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URT ENGLISH TEST

1st Session 2017


Directions

This booklet contains the English test. There are 50 multiple choice questions
(MCQs) that measure skills and abilities highly related to course work completed
in Grades 1, 2, and 3 STEM schools.

The questions in the test are numbered, and the suggested answers for each
question are lettered (A, B, C, and D). On the answer document, the rows of ovals
are numbered to match the questions, and the ovals in each row are lettered to
correspond to the suggested answers.

For each question, first decide which answer is best. Next, locate on the answer
document the row of ovals numbered the same as the question. Then, locate the
oval in that row lettered the same as your answer. Finally, fill in the oval
completely. USE A SOFT LEAD PENCIL AND MAKE YOUR MARKS HEAVY
AND BLACK. DO NOT USE A PEN.

Mark only one answer to each question. If you change your mind about an answer,
erase your first mark thoroughly before marking your new answer. (MAKE SURE
THAT YOU MARK YOUR ANSWER IN THE CORRECT ROW OF OVALS.)

Only responses marked on your answer document will be scored. Your score on each test
will be based only on the number of questions you answer correctly during the time
allowed for that test. You will NOT be penalized for guessing. IT IS TO YOUR
ADVANTAGE TO EVERY QUESTION EVEN IF YOU MUST GUESS. HOWEVER,
IF YOU CHOOSE MORE THAN ONE ANSWER FOR A QUESTION, IT WILL BE
MARKED ZERO.

If you finish a test before time is called for that test, you should use the time
remaining to reconsider questions you are uncertain about in that test.

Lay your pencil down immediately when time is called at the end of the test. You
may NOT for any reason fill in or alter your answers after time is called for that
test. To do so will disqualify you from the examination. Do not fold or tear the

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pages of your test booklet.

DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL TOLD TO DO SO.


Passage (1)
(1)
Do you like to shoot hoops or swim? Without the help of your thyroid, you
wouldn’t have the energy to compete ­ or to get off the couch. Your thyroid is a
1­ounce gland that controls the speed of your heartbeat, the speed with which your
body burns calories, and the growth of your bones, teeth, and brain. The pinkish,
butterfly­shaped gland wraps around the windpipe in front of the throat. It affects
nearly every organ in your body.
The thyroid is your body’s factory for a hormone, or body chemical, called
thyroxin. The thyroid secretes this chemical into your bloodstream, which is your
body’s superhighway. The bloodstream delivers the chemical’s message to your
cells: Get to work! Thyroxin controls your body’s metabolism. That means it sets
the pace for how quickly cells transform food into energy. The hormone also
affects the speed of many chemical reactions in your body.
(2)
The thyroid is one of many endocrine glands that control body functions. The
glands are part of a system that regulates hormones. When the thyroid springs into
action, the original work order comes from your brain. From atop your brain stem,
an organ called the hypothalamus keeps tabs on hormone levels in your
body—about 200 in all. When thyroxin levels drop too low, the hypothalamus
sends off a warning to its neighbor, the pituitary gland. That pea­sized master gland
kicks the thyroid into production—and kicks you into gear.
(3)
Pay attention to your body because diseases of the thyroid are common. These
problems affect millions of people worldwide. An overactive thyroid
(hyperthyroidism) can affect a person’s heart and make the person skinny and
nervous. People with an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) feel exhausted, gain
weight, and are often cold.
(4)
Pollution may cause thyroid disease. Some industrial chemicals are absorbed by
the body through air, water, or food. Those substances can disrupt the body’s
hormone balance. Toxins from smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco can damage

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the thyroid too. The good news is that there are treatments for some thyroid
conditions. And if you are like most people, your body’s energy control system
keeps everything in balance so that you’re raring to go!

