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SPONGE IRON PRODUCTION USING TUNNEL KILN D E M O

BRIEF REPORT ON TEAM VISIT TO CV ASRI KERAMIK LAB IN BANDUNG

1st September 2016


CV Asri Keramik, Jl Sari Indah Kiaracondong, Bandung

PREPARED BY:

Zamri Mahfudz
PREFACE

This report basically explains the general findings, demo result and conclusion of recent site visit by our team to CV. Asri Keramik
workshop facility in Bandung. Our company is exploring the potential to work together with CV. Asri Keramik in building and operating
Tunnel Kiln to process iron ore into sponge iron or any other related business prospects.

Our team arrived in Bandung on Wednesday, 31st August 2016 at 6pm. The first trial demo was held on the following day at CV Asri
Keramik workshop. We were explained thoroughly by Bapak Arsam Sunaryanto, who has many years of experience in ceramic
manufacturing industry, producing ceramic components as well as processing various minerals using Tunnel Kiln method. CV Asri
Keramik specializes in supplying materials for ceramic manufacturing, refractory bricks, refractory insulation for furnace use and
processing mineral items to produce by products.

The company promotes and emphasizes on using Tunnel Kiln as the most energy-efficient way to dry, heat up, harden or even extract
metal out of ores.

The concept of tunnel kiln, demo process, result and conclusion will be covered in this report.
GENERAL FINDINGS

General Facts

1. CV Asri Keramik has been in the industry for many years with first involvement in ceramic and related components manufacturing.
The owner, Pak Arsam Sunaryanto has small workshop facility nearby his house which he used to conduct process experiments and
trials on various ores and raw materials.
2. With extensive knowledge and experience on chemical process, heating and firing requirement and operational of a tunnel kiln, he
had conducted process trial on various minerals and raw materials. He claimed success on following process experiments;
 petroleum cokes – cokes
 iron sand – sponge iron
 iron ore – sponge iron
 nickel ore – sponge iron nickel content
 and many more

Pak Arsam has also strong credentials and reputation in mineral processing industry locally. He had appeared in many forums as a
speaker to present on tunnel kiln technology for minerals processing. In many cases, smelter owners and metallurgists from both
government and private sectors came to meet him to study on his tunnel kiln method, including PT Meratus Jaya Steel, PT Delta Prima
Steel, BPPT, James Riady and many others.
So far, there is only 1 company adopted tunnel kiln method to process iron sand. There was a few last time (producing cokes from
petroleum cokes). To date, CV. Asri Keramik has not tied up with any other party in developing and marketing said tunnel kiln method.
The company also focuses on selling used tunnel kilns to potential buyers.
TUNNEL KILN CONCEPT

1. Tunnel Kiln is also called continuous kiln, is a long structure in which only the central portion is directly heated. From the cool entrance,
ware is slowly transported through the kiln, and its temperature is increased steadily as it approaches the central, hottest part of the
kiln. From there, it continues through the kiln, and the surrounding temperature is reduced until it exits the kiln nearly at room
temperature.
2. A continuous kiln is energy-efficient, because heat given off during cooling is recycled to pre-heat the incoming ware. Tunnel Kiln offers
the potential for better temperature uniformity and product quality
3. Tunnel Kiln is not new technology. the earliest known kiln dates to around 6000 BC
4. Uses includes:
 Ceramics making
 Brickworks production
 Tableware manufacturing
 Ore reduction process

5. Tunnel Kiln is not considered in smelter category as it does extract metal out of raw ores. The process involves firing briquetted ores +
coal at certain temperature which is then sustained for a period of time for reduction process to take place before it was cooled down
to room temperature.
6. In Tunnel Kiln route, Iron ore briquettes are placed in SiC / Alumina Crucible and is reduced to produce DRI (Direct Reduced Iron). This
Product is a replacement of Pig Iron in iron and can be directly used for steel production in EAF and Induction Furnaces.
TUNNEL KILN DIAGRAM
SPONGE IRON PRODUCTION DEMO

A mini shaft kiln was used for the demo to illustrate the firing zone of a tunnel kiln. The process started from crushing iron ore lumps
into fine grain and the magnetite content was conventionally extracted out using a magnet.
The magnetite content was then mixed with crushed coal, bonded together and compacted using manual briquette machine.
These briquette ore were then arranged in alumina crucible box and stacked up in the small shaft kiln. The kiln was fired using gas burner
to reach 1200 degree Celsius and then maintained for an approximately 6 hours before it was cooled down.
DEMO RESULT SUMMARY

The main objective of the Demo is to ascertain effective temperature and holding period for direct reduction to take place in producing
sponge iron. Temperature control and process duration are the most crucial parts in operating tunnel kiln.
Unlike the rest of the attempts, during 1st trial, the crushed ore does not go through magnetite separation process. There were 2 types
of kilns that were used in said demo event, small quantity of briquette was fired in a mini shaft kiln while small shuttle kiln was used for
larger amount of briquette.
There were 5 demo trials that has been conducted and the result is summarized as follow;

