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Undergraduate Teaching:

past and present

Dr Patrick Barrie

Chemical Engineering’s 60th Anniversary

16 July 2008
Number of undergraduates
Number of undergraduates
Number of undergraduates
Students enter Department after two
years of either Natural Sciences or
Mechanical Sciences

Year 3:
Qualifying Examination for Chemical Engineering
Year 4:
the Chemical Engineering Tripos
1950-1 course:
Year 3 (“qualifying examination”)
 Applied Physical Chemistry
• Chemical Thermodynamics (16, Denbigh)
• Reaction and Phase Equilibrium (28, Denbigh)
• Kinetic Theory of Gases (8, Fox)
• Reaction Kinetics (4, Danckwerts)
 Chemical Engineering Principles
• Material and Thermal Balances (20, Danckwerts)
• Fluid Mechanics (16, Kay)
• Unit Operations (20, Sellers)
• Applied Thermodynamics (16, Kay)
 Mathematics (32, Fox)
 External courses:
• Ex-Natural Sciences: Electricity, Materials, Structures, Laboratory
• Ex-Mechanical Sciences: General Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry,
Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Practical Organic Chemistry
1950-1 course:
Year 4 (“Chem Eng Tripos”)
 Applied Physical Chemistry
• Thermodynamic Properties (20, Fox)
• Reaction Kinetics (16, Danckwerts)
• Electrochemistry (16, Danckwerts)
• Surface Chemistry (8, Denbigh)
• Colloidal Phenomena (16, Denbigh)
 Chemical Engineering Principles
• Mass and Heat Transfer (32, Kay)
• Unit Operations (24, Sellers)
• Continuous Reaction Systems (8, Denbigh)
• Automatic Control (8, Kay/Sellers)
• Radiant Heat Transfer (8, Fox)
 Chemical Processes (48, Sellers/Denbigh)
 Mathematical Methods (24, Fox)
 Choice of external courses: “Statistical Methods” or “Corrosion of Metals”
 Assessed using SEVEN three hour examinations
 Research Project
Number of undergraduates

1959: move to Pembroke Street

Number of undergraduates
Fox Danckwerts 1960: approval given for
purchase of a digital computer

Vast bulk of students came via

the Natural Sciences route

1966: Natural Sciences Tripos reformed:

Year 2 course on “Fluid Mechanics and
Transfer Processes”
Number of undergraduates
Fox Danckwerts

1967: Year 3 became known as

“Part I Chemical Engineering Tripos”
1968: Year 4 became known as
“Part II Chemical Engineering Tripos

1969: Engineering Tripos starts

1968-9 course:
Year 3 (Part I Chemical Engineering)
 Chemical Thermodynamics (24, Hutchison)
 Fluid Mechanics (32, Harrison/Nedderman/Bridgwater)
 Catalysis and Kinetics (24, Kenney/Blackadder)
 Unit Operations (32, Danckwerts/Bridgwater)
 Chemical Reactors (8, Turner)
 Process Control (8, Armstrong)
 Mathematics (24, Hutchison/Turner)
 Statistics (8, Harrison)
 Design (8, Bridgwater)
 External courses:
• Ex-Natural Sciences: Structures, Laboratory
• Ex-Mechanical Sciences: Chemistry, Laboratory
 Design Project
1968-9 course:
Year 4 (Part II Chemical Engineering)
 Fluid Mechanics (40, Nedderman/Armstrong)
 Separation Processes (16, Danckwerts/Blackadder)
 Multicomponent Separations (16, Kenney)
 Thermodynamic Properties (8, Hutchison)
 Radiant Heat Transfer (8, Turner)
 Polymers & Colloids (32, Blackadder)
 Electrochemistry (16, Turner)
 Tubular Reactors (16, Kenney)
 Mathematics (28, Pearson)
 Statistics (8, Harrison)
 Industrial Lectures
 Research Project
Number of undergraduates
Fox Danckwerts

1974: department permitted use

of electronic calculators in exams
Number of undergraduates
Year 4 students awarded 1990: Year 4 students now
“Certificate in Fox
Advanced Danckwerts
Study awarded M.Eng. degree.
in Chemical Engineering” University agreed previous
students could claim one too.
1980: Biotechnology started
being taught in Year 4

1986: Structures now taught “in-

house” for ex-Natural Scientists
Number of undergraduates
1994: Chemistry now taught “in-house”
for ex-Engineering
Fox students
Danckwerts Davidson B’water

1995-6: General Engineering

becomes a 4-year M.Eng. course

1997: Physics starts a 4th year

course for the M.Sci. degree.
Other sciences follow.

1997: Chemical Engineering Tripos

starts in 2nd Year at University, after
just one year of Natural Sciences or
Year 2: Part I
Year 3: Part IIA
Year 4: Part IIB
Number of undergraduates
2001: Undergraduate exchange scheme
with MIT starts
Fox (for 2nd year students) Davidson
Danckwerts B’water Chase

2002: 2nd year Natural Sciences

option of Fluid Mechanics ended

2004/5: UCAS codes set up for

Chemical Engineering via Natural Sciences
Chemical Engineering via Engineering
Number of undergraduates

2008: MergerFox
with Institute of Biotechnology
Danckwerts Davidson B’water Chase Gladden
Number of undergraduates
Current course structure
 Year 1:
• Either Natural Sciences or Engineering. Lectures and labwork.
 Year 2:
• First part of core Chemical Engineering. Lectures, labwork and
 Year 3:
• Rest of core Chemical Engineering. Lectures and exercises.
• Full time Design Project for 5 weeks in Easter term
 Year 4:
• Advanced Chemical Engineering Options
• Broadening Material Options
• Research Project
 Written examinations still the major assessment method
• Some exam papers for you to inspect (’50,’60,’70,’81,’90,’00,’08)
Information on undergraduates
 Student background:
• 65% come via Natural Sciences
• 35% come via Engineering
• will be 50/50 in next year’s intake
 37% of our undergraduates are female
 Nationalities:
• 65% are UK
• 5% are EU
• 30% are overseas
Class list distribution

2nd (undiv)
Class list distribution
1st 10.3%

2.1 24.1%

2nd (undiv) 4.0%

2.2 35.5%

3rd 22.1%

Other 4.0

Number 4300
Class list distribution
University University
1960 2007
1st 10.3% 22.2%

2.1 24.1% 50.2%

2nd (undiv) 4.0% 7.0%

2.2 35.5% 16.8%

3rd 22.1% 2.1%

Other 4.0 1.0%

Number 4300 9950

Class list distribution
University University Chem Eng
1960 2007 2008
1st 10.3% 22.2% 24.8%

2.1 24.1% 50.2% 46.3%

2nd (undiv) 4.0% 7.0% -

2.2 35.5% 16.8% 20.8%

3rd 22.1% 2.1% 6.0%

Other 4.0 1.0% 2.0%

Number 4300 9950 152

Changes in discipline
 New technologies:
• Polymers
• Membranes
• Biotechnology
 New understanding of fundamentals:
• Thermodynamics
 New aspects are deemed important:
• Product Design
 Computers:
• Routine use of numerical methods to solve equations
• Process simulators
• Thermodynamic and other databases readily available
Changes in teaching
 Lectures continue, now often accompanied by detailed
 Less laboratory work
 More project work
 Examples classes discontinued
 Plenty of College supervisions
• A large proportion of which are given by postdocs and PhD
 Teaching almost entirely in-house (other than a few 4th year
 Internet
• Web resources for learning
• Weblabs
Industrial involvement in teaching
 Industrial lectures
 Industrial backing of research projects
 Teaching Consortium
• Scheme been running for 10 years
• About 20 companies have been involved
• Current supporters:
 Set up as independent of
• Faculty of Engineering
• Faculty of Physics & Chemistry
 Still true for “new” department
• Can modify course rapidly as and when we want
 We train our students:
• to do Engineering calculations
• to think like Scientists
 The emphasis on the fundamental scientific
principles behind processes continues:
• We don’t teach our students how to follow recipes –
• We teach our students how to write them
Fundamentals of Chemistry

Chem 1102 Aspects of Chemistry

Fall 2008
• The Central Science
– The study of matter
– Explains every aspect of daily life
– Is essential to understand nearly all scientific,
medical and pharmaceutical disciplines, and
• A Qualitative Science
– Chemistry is based in experimental
• A Quantitative Science
– We want to know how many, how much, how
good is the measurement
• An Experimental Science
• A Method of Inquiry
– Based on the Scientific Method
– An intellectual pursuit
– To probe the world around us
Scientific Method
• Identify a question
• Propose a hypothesis
• Construct and carry out experiment to test
• Observe and record results
• Refine hypothesis
• Test refined hypothesis with more expts (repeat
as needed)
• Develop theory that is consistent with
observations and accepted laws of nature and
predicts future exptal outcomes
Chemistry in Daily Life
• Health care including diagnostics,
treatment, medicine, prevention (p. 1, 17,
18, 78, 102, 113, 118, 128, 166, 172, 178, 208,
• Food (p. 2, 5, 7, 11, 13, 21, 29, 36, 52, 66, 83,
84, 100, 116, 118, 175, 197, 199, 205
• Environment (p. 46, 50, 105, 107, 122, 145,
180, 195)
• Materials around the house (all the rest)
• Chemistry is the study of matter
– Matter has mass and volume
– Matter has physical properties
– Matter has chemical properties
– There are 3 states of matter
• And how matter changes
– Life of the cell
– Production and decay of material
– Combustion of fuels
Figure 1.16
of Matter
Atomic Theory of Matter (1808)
• John Dalton (1766-1844)
• Elements (matter) are composed of atoms
• The atoms of a given element are
identical. Each element is characterized
by the mass of its atoms.
• Compounds are formed when atoms of
different elements combine with each
Atomic Theory of Matter (2)
• A given compound is a chemical
combination of the same atoms in the
same relative numbers.
• A chemical reaction is the rearrangement
of atoms leading to new compounds.
Atoms are neither destroyed nor created in
a chemical reaction (Conservation of
A Deeper Look into the Atom
Particle Mass (kg) Charg Discoverer
Electron, e- 9.11E-31 -1 J.J. Thomson
Proton, p+ 1.67E-27 +1 E. Rutherford
Neutron, n0 1.67E-27 0 Chadwick
Figure 2.13 (Zumdahl) (a) Expected Results
of the Metal Foil Experiment if Thomson's
Model Were Correct (b) Actual Results
More on the Atom
• An atom is uniquely defined by #p+ = Z = atomic
number (see Periodic Table)
• In a neutral atom, #p+ = #e-; note that #n is not
equal to #p+ nor #e-.
• In an atomic ion, #p+ ≠ #e- resulting in a net
nonzero charge on the species
– Neutral atoms can lose electrons producing a positive
ion or cation because #p+ > #e-
– Or gain electrons  - ion or anion because #p+ < #e-
• Atoms which have the same Z (same # p+)
but a different A (different # n0)
• Most elements have isotopes that occur in
nature in precise proportions (fractional
abundances, %).
• A few elements have no naturally
occurring isotopes.
Figure 2.21 The Periodic Table
Periodic Table
• An arrangement of elements according to
increasing atomic number (Z) which shows
the periodic or regularly repeating nature of
elemental properties.
– Rows = periods
– Columns = groups or families
– Metals, Nonmetals, Semimetals
– Main group (A), Transition Metals, Lanthanides
and Actinides
On to Molecules (n x 10 ) 6

• Molecules form when atoms are

connected by chemical bonds in which
electrons act as the “glue” between atoms.
• A compound has more than one type of
atom bonded together.
Chemical Bond Types
• IONIC: metal + nonmetal
– Electrons are transferred from metal to
nonmetal thus creating a cation (+) and anion
(-) which attract each other
• COVALENT: nonmetal + nonmetal
– Electrons are shared by both atoms
• METALLIC: metal + metal
Chemical Formula
• Shorthand symbol for cmps
• Qualitative description of the constituent
elements in a molecule or ion.
– C12H22O11 contains C, H and O
• Quantitative description of the relative
numbers (subscripts) of atoms of each
– One molecule of sucrose has 12-C, 22-H and
Chemical Reaction
• A chemical rxn is a rearrangement of
atoms in which reactant compounds are
converted into product compounds.
• During a chem rxn, chemical bonds in the
reactants are broken and chemical bonds
in the products are created.
• A rxn is accompanied by a change in
energy (i.e. heat can be absorbed or given
off), color, state of matter, etc.
Chemical Equation
• Shorthand symbolic notation for a chemical
– CH4(g) + O2 (g)  H2O(ℓ) + CO2(g)
– Note that this reaction is NOT BALANCED
• Qualitative aspect
– identity of reactants [R] and products [P]; use study of
nomenclature to write equations
– Identify the state of matter for each [R] and [P]
– identify reaction type
Chemical Equation (2)
• Quantitative aspect
– how much reactant is consumed and how
much product is formed
– coefficients must be consistent with the Law
of Conservation of Mass; atoms are neither
created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
– i.e. chemical equation must be balanced
• CH4(g) + 2O2 (g)  2H2O(ℓ) + CO2(g)
Note that this reaction is BALANCED
ChE 201
Chemical Engineering Calculations I
Fall 2005/2006

Course Description:
System of units and dimensions.
Stoichiometry. Ideal and non-ideal gases,
critical properties and compressibility
charts.Vapor-Liquid equilibria. Material
balance calculations for steady and
unsteady state processes with and
without chemical reaction.
My name is
Dr. Faisal Iskanderani

Instructor: Dr. Faisal Iskanderani

Tutorial assistance: Engr Sayed Hammoda
Office: Main Library, Dean’s Office
Office Hours: Sat 9:00-10.30
Mon 12:00-1:30
ChE 201
Chemical Engineering Calculations I
Fall 2005/2006
Course Description:.
Recycle, by-pass and purge calculations.
Process flow sheeting with computer
Text Book: David Himmelblau, Basic
Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, Prentice Hall PTR, 7th
Edition 2003.
Reference: Fedler, Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, John
Wiley, 1998

Course Goals: The overall goal of this

course is to introduce students to the
fundamentals of chemical engineering,
material balance
Specific instructional goals
•Demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge
of mathematics and freshman chemistry to
solve material balance problems.
Reference: Fedler, Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, John
Wiley, 1998

Specific instructional goals

• Function on teams to solve problems.