1­ According to the text, how does an overactive thyroid lead to weight loss?
a) It can help people eat less fattening foods.
b) It can make people want to do more exercise.
c) It controls people’s metabolism.
d) It can make people feel sleepy and less energetic.
2­ Which option below describes the relationship between the following two
sentences? “The thyroid is one of many endocrine glands that control body
functions. The glands are part of a system that regulates hormones.”
a) The sentences make comparisons about the thyroid.
b) The first sentence names a cause, and the second sentence describes an
effect.
c) The first and second sentences describe steps in a sequence.
d) The second sentence adds information to the description in the first
sentence.
3­ In the second paragraph, the word superhighway refers to .....................
a) thyroid
b) bloodstream
c) body
d) chemical
4­ What is the other endocrine gland mentioned in the passage?
a) adrenal
b) ovaries
c) pineal
d) pituitary
5­ According to the text, which of the following does the thyroid gland NOT
play an important role in?
a) the rate at which a person can run
b) the heart rate
c) the rate at which the body converts food into energy
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d) a person’s energy level
6­ What is the main purpose of the text?
a) To compare and contrast the thyroid with the pituitary gland.
b) To persuade young people to eat better and exercise more.
c) To describe the thyroid gland and explain how it works.
d) To provide a list of hormones and explain what each one does.

7­ Why is the pituitary gland called master gland, according to the passage?
a) It can push the thyroid into production.
b) It can push the pancreas into production.
c) It can push the thymus into production.
d) It can push the adrenal into production.
8­ According to the text, which of the following explains how living in a
highly­polluted area can cause thyroid disease?
a) The thyroid produces melatonin, and high pollution areas help maintain
circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones.
b) The thyroid produces insulin and glucagon, and high pollution are as
regulate blood glucose.
c) High pollution areas expose people to harmful chemicals that damage the
hormone balance.
d) The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary to release or inhibit
pituitary hormone production in high pollution areas.
9­ Which of the following is in the brain and sends messages to the pituitary
gland?
a) thyroxin
b) hypothalamus
c) thymus
d) ovaries
10­ It can be inferred from the text that thyroid imbalance has been totally cured
in
a) Hyperthyroidism
b) Hypothyroidism
c) Both conditions
d) None of the above

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Passage (2)
(1)
Everyone knows that belching is rude, but cows do it all the time — every 40 seconds,
in fact! The noisy burst of gas is more than just bad manners. It's bad for the environment.
Each belch releases methane, a colorless, odorless gas. Methane is one of the gases that
contribute to global warming, or the gradual increase in Earth's temperature. Scientists
say a single cow releases up to 150 gallons of methane a day.
(2)
All that belching adds up, say scientists. Altogether, the 100 million cows in the US are
responsible for 20 percent of the nation's methane emissions. Cows aren't trying to harm
the environment—they just can't help it. The methane is made by billions of
microorganisms, or tiny creatures that live in cows' stomachs. The microorganisms help
the animals digest hay and grass. The gas comes out when cows exhale. Bad belches
haven't stopped cows from being in demand. Cattle and other livestock currently supply
one­third of the world's protein; nevertheless, the gas they release is harmful to the
environment. As Earth's population continues to grow, the market for cattle and other
livestock is expected to increase quickly.
(3)
The United Nations predicts that demand for meat and milk will be more than double
by 2050. Meeting that increased demand will require more livestock. As a result, even
more methane will be released into the atmosphere. "Livestock's contribution to
environmental problems is on a massive scale," U.N. officials wrote in a recent report.
They added that, "The impact is so significant that it needs to be addressed with urgency."
Scientists all over the world are trying to figure out ways to lower cows' methane
production. They want to make sure that more cows doesn't mean more pollution.
(4)
German scientists have invented a pill that they say could improve cow digestion. The
fist­sized pill would release new microorganisms into a cow's stomach. Early studies
suggest the pill could help reduce overall methane emissions in Europe by 4 to 6 percent.

