion trend at this time.
and his Granddaughter, Tiffany are cos-
tumed very well for their appearance at an
Trousers were generally loose fitting com-
Arkansas Cowboy Action shooting match.
pared to the trousers of the middle part of the
19th century. However, the bottoms of the
Tiffany even carries her rifles and ammo on
trousers were cuffed and close fitting to the
grandpa’s quadricycle.
ankle at the turn of the century. Plain colors
were readily available, but pin-striped and
to-day basis. A collared shirt, tie, trousers,
simple checkering were becoming popular.
and dress shoes and hat were mandatory for
well-to-do folks. There were two primary
dress codes in 1900. If you worked in an office
environment, it was shirt, tie, and dress
trousers. If you worked outside, it was pretty
much anything goes to some extent….bib-
overalls, jeans, cotton shirts, etc. Just as
today, the work environment dictated one’s

We briefly covered day-to-day wear; shirt,

tie, hat, trousers, and good shoes. What about
a coat? An over-coat or period sack coat is
appropriate. Think of a sack coat as a modern
day “sport jacket” or suit coat. Sack coats
were on their way out in 1900, but were worn
daily by gentlemen of all walks of life. Men of Seated on Don Terry’s quadricycle is a pret-
all social levels wore over-coats of some type. ty young lass, known around the Cowboy
The sack coat could be thought of as an match as “Velvet Glove.”
“every day” coat. Longer coats of heavier
material were used in travel and for more Velvet is nicely attired in period costuming.

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 96

Knickers were in fashion, but were used pri-
marily for athletic outings such as boating
and golf.
The men’s fashion statement was the hat
in the 19th century. For the most part, the by_bowler_hats
importance of wearing a hat continued in the
20th century until the late 1950’s. Today, not
too many young people have continued this
tradition. In 1900, the bowler/derby was most
popular. The “newsboy” cap, as it is common-
ly called, became available before 1900. It Important Sewing Information for
became popular because it was made of wool Men’s Clothing
and other cheaper cloth materials. The top-
hat was worn but it was primarily reserved shtml
for important social events. One must always
remember that gentlemen always wear a hat; Women’s Clothing and Duster
always remove it when going indoors.
Your research on the Internet will find
quite a bit of women’s information over Article Sources:
men’s. This article should help you get start-
ed concerning men’s attire. Your best bet is to
find patterns and have the clothing repro- Jean L. Druesedow, Jno. J. Mitchell Co.
duced. In a pinch, the safe bet (and least “Men's Fashion Illustrations from the Turn of
expensive) is to wear a plain black cotton suit the
(no vest) with a white shirt and tie and a Century. Dover Publishing. 1990.
bowler. For shoes, wear black leather shoes. Gernsheim, Alison. Victorian and Edwardian
Oxford style shoes are a safe middle of the Fashion: A Photographic Survey. Dover
road shoe or a regular black leather laced- Publications. 1981.
shoe is fine.
Illustrations used from “Men’s Fashion
— Clothing and Article Sources — Illustrations from the Turn of the Century”.
Internet Links to get you started Druesedow, J.
and Mitchell J. 1990. according to guidelines
Men’s Dusters outlined in book.

Men’s Shirts

Men’s Hats, Collars and Neckties

Men’s Overcoat/Frock, Pants and Shirt

Patterns (Near the bottom of the page)