• Use computers to solve material
balance problems.
•Introduction (3 weeks)
•Units & Dimensions
•Dimensional consistency
•The mole unit
•Density, Specific gravity, sp. Volume,
mole fraction, mass fraction, Volume
•Analyses of mixtures : mole %, mass
%, volume %,
•Concentrations of solutions,
mass/unit volume, PPM, molar, molal ,
•How do we take a basis?
•Temperature, and Pressure
•Problem Solving Techniques (1.5 week)
•Material Balance (6 weeks)
•General material balance equation
•How to analyse MB Problems
•MB for non- reaction problems
•Reaction Problems
•Multiple subsystems
•Recycle, Bypass and Purge
•Material Balance (MB) for Gases,
Vapors, and Solids (4.5 weeks)
•Ideal gas law for a single gas
•Ideal gas law for gas mixtures
•Material Balance for gases
•Real gas Relationships
•Vapor pressure and liquids
Take 5 minutes and write down “ What
do you know about Chemical
Engineering, what processes does
chemical engineering involve?
As a team:
Take 5 minutes and write down “ What
do you know about Chemical
Engineering, what processes does
chemical engineering involve?
Processes involved in ChE
 mixing
 separation
- distillation absorption freezing
extraction (heat mass and momentum transfer)
 chemical reactions
What is the difference between a
chemical engineer and a chemist?

- works in test tubes
-small quantities
-batch constant-T experiments
-small containers
-a catalyst is added and reactions
proceed with time
A CHEMICAL Engineer:
- works with large quantities
- large equipment
- continuous mode
- feed streams and product streams
are continuously fed and withdrawn
from the process
-steady state operations (all
parameters such as T, P, liquid livel,
flow rates, compositions, etc. are all
constant with time
CHEMICAL Engineer:

-scaling up
- works closely with mechanical,
electrical, civil, and metallurgical
engineers in order to design and
operate the physical equipment in a
plant ( such as: ? )
• What are the typical activities a
chemical engineer works with?

1. DEVELOPMENT : to commercialize
(scale up) a chemical process

Lab size process  pilot plant  plant

2.DESIGN : A team of engineers design the
commercial plant, based on experience and
data obtained from the Lab size process and
the pilot plant. The Chem E specifies:

Process flow rates and conditions

Equipment types and sizes
Materials of constructions
Process configuration
Control systems
Safety systems
3.CONSTRUCTION : Assembling of all
components into a complete plant

4.MANUFACTURING : running the plant

or operations and production. Things that
are important and relevant:
design modifications
reduce costs
improve product quality
reduce pollution

Homework due next Saturday
13/8/1426 (17/9/2005)
• Read Chapter 1
• Solve Problems 1, 5, 9, 14, 18, 23, 28, 33,
38, 43, 48, 52, 55
A History of Chemical

CHEE 2404
What is a Chemical Engineer?
a) An Engineer who manufactures
b) A Chemist who works in a factory
c) A glorified Plumber?

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 2

None of the above
• No universally accepted definition of ChE.
• However, aimed towards design of processes that
change materials from one form to another more
useful (and so more valuable) form, economically,
safely and in an environmentally acceptable way.
• Application of basic sciences (math, chemistry,
physics & biology) and engineering principles to
the development, design, operation & maintenance
of processes to convert raw materials to useful
products and improve the human environment.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 3
Chemical Engineering
• ChE involves specifying equipment, operating
conditions, instrumentation and process control
for all these changes.
Air Mathematics

Natural Gas


Energy Physics
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 4
What are the fields of Ch E?
The traditional fields of ChE are:
• petrochemicals, petroleum and natural gas
• plastics and polymers
• pulp and paper
• instrumentation and process control
• energy conversion and utilisation
• environmental control
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 5
What are the fields of Ch E?
• Biotechnology
• Biomedical and Biochemical
• food processing
• composite materials, corrosion and protective
• manufacture of microelectronic components
• Pharmaceuticals

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 6

What do Chemical Engineers do?
• Regarding Engineers: it is not what we do, but how we think about
the world, that makes us different. We use all that we know to
produce the best solution to a problem (problems that engineers face
usually have more than one solution).
• Engineers use techniques of Quantitative Engineering Analysis to
design/synthesize products (materials, devices), services, and
processes even though they have an imperfect understanding of
chemical, physical, biological, or human factors affecting them.
• Engineers operate under the constraint of producing a product or
service that is timely, competitive, reliable, within the financial
means of their company, and is consistent with its philosophy.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 7

What do Chemical Engineers do?

Thus, they are involved in a wide range of

activities such as:
• design, development and operation of process
• research and development of novel products and
• management of technical operations and sales

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 8

• Chemical engineer is either currently, or has
previously, occupied the CEO position for:

3M Dow Chemical
Du Pont Exxon
General Electric BASF
Union Carbide Gulf Oil
Texaco B.F. Goodrich

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 9

Where do Chemical Engineers
The majority of Chemical Engineers work in businesses known collectively as
the Chemical Process Industries (CPI)
– Chemicals,
– Oil and Gas (upstream and downstream)
– Pulp and Paper,
– Rubber and Plastics,
– Food and Beverage,
– Textile,
– Electronics/IT
– Metals, mineral processing
– Electronics and microelectronics
– Agricultural Chemicals Industries
– Cosmetics/ Pharmaceutical
– Biotechnology/Biomedical
– Environmental, technical, and business consulting

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 10

Where do Chemical Engineers
• Many Chemical Engineers also work in supplier, consulting and
governmental agencies related to the CPI by engaging in equipment
manufacture, plant design, consulting, analytical services and
standards development.
• Chemical Engineers hold lead positions in industrial firms and
governmental agencies concerned with environmental protection since
environmental problems are usually complex and require a thorough
knowledge of the Social Sciences, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and
Chemistry for their resolution.
• Chemical engineers have been referred to as “universal engineers.”

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 11

Where do Chemical Engineers
work? Initial placement of 2001/1999 graduates (USA)
Chemical 23.3 26.7
Fuels 15.7 12.6
Electronics 15.9 15.6
Food/Consumer Prods. 10.6 11.4
Materials 3.1 3.3
Biotech & Related Inds. 9.3 6.9
Pulp & paper 2.1 2.4
Engineering Services (Design & Construction) 5.6 4.8
Engineering Services (Research & Testing) 1.8 2.4
Engineering Services (Environmental Engng.) 2.4 2.6
Business Services 5.8 6.4
Other Industries 3.9 4.8
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 12
How much money do Chemical
Engineers make? Starting salaries (USA)
The National Association of Colleges and
Employers (NACE) reported that, between Sept
1999 - Jan 2000, the average starting salary offer
made to graduating chemical engineering students
in the USA was:
• $49,418 with a Bachelor's degree
• $56,100 with a Master's degree
• $68,491 with a Ph.D.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 13

What is an Industrial Chemist?
• Industrial Chemists are Applied Scientists.
• Typically, they undertake optimization of complex
processes, but unlike engineers, they examine
and change the chemistry of the process itself.
• Industrial Chemists are capable of fulfilling a
multiplicity of roles - as research scientists,
development chemists, technical representatives
and as plant/company managers.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 14

Early Industrial Chemistry
• As the Industrial Revolution (18th Century to the present)
steamed along certain basic chemicals quickly became
necessary to sustain growth.
• Sulfuric acid was first among these "industrial chemicals".
It was said that a nation's industrial might could be gauged
solely by the vigor of its sulfuric acid industry
• With this in mind, it comes as no surprise that English
industrialists spent a lot of time, money, and effort in
attempts to improve their processes for making sulfuric
acid. A slight savings in production led to large profits
because of the vast quantities of sulfuric acid consumed by

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 15

• The German chemical industry experienced a period of rapid growth during the
19th Century. It was focused on the production of fine chemicals or complicated
dyestuffs based on coal tar. These were usually made in batch reactors
(something all chemists are familiar with). Hence, their approach to running a
chemical plant was based on teaming research chemists and mechanical
• However, the English and American chemical industries produced only a few
simple but widely used chemicals such as sulfuric acid and alkali (both made
in continuous reactors, something chemists have little experience with). These
bulk chemicals were produced using straightforward chemistry, but required
complex engineering on a large scale. The chemical reactors were no longer
just big pots, instead they involved complex plumbing systems where
chemistry and engineering were inseparably tied together. Because of this,
the chemical and engineering aspects of production could not be easily divided;
as they were in Germany.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 16

• Economics drives industry and
technological developments.
• Sulfuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol) & "Fuming"
Sulfuric Acid (Oleum) (H2SO4)
• Required for the production of alkali salts
(used in fertilizers) and dyestuffs

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 17

Lead Chamber Process
• 1749 John Roebuck developed the process to make
relatively concentrated (30-70%) sulfuric acid in lead lined
chambers rather than the more expensive glass vessels.
• air, water, sulfur dioxide, a nitrate (potassium, sodium, or
calcium nitrate, and a large lead container.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 18

• The nitrate was the most expensive ingredient because
during the final stage of the process, it was lost to the
atmosphere (in the form of nitric oxide).
• Additional nitrate (sodium nitrate) was imported from
Chile - costly!
• In 1859, John Glover helped solve this problem with a
mass transfer tower to recover some of this lost nitrate.
Acid trickled down against upward flowing burner gases
which absorbed some of the previously lost nitric oxide.
When the gases were recycled back into the lead chamber
the nitric oxide could be re-used.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 19
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 20
• Notice how sulfuric acid production closely mirrors historical events effecting the American economy.
• Sulfuric acid production dropped after the American involvement in World War I (1917-1919) and open world trade
• The stock market crash of 1929 further stagnated growth which was restored at the outbreak of
• World War II (1938). As the U.S. entered the war (1941) economy was rapidly brought up to full production
• The post war period (1940-1965) saw the greatest economic growth in America's history, and this was reflected in ever
increasing sulfuric acid production.
• Massive inflation during the late sixties and the energy crisis and economic recession of the early seventies also
reveal themselves in the sulfuric acid curve

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 21

Figure 1-1, Source: "US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics from Colonial Times to 1970."
Making soap – a luxury
• It has been suggested that some form of soap, made by boiling fat with
ashes, was being made in Babylon as early as 2800BC, but probably
used only for washing garments.

• Pliny the Elder (7BC–53AD) mentions that soap was being produced
from tallow and beech ashes by the Phoenicians in 600BC.
• Oils or fats are boiled with alkali in a reaction which produces soap
and glycerin
• Saponification is hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions,
forming an alcohol and salt
• Soap acts to reduce surface tension (surfactant) of water to make it
“wetter” and emulsifiying dirt (holding it in suspension)

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 22

Na2CO3 was used

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 23

• 1700’s the demand for soap increased due to washing of clothes,
requiring Na2CO3
• The Alkali compounds, Soda ash (Na 2CO3) and potash (K2CO3),
were used in making glass, soap, and textiles and were therefore in
great demand.
• This alkali was imported to France from Spanish and Irish peasants
who burned seaweed and New England settlers who burned brush,
both to recover the ash
• At the end of the 1700's, English trees became scarce and the only
native source of soda ash in the British Isles was kelp (seaweed).
• Alkali imported from America in the form of wood ashes (potash),
Spain in the form of barilla (a plant containing 25% alkali), or from
soda mined in Egypt, were all very expensive due to high shipping

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 24

King Louis XVI of France offered an award (equivalent
to half a million dollars) to anyone who could turn
NaCl (common table salt) into Na2CO3 because French
access to these raw materials was threatened.

• Nicolas Leblanc was a poor young man working in a

chemistry research lab established by the wealthiest man in
France, the Duke of Orleans.
• It took Leblanc 5 years to stumble upon the idea of reacting
NaCl with sulfuric acid to form sodium sulfate, and then
converting to sodium carbonate with limestone.
• In 1789 he went to collect his prize…unfortunately this was
during the time of the French Revolution.
• A factory was built, but the Duke was executed and the
factory seized.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 25
Alkali and the Le Blanc Process
• Dependence on imported soda ended with the Le Blanc Process
which converted common salt into soda ash using sulfuric acid,
limestone and coal as feedstock (raw materials) and produced
hydrochloric acid as a by-product.

• 2 NaCl (salt) + H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) => Na2SO4 (saltcake,

intermediate) + 2 HCl (hydrochloric acid gas, a horrible waste
• Na2SO4 (saltcake) + Ca2CO3 (calcium carbonate, limestone) + 4 C(s)
(coal) => Na2CO3 (soda ash extracted from black ash) + CaS (dirty
calcium sulfide waste) + 4 CO (carbon monoxide)

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 26

Alkali and the Le Blanc Process
• In many ways, this process began the modern chemical industry.
• From its adoption in 1810 it was continually improved over the next
80 years through elaborate engineering efforts mainly directed at
recovering or reducing the terrible by-products of the process, namely:
hydrochloric acid, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, manganese, and chlorine
• Indeed because of these polluting chemicals many manufacturing sites
were surrounded by a ring of dead and dying grass and trees.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 27

Alkali and the Le Blanc Process
A petition against the Le Blanc Process in 1839 complained that:
"the gas from these manufactories is of such a deleterious nature as to
blight everything within its influence, and is alike baneful to health and
property. The herbage of the fields in their vicinity is scorched, the
gardens neither yield fruit nor vegetables; many flourishing trees have
lately become rotten naked sticks. Cattle and poultry droop and pine
away. It tarnishes the furniture in our houses, and when we are
exposed to it, which is of frequent occurrence, we are afflicted with
coughs and pains in the head...all of which we attribute to the Alkali

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 28

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 29
Soda Ash and the Solvay Process
• In 1873 a new process - the Solvay Process - replaced Le Blanc's
method for producing Alkali.
• The process was perfected in 1863 by a Belgian chemist, Ernest
Solvay. The chemistry was based upon an old discovery by A. J.
Fresnel who in 1811 had shown that Sodium Bicarbonate could be
precipitated from a salt solution containing ammonium bicarbonate.
• This chemistry was far simpler than that devised by Le Blanc,
however to be used on an industrial scale many engineering obstacles
had to be overcome. Sixty years of attempted scale-up had failed until
Solvay finally succeeded. Solvay's contribution was therefore one
of chemical engineering.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 30

Soda Ash and the Solvay Process
• The heart of his design was an 80 foot tall high-efficiency
carbonating tower in which ammoniated brine trickled down and
carbon dioxide flowed up. Plates and bubble caps created a large
surface area (contacting area) over which the two chemicals could
react forming sodium bicarbonate.
• Solvay's engineering resulted in a continuously operating process
free of hazardous by-products and with an easily purified final
• By 1880 it was evident that it would rapidly replace the traditional Le
Blanc Process.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 31

The dawn of Chemical Engineering
• English industrialists spent a lot of time, money, and effort in
attempts to improve their processes for making bulk chemicals
because a slight savings in production led to large profits because of
the vast quantities of sulfuric acid consumed by industry.
• The term "chemical engineer" had been floating around technical
circles throughout the 1880's, but there was no formal education for
such a person.
• The "chemical engineer" of these years was either a mechanical
engineer who had gained some knowledge of chemical process
equipment, a chemical plant foreman with a lifetime of experience but
little education, or an applied chemist with knowledge of large scale
industrial chemical reactions.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 32

The dawn of Chemical Engineering
• In 1887 George Davis, an Alkali Inspector from the "Midland" region
of England molded his knowledge into a series of 12 lectures on
chemical engineering, which he presented at the Manchester
Technical School. This chemical engineering course was organized
around individual chemical operations, later to be called “unit
operations”. Davis explored these operations empirically and
presented operating practices employed by the British chemical