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Other researchers are fiddling with cows' food. British scientists think cows should eat
more natural sugar. Swiss researchers propose adding extra fat to cows' diets by mixing
coconut or sunflower seeds into cattle feed. Some scientists are even trying garlic. Early
results suggest that garlic may reduce methane, but it also gives cows bad breath and
could give their milk an unusual flavour.
(5)
Lowering cows' emissions could make a big difference to the planet's climate. The
methane they produce is more than 20 times more harmful than carbon dioxide which is
also a greenhouse gas.
The research on improving cows' digestion might have other benefits too. Jess Miner, an
animal nutritionist at the University of Nebraska, says it could help the animals get more
energy from their food. That would mean cows wouldn't have to eat as much. "We could
produce more cows with the same amount of feed," Miner told CNN. "Agriculture will be
made more efficient."
You can help protect the Earth!
1­ Get walking: If you're not going far, walk or ride your bike. Cars burn fuel,
producing greenhouse gases.
2­ Cool off: Put on a sweater instead of blasting the heat. Running a heater uses a lot
of energy. In the summer, use a fan instead of an air conditioner.
3­ Shop locally: Look for foods and products made near your home, such as
vegetables at a local farmers' market. Companies use a lot of fuel to ship products
by plane or truck to faraway stores.
11­Which word would best replace nevertheless in the following sentence? “Cattle
may seem harmless; nevertheless, the gas they release is harmful to the
environment.”
a) because
b) otherwise
c) however
d) since
12­According to the text, how much methane does a single cow release?
a) up to 100 gallons a day
b) up to 150 gallons a day
c) up to 100 gallons a week
d) up to 150 gallons a week
13­According to the excerpt, what are some ways to solve the problem of pollution
created by cows?
a) all of the below
b) adding extra fat into cattle feed
c) adding garlic into the cows’ diet
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d) giving cows a pill to help their digestion
14­Based on the text, which of the following conclusions can be drawn about cows?
a) Cows are not an important part of the food chain.
b) Only certain types of cows are releasing methane.
c) Cows have a significant impact on the planet’s health.
d) The demand for cows will decrease after 2050.
15­What is the primary topic of the text?
a) The reason for the high demand of cattle.
b) The different ways of measuring methane released by cows.
c) The way in which cows are polluting the planet.
d) d) The various ways human beings are responsible for polluting the planet.

16­Which word would best replace emissions in the following sentence?


“Lowering cows' emissions could make a big difference to the planet's climate.”
a) containment
b) concealment
c) refrainment
d) emanation
17­According to the text, how many cows are responsible for 20 percent of the
nation's methane emissions in the United States?
a) 10000 million cows
b) 10 million cows
c) 100 million cows
d) 1000 million cows
18­According to the text, if everyone were to shop locally, how would it help the
earth?
a) companies would use less vegetables
b) companies would use more fuel
c) companies would use more vegetables
d) companies would use less fuel
19­Why has The United Nations predicted that the demand for meat and milk will
increase by more than double by 2050?
a) Because Earth’s population is growing.
b) Because Earth’s agriculture is growing.
c) Because Earth’s solution is growing.
d) Because Earth’s pollution is growing.
20­Which word would best replace efficient in the following sentence?
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“Agriculture will be made more efficient?
a) confusing
b) expensive
c) interesting
d) effective

Passage (3)
(1)
Mass transportation transformed the social and economic fabric of the American
city in three fundamental ways. It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people
and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban life. By opening
vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse
railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two
to four times more distant from city centers than they were in the pre­modern era.
In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old
business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now
those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still
commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment. The new accessibility of
land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real
estate development and fueled what we now know as an urban sprawl. Between
1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded
within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. Over the
same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the
metropolitan area. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting,
real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region
in just thirty years – lots that could have housed five to six million people.
(2)
Of course, many were never occupied; there was always a huge surplus of
subdivided, but vacant, land around Chicago and other cities. These excesses
underscore a feature of residential expansion related to the growth of mass
transportation: urban sprawl was essentially unplanned. It was carried out by
thousands of small investors who paid little heed to coordinated land use or to
future land users. Those who purchased and prepared land for residential purposes,

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particularly land near or outside city borders where transit lines and middle­class
inhabitants were anticipated, did so to create demand as much as to respond to it.
Chicago is a prime example of this process. Real estate subdivision there
proceeded much faster than population growth.
21­ What is the main topic of this text?
a) The mass migration to rural areas and farming communities.
b) The unusual experience of mass transportation in Chicago that has not
taken place anywhere else.
c) The effect of modern technology on mass transportation.
d) The relationship between mass transportation, urban development and
real estate.
22­ Which word would best replace sorted out in the following sentence? It
catalyzed physical expansion, sorted out people and land uses.
a) testified
b) stratified
c) ratified
d) modified
23­ According to the text, which of the following sentences is correct?
a) Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the
American city in three fundamental ways.
b) Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the
American village in three fundamental ways.
c) In 1850, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old tourist
district.
d) Mass transportation accelerated the inherent instability of rural life.
24­ According to the text, which of the following refers to many in the first
sentence of the second paragraph?
a) buses
b) land lots
c) houses
d) cities
25­ What was the effect of mass transportation?
a) It had no effect on the rural or urban life in the USA.
b) It negatively affected the distribution of goods.
c) It accelerated the inherent stability of urban life.
d) It affected the distribution of people over areas surrounding cities.
26­ Why did areas of land remain unoccupied around Chicago?
a) in order for new residents of Chicago to look for work opportunities.