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 97

How Close is Close cost of perfection is sometimes never getting
When It Comes To Building the job totally done. We need to think about
other types of wheels and tires. We need some
a Replica Horseless Carriage?
original designs instead of concentrating on
one or two originals. Don’t be afraid to go off
I coined a term when describing my own
on your own with a “freelance” design. The
Quadricycle. I called it a “Practical Replica.”
same person who exclaims “What the hell’s
Practical in the sense that by cutting a few
that,” would probably say the same thing to
corners and bending a few rules we can come
an accurate, to the last bolt and nut copy of
up with a carriage that resembles the origi-
an Ford or Olds copy.
nal yet is practical to build. We only nit-pick
among ourselves. The typical parade observ-
We need to start thinking (remember
er looks for a few moments at what is passing
thinking costs nothing) about some “street
in front of them and writes it off as an “old
legal” designs. How many of you remember
time car.”
the King Midget. They began in 1946 and
continued under changes of ownership, until
I’ll always remember the day, about a year
the early 70’s. They filled a novelty niche at
ago, when I took the first trial run in my par-
the time with a “take it out of the crate and
tially assembled Quad. The neighbors across
license it” little automobile. Their demise can
the street from me have a fairly steep drive
be attributed to many things including
way and I wanted to see how the hydro-stat-
increased governmental control of the auto
ic was going to function, so I drove up the
industry plus the Ralph Nader’s who want to
drive and partially into their garage, where
keep us from hurting ourselves.
my neighbor lady was working. She looked in
surprise and her first comment was, “What
We need to think beyond garden cart,
the hell’s that!” Could I have expected her to
bicycle size wheels which definitely have
exclaim, “Gee, I see you’re building sort of a
their limitations. Wood spoke wheels would
replica of Ford’s Quadricycle?” Hardly. Her
allow us to venture into the Model “T” vin-
comment is probably typical of most when
tage cars. Anyone for building such wheels?
they see our cars for the first time.
One wheel/tire that’s available and inexpen-
sive is the 8 and 12 inch size trailer wheels
To me, putting a curved dash on a Jimmy
such as sold by Northern. There’s definitely
Woods design is close enough to call it a
promise there for those who want to “think
“Practical Curved Dash Olds.” I want a
out of the box.”
reverse on my replicas. I want a reliable, easy
to start engine. I did use a “Yankee” starter
(you yank on a rope!) to eliminate an electri-
cal system.

Even builders like Tom Daws, who spent

40 years gleaning parts and building the
engine, still used 26” bicycle size wheels. I
doubt if anyone complained! George De
Angelis, probably came as close to duplicat-
ing the original as anyone ever will, still
added a brake. Who really cares?

We need to get more cars on the road, not

spend years looking for that special part. The

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 98

— What Product Do We Need—

You may have guessed it — a basic, for-

ward/reverse transmission!

In the 2 photos on this page, you see a per-

fect power train, as presented by Tom
Klobucnik. A belt type torque converter driv-
ing a F/R transmission. This was chain cou-
pled to a differential.

Both of these units were manufactured by

Comet. They still make the TC, however, the
F/R transmission has been discontinued,
with the few remaining being grabbed up by
the alert.

Originally, made as an OEM product for a

phased out, commercial application, they
were a bit costly when available. But, when Reverse isn’t used much, but when need-
surplused out, the price got down to around ed, it sure beats having someone push you or,
$150. even worse — having to climb off and push it
Our lowly numbers fail to impact the
manufacturing supply/demand — cost vs. It doesn’t have to transmit a lot of power
selling, price formula Thus, I don’t think we — just enough to back up a few feet. If you
can expect someone to make one for us. study some of the first riding lawn mowers,
you’ll find many used a simple, friction drive,
So, the challenge is presented to you reverse.
inventive types to design a basic forward /
reverse “device” that most home builders can THINK!
make one for themselves.

Analyzing our practical need for a reverse,

we must realize that many carriages don’t
have a reverse. We don’t need a powerful,
stump-pulling unit. Just something that will
let us accomodate the fellow ahead of us in a
parade, who must back up.

It can be electric, V belt or friction. Don’t

forget about the elusive double V belts that
are found on agricultural equipment. It must
be readily available parts — stay out of the
junk yards! Gears and the bearings required,
almost put us out of the acceptable price

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 99

Above, Bob Kapela’s Pioneer 4 Wrecker stands ready for service
Below, Pioneer 4 is towing Pioneer 3

Issue No. 50 Engine and Wheels Page 100