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 33

A new profession “Chemical
• For all intents and purposes the chemical engineering profession began
in 1888 when Professor Lewis Norton of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT) initiated the first four year bachelor
program in chemical engineering entitled "Course X" (ten). Soon
other colleges, such as the University of Pennsylvania and Tulane
University followed MIT's lead in 1892 and 1894 respectively.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 34

First US Chemical Engineering
• 1888, Lewis M. Norton at MIT, as part of
Chemistry Department.
• In response to rapid rise of the industrial
chemical industries.
• Based on descriptive industrial chemistry,
of salt, potash, sulfuric acid, soap, coal.
• Graduates lacked concepts and tools to
solve new problems in the emerging
petroleum and organic chemical industries.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 35
First Canadian Chemical
Engineering education
• 1878 Toronto (Analytical and Applied Chemistry)
• 1902 Queen’s (Department of Chemical Engineering)
• 1904 Toronto (Department of ChE and Applied Chemistry)
• 1912 Ecole Polytechnique (from “Diploma d’ingenieur-chimiste”
granted through Laval)
• 1942 Ecole Polytechnique (Industrial Chemistry)
• 1958 Ecole Polytechnique (Department of chemical Engineering)

• 1914 McGill
• 1915 UBC
• 1926 Alberta
• 1934 Saskatchewan
• 1940 Laval
• (Nova Scotia Technical College 1947)

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 36

A new profession “Chemical
• From its beginning chemical engineering was tailored to fulfill the
needs of the chemical industry which, in the USA, was mostly based
on petroleum derived feedstocks. Competition between manufacturers
was brutal, and all strove to be the "low cost producer." However, to
stay ahead of the pack chemical plants had to be optimized. This
necessitated things such as; continuously operating reactors (as
opposed to batch operation), recycling and recovery of unreacted
reactants, and cost effective purification of products. These advances
in-turn required plumbing systems (for which traditional chemists
where unprepared) and detailed physical chemistry knowledge
(unbeknownst to mechanical engineers). The new chemical engineers
were capable of designing and operating the increasingly complex
chemical operations which were rapidly emerging.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 37

Unit operations
• In transforming matter from inexpensive raw materials to highly
desired products, chemical engineers became very familiar with the
physical and chemical operations necessary in this metamorphosis.
• Examples of this include:
– filtration
– drying
– distillation
– crystallization
– grinding
– sedimentation Physical
– combustion
Chemical operations
– catalysis
– heat exchange
– coating, and so on.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 38

Unit Operations
• These "unit operations" repeatedly found their way into
industrial practice, and became a convenient manner of
organizing chemical engineering knowledge.
• Additionally, the knowledge gained concerning a "unit
operation" governing one set of materials can easily be
applied to others
• driving a car is driving a car no matter what the make .
• So, whether one is distilling alcohol for hard liquor or
petroleum for gasoline, the underlying principles are the

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 39

Unit operations
• The "unit operations" concept had been latent in the chemical
engineering profession ever since George Davis had organized his
original 12 lectures around the topic.
• But, it was Arthur Little who first recognized the potential of using
“Unit Operations" to separate chemical engineering from other
• While mechanical engineers focused on machinery, and industrial
chemists concerned themselves with products, and applied chemists
studied individual reactions, no one, before chemical engineers, had
concentrated upon the underlying processes common to all chemical
products, reactions, and machinery. The chemical engineer,
utilizing the conceptual tool that was unit operations, could now make
claim to industrial territory by showing his or her uniqueness and
worth to the American chemical manufacturer.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 40

Paradigm: a pattern or model
Paradigm is a constellation that defines a
profession and an intellectual discipline

– Firm theoretical foundations, triumphant applications to

solve important problems
– Universities agree on core subjects taught to all
students, standard textbooks and handbooks,
accreditation of degrees
– Professional societies and journals
– Organize research directions - what is a good research
problem, and what are legitimate methods of solution?

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 41

Chemical engineering paradigms

Pre-paradigm - engineers with no formal

1. The first paradigm - Unit Operations, 1923
2. The second paradigm - Transport Phenomena, 1960
3. The third paradigm - ?

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 42

• Fire (300,000 BC) as the first chemical technology
– Led to pyro-technologies: cooking, pottery, metallurgy,
glass, reaction engineering

• Chemical technology as empirical art, with no

reliable scientific foundation or formally educated
• Ecole des Ponts et Chausee, 1736, first modern
engineering school.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 43
The first paradigm
• Arthur D. Little, industrialist and chair of
visiting committee of chemical engineering
at MIT, wrote report in 1908
“Unit Operations should be the foundation of
chemical engineering”

• First textbook Walker-Lewis-McAdams

“Principles of Chemical Engineering” 1923
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 44
The first paradigm: early success
• Became
– core of chemical engineering curriculum, unit
operations, stoichiometry, thermodynamics
– principle to organize useful knowledge
– inspiration for research to fill in the gaps in
• Effective in problem solving
– graduates have a toolbox to solve processing
problems in oil distillation, petrochemical, new
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 45
The first paradigm: later
• World War II creation of new technologies by
scientists without engineering education: atomic
bomb, radar.
• Engineering students needed to master new
concepts and tools in chemistry and physics.
• Unit Operations no longer created streams of
exciting new research problems that were
challenging to professors and students, and useful
in industry.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 46
The second paradigm
• First textbook “Transport Phenomena” by Bird-
Stewart-Lightfoot, 1960, based on kinetic theory
of gases

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 47

The second paradigm
• Textbook by Amundson
“Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering”,
• A new burst of creative
research activities.
• American chemical
industry dominated world,
DuPont and Exxon content
to recruit academically
educated graduates,
willing to teach them
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 48
The second paradigm: early
• The Engineering Science movement
became dominant in the US, and was taught
at all the leading universities.
• AIChE accreditation requires differential
equations, transport phenomena.
• Research funding agencies and journals turn
their backs on empirical and qualitative
research as “old fashioned”.
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 49
Chemical Engineering
• Production of Synthetic Ammonia and Fertilizers,
• Production of petrochemicals,
• Commercial-scale production of antibiotics (biotechnology/ pharmaceuticals),
• Establishment of the plastics industry,
• Establishment of the synthetic fiber industry,
• Establishment of the synthetic rubber industry,
• Electrolytic production of Aluminum,
• Energy production and the development of new sources of energy,
• Production of fissionable isotopes,
• Production of IT products (storage devices, microelectronics, ultraclean
• Artificial organs and biomedical devices,
• Food processing,
• Process Simulation tools.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 50

Undergraduate curriculum
• Designed to provide students with a broad background in the
underlying sciences of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics
• Detailed knowledge of engineering principles and practices, along
with a good appreciation of social and economic factors
• Laboratory involvement is an important component
– Develop team work skills,
– Development of problem-identification and problem-solving
• Stress the preparation of students for independent work and
development of interpersonal skills necessary for professional

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 51

Undergraduate curriculum
• Elective courses provide an opportunity to obtain additional training in
areas of emphasis:
– Environment
– Computers and Process Control
– Energy
– Biotechnology
– Petroleum
– Research & Development

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 52

• Basic Sciences
– Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry
• Engineering Sciences
– Thermodynamics (Heat, work, phase equilibrium, chemical
– Transport Phenomena (heat transfer, fluid mechanics, mass transfer)
– Numerical Analysis
• Engineering Design
– Computer-Aided Design
– Chemical Reaction Engineering
– Separation Processes
– Process Control
– Process Design

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 53

Co-operative education
• Co-operative education integrates on-campus studies with practical work experience
– Results in a degree solidly grounded in both theory and practice
– Acquiring skills that are complementary to academic training
– Facilitates getting a desirable job upon graduation (50% of jobs are not advertised)

• Co-op is a challenging and rewarding way to earn your degree and the necessary work
experience to gain an edge on the career market at graduation


Year 1 AT1 AT2 FREE
Year 2 AT3 AT4 FREE
Year 3 WT1 AT5 WT2
Year 4 AT6 WT3 WT4
Year 5 AT7 AT8

• Students also have the ability to do a 12 or 16 month internship in which all work terms
are done at once

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 54

Skills required
• Technical skills are vital.
– But all employees will have a high level of technical competence
(otherwise they aren’t employed for long).
• “Soft Skills” advance careers
– Leadership (self motivated),
– Ability to work in groups,
– Communication
With such a broad education, Chemical Engineers are well prepared to
address problems involving all types of changes to the physical and/or
chemical state of materials.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 55

Chemical Engineering: New
• Phasing out of formerly successful products: tetra-ethyl
lead, DDT, cellophane, freon or CFC.
• End of the parade of new polymers: celluloid, bakelite,
nylon, kevlar.
• To attract the best students, the lure of new products to
enhance lives - laptop computers, cellular phone and
• Cost-cutting and environmental protection is no match for
glamorous new products.
• We need to give chemical engineers the intellectual
toolbox, to innovate exciting new products that people will
learn to love.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 56

Product Engineering: a third
• Product engineering is innovation and design of
useful products that people want
– 1. Define a product, study the customers &
– 2. Understand property-structure
– 3. Design and innovate the product

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 57

How do I find out more information?
• IChemE

• Join the student chapter of CSChE

• Talk to Chemical Engineers
• Read Chemical Engineering magazines
CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry 58
CH EN 2800 Fundamentals of
Process Engineering
Mass and Energy Balances

Terry A. Ring
Chemical Engineering
University of Utah
Pop Quiz -1
• Answer Two Questions
– What is a chemical engineer?
– Why do you want to be a chemical engineer?
What is a Chemical Process?
• Process to make Gasoline
• Process to make Polyethylene
• Process to make Fertilizer (NH4NO3)
• Process to make High Purity Silicon
– Computer Chips
– Solar Cells
• Process to make Penicillin
• Process to make Yogurt
• Process to make Potato Chips
General View of a Chemical
This course
• Helps you understand these processes
• Helps you design these processes
• Helps you prevent…..
BP Texas City
Plant 3-05

15 people dead
180 Injured

$1.6 Billion to
settle 1000
A Specific Chemical Process
Octane Reaction
• 2C2H4 + C4H10  C8H18
• P= 5 psi, T=93ºC, X=98% Conversion
Flow Sheet

•2C2H4 + C4H10  C8H18

ΔP= 2 psi


Purge Stream

Recycle Stream
Chemical Process
• Separation
Section of Plant
• Distillation
This Course
• Web page to be found
– 2800
– On WebCT
• Chalk and Talk Class
– Problem Solving Session on Friday in Class
• Bring all questions about homework on Friday
A bit about your instructor
Lets Get Started
• First Week Chapters 1, 2, 4 & 5 (not 3)
– Dimensions/Units and their Conversion
– Moles, Density and Concentration
– Temperature
– Pressure
• Review of General Chemistry
CK 600 (PCE)
School of Engineering

BE Process & Chemical

Dr. Denis Ring CEng FIChemE MIEI
Why Choose Chemical (Process) Engineering?

Modern society relies on the work of

chemical and biochemical engineers –

Chemical Engineers manage resources,

protect the environment and control
health and safety procedures, while
developing the processes that make the
products we desire or depend on.
Chemical Engineers aka Process Engineers
Chemical engineering is all about changing raw materials into useful products
you use everyday in a safe and cost effective way. For example petrol, plastics
and synthetic fibres such as polyester and nylon, all come from oil.

Chemical engineers understand how to alter the chemical, biochemical or

physical state of a substance, to create everything from face creams to fuels

* Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE

One man’s “Dream”
is another man’s ENGINEERING!
Chemical Engineering is Fundamental !
Similar Engineering principles can
be applied to many industries

Jameson has now become the

world’s fastest growing drinks brand!

Aughinish Alumina in Limerick is one of

the most technologically advanced and
energy efficient facilities globally

In 2012 the refinery saw an increase in €100m Extension Just Finished……

its annual production capacity up to In Midleton
1.99 million tonnes of alumina Global exports of Irish whiskey rose 10.1 % to 62 million litres in 2013
Chemical Engineering is Fundamental !

To all of US!!!
Chemical Engineering is Fundamental !
Generic process stages or ‘unit operations’ applied to a
wide range of industries:
1. Food and Drink
2. Water
4. Energy
5. Cosmetics
6. Bulk Chemicals
7. Speciality Materials
8. Consumer Goods,
etc. Water Purification
Essential to…..Health
Chemical Engineering Developments
Focus on Health & Safety, Environmental Engineering,
Economics and Communication Skills

The Danone Macroom factory is expected be the

largest, and most technologically advanced,
manufacturing centre in baby-nutrition’s global
network, resulting in a trebling of capacity to
100,000 tonnes annually, after the creation of a new
drying line.

When it is operating at full capacity, the projection

is that 20% of the world’s infant milk formula will
be produced in Ireland.

This means one in five babies in the world who are

fed infant milk will use an Irish product.
Emerging Chemical Engineering
“Focus on Sustainability for progress……”

Chemical engineers make decisions concerning:

1. Which reaction pathway should be used to
make the product?
2. How to purify the desired product
3. How to control the process and ensure it's
4. How to make the process cost effective
5. What should be done with any by-products
6. How to reduce the amounts of unwanted by-
7. What to do with unreacted raw materials
8. How to recycle energy within the process
Emerging Chemical Engineering;
• By 2025, world population will be over 8 billion people. That’s a LOT!!!!

• The majority of this growth will be driven by the developing world, where rapid
improvements in living standards are evident – thanks significantly to the application
of chemical engineering.

Chemical Engineering is at the centre of a new

industrial revolution where economic wealth
goes hand-in-hand with environmental and
social sustainability. And fast. We are reaching
critical tipping points beyond which it will be
too late to reverse negative trends.
Chemical Engineering
“It’s a Small World”
PSE Kinsale Energy Limited, has been producing natural gas from its
facilities off the Old Head of Kinsale since 1978.

The gas found in the Kinsale Head area is exceptionally pure,

consisting mainly of methane, and only requires removal of
associated water to ensure it meets the required quality levels.

PSE is owned by PETRONAS which is currently ranked among

the Fortune Global 500 largest corporations in the world.
PETRONAS Revenue  100 billion
Its Special when Chemical meets Engineering?

Aspirin, one of the first drugs to come into common usage, is

still the mostly widely used in the world - approximately
35,000,000 kg are produced and consumed annually, enough
to make over 100 billion standard aspirin tablets every year.
Chemical Engineering Opportunities
• Biotechnology/ Biopharmaceuticals
• Food & Drink
• Water
• Pharmaceuticals
• Cosmetics
• Bulk chemicals / Speciality Chemicals
• Consultancy (Design & Operation)
• Energy
• Health, Safety & Environmental Services
• Materials
• Consumer Goods
• Education
• Even………..Business & Finance,
Chemical Engineering Opportunities
Biopharmaceutical Commercialisation and
Supply In 2006, Lilly announced that Kinsale
would become the main centre for the
manufacture and supply of active ingredients
for its new biopharmaceutical--or "large

(A "large-molecule" medicine is biologically

sourced and typically is injected rather than
17 km of piping………… taken orally.)