TRIAL 1 (raw) TRIAL 2 (magnetite) TRIAL 3 (magnetite) TRIAL 4 (magnetite) TRIAL 5 (hematite)
IRON ORE 4 Kg 4 Kg 27 Kg 42 Kg 2.5 Kg
SPONGE IRON 0.1 Kg 0.9 Kg 14.7 Kg 26.5 Kg 1.4 Kg
% 2.5 22.5 54.4 63 56
TEMPERATURE 1250°C 1200°C 1150°C 1100°C 1100°C
HOLDING TIME 3 Hours 3 Hours 3 Hours 3 Hours 3 Hours

Trial 5 demonstrated the use of “Hematite Ore” in the kiln (crushed ore that does not stick onto the magnet).
Below is the physical analysis on the Sponge Iron output:

 hardened, compact, black color


 produced lot of sparks continuously when grinded
 conduct electricity current
 bulk density 3.9
DEMO RESULT SUMMARY…

PT Pindad has conducted spectrometer test on the sponge iron output and the test result is as per following;
THE PROPOSAL

A brief proposal from CV. Asri Keramik is attached in this report for our reference.
Basically, the proposal is to put up tunnel kiln for sponge iron making at daily capacity of 24 MT per day (input). Said tunnel kiln will
include all necessary equipment such as thermocouple indicator, hydraulic pusher, turbo blower, transfer car etc.
The system will also include processing machine for the preparation such as:

 jaw crusher
 conveyor belt
 disc pulverizer
 hammer mill
 magnetic separator
 hydraulic press
 bucket elevator
 lab facility equipment
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

1. The demo on Sponge Iron production using tunnel kiln was successfully conducted. Said exercise used mini shaft kiln and small
shuttle kiln to replicate the firing zone of a tunnel kiln. Sponge iron was produced as expected.

2. The actual quality of the output is yet to be confirmed as the spectrometer test is believed to have been done on pig iron that was
resulted from “overcooked sponge iron” and not the sponge iron. On the other hand, CV. Asri Keramik confirmed that they had done
same demo activity many times before and the output has high Fe content.

3. Apart from the demo, Pak Arsam had shared substantial information with us on tunnel kiln process, it’s various uses and the pros
and cons in comparison with other technology/method. CV. Asri Keramik heavily promoted the use of Tunnel Kiln to produce sponge
iron on following basis:

a) Tunnel Kiln is the most effective method for direct reduction process as the firing temperature is controlled and maintained thus
energy loss is kept to a minimum.
b) It is costly to produce pig iron as it is regarded as double process. Why produce pig iron when sponge iron is enough for steel
making production.
c) There is no slag in sponge iron making in tunnel kiln.
d) uniform product quality
e) extremely low on environmental pollution
f) The use of coal instead of coke, which is easily available and bitumen coal is enough for the process.
g) Low investment and operational cost if compared to other system thus making it affordable for small medium scale mine.
h) Smelter license is not required for tunnel kiln operation as it falls under processing category not smelting.
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION…

4. Besides iron ore, CV. Asri Keramik has successfully processed many other minerals using this method, including petroleum coke
(green coke), iron sand, nickel ore, bauxite, manganese etc. A few companies had already adopted this tunnel kiln system in
processing iron sand and petroleum coke. These will be a good case study for our company in moving forward.

5. CV. Asri Keramik’s tunnel kiln process method/flow is believed to be the reason why it cannot be adopted to achieve huge daily
output capacity as compared to other tunnel kiln process method as it requires quite long preparation process.

6. Tunnel Kiln history dates back to 1807 when Hoganas first used this process to produce iron powder at 90 percent purity. This
technology is proven and is regarded as the most effective to produce DRI. In moving ahead to prepare and plan for PT KPM
operational, it is recommended that we explore further the opportunity to cooperate with CV. Asri Keramik in sponge iron
production.
EVENT PHOTOS

IRON ORE COAL POWDER BRIQUETTE ORE


MINI SHAFT KILN

BRIQUETTE IN MINI SHAFT KILN

FIRING START
FIRING IN PROGRESS FIRING CONTINUES TO REACH 1200 °C
CUTTING (SPARK TEST)

OVERCOOKED RESULT PIG IRON


PIG IRON SMALL SHUTTLE KILN

BRIQUETTE IN ALUMINA CRUCIBLE FIRING START


FIRING IN PROGRESS

SPONGE IRON RESULT SPONGE IRON RESULT


SPONGE IRON IN ALUMINA CRUCIBLE HEATING MICROSCOPE

SPONGE IRON CUTTING


DEMO RESULT REPORT BY CV ASRI KERAMIK
THE PROPOSAL