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b) because people preferred rural life to living in the chaotic city.
c) because the real estate subdivision proceeded much faster than population
growth.
d) in order to open day­care centers for people who recently moved to the
Chicago suburbs.
27­ Which of the following would best replace it in the underlined section:
"Now those who could afford it………’
a) to live outside of the city.
b) to cultivate new areas.
c) to build luxurious houses.
d) to leave their rural lives .
28­ How was urban expansion carried out?
a) It was carried out by thousands of large investors.
b) It was well planned.
c) It was done to stimulate economic growth.
d) It was unplanned.
29­ Which of the following best fits the underlined section in paragraph 1“the
borders of Chicago, most of them located…”?
a) the borders of Chicago: most of them located.
b) the borders of Chicago. Most of them located.
c) NO CHANGE.
d) the borders of Chicago; most of them located.
30­ Which word would best replace anticipated, in the following sentence?
“Those who purchased and prepared land for residential purposes,
particularly land near or outside city borders where transit lines and
middle­class inhabitants were anticipated, did so to create demand as much
as to respond to it.”
a) doubted
b) amazed
c) expected
d) unprepared

Passage (4)
(1)
Palaces are known for their beauty and splendor, but they offer little protection
against attacks. It is easy to defend a fortress, but fortresses are not designed with

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the comfort of a king or queen in mind. When it comes to structures that are both
majestic and well­fortified, the classic European castle is the pinnacle of design.
Across the ages castles changed, developed, and eventually fell out of use, but they
still command the fascination of our culture.
(2)
Castles were originally built in England by Norman invaders in 1066. As
William the Conqueror advanced through England, he fortified key positions to
secure the land he had taken. The castles he built allowed the Norman lords to
retreat to safety when threatened by English rebellion. Castles also served as bases
of operation for offensive attacks. Troops were summoned to, organized around,
and deployed from castles. In this way castles served both offensive and defensive
roles in military operations.
(3)
Not limited to military purposes, castles also served as offices from which the
lord would administer control over his fiefdom. That is to say, the lord of the land
would hold court in his castle. Those that were socially beneath the lord would
come to report the affairs of the lands that they governed and pay tribute to the
lord. They would address disputes, handle business, feast, and enjoy festivities. In
this way castles served as important social centers in medieval England. Castles
also served as symbols of power. Built on prominent sites overlooking the
surrounding areas, castles constantly loomed in the background of many peasants’
lives and served as a daily reminder of the lord’s strength.
(4)
The first castles constructed in England were made from earth and timber. Those
who constructed them took advantage of natural features, such as hills and rivers,
to increase defenses. Since these castles were constructed from wood, they were
highly susceptible to attacks by fire. Wooden castles were gradually replaced by
stone, which greatly increased the strength of these fortifications; however, being
made from stone did not make these castles entirely fireproof. Attackers could hurl
flaming objects into the castle through the windows or ignite the wooden doors.
This led to moving the windows and entrances off the ground floor and up to the
first floor to make them more difficult to access.
Castles served many purposes during the Middle Ages.
(5)
As the nobility accumulated wealth, England became increasingly attractive to
those who sought to plunder. Raids by Vikings and other marauders increased in
regularity. In response to these attacks, castle defenses were updated and improved.
Arrow­slits were added. These were small holes in the castle, large enough for an
arrow to fit through, which allowed defenders to fire from nearly invulnerable
positions. Towers were built from which defenders could provide flanking fire.