To support this changing mission, a significant

investment in biopharmaceutical manufacturing
and commercialisation facilities was made, and
operations commenced in 2011.
Chemical Engineering:- Financial Rewards
Profession Graduate salary

Dentistry £30,395
Chemical engineering £29,582 #2
Medicine £28,548
General engineering £26,362
Economics £26,283
Mechanical engineering £26,076
Aeronautical & manufacturing £25,343
Veterinary medicine £24,934
Electrical & electronic £24,639
Civil engineering £24,524

*Source: Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) Salary Survey 2014

**Source: published in The Times newspaper on 22 September 2014
Process & Chemical Engineering at UCC

Key Programme Features

1. Challenging Course !!!!!!!!

2. Small classes, excellent facilities
3. Pleasant university setting, excellent student
facilities, clubs, societies & student experience
4. 6 month salaried work placement
5. Accredited degree
6. Common first year with other UCC engineering
programmes with opportunity to switch from 2nd
7. Elective Streams in ‘Energy & Environmental’ or
‘Pharmaceutical & Biopharmaceutical’

CAO points (2014): 505

Katherine Condon is awarded the Joe
Gantly Prize for Engineering at the UCC
Annual Prize Giving 2014
Chemical Engineering

The breadth of scientific and technical

knowledge inherent in the profession
has caused some to describe the
chemical engineer as the "universal

Chemical engineering is ideally suited to students with ability in maths

and chemistry, who enjoy problem solving and aspires to be
Process & Chemical Engineering…….
Its Surprisingly Good………
My Leaving Cert Year Advise to You:-

“Perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim”


Be patient and tough; some day this pain will be useful to you!

PCE wish you all a bright and successful future in your chosen field…… And remember
when you do get to college…..
Welcome to
UCD Engineering
6 September 2016

Professor David FitzPatrick

Dean of Engineering
College Principal

EU Countries A LIBYA
France CE EN
Poland NIGE
Romania SIA RIA
28 % Female AR

Professor David FitzPatrick

Bachelors - Mechanical Engineering
PhD - Orthopaedic Biomechanics
Industry – Medical Devices (Orthopaedic)
R&D – MNC – worldwide portfolio
Academia – UCD (Mechanical Engineering)

Dean of Engineering
Principal, College of Engineering &
and Food
Science Science Centre Engineering and
Newstead Science Centre


What is Engineering?

Technical Understanding
•A sound knowledge of disciplinary
•A strong grasp of mathematics
•The ability to apply theory in practice
•Ability to be creative and innovative
Enabling Skills
•Work effectively in a business environment
•Communication skills
•Teamworking skills
•Business awareness of the implications of
engineering decisions and investments

Abilities & Attributes of Graduate
“Engineers must be able to use science and
mathematics in their thinking”
“An engineer’s analytical thinking is framed by,
and used in, the service of practical ends”

“The engineer needs ‘creativity’.. and to exhibit


*Educating Engineers: Designing for the Future of the Field, Sheppard et al.

How wide is the range of
UCD Engineering Degree options?
Biomedical Engineering Biosystems & Food Eng

Chemical & Bioprocess Engineering Civil Engineering

Civil, Structural & Environmental Eng Electrical Engineering

Electrical Energy Engineering Electronic Engineering

Electronic & Computer Engineering Energy Systems Eng

Engineering with Business Mechanical Engineering

Structural Engineering with Architecture Materials Science & Eng

Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering involves applying traditional
engineering methods and techniques to solve problems
in biology and medicine, and advance healthcare.

Chemical & Bioprocess Engineering
Chemical & Bioprocess Engineers are fundamentally interested in
transformations (e.g. the transformation of crude oil into
petrochemicals or the conversion of intermediates (chemicals) to
pharmaceuticals) and how such transformations can be realised on
a large scale through research, design, construction and operation.

Civil Engineering
Civil engineers are responsible for the planning,
construction and maintenance of fixed structures as they
relate to earth, water or civilization: buildings,
infrastructure, transportation systems

Electronic & Computer Engineering
Electronic Engineering is concerned with the design of
circuits and systems (both hardware and
programming/software) that underpin the on-going
revolution in mobile communications, internet and digital

Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering is concerned with the energy uses
of electricity and focuses on the generation, transmission
and final use of the electricity that powers our world.

Energy Systems Engineering
Energy Systems Engineers work on finding and
implementing solutions to the economic and
environmental challenges facing the energy systems of
different nations. All energy systems not just

Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering is concerned with the design,
manufacture, operation and testing of components,
devices or systems.

Structural Engineering with
Structural Engineering with Architecture is designed to
give engineers a full understanding and appreciation of
the architectural profession, coupled with the solid
fundamentals of the engineering degree.

What will I study in First Year?
Core Subjects:
• Science - Physics & Chemistry
• Mathematics
• Energy Engineering
• Mechanics
• Electrical/Electronic Engineering
• Creativity in Design
UCD Horizons allows you to choose ‘electives’ in subjects
from Archaeology to Zoology or you can choose Engineering
‘in-programme’ electives.

How will I learn?
• Lectures
– Fundamentals (physics, chemistry, mathematics),
application to engineering, national and global
• Laboratories, Design Exercises & Project Work
– “hands-on” experience, conducting experiments,
making measurements with a range of instrument
types, analysis / interpretation of data,
presentation/communication of results
• Tutorials
UCD Engineering
Study Abroad

Exchange Opportunities

Available - Stage 2 and Stage 3

Requirements – Pass all Core modules with
Minimum Grade = C
Minimum Stage GPA = 3.08
Who employs UCD Engineering

UCD – Campus Development
New Student Centre Opened in June 2012

The Student Charter
summarises the
aspirations and
expectations for all
members of our
University community.

The Charter sets out the roles
and responsibilities of the
various groups within our
University and outlines what
students can expect from their
University and what the
University can expect from its
student members.
Continuation Procedure

 Student will be notified in writing of the outcome of the committee’s

The Standing Committee for  Student permitted to continue in programme and targets set or
Continuation/Re-admission  Student excluded from programme

Based on final published results for semester
1. Introduction & Welcome
Professor David FitzPatrick,
Dean of Engineering
2. Programme Office
Mary Bushe,
Programme Manager, Engineering
3. Student Adviser
- Colleen Doyle

Engineering and Architecture Programme Office

•Guide to First Year

•Core/Option Modules

•Online Registration

•Important Dates


Engineering and Architecture Programme Office
Room 122, First Floor, Engineering and
Materials Science Centre
Mary Bushe– Engineering Programme Manager – 01 716 1874

Ms Caroline McCann – Programme Office Administrator – 01 716 1868

Ms Sue Philpott – Programme Office Director 01 – 716 1864

Your Programme Office is here to
help you!!!

If we don’t know,
we can’t help.

Please contact the Programme Office

Your Programme Office is here to
help you!!!

• Registration Queries
» Online registration queries
» What option do I choose?
» Time conflicts
» Capacity issues
• Examination Process
» General enquiries about exams
» Extenuating Circumstances & Medical Certificates
» What if I fail?
• Student Support
» Academic Advice, eg Leave of Absence
» Pastoral Care


PLEASE KEEP for future


Available online or from the

Engineering & Architecture
Programme Office
Choosing Your Option
& Elective Modules
Please complete your registration (12 x 5-credit modules)
by Friday, 9 September 2016.
Can I change my mind?
The Online Registration system will re-open in January 2016 to
allow you to change your Semester Two module choices.
You are entitled to a place on any of these option modules, so do
not worry that the module that you want might be full in January.

Can I choose more than one option
You can use your elective choices to choose
extra option modules if you wish. This would give you
more flexibility next year.
Refer to “A Guide to First Year” for more information.



(7 Modules in one Semester is too many!)

Online Registration

Module registration closes on Friday,

23 September 2016, 5pm.

• Any Semester One module(s) not dropped by Friday, 23
September 2016 will be subject to fees and will appear on
your academic record.
• Allocation of provisional electives takes place on the
afternoon of Friday, 9 September and Saturday,
10 September. Check your UCD Connect email on
Saturday, 10 September to see if you were
successful in getting a place on your chosen module.
• More general elective places can become available, consult
• In-programme electives are allocated on first-come first-
served basis.
• Monday, 12 September 2016 - Lectures start 9am

UCD Connect email is the primary
channel for official UCD communications.

It is the responsibility of each student to regularly

check their UCD Connect email account

More information will be given to you at your
programme briefing which takes place
tomorrow, Wednesday, 7 September 2016:


SEwA – in F14, Newstead

Registration Made Easy Lab
Help is available!
Pop down to the Registration Made Easy Lab ,
Mon to Fri. 5 to 9 September, from 09:00 to 17:00

Staff will be located in Room A105, A106 on the first floor of the
Newman Building during Orientation week, and at the Student Desk
after that


Programme: Tuesday, 6 September 2016

10:00 Welcome Reception, meet Peer Mentors

– Engineering & Material Science Centre
10:30 Library Tour, IT Introduction
13:00 Lunch
14:00 Academic Advisory Meeting, Dean’s Welcome
15:10 Sports Activity
Programme: Wednesday, 7 September 2016

08:40 President’s Welcome – O’Reilly Hall

09:40 Programme Briefing
- Engineering B005, HEA. SEwA F14, Newstead
11:00 Meet Academic Mentor
12:10 Campus Tour
13:00 Lunch
14:00 Peer Mentor Presententation
- “What 1st Years Really Need to Know…”
1. Introduction & Welcome
– Professor David FitzPatrick,
Dean of Engineering
2. Programme Office
– Mary Bushe,
Programme Manager, Engineering
3. Student Adviser
- Colleen Doyle.

Chemists and Chemical Engineers Make the
World a Better Place through Modern
Developments in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Presented by
Department of Chemical Engineering
Institute of Technology, Nirma University

Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

History of Catalysis


Recent trends in Catalysis

Future trends in Catalysis

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Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
more Integrated to the Society
• Cleaner and safer processes
• Well accepted and integrated processes
• Speed-up processes
• Energy and cost effective processes
• New catalysts and catalytic processes
• New technologies
• New innovations
• Deeper knowledge and understanding of phenomena
• Control of phenomena
Role of Catalysis in a National Economy
• 24% of GDP from Products made using catalysts (Food, Fuels,
Clothes, Polymers, Drug, Agro-chemicals)
• > 90 % of petro refining & petrochemicals processes use
• 90 % of processes & 60 % of products in the chemical industry
• > 95% of pollution control technologies
• Catalysis in the production/use of alternate fuels (NG,DME, H2,
Fuel Cells, biofuels…)
Why R&D in catalysis is important
• For discovery/use of alternate sources of
energy/fuels/raw material for chemical
• For Pollution control
• For preparation of new materials
(organic & inorganic-eg: Carbon Nanotubes)
Three Scales of Knowledge Application
Some Developments in Industrial catalysis-1
1900- 1920s
Industrial Process Catalyst
1900s: CO + 3H2  CH4 + H2O Ni
Vegetable Oil + H2  butter/margarine Ni
1910s: Coal Liquefaction Ni
N2 + 3H2  2NH3 Fe/K
NH3 NO NO2 HNO3 Pt
1920s: CO + 2H2  CH3OH (HP) (ZnCr)oxide
Fischer-Tropsch synthesis Co,Fe
SO2  SO3 H2SO4 V 2 O5
Industrial catalysis-2
1930s and 1940s

1930s:Cat Cracking(fixed,Houdry) Mont.Clay

C2H4 C2H4O Ag
C6H6  Maleic anhydride V2O5
1940s:Cat Cracking(fluid) amorph. SiAl
alkylation (gasoline) HF/acid- clay
Platforming(gasoline) Pt/Al2O3
C6H6 C6H12 Ni
Industrial catalysis-3
C2H4 Polyethylene(Z-N) Ti
C2H4 Polyethylene(Phillips) Cr-SiO2
Polyprop &Polybutadiene(Z-N) Ti
Steam reforming Ni-K- Al2O3
HDS, HDT of naphtha (Co-Mo)/Al2O3
C10H8  Phthalic anhydride (V,Mo)oxide
C6H6  C6H12 (Ni)
C6H11OH C6H10O (Cu)
C7H8+ H2 C6H6 +CH4 (Ni-SiAl)
Industrial catalysis-4
Butene Maleic anhydride (V,P) oxides
C3H6  acrylonitrile(ammox) (BiMo)oxides
Bimetallic reforming PtRe/Al2O3
Metathesis(2C3 C2+C4) (W,Mo,Re)oxides
Catalytic cracking Zeolites
C2H4 vinyl acetate Pd/Cu
C2H4  vinyl chloride CuCl2
O-Xylene Phthalic anhydride V2O5/TiO2
Hydrocracking Ni-W/Al2O3
CO+H2O H2+CO2 (HTS) Fe2O3/Cr2O3/MgO
--do-- (LTS) CuO-ZnO- Al2O3
Industrial catalysis-5
Xylene Isom( for p-xylene) H-ZSM-5
Methanol (low press) Cu-Zn/Al2O3
Toluene to benzene and xylenes H-ZSM-5
Catalytic dewaxing H-ZSM-5
Autoexhaust catalyst Pt-Pd-Rh on oxide
Hydroisomerisation Pt-zeolite
SCR of NO(NH3) V/ Ti
MTBE acidic ion exchange resin
C7H8+C9H12 C6H6 +C8H10 Pt-Mordenite
Industrial catalysis-6
Ethyl benzene H-ZSM-5
Methanol to gasoline H-ZSM-5
Vinyl acetate Pd
Improved Coal liq NiCo sulfides
Syngas to diesel Co
HDW of kerosene/diesel.GO/VGO Pt/Zeolite
MTBE cat dist ion exchange resin
Oxdn of methacrolein Mo-V-P
N-C6 to benzene Pt-zeolite
Industrial catalysis-7
DMC from acetone Cu chloride
NH3 synthesis Ru/C
Phenol to HQ and catechol TS-1
Isom of butene-1(MTBE) H-Ferrierite
Ammoximation of cyclohexanone TS-1
Isom of oxime to caprolactam TS-1
Ultra deep HDS Co-Mo-Al
Olefin polym Supp. metallocene cats
Ethane to acetic acid Multi component oxide
Fuel cell catalysts Rh, Pt, ceria-zirconia
Cr-free HT WGS catalysts Fe,Cu- based
Industrial catalysis-8
• Solid catalysts for biodiesel
- solid acids, Hydroisom catalysts
• Catalysts for carbon nanotubes
- Fe (Ni)-Mo-SiO2

New Synthesis Methods & use of PROMOTERS
Green Chemistry is Catalysis
• Pollution control (air and waste streams;
stationary and mobile)
• Clean oxidation/halogenation processes using
O2,H2O2 (C2H4O, C3H6O)
• Avoiding toxic chemicals in industry
(HF,COCl2 etc)
• Fuel cells (H2 generation)

Latest Trends
Catalysis in Nanotechnology

Methods of Catalyst preparation are most suited

for the preparation of nanomaterials
• Nano dimensions of catalysts
• Common prep methods
• Common Characterization tools
• Catalysis in the preparation of carbon nanotubes

Latest Trends
Catalysis in the Chemical Industry

• Hydrogen Industry(coal,NH3,methanol, FT,

hydrogenations/HDT,fuel cell)
• Natural gas processing (SR,ATR,WGS,POX)
• Petroleum refining (FCC, HDW,HDT,HCr,REF)
• Petrochemicals (monomers,bulk chemicals)
• Fine Chem. (pharma, agrochem, fragrance,
textile,coating,surfactants,laundry etc)
• Environmental Catalysis (autoexhaust, deNOx, DOC)

Latest Trends
Steps of Catalytic Reaction

- Diffusion of Reactants (Bulk to Film to Surface)

- Adsorption
- Surface Reaction
- Desorption & Diffusion of Products
porous carrier

bed of
reactants substrate product

reactor reaction desorption

catalyst support

Role of Chemists & Chemical Engineers
Team Work
Catalysts Preparation
Wet impregnation:
• Preparation of precursors (Cu & Zn-nitrates) solution
• Impregnation of precursors on alumina support
• Rotary vacuum evaporation
• Drying
• Calcination
• Reduction

Rotary vacuum evaporator

Catalysts Preparation

Wet Impregnation Co-precipitation


WI CuO/ZnO/Al O Catalyst

WI CuO/ZnO/Al O Catalyst
Co-precipitation Calcined
Commercial Ni/Al2O3
Spent Commercial Ni/Al2O3
Commercial Fe2O3 catalyst
Spent Commercial Fe2O3 catalyst

Pt, Pd and Rh on the Metox metallic substrates

Pervoskite LATEST Research

Honey Comb Catalysts
• Bulk Physical Properties
• Bulk Chemical Properties
• Surface Chemical Properties
• Surface Physical Properties
• Catalytic Performance
Bulk Chemical Properties
• Elemental composition (of the final catalyst)
• XRD, electron microscopy (SEM,TEM)
• Thermal Analysis(DTA/TGA)
• NMR/IR/UV-Vis Spectrophotometer
Surface Properties
• XPS,Auger, SIMS (bulk & surface structure)
• Texture :Surface area- porosity
• Counting “Active” Sites:
-Selective chemisorption (H2,CO,O2, NH3,
Pyridine,CO2);Surface reaction (N2O)
• Spectra of adsorbed species (IR/EPR/ NMR /
EXAFS etc)
Physical properties of catalysts
• Bulk density
• Crushing strength & attrition loss
• Particle size distribution
• Porosimetry (micro(<2 nm), macro(>35
nm) and meso pores
Catalysts Characterization
Characteristics Methods
Surface area, pore volume & size N2 Adsorption-Desorption Surface area
analyzer (BET and Langmuir)
Pore size distribution BJH (Barret, Joyner and Halenda)
Elemental composition of Metal Trace Analyzer / Atomic Absorption
catalysts Spectroscopy
Phases present & Crystallinity X-ray Powder Diffraction
TG-DTA (for precursors)
Morphology Scanning Electron Microscopy
Catalyst reducibility Temperature Programmed Reduction
Dispersion, SA and particle size CO Chemisorption, TEM
of active metal
Acidic/Basic site strength NH3-TPD, CO2 TPD
Surface & Bulk Composition XPS
Coke measurement Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TPO
BET Surface Area Analyzer

Major role of Chemical Engineer with Chemists for Hardware

Surface area, Pore Volume, Pore Size & Pore size distribution
Surface Area and Pore size Distribution

g (STP)

180 6.0E-3 CZA2


g -1 A0-1
Volume adsorbed, cm

140 5.0E-3



Pore volume, cm
80 3.0E-3
20 P3CZA
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 000.0E+0
10 100 1000
Relative pressure, P/P 0 Pore diameter, A 0

N2 adsorption/desorption Isotherm Pore size distribution by BJH method

Barret, Joyner, and Halenda (BJH)

P2CZCeA Cu/Zn/Ce/Al:30/20/10/40 P  2 Vm COS

P3CZA Cu/Zn/Al:30/20/50 ln 
P0 rk RT
Chemisorption Analyzer

Dispersion, Metal Surface area and Metal Particle size; TPR, TPO, TPD
TGA/DTA Analyzers

Coke measurement
Reactions involved in SRM process

CH3OH + H2O ↔ CO2 + 3H2

CO2 + H2 ↔ CO + H2O
CH3OH ↔ 2H2 + CO

Reactions involved in OSRM process

CH3OH + (1-p)H2O +0.5pO2 ↔ CO2 + (3-p)H2
∆H0 = (49.5 - 242*p) kJ mol-1

CH3OH + 0.75H2O + 0.125O2 ↔ CO2 + 2.75H2 ∆H0 = -10 kJ mol-1

∆H300 oC = 0 kJ mol-1

CH3OH + 0.5H2O + 0.25O2 ↔ CO2 + 2.5H2 ∆H0 = -71.4 kJ mol-1

CH3OH + 0H2O + 0.5O2 ↔ CO2 + 2H2 ∆H0 = -192 kJ mol-1
Catalyst Activity Testing
• Activity to be expressed as:
- Rate constants from kinetics
- Rates/weight
- Rates/volume
- Conversions at constant P,T and SV.
- Temp required for a given conversion at constant partial &
total pressures
- Space velocity required for a given conversion at constant
pressure and temp
Operating Conditions for SRM & OSRM

Catalyst mass, g 1-3

Contact-time (W/F)
kgcat s mol-1 3-15
Temperature, oC 200-300

S/M molar ratio 0-1.8 (SRM)

S/O/M molar ratio 1.5/0-0.5/1 (OSRM)

Pressure, atm 1
Schematic diagram of
OSRM process
Schematic diagram of
OSRM process
Reactants Inlet



OD 25mm

Catalyst bed L 770mm

ID 19mm

Characterization and Activities of ZnO & Ceria promoted Catalysts

Co-precipitation P4CZA P3CZA P1CZCeA P2CZCeA P3CZCeA

Cu/Zn/Al Cu/Zn/Al Cu/Zn/Ce/Al Cu/Zn/Ce/Al Cu/Zn/Ce/Al

Composition, wt% 30/30/40 30/20/50 30/25/5/40 30/20/10/40 30/10/20/40

BET SA, m2 g-1 92 106 96 108 101

Pore volume, cm3 g-1 0.26 0.32 0.28 0.34 0.29
Cu dispersion, % 9.4 12.8 10.2 19.6 14.8
Cu SA, m2 g-1 18.3 25.1 20.2 38.6 29.3
Cu particle size, Å 108 80 101 52 69
X, % 60 77 69 100 90
H2 rate, mmol s-1 132 180 160 244 217
CO formation, ppm 9400 3400 1400 995 1240

T=280 oC, W/F=11 kgcat s mol-1, S/O/M=1.5/0.15/1 & P=1 atm

At Lab Scale Activity at Kinetically
Controlled Conditions

Scale-up &

Major Role of Chemists & Chemical Engineers

Examples of Steam Reformer & Ammonia Reactor

Primary Reformer
Ammonia Converter
Big picture: Sustainable Development
Green Chemistry Is About...





The drivers of green chemistry

Economic benefit

Lower Lower
capital investment operating costs

Societal pressure Government legislation

Improved Less
public image hazardous materials

Green chemistry High fines for waste
and smaller plants

Pollution control
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry (1-6)
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry (7-12)
7 Use of Renewable Feedstocks
A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting
whenever technically and economically practicable.

8 Reduce Derivatives
Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, modification of
physical/chemical processes) should be minimised or avoided if possible,
because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste.


10 Design for Degradation

Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they
break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the

11 Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention

Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time,
in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous

12 Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention

Green Catalytic Processes

• Alternative feedstocks, reagents, solvents, products

• Enhanced process control
• New catalysts
• Greater integration of catalysis and reactor engineering:
membrane reactors, microreactors, monolith technology, phenomena
• Increased use of natural gas and biomass as feedstock
• Photodecomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen
• Catalysts for depolymerizing polymers for recycle of the monomers
• Improvements in fuel cell electrodes and their operation
Cleaner and greener Environment: Catalysis

New directions for research driven by market, social & environmental needs:
• Catalysis for energy-friendly technologies and processes (primary methods)
• New advanced cleanup catalytic technologies (secondary methods)
• Catalytic processes and technologies for reducing the environmental impact
of chemical and agro-industrial solid or liquid waste and improving the
quality and reuse of water (secondary methods)
• Catalytic processes for a sustainable chemistry (green chemistry and
engineering approach)
• Replacement of environmentally hazardous catalysts in existing processes
How to Decrease the Greenhouse Effect?
New catalysts for high output fuel cells
• Electricity production via electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons
•Chemical energy of hydrocarbon is converted to electricity
Catalysts and processes for solar energy conversion and hydrogen
•CO2 or other greenhouse gases are not emitted into the atmosphere,
• First solar energy is converted into the chemical energy of synthesis gas
(CO + H2) via the endothermic reaction of methane reforming
•Storage of the synthesis gas
•The stored energy can be released via the reverse exothermal
methanation reaction
CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O
•Efficiency from 43 to 70 %
Catalysts are needed for these reactions!!!
Classic Route to Ibuprofen
HCl, AcOH, Al W aste HCl AcOH

Ac2O H 2O / H+


EtO 2C

Examples of Green Catalysis


H 2O / H+


H o e c h s t R o u te T o Ib u p ro fe n

A cO H

HF H2 / Ni C O, Pd


Examples of Green Catalysis

“The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents,
separation agents, etc.) should be minimized”

Examples of Green Catalysis

Poly lactic acid (PLA) for plastics production

Examples of Green Catalysis

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA’s)

Examples of Green Catalysis


Examples of Green Catalysis


CO2 + H2O




H2 O Starch + O2 + H 2 O + O2
Organic compound
Photocatalytic Applications
Self-Cleaning Effect
TiO2 - Photocatalysis

3.12 eV
(380 nm)
Photocatalytic Reactions
TiO2 + h TiO2 (e- + h+)

h + + H2 O OH + H+

O2 + e- O2 -

O2 - + H+ HO2

HO2 + HO2 H2O2 + O2

O2 + HO2 O2 + HO2-

HO2- +  H2O2

H2O2 + h 2 OH

H2O2 + O2 -
HO + OH- + O2

H2O2 + e- HO + OH-
Microreactors – Future
Catalytic processes
• Uniform channel structure, fractal catalyst supports
• Scale-up
• How microreactor is connected to the macroworld?
• Operating regimes
• Controlled periodic processing
• Programmable reactor
• Process control
• Miniaturized sensors and actuators
• Local feedback and programmable regimes
• Advanced structure, materials, process control
• Multiscale – finely defined; locally targeted – globally optimized
Random Vs Structured Catalysts
Random Packed

Structured Beds
of Tomorrow
Monoliths (Structured) vs Pellets (Random)

Monolith catalyst
extruded from
commercial catalyst
support material

Conventional pellets
made from the same
Does the configuration alone improve performance?
2D & 3D Tools, Fabrication &
Flowsheet CAD Solids Microscale Design Assembly Materials of
Synthesis Modeling Modules Construction
Process Transport
Micro Systems
Engineering Component Engineering
Simulation & Integration
Control Flow Optimization Multi-scale
Systems Patterns Transport

Micro Process
Micro Analyzers (GC,
Raw Materials & Integrated LC, MS, TOF)
Feedstocks Sensors

Chemistry & Catalyst Sampling Micro Process

Characterization Sensors Analytical
Reaction Reaction Pathways & Data handling & Micro PAT Systems
Kinetics Mechanisms Chemometrics Integration
Some Advantages of Microreactors & Monoliths

• High surface-to-volume area;

enhanced mass and heat transfer;
• high volumetric productivity;
• Laminar flow conditions; low
pressure drop

• Residence time distribution and extent of back mixing controlled –

“precise reaction engineering”
• Low manufacturing, operating, and maintenance costs, and low
power consumption
• Minimal environmental hazards and increased safety due to small
• “Scaling-out” or “numbering-up” instead of scaling-up
Some Potential Problems
• Short residence times require fast reactions
• Fast reactions require very active catalysts that are stable (The two
most often do not go together)
• Catalyst deactivation and frequent reactor repacking or
• Fouling and clogging of channels
• Leaks between channels
• Malfunctioning of distributors
• Reliability for long time on-stream
• Structural issues
So far there are only two major commercial uses of micro-channel
systems (monoliths) –
• Automotive catalytic convectors (major success)
• Selective catalytic reduction (NH3 – SCR) of power plant NOx
Applications of the Process Utilizing Biomass Streams

Energy Extraction
Fuel Cell

Biomass Extraction SOFC


Aqueous Fuel Gas
Biomass APR
Biofuels Life Cycle
Technology for Green & Biofuels
Biomass Sources For Biofuels

• LignoCellulose (Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin)

• Starch
• Sugars
• Lipid Glycerides (Vegetable Oils & Animal Fats)
Structures in Lignocellulose
Pathways to Renewable
Transportation Fuels

Gasifier Syngas
FT( diesel,etc)
Veg Oils
Algae Oils

Pyrolysis Bio Oils Refine to Liquid

Biomass Fuels

Ferment to Gasoline
ethanol, additives


Aqueous phase
Bioethanol Overview - Global
• Current bioethanol production in US is 12 billion gallons.
• Most cars on the road in US today can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol.
• US DOE has estimated that there is a potential to produce over 80 Billion gallons of
bio-ethanol from cellulose and hemi-cellulose present in corn biomass in the 9
major US corn producing states.
• This equates to over 250 Million tons of bio-ethanol and >$160 Billion revenue.
• Iogen’s Demo plant producing cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw in Canada since
• DuPont-Danisco JV has started demonstration of cellulosic ethanol from corncobs
since Jan., 2010 in USA.
• Brazil currently blends 25% ethanol in gasoline and bioethanol is produced directly
from sugarcane.
• Brazilian flex cars are capable of running on just hydrated ethanol (E100), or just on
a blend of gasoline with 20 to 25% anhydrous ethanol, or on any arbitrary
combination of both fuels
• China uses 10% bioethanol in gasoline .
2nd Generation Bioethanol
Technology Overview
Company Location Technology Present Status
DuPont- USA based Technology
Feed Players
stock - Agri residue. Pilot Plant started
Danisco Alkaline pretreatment ,
enzymatic hydrolysis +
C5/C6 Co-fermentation
Iogen/ Canada Feed stock – Agri Biomass. Demo. Plant operating,
Shell Pretreatment – steam since 2004. Commercial
explosion. Enzymatic Plant expected to be
hydrolysis & fermentation commissioned in 2011.
of C5/C6 sugars

Lignol Canada Feed stock - wood, Technology proven at

agribiomass. Organosolv Bench scale.
pretreatment & sepn. Of Pilot Scale under
high purity lignin. Engineering design.
Enzymatic hydrolysis and
fermentation of C5 & C6
sugars separately
Enzymatic based Cellulosic Ethanol Process

Biomass Enzyme


C5/C6 Sugars
Hydrolysis Distillation/

Second Generation Bioethanol 99.7 wt%
Gasification based Technology Players
Gasification based Technology Players
Company Location Technology Present Status

COSKATA USA Feed stock - Agri residue, Completed pilot scale

pet coke, MSW. optimization.
Gasification to syn-gas &
direct fermentation to

INEOS USA Feed stock - Agri residue, Process under study in

Bio MSW. Conventional pilot plant.
Gasification to syn-gas &
its fermentation to
Gasification based Cellulosic Ethanol Process

Biomass Gasifier


4 - 6% ethanol

99.7 wt%
Transportation Fuels from Cellulosic Biomass (Pyrolysis Route)
Transportation Fuels from Biomass

• First generation biodiesel

Fatty Acid methyl esters (FAME); methyl esters of C16 and C18 acids.
• Second generation Biodiesels

“Hydrocarbon Biodiesels” ; C16 and C18 saturated, branched Hydrocarbons

similar to those in petrodiesel; High cetane number (70 – 80).
• Third Generation Biofuels

From (hemi)Cellulose and agricultural waste; Enzyme technology for

(hemi) Cellulose degradation and catalytic upgrading of products.
First Generation Biodiesels
Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

• Veg Oil + methanol  FAME + glycerine

• Catalysts:Alkali catalysts( Na/K methoxides); CSTR;
Large water, acid usage in product separation
Fuel Quality Problems in First Generation
• Lower glycerol purity; Not suitable for production
of chemicals (propanediol, acrolein etc) without
major purification; Salts and H2O to be removed
from Glycerol.
• Residual KOH in biodiesel creates excess ash
content in the burned fuel/engine deposits/high
abrasive wear on the pistons and cylinders.
Catalysts for 2nd Generation Biodiesel.
“Hydrocarbon Biodiesel “Technology
• “Hydrocarbon Biodiesel” consists of diesel-range hydrocarbons of high cetane
• Deoxygenation and hydroisomerization of Veg Oil at high H2 pressures and
• Catalysts:NiMo(for deoxyg), Pt-SAPO-11(for isom); H2 at high pressure
needed;Yield from VO is lower;C3 credit.
• Can be integrated with petro refinery operations;Greater Feedstock flexibility.
• Suitable for getting PP < - 20 C (Jet Fuels).
• 40000 tpy plant in Finland; 200K tpy in Singapore;100K tpy plant using soya in
Convert Veg Oil to HC Diesel in Hydrotreaters in
Oil Refineries
• Hydrotreat /Crack mix of VO + HVGO(5-10%); S=0.35%;N(ppm)=
1614;KUOP = 12.1; density=0.91 g/cc);Conradson C = 0.15%; Sulfided
NiMo/Si-Al Catalyst; ~350C,50 bar; LHSV = 5; Diesel yield ~ 75%wt.
• Advantages over the Trans Esterificat Route
- Product identical to Petrodiesel (esp.PP )
- Compatible with current refinery infrastructure
- Engine compatibility; Feedstock flexibility
Capital Costs : EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2006

Natural gas to Transportation Fuels : Options
• Natural Gas  Syngas

• I. Syngas Methanol (DME)  Gasoline

• II. Syngas  Fischer-Tropsch Syndiesel

Syndiesel Can use existing infrastructure

• III. Syngas  H2  Fuel Cell – driven cars: Stationary vs On-board supply
options for Hydrogen
• Natural Gas Electricity;MCFC and SOFC can generate electricity by
direct internal reforming of NG at 650C;Ni/ Zr(La)Al2O4, loaded on anode
Catalysts for conversion of NG to Transportation Fuels
I.Syngas Preparation
- Hydrodesulphurisation(Co/Ni-Mo-alumina)
- Syngas generation(H2/ CO); POX, steam, autothermal, “dry”
reforming; Ni(SR),Ru(POX) – based catalysts; Pt metals for POX for
2.Fischer Tropsch Synthesis:
Co – Wax and mid dist; Fe - gasoline; Cu & K added.
Supported Co preferred due to its lower WGS activity & consequent
lower loss of C as CO2.
3.Product Work up:
Wax Conversion to diesel and gasoline.
Mild Hydro-cracking/Isom catalysts
(Pt metal- acidic oxide support )
Petroleum - vs- Syngas :: Diesel

Property Petro- Syn-

Boiling Range,oC 150-300 150-300
Density at 15 C,kg/m3 820-845 780
S, ppm vol 10 - 50 <1
Aromatics,% vol 30 <0.1
Cetane No >51 >70
CFPP, oC -15 -20
Cloud point,oC -8(winter) -15

Due to lower S, N and aromatics, GTL diesel generates less SOx and
particulate matter.
Power and fuels from Coal / PetCoke Gasification
Texaco EECP Project

FEED:1235 TPD OF PetCoke

PC  SG  (75%)Power Plant
 25%FT fuel(tail gas Power)
• 55 MW Electricity; Steam.
• 20 tpd diesel; 4 tpd naptha
• 82 tpd Wax(60 tpd diesel); 89 tpd S;
• H2: CO = 0.67;Once-thru slurry(Fe) FT reactor; RR = 15 % at a refinery site.
Coal To Syngas To Fuel Cells
Catalysis in Coal / PetCoke gasification
• SR: C + H2O CO + H2 (+117 kJ/mol)

Combust:2C+ O2  2CO (H = -243 kJ/mol)

WGS :CO + H2O  H2 + CO2 ( -42 kJ/mol)
Methan: CO+3 H2  CH4 + H2O(- 205 kJ/mol)
• Methanation can supply the heat for steam gasification and lower
oxygen plant cost. K & Fe oxides lower temp of gasification
• H2/CO ~0.6 in coal gasification;Good WGS is needed;
• MCFC and SOFC can use H2,CO, & CH4 as

fuel to generate electricity.

• Low rank coals, Lignites gasify easier.
Hydrogen Production Costs
(The Economist / IEA)

Coal / gas/ oil/ biodiesel 1-5
NG + CO2 sequestration 8-10
Coal + CO2 sequestration 10-13
Biomass(SynGas route) 12-18
Nuclear (Electrolysis) 15-20
Wind (Electrolysis) 15-30
Solar (Electrolysis) 25-50
Sugar Cane Juice to H2


• C6H12O6 +6H2O  12H2 +6CO2(APR)

• Pt-alumina catalysts, 200 oC
• 1 kg of H2 ($3-4) from 7.5 kg Sugar
Fuel Efficiency of H2 >> diesel/gasoline
H2 Production from Glycerin

• Available from Veg oils(40-98% in H2O)

• C3H8O3 +3H2O 7H2 + 3CO2
• Ru – Y2O3 catalysts; 600 oC
• 1 kg H2 from 7 kg glycerine

H2 production from Biomass is less economically viable

than production of ethanol and biodiesel from biomass.
Catalytic Direct Methane Decomposition
to H2 and Carbon Nanotubes
Catalytic Auto Thermal Reforming of
Methanol, Ethanol, DME to HYDROGEN
Pure H2 Supply
• Compressed H2
• Liquid H2
• H2 Hydride

H2 H2 Combustion Engine
Fuel Similar to Gasoline Internal
Combustion Engine

H2 from Reformed liquid HC

• Methanol
• Ethanol
Pure H2 Supply
• Compressed H2
• Liquid H2
• H2 Hydrid
PEM Fuel Cell


H2 from Reformed liquid HC

• Methanol
• Ethanol
Pure H2 Supply
• Compressed H2
• Liquid H2
• H2 Hydrid
PEM Fuel Cell

H2 Production
H2 from
Fossil & Renewable

H2 from Reformed liquid HC

• Methanol
• Ethanol
Catalysts for H2O and CO2 Photothermal Splitting
Using Sunlight
1. H2O  H2 + 0.5 O2

2. CO2  CO +0.5 O2
• FT Synthsis: CO + H2 (CH2)n petrol/Diesel
Sandia’s Sunlight To Petrol Project: Cobalt ferrite loses O atom at
1400o C; When cooled to 1100o C in presence of CO2 or H2O, it
picks up O, catalyzing reactions 1 and 2; Solar absorber
provides the energy.
Challenge: Find a solid which loses / absorbs O from H2O / CO2
reversibly at a lower temp.
Splitting H2O
Splitting H2O with visible light

Future Fuels: Catalysis Challenges
• Meeting Specifications of Future Fuels
Remove S,N, aromatics, Particulate Matter
• Power Generation
- Lower CO2 Production in Catalytic Gasification
- Lower CO2 and H2/CO ratio in Syngas generation
• FT Synthesis: Lower CH4 and CO2 ;Inhibit metal sintering; Increase
attrition strength; Reactor design
• Biomass:1.Cellulose to Ethanol ( enzymes)
2. Biomass gasification catalysts.
Decentralized Production/ Use of H2 and Biofuels will avoid costs due
to their storage and distribution.
“Holy Grail “ Challenges
• Direct Conversion of CH4 to methanol and C5+.
• Catalytic Water and CO2 splitting using solar energy
ChE 201
Chemical Engineering Calculations I
Fall 2005/2006

Course Description:
System of units and dimensions.
Stoichiometry. Ideal and non-ideal gases,
critical properties and compressibility
charts.Vapor-Liquid equilibria. Material
balance calculations for steady and
unsteady state processes with and
without chemical reaction.
My name is
Dr. Faisal Iskanderani

Instructor: Dr. Faisal Iskanderani

Tutorial assistance: Engr Sayed Hammoda
Office: Main Library, Dean’s Office
Office Hours: Sat 9:00-10.30
Mon 12:00-1:30
ChE 201
Chemical Engineering Calculations I
Fall 2005/2006
Course Description:.
Recycle, by-pass and purge calculations.
Process flow sheeting with computer
Text Book: David Himmelblau, Basic
Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering, Prentice Hall PTR, 7th
Edition 2003.
Reference: Fedler, Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, John
Wiley, 1998

Course Goals: The overall goal of this

course is to introduce students to the
fundamentals of chemical engineering,
material balance
Specific instructional goals
•Demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge
of mathematics and freshman chemistry to
solve material balance problems.
Reference: Fedler, Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, John
Wiley, 1998

Specific instructional goals

• Function on teams to solve problems.

• Use computers to solve material
balance problems.
•Introduction (3 weeks)
•Units & Dimensions
•Dimensional consistency
•The mole unit
•Density, Specific gravity, sp. Volume,
mole fraction, mass fraction, Volume
•Analyses of mixtures : mole %, mass
%, volume %,
•Concentrations of solutions,
mass/unit volume, PPM, molar, molal ,
•How do we take a basis?
•Temperature, and Pressure
•Problem Solving Techniques (1.5 week)
•Material Balance (6 weeks)
•General material balance equation
•How to analyse MB Problems
•MB for non- reaction problems
•Reaction Problems
•Multiple subsystems
•Recycle, Bypass and Purge
•Material Balance (MB) for Gases,
Vapors, and Solids (4.5 weeks)
•Ideal gas law for a single gas
•Ideal gas law for gas mixtures
•Material Balance for gases
•Real gas Relationships
•Vapor pressure and liquids
•Partial saturation
•MB involving Condensation and
Computer Usage:
• some homework assignment
using accompanying CD
using Excel Sheet
For every homework problem assigned –
unless other instructions are given- the
following format is to be used:
•Write down the problem statement
•State the objective of the problem
•Define the problem. Sketch, label, and state
precisely what you want to find out.
•Briefly write down how you want to solve the
problem (the method).
•Carry out the solution.
•Review the results . Do you have any comments
on the answers or on the problem? State them.
Course Assessment:
• Homework
• Computer Assignments
• Quizzes
• 3 Midterm Exams
• Final Exam
1. 25% absence will result into a DN
grade. 25% of (2 lectures + 1 tutorial) x 15 = 11
2. Maximum lateness allowed is 5 minutes.
If you come more than 5 minutes late, you
will be allowed to attend class, but you will
be considered late. Each 2 late
attendances will be considered as 1
Course Conduct Codes : In all aspects of
the course honesty and trust are a must.
Any violations will be severely confronted.
You will be working in class as follows:

• individually
• As a team
For homework, quizzes and exams
you must work individually
Take 5 minutes and write down “ What
do you know about Chemical
Engineering, what processes does
chemical engineering involve?
As a team:
Take 5 minutes and write down “ What
do you know about Chemical
Engineering, what processes does
chemical engineering involve?
Processes involved in ChE
 mixing
 separation
- distillation absorption freezing
extraction (heat mass and momentum transfer)
 chemical reactions
What is the difference between a
chemical engineer and a chemist?

- works in test tubes
-small quantities
-batch constant-T experiments
-small containers
-a catalyst is added and reactions
proceed with time
A CHEMICAL Engineer:
- works with large quantities
- large equipment
- continuous mode
- feed streams and product streams
are continuously fed and withdrawn
from the process
-steady state operations (all
parameters such as T, P, liquid livel,
flow rates, compositions, etc. are all
constant with time
CHEMICAL Engineer:

-scaling up
- works closely with mechanical,
electrical, civil, and metallurgical
engineers in order to design and
operate the physical equipment in a
plant ( such as: ? )
• What are the typical activities a
chemical engineer works with?

1. DEVELOPMENT : to commercialize
(scale up) a chemical process

Lab size process  pilot plant  plant

2.DESIGN : A team of engineers design the
commercial plant, based on experience and
data obtained from the Lab size process and
the pilot plant. The Chem E specifies:

Process flow rates and conditions

Equipment types and sizes
Materials of constructions
Process configuration
Control systems
Safety systems
3.CONSTRUCTION : Assembling of all
components into a complete plant

4.MANUFACTURING : running the plant

or operations and production. Things that
are important and relevant:
design modifications
reduce costs
improve product quality
reduce pollution

Homework due next Saturday
13/8/1426 (17/9/2005)
• Read Chapter 1
• Solve Problems 1, 5, 9, 14, 18, 23, 28, 33,
38, 43, 48, 52, 55
Wef 2009-10

Exam Scheme

SN Sub Code Sub. L P T Ext Ss Pr Tw Tot

Semester – I

1 101 Maths - I 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100

2 102 Commu.Skill 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100
3 103 Appl.Chem. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
4 104 Engg.Mesr. - 3 - * * 50 25 75
5 105 Comp.Appli. - 3 1 * * 50 25 75
6 106 EMEE 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100

Semester- II

1 201 Maths - II 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100

2 202 Org.Chem. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
3 203 Phy.Chem. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
4 204 C.E. Materials 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100
5 205 Engg.Graphics 3 3 1 60 40 * 50 150
6 206 W.S. - 2 - * * * 50 50

Semester – III

1 301 Mech.Op 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

2 302 C.P.I 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
3 303 Ind. Saf & Env.Engg. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
4 304 Enr Engg & Plant Uti. 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100
5 305 P.D.M.&.Eco. 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100
6 306 Yoga - 2 - - - 50 - 50

Semester – IV

1 401 H.T. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

2 402 FFO 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
3 403 P.Cl. 3 - 1 60 40 - - 100
4 404 M.T.I 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
5 405 Instru. 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100
6 406 C.E.Eq.Drg. - 3 1 * * 50 25 75

Semester - V

1 501 M.T.II 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

2 502 Ele.of Ther & RE 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100
3 503 P.R.P.T. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
4 504 F.T. 3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
5 505 Dyes& Int.Tech/PolyTech 3 - 1 60 40 * * 100

Semester – VI

1 601 Ind.Trg - - - * * 100 50 150

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)
Lecture Pr Tutorial Th sess Pr Tw Total
3 --- 1 60 40 --- --- 100


1. Indices and Surds: (4 hr.)

Concepts, examples of indices, square roots of surds, simple example on surds, example on
surds, examples on square root of surds.
2. Logarithm: (2 hr.)
Concepts, logarithm rules, examples based on rules and calculation (without log-table)
3. Arithmetic and geometrical progression : (4 hr.)
Sequences, sum of nth terms of an arithmetic progression by formula, arithmetic mean,
computation of nth term of a geometric progression, geometrical mean, examples.
4. Binomial theorem: (4 hr.)
Meaning of factorial, permutation, combination, binomial expansion, finding constant term
and co-efficient of xr, examples of finding any terms.
5. Matrices: (5 hr.)
Determinant, definition of matrix of order m x n, types of matrix, algebraic operations on
matrices, examples to solve linear simultaneous equations of two or three variables.
6. Vector algebra: (5 hr.)
Concept of vector and scalar, types of vectors, algebraic operations on
vectors, magnitude and direction of vectors, geometrical representation of


1. Measurement of angles: (1 hr.)

Angles in degree and radians, arc length, area of sector.
2. Trigonometric ratios: (2 hr.)
Definition and identities, examples on trigonometric ratios
3. Standard, Compound and Multiple angles: (7 hr.)
Concepts, Addition and subtraction formula, Formula for multiple and sub
multiple angles, examples.
4. Periodic functions and graphs: (3 hr.)
Definition and concept of periodic functions, graphs of sine and cosine.
5. Inverse trigonometric function: (1 hr.)
Definition and simple examples.
6. Properties and solutions of triangle: (3 hr.)
Sine and cosine rules, projection formulae, Napiear’s formula, area of
triangle by using different formulae, solution of triangle.
7. Height and distances: (1 hr.)

1. Polytechnic Mathematics – I
by Dr. N. R. Pandya ( Mahajan publishing house, Ahmedabad )


1. Polytechnic Mathematics – I
by Prof. R. P. Rethaliya ( Nirav and Roopal prakashan, Ahmedabad )
2. Diploma Engineering Mathematics – I
by B. M. Patel, Dr. Ajay V. Shah, Mehul B. Patel ( Nirali prakashan, Mumbai)
3. Polytechnic Mathematics Vol. I – TTTI, Bhopal.
DK 102: Communication Skills

Teaching Scheme Exam Scheme

L Pr. T Th. Sess. Pr. Tu. Total
3 - 1 60 40 - - 100

(Total classroom work 30 hours which excludes tutorials)

Topics: No. of hrs

1. Introduction to the importance of the English Language. [1]

2. Introduction to the importance of the Communication Skills. [1]
3. English vocabulary improvement. [1]
4. English grammar updating [4]
i. Articles and Prepositions
ii. Prefixes and Suffixes
iii. Sentence formation
5. Spoken English improvement [3]
i. IPA
ii. Pronunciation
iii. Fluency
6. Oral Communication [5]
i. Speech improvement
ii. Elocution
iii. GD and Self Presentation
7. Written Communication [5]
i. Developing the paragraph
ii. Essays
iii. Comprehensions
8. Letter Writing [5]
i. Personal letter
ii. Application letter
iii. Complain and Request letters
9. Developing the given story and idea [3]
i. Oral form
ii. Written form
10. Presentations- PowerPoint and Multimedia [3]

Source: Classroom learning and teaching activities will be supplemented by the material
Prepared by the faculty, which will be evaluated in the examinations.
Teaching Scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)
L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175
1. Basic Concept (4 Hour)
Matter, elements, compounds, atoms, molecules, molecular formula, mole concept,
Avogadro’s number, gram-atomic weight, gram-molecular weight, equivalent weight, STP,
Avogadro’s hypothesis and its application, derivation of general gas equation PV=nRT,
Dalton’s law of partial pressure,
2. Atomic structure (7 Hour)
Thomson’s model its limitation, Rutherford’s model and its limitation,Brief introduction to Bohr’s
model and its limitation, Concept of shells and subshells , Dual nature of matter and light,,De-broglie
relationship, Heisenberg uncertainity principle,Modern concept of atomic structure, atomic number,
mass number, orbital concept, quantum numbers, shape of orbital, electron configuration of elements
using Auf-bau principle, Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle, isotopes, isobars.
3. Modern periodic table (4 Hour)
Brief introduction to Mandeleev’s periodic table and its drawback, Classification of element on the
basis of their electronic configuration, periodic trend of ionization energy, electron affinity and
electron negativity of elements in periodic table
4. Chemical Bonding (6 Hour)
Ionic bonds, co-valent bonds, co-ordinate co-valent bonds, H-bonds, valence,
electronic theory of valence, Dot & Lewis formula of elements, Valence bond theory(VBT) and
geometry of some simple molecules having hybridization of sp3, sp2, sp,Valence shell electron
repulsion pair theory(VSEPR) with shape of some simple molecules like BeF2,,BF3, CH4, PCl5,
Molecular Orbital Theory(MOT) of homo nuclear diatomic molecules like H2,He2,O2, N2.
5. Chemical equilibrium (5 Hour)
Reversible & irreversible reaction, rate of reaction, law of mass action, equilibrium
state, equilibrium constant Ke for homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, relationship
between Ke and KP, Le-Chatelier principle and its application
6. Ionic equilibrium (5 Hour)
Ionisation of strong and weak electrolytes in water, ionic equilibrium, acid and base
theories, dissociation constant of weak acid, Ka, weak base Kb and Ksp
Self ionization of water KW, pH scale, determination of pH of solution from its
strength, buffer solutions, Common ion effect with illustrative example
7. Solutions (4 Hour)
Types of solutions, different methods of expressing strength of solutions, viz.
molarity. molality, normality, formality, weight percent, preparation of standard solutions, Vapour
pressure and Rault’s law, ideal and non ideal solution, positive and negative deviation of non ideal
solution from Rault’s law
8. Water and its treatment (5 Hour)
Sources of water, hard and soft water, kinds of hardness, effect of hardness, removal of hardness of
water by soda-lime, permutite and ion-exchange process.
Text Book:
Essential of Physical chemistry –Arun Bahl,B.S.Bahl,G.D.Tuli
Reference :
General Chemistry- V P Mehta
General Chemistry -T.T.T.I Bhopal
Chemistry Foundations - David E Goldberg
Applied Chemistry - Dr. A S Patel, Dr. K M Shah,
Chemistry the central science - Theodore L Brown, H. Eugene Leney


L P T Practical Total
Marks Marks
-- 03 --
50 25 75

Laboratory Experiments:

1 Introduction to Physical Quantities and Units

2 Linear Measurements
Length & Diameter by Scale, inside- out side callipers

3 Precision Measurements
Length & Diameter by Vernier callipers, Micrometer screw, Depth gauge

4 Measurement of Area
Regular & Irregular shapes

5 Measurement of Electrical Energy

6 Measurement of frictional coefficient

7 Measurement of volumetric flow rate & Mass flow rate

8 Measurement of pH

9 Measurement of hardness of water

10. Measurement of Specific Gravity

11 Measurement of Viscosity

N.B.: Sr.No.1 to 6 will be conducted by Mech. Engg. Department while rest will be by
Chemistry department.

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
- 3 1 - - 50 25 75

Laboratory experiments

 Introduction to computer system and software

 Introduction to operating system ,file identification, bytes, directory
 Introduction to word processing, data entry, save, quit,
 Basic setting like left and right margin, footnotes, headers, justification, tabulation
 Editing text using detailing character, word lime, search, replace directory
 Cut\paste, move, copy, sort, file read, file write
 Mail merge, print, index, book mark, tables of content
 Introduction to worksheet, workbook, cell, row, column, data entry, open, save,
quit, help
 Editing data, clean, insert, delete cell, row, column
 Work sheet settings, width of column, color, heading, wide and display, align
data, bold, italics, orientation
 Freeze rows, columns split sort, legend
 Chart 3 D drawings
 Multiple worksheets, copy, move, linking data between worksheets
 Prepare worksheet to print, page break
 Discipline wise Engineering Application

Text book: -
MS office instant Reference
Windows inside - Peter Norton
Teach yourself windows
Dos instant Reference


L P T Theory Sessional
work Total
Mark Marks
Hrs. Hrs. Marks Marks
03 -- 1 s
03 60 1 40 -- 100

1 Power transmission & Safety

Introduction to power transmission, Modes of power transmission, Belt drives, Rope
drives, Gear
drives, Chain drive system, Causes of accidents & their remedies.

2 Boilers
Definition, Function, Classification, working principles of Babcock & Wilcox boiler &
Boiler, Introduction to Boiler mountings & accessories, Different types of mountings
& accessories-
their application & working principle.

3 Prime movers
Introduction, Function, Classification of prime mover, Working principle of Internal
engines, Four stroke (Petrol & Diesel) Two stroke(Petrol & Diesel), Introduction to
Recent trends
eg. MPFI(Multi Point Fuel Injection), DTS-I (Digital Twin System. Ignition)

4 Welding
Introduction to metal joining processes, Classification, Definition of Welding,
Classification of
welding, Arc welding: definition, working principle, types, equipments, electrode
codification; Gas
welding : definition, working principle, types, equipments, Types of welding flames,
Flux, Brazing,
Soldering, Safety precaution during welding process.

5 Material Handling
Introduction, Classification of material handling equipments, Factors affecting the
selection of
MHE, hoisting equipments, conveying equipments, Selection of suitable material
equipments for the given situation.

6 Fundamentals of Electrical engineering

Modern electron theory, Basic electrical quantities(Current, Voltage, Resistance etc ),
Ohm’s law,
Farade’s law of Electromagnetic Induction.
7 A.C. and D.C. Circuits
Introduction to electrical circuits, Fundamentals of A.C./ D.C. Circuits, Parallel and
Connections, Examples, Star and Delta connection, Examples.

8 Electrical Machines
Motor, Generator, Transformer- Introduction, working principles, construction,

9 Electrical Appliances
Introduction, External connections of Electrical appliances (Single phase energy meter,
A’ meter,
Voltmeter, Fan, Fluorescent tube,)

1 Elements of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering By Atul Prakashan
2 Basic Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering By R.Muthusubramanian
3 Welding Technology By O.P.Khanna
4 Work Sop technology By Hajara Chaudhry
5 Elements of Heat Engine By R.C.Patel
6 Internal combustion engine By Mathur & Sharma
Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)
Lecture Pr Tutorial Th sess Pr Tw Total
3 --- 1 60 40 --- --- 100


1. Point: (3 hr.)
Distance formula, circum centre and in centre of triangle, area of triangle,
division of line segment, locus of a point.
2. Straight line: (3 hr.)
Different types of equation of straight line, slope, intercepts, equation of
straight line passing through two points or slope and one point, parallel and
perpendicular straight lines, angle between two lines.
3. Circle: (3 hr.)
Definition , equations of circle, equation of tangent and normal

1. Function and limit: (5 hr.)
Definition, concept and rules, examples
2. Differentiation: (13 hr.)
Definition, formula for xn, ax, ex, sinx etc., formula for addition, subtraction,
product and division of functions, chain rule, derivation of parametric and
implicit functions, higher order differentiation, application of
derivative(velocity, acceleration, maxima-minima, radius of curvature).
3. Integration: (15 hr.)
Concept, simple basic rules and formulae of integration, indefinite and
definite integrals, integration by substitution, examples, application of
integration.(area, volume)

1. Polytechnic Mathematics – II
by Dr. N. R. Pandya ( Mahajan publishing house, Ahmedabad )


1. Polytechnic Mathematics – II
by Prof. R. P. Rethaliya ( Nirav and Roopal prakashan, Ahmedabad )
2. Diploma Engineering Mathematics – II
by B. M. Patel, Dr. Ajay V. Shah, Mehul B. Patel ( Nirali prakashan, Mumbai)
2. Polytechnic Mathematics Vol. II– TTTI, Bhopal.

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Purification of organic compounds

Purification of organic compounds by crystallization, distillation, sublimation

2. Detection and estimation

Detection and estimation of C, H, N, O, S and halogens

3. IUPAC Nomenclature
IUPAC Nomenclature of aliphatic, aromatic and hetero-cyclic compounds

4. Stereo-chemistry
Stereo isomerism, optical isomerism, geometrical isomerism, Walden-Inversion

5. Study of Aliphatic compounds

Study of chemical reaction involving & IUPAC Nomenclature involving in
important methods of preparation and chemical properties of following compounds with
their uses.
Ethane, ethylene, acetylene, ethyl chloride, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, chloroform,
acetic acid, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether. Ethylamine, Granger reagent
6. Coal-tar
Fractional distillation and production of coal tar, isolation of its components
7. Study of Aromatic compound.
Study of Aromatic compound & chemical reaction involving in important methods
of preparation and their chemical properties of following aromatic compounds. Benzene,
toluene, benzene halides, styrene, nitro-benzene, sulphonic acids, aniline, phenol,
benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, salicylic acid
8. Orientation
Electronic theory of orientation of benzene substitution reactions
9. Carbohydrates
Classification of carbohydrates, brief information with their structural formula
10. Polymers
Types of polymers, Illustration with their monomers and polymers

Text books
Fundamental Organic Chemistry - P L Soni
Text book of Organic Chemistry - B S Bal & Arun Bhal
Basic concept of Organic Chemistry - Kice & Mar well

Teaching Scheme (Hr/W) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th. Sess. Pr. Tw. Total
3 2 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Chemical Kinetics.
Rate of Reaction, Rate law, Order of reaction, Molecularity of reaction,
Derivation of rate constant for first and second order reaction, Zero order and Pseudo
order reaction, half life period, methods for determination of order of reaction, Theories
of rate of reaction, effect of various parameters of rate of reaction, Catalyst and Catalysis,
types of catalyst.