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These towers were connected to the castle by wooden bridges, so that if one tower
fell, the rest of the castle was still easy to defend. Multiple rings of castle walls
were constructed, so that even if attackers made it past one wall, they would be
caught on a killing ground between inner and outer walls. Advances such as these
greatly increased the defense of castles.
(6)
The demise of castles can ultimately be attributed to gunpowder. Gunpowder
was first introduced to Europe during the 14th century, but the first gunpowder
weapons were unreliable, inaccurate, and weak by later standards. During the 15th
century, artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. This
greatly undermined the military role of castles. Castles were then replaced by
artillery forts that had no role in civil administration, and country houses that were
indefensible. Though castles no longer serve their original purposes, remaining
castles receive millions of visitors each year from those who wish to experience
these majestic vestiges of a time long passed.
31­ The idiom pay tribute in paragraph 3 means........................
a) bold court
b) pay fees
c) offer protection
d) show gratitude
32­ Which of the following best describes the main idea in paragraph 2?
a) It describes how and why William the Conqueror took control of
England.
b) It explains why castles were first built in England and the military
purposes they served.
c) It shows how Norman lords were often scared and frequently retreated.
d) It details all of the purposes that English castles served.
33­ Which best explains why the original castles were first made from earth and
timber?
a) It takes a lot more time and energy to build a stone castle.
b) It did not occur to people to build castles out of stone.
c) People did not realize how weak wooden castles would be against fire.
d) Wooden castles were prettier than dirty stone castles.
34­ Which of the following is not a true statement according to the text?
a) Palaces are designed for luxury, not fortification.
b) Fortresses are designed for fortification, not luxury.
c) Castles are designed for luxury and fortification.
d) Palaces are designed for luxury and fortification.

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35­ Which explains why castles are no longer built nowadays.
a) They take a long time and effort to build.
b) They lost their defense power.
c) They can be easily destroyed by new weapons.
d) All of the above.
36­ Which of the following best describes the structure of the text in the fifth
paragraph?
a) Compare and contrast
b) Order of importance
c) Cause and effect
d) Chronological order

37­ Which is not described in the text as an improvement in castle defenses?


a) Towers attached to the main castle by wooden bridges.
b) Deep ditches dug around the castle walls and filled with water.
c) Multiple castle walls providing layers of defenses.
d) Windows and entrances raised off of the ground floor.
38­ Which choice would best replace ‘fortifications; however,’?
a) fortifications: however;
b) fortifications: however,
c) fortifications; however;
d) NO CHANGE
39­ Which of the following titles would best describe the content of this
passage?
a) William the Conqueror: Bringing Castles to England.
b) Defending the Castle: Technologies Used to Defend Medieval Castles.
c) History of Castles: The Rise and Fall of Castles in England.
d) Fancy Living: Learning about Castles, Palaces, and Fortresses.
40­ The following sentence, This greatly undermined the military role of
castles refers to....................................
a) defensible castles
b) first gunpowder weapons
c) strong artillery
d) civil administration

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Passage (5)
(1)
If you are reading this right now, you are taking part in the wonder of literacy.
Because of printed words, people can relay information across both time and space.
Ideas are encoded in writing and transmitted to readers across thousands of miles
and years. Because of this development, the words of people distant to us can
influence events, impart knowledge, and change the world. Much of the credit for
the development of this phenomenon can be attributed to one man.
(2)
Johannes Gensfleischzur Laden zum Gutenberg, better known as Johannes
Gutenberg, was born in the German city of Mainz. Though most of Gutenberg’s
early life is a mystery, historians believe that he studied at the University of Erfurt
in 1418 and spent much of his young adult life practicing the profession of his
father: goldsmithing. Having a penchant for fortune and success, Gutenberg
borrowed money from investors in 1439 and found himself in financial trouble. In
the year 1439 the city in which Gutenberg lived was planning to exhibit its large
collection of relics from Emperor Charlemagne (a famous ruler who had united
much of Western Europe around 800 AD). The exhibit was expected to bring many
visitors to the town, so Gutenberg took investments and created many polished
metal mirrors which were to be sold to the visitors (it was a common belief at that
time that mirrors were able to capture holy light from religious relics). The mirrors
which Gutenberg produced probably would have sold well, but due to severe
flooding the event was delayed by one year. The impatient investors demanded that
Gutenberg return their investments, but he had already spent the money on
producing the unsalable mirrors. He was trapped in a difficult situation. In order to
satisfy the investors, Gutenberg decided to share his greatest secret with them.
(3)
This secret would forever change the world, all of history, and even the process
of keeping history. It’s been argued that Gutenberg’s idea was one of the greatest of
all mankind. This one idea would lead to the spread of countless others. It would
play a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of
Enlightenment, and the Scientific Revolution. This idea would bring learning to the
masses and form the backbone of the modern knowledge­based economy.
Gutenberg had created the mechanical printing press with movable type. This
brilliant idea would soon change the world, but in the short term he bungled what