2. Colloids.
Basic term with definition, Classification of colloids, types of colloids, methods
of preparation & purification of colloids, properties of colloids, Emulsion and Gel with
its types, application of colloids.

3. Electrochemistry.
Basic term involved in electrochemistry, Electrodes and its types, Buffer solution
& its types, Buffer capacity, Buffer range, Indicators and indicator range, Detail of
instrumental methods of titration i.e. Potentiometric, Conductometric, pH-metric

4. Surface Chemistry.
Adsorption and Absorption, Adsorption of Gases, Types of adsorption,
Adsorption isotherms, Freundlich’s and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, Gibb’s equation,
Chromatographic and Ion exchange adsorption. Effect of different parameters on

5. Phase Rule.
Definition and statement of Phase Rule and term involved in it, one component
system i.e. Water system and Sulphur System in detail with its Phase diagrams.

6. Distribution Law.
Nernst’s Distribution law, Solution and solubility, solubility and absorption
coefficients (α and β), effect of various parameters on absorption, type of binary
solutions, application of distribution law and ratio.

Text Books.

1. Essentials of Physical Chemistry.

By – B. S. Bahl. & G. D. Tuli.
S. Chand & Co. New Delhi.

2. Elements of physical Chemistry.

By – S. Glasstone, Macmalin & co. Ltd. London.
Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)
L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 - 1 60 40 - - 100

1. Introduction & properties of material:

General principles of selection of materials. Definition & explanation of melting
point, boiling point, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal
insulation, stresses, strain.
2. Corrosion:
Definition, mechanism of corrosion, types of corrosion, dry & wet corrosion,
direct corrosion, electro-chemical corrosion, galvanic corrosion, high-temperature
corrosion, atmospheric corrosion. Factors affecting/influencing corrosion rate, brief
description, different methods for corrosion control and prevention.
3. Metals:
General comparison of ferrous, non-ferrous & alloys. Properties of metals Cast
iron, wrought iron, steel, Aluminum, zinc, chromium, nickel, tin, titanium, tungsten,
platinum, silver, lead. Properties of alloy duraumin, Y-alloy, brass, bronze, inconel,
invor, hastalloy, alloy steel. Types of furnaces for metal purification, blast furnace,
arc furnace.
4. Ceramic materials:
Definition of ceramic materials. Clay-chemical composition china clay, fire clay,
bentonite. Refractories- definition, properties & classification of refractories. Bricks-
manufacture, properties, uses & types of bricks. Glasses- definition, raw materials
used & their effect on glass product, manufacture of glass in brief, types of glass,
their properties & uses, soda lime, borosilicate, high silica, fiber, wool & foam glass.
Porcelain- properties, composition & uses.
5. Inorganic and other materials:
Polymers & their structure, addition & condensation polymerization. Plastic-
definition, properties & classification. Rubber/Elastomers- definition, classification,
sources, properties & uses of natural and synthetic rubber, vulcanization. Wood-
properties, seasoning types, its advantages & limitations
6. Coatings:
Protective coatings, Metallic coating, chemical conversion coating, organic
coating, ceramic coating, Paints-classification, ingredients of paints, their properties
and importance, special types of paints & their application. Varnishes- definition,
ingredients & classification.
7. Materials for special application:
Lubricants- definition, importance, types, properties & application, method of
applying lubricants. Insulation- definition, types of insulating materials, electrical,
thermal & sound insulation. Adhesive- definition, classification, advantages &
limitations, mechanism of their effect on surface.
1. Material science processes -S.K.Hazarachaudhary
2. Engineering Materials - S.C.Rangwala
3. Engineering Materials -Patel & Khakkhar
Reference :
1. Engineering Materials Hand book -Mc. Graw hill Publi.
2. Chemical Engineering Materials - F. Rumford.
L P T Theory Sessional
work Total
Mark Marks
Hrs. Hrs. Marks Marks
03 03 1 s
04 60 1.5 40 50 150
(1) Drawing equipments, material & their uses
(2) Planning & Layouts of the Drawing
(3) Lines, Letters and dimensioning
(4) Plane geometrical drawing :-
Simple geometrical construction such as construction of plain figure, drawing of
arcs and other construction.
(5) Plane geometry :-
Construction of curves used in engineering such as Conics(Ellipse, Parabola,
Hyperbola) Cycloidal curves (Cycloid, Epi-cycloid, Hypocycloid ), Involutes,
Archemedian spirals.
(6) Solid geometry :-
Projection of points, Projection of lines ( without H.P & V.P) Projection of
planes, Projection of right and regular solids ( Prism, Pyramids, Cylinder and
Cones )
(7) Orthographic projection :-
Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic projection with section, type of
sections-Full section, Half section, interpretation of orthographic views.
(8) Isometric projection :-
Conversion of orthographic views in to isometric projection & views.
(9) Machine parts :-
Types of threads, Bolts & Nuts, Locking devices for Nuts, Rod connections (
cotter joints & knuckle joint, shaft couplings, bearings, welded joints.
(10) Graphs and Charts
Concept of representation of data on graphs & Charts
(11) Conventional representation for pipe fittings & piping layout
(12) Computer Aided Drawing & Drafting (CADD)
Introduction, Benefits of CADD, Software for CADD(Auto CAD R 2006), Basics of AutoCAD
command( 2D), Drafting of drawings
Preparation of Drawing sheets on following topics :-
1 Lines, Letters & Dimensioning : One Sheet
2 Engineering curves : One Sheet
3 Conversion of orthographic to isometric view : One Sheet
4 Projection of Lines, Planes & Solids : One Sheet
5 Conversion of view isometric view to orthographic view : One Sheet
6 Machine Parts & Piping symbols : One Sheet
7 Drawing practice on AutoCAD
1 Engineering Drawing By N.D.Bhatt
2 Engineering Drawing vol . I & II By P.J.Shah
3 Engineering Drawing By Atul Prakashan
4 A Text Book of Geometrical Drawing By P.S.Gill
1 Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing By Luzadder
2 A Text Book of Machine Drawing By P.S.Gill

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
-- 2 -- -- -- 50 50 100

Work-shop layout, Importance of various sections/shops of workshop,
Type of jobs done in each shop, General safety rules and work-procedure of
Fitting tools like – files, vice, chisels, panch, scriber, hammers, surface
plate, try square, calipers etc., fitting operations such as chipping, filling,
scraping, grinding, sawing, marking, drilling, reaming, tapping, safety precaution,
Demonstration of various operations, Preparation of male-female joints.
Smithy tool like - hammer, tongs, Anvil, flattener etc., Smithy operations
such as upsetting, drawing down, bending, setting down, for welding, cutting,
punching and fullering etc., Safety precautions, Demonstration of various smithy
Tin smith tools like – hammers, stakes, scissors etc., sheet metal
operations such as shearing, bending, joining, safety precautions, demonstration
of various operations.
Carpentry tools like – saw, planner, chisels, hammers, pallet, marking
gauge, vice, tee square, rule etc., carpentry operations such as marking, sawing,
planning, chiseling, grooving, boring, joining, type of woods and carpentry
hardware, safety precaution, demonstration of various operations by using
Pipe fitting tools, pipe fitting operations such as marking, cutting, bending,
threading, assembling, dismantling etc., types of various spanners such as flat, fix,
ring, box, adjustable etc., safety precautions, demonstration of various operations.
Metal joining hand tools and equipments, permanent and temporary
methods for metal joining such as screw, nuts bolts and washers, rivets, keys, pins
and welding soldering brazing, demonstration of metal joining operations, safety
Turning operations such as facing, centering and turning, demonstration of
different lath parts and demonstration of above operations.
Demonstration of dismantling, overhauling, aligning and assembling of
pump and motors, demonstration of disassembly, overhauling and assembly of
motor, alignment of pump and motor References :
1. Workshop Familiarization – E. Wilkinson 2 Workshop Technology – I –
Hazra and Choudhay
Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)
L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Introduction of Mechanical Operation

Definition of Unit Operation and Unit Process, Difference between Unit operation
and Unit Process, Examples of Unit Operation & Unit Process.
2. Properties of particulate solids
Specific properties of solids, Density & Bulk density. Definition and calculation of
particle diameter, Sphericity, equivalent diameter, specific surface area, volume
surface mean diameter, mass mean diameter, shape factor, Calculation of no. of
3. Screen Analysis
Need of screen analysis, Types of screen analysis, Application of screen analysis,
Types of screens, trommel, grizzlies, Vibrating screen etc. Ideal & actual screen,
Capacity & effectiveness of screen (With derivation). Calculation of capacity and
effectiveness of screen, faults in screening.
4. Size Reduction
Definition and need of size reduction, Principles of size reduction, characteristics
of comminuted products, Energy & power requirements in communition, laws of size
reduction, work index, Types of size reduction equipment with their principle,
construction & working, derivation of equation of angle of nip and critical speed.
Calculation of angle of nip,capacity & Ribbon factors. Open & close circuit grinding.
5. Sedimentation
Definition of sedimentation, theory of bath sedimentation, Interphase height and
time curve, Flocculation principle, Gravity thickener. Explanation of free and
hindered settling, cyclone separator, efficiency of cyclone separator. Definition of
Stoke’s law and Newton’s law for terminal settling velocity.
6. Filtration
Definition and applications of filtration, Equipments for liquid – solid separation.,
Filter press, Rotary vacuum filter, filter media and its required characteristics, filter
aids and method of application, calculation of special cake resistance, filter media
resistance, porosity for constant rate, constant pressure system and vacuum drum,
constant rate filtration and constant pressure filtration, classification of centrifugal
equipment, batch centrifuge, Advantages and disadvantages of centrifuge over filter
7. Agitation and Mixing
Classification of Impellers, vortex formation and swirling, methods of vortex
prevention, factors affecting agitation, Purpose of mixing solids and paste, Principle
construction & working of Ribbon blender, Muller mixer, Banbury mixer &
Text Books:
1. Unit Operation in Chem. Engg. - MaCabe & Smith
2. Introduction to Chemical Engg..- Badger & Banchero.

1. Chemical Engineering Vol. I - Coulson & Richardson

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Introduction:
General Survey of Chemical Industries, Importance contribution to human life &
classification of chemical industries.
2. Fuels :
Classification of fuels, Fuel gases.
3. Chlor-Alkali Industry:
Manufacture of Soda ash, Caustic Soda, Chlorine & Hydrogen
4. Cement Industries
Types of cement, classification of cement, manufacturing of cement & major
engineering problems of cement industries.
5. Marine chemicals
Chemicals from seawater, manufacture of common salt and. bromine.
6. Oil & Fats Industries
Classification of oil & fats, Extraction of veg.oil, Hydrogenation of oil, manufacture
of soap and glycerine, major Engg. Problems of all such industries.
7. Carbohydrate Industries
Manufacture of sugar and starches. Ethanol from molasses by fermentation, major
engg. Problems.
8. Pulp and Paper Industries
Methods of pulp production, manufacture of pulp by Kraft process, recovery of
chemicals from black liquor & major engg.problems.
9. Pharmaceuticals
Classification of drugs, manufacture of penicillin and aspirin.
10. Pesticides
Classification of pesticides, manufacture of parathion, 2-4-D, BHC.
11. Dyes & Intermediates
Classification of dyes, manufacture of H-acid and B-naphtha.
12. Electrochemical Industries
Types of electrochemical Indus., electroplating and refining of Aluminum.

Text book:
1. Dryden's outlines of chemical technology, 2nd Edition
M. Gopala Rao, Marshall sittig, East West press private limited, New Delhi.

References :
1. Chemical process industries – Shreve and Joseph.

2 Cchemical process industries - George f. Austin, Mc.Graw Hill International


3. Industrial chemicals – Faith, Keyes & Clarke.


Teaching Scheme (Hr/W) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. General Introduction & Concept of Safety

Safety of organization industrial plant lay out of safety, Safety measures Concept &
Importance of safety in chemical industries.
2. Chemical & Fire Hazards & their Control
Definition, sources & classification of hazards like chemical, fire, Different methods
for controlling chemical & fire hazards, Objective & importance of fire prevention, fire
extinguishing agents & devices with their working.
3. Other hazards & occupational diseases
Concept of mechanical, electrical & Noise hazards with their precautions.& Notified
dangerous occupational diseases with their cause and their prevention
4. Personal Protective Devices
Protective devices for head, ears, eyes, face, respiratory system, hand ,feet etc.
5. Introduction to pollution :
Introduction to environmental pollution, sources of pollutants, effects of pollution
on human health, vegetation , animal life & effect on environment.
6. Air Pollution :
Sources & Types of air pollutant, classification, properties of air pollutant, effect
of air pollution, Air pollution control methods like gravitational settling, Diffusion,
Electrostatic precipitation, Centrifugal impaction, Direct interception etc. Air
pollution controlling equipments like gravity settler, cyclone separator, fabric filter,
electrostatic precipitator, wet scrubber etc.
7. Water pollution :
Introduction, characterization of water, BOD, COD, VM, SM, classification of
sources. Water pollution, sewage treatment processes like primary, secondary of final
treatment, Brief idea about CETP of design criteria for Industrial effluent treatment
8. Solid waste of disposal methods :
Sources of classification, Methods of disposal like dumping, sanitary land filling,
incineration, composting etc.
9 Miscellaneous Pollution :
Sources types of effect of noise pollution, radiation etc.
Text Books:
1. Environmental Pollution control engineering - C. S. Rao
1) Fundamentals of air & water pollution - P. C. Mishra
2) Pollution Control in process Industries - S. P. Mahajan TMH Publication
3) Industrial safety health – David. L. Goetsch
4) Chemical process safety, fundamentals with applications – Danieal A. Crowel &
Joseph. F.
5) Safety management – John V. Grimaldi.
Laboratory work:-

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 - 1 60 40 - - 100

1. Introduction
Types of energy, energy crisis, Renewable sources of energy, conventional & Non
Conventional sources of energy, energy conservation.

2. Conventional fuels
Classification, types, sources, properties, uses, storage, handling & selection
factors of various conventional fuels in the form of
a. Solid : Coal, Lignite, Coke
b. Liquid : Gasoline, Kerosene, Naphtha, Fuel oil, Diesel
c. Gaseous : N.G., Refinery gas, Water gas, Producer gas, Coke oven gas, LPG, Oil
gas, Industrial Gases etc.

3. Non-conventional sources of energy

Solar energy : Solar radiation, collectors, storage & applications
Wind energy : Introduction, nature of wind & wind farm
Biomass energy : Introduction, Biomass conversion technology by wet & Dry
Geothermal energy: Introduction & Sources of geothermal energy.
Nuclear energy : Introduction, Nuclear Fuels & Nuclear reactions, types of
Propellant & moderators