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proved to be a large and risky investment. He found himself in financial trouble
once again and was sued by one of his investors, who accused Gutenberg of
mismanaging money meant for the production of books. The courts ruled against
Gutenberg; he lost control of the shop and was effectively bankrupt.
(4)
Before the spread of Gutenberg’s idea, literature was primarily handwritten. That
means that each copy of the Catholic Bible and all of its 73 books were tediously
and painstakingly hand scribed, and this was done before the invention of the
ballpoint pen. Given the amount of detail that went into scribing each text, creating
a single copy of a bible could take years. Because of the effort that went into
producing them, books were extremely rare and valuable. Because of the value and
scarcity of books, there was little reason for common people to learn to read or
write since it was unlikely that they would ever handle a book in their lifetimes.
Gutenberg’s invention would change all of that. His printing press allowed
literature to be produced on a mass scale. The first major text that Gutenberg
produced was a 42 line copy of the Bible. Most copies of his Bible went to
monasteries and universities, though one was sold to a wealthy private individual.
Copies are known to have sold for 30 florins (about three years of wages for a clerk
at the time), which may seem expensive but was nonetheless much cheaper than a
hand produced copy. Only twenty­one complete Gutenberg Bibles exist today and
the last one traded hands in 1987 for 4.9 million dollars, the highest price ever paid
for a book at the time.
(5)
Though he had failed as a businessman, the technologies that he had created
spread across Europe rapidly. As these printing technologies and techniques
spread, news and books began to travel across Europe much faster than previously
possible. The world has not been the same since. Though Gutenberg was
financially unsuccessful in his own lifetime, he made the world a much richer
place.
41­ Which best describes the structure of the text in paragraph 2?
a) Compare and contrast
b) Problem and solution
c) Chronological order

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d) Spatial order
42­ Which of the following expresses the correct order of events?
a) Gutenberg was born in Mainz, invested in mirrors, and then became a
goldsmith.
b) Gutenberg created the printing press, printed the bible, and then invented
the metal mirror.
c) Gutenberg went to college, revealed his press, and then invested in shiny
mirrors.
d) Gutenberg studied goldsmithing, invented the printing press, and then
lost his shop.
43­ Which best explains why Gutenberg’s plan to sell mirrors failed?
a) The mirrors were less popular than he had expected.
b) Too many other people had the same idea.
c) Newly invented glass mirrors rendered his metal mirrors obsolete.
d) None of the above.
44­ Which of the following replaces the phrase Penchant for in paragraph 2?
a) strong inclination
b) strong disliking
c) weak desire
d) complete failure
45­ Which is NOT listed in the text as a movement to which Gutenberg’s idea
contributed?
a) The Great Schism
b) The Scientific Revolution
c) The Renaissance
d) The Age of Enlightenment
46­ Which of the following is best supported by evidence from the text?
a) Gutenberg’s idea was a tremendous success that made him incredibly
wealthy.
b) Gutenberg’s idea didn’t catch on in his lifetime, but grew very popular
after his death.
c) Gutenberg’s idea did not make him rich but it spread very quickly.
d) Gutenberg’s idea did not catch on right away but made him incredibly
rich over time.
47­ Which best explains why most people were illiterate during Gutenberg’s
time?

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a) Books were rare and very expensive.
b) The public school system had not yet been created.
c) Writing had not yet been invented.
d) Emperor Charlemagne made reading and writing illegal for common
people.
48­ Which best expresses the author’s purpose in writing this text?
a) To describe what life was like during the Middle Ages.
b) To persuade people to read and write more.
c) To chart the spread of printing technologies across Europe.
d) To provide biographical information about Johannes Gutenberg.
49­ Which best explains why so few of Gutenberg’s bibles were sold to private
individuals?
a) Gutenberg wanted to use his talents to help churches and universities.
b) Gutenberg’s Bible was pretty expensive and most people couldn’t read.
c) Most Europeans were not religious and did not care about the bible.
d) Gutenberg’s investors forbade him from selling the bibles to private
individuals.
50­ Which of the following titles best expresses the main idea of this text?
a) Investing Wisely: Turning Your Good Ideas into Money.
b) How to Make Books Using the Gutenberg Method.
c) The City of Mainz: Life in Medieval Germany.
d) Gutenberg: A Man Who Changed the World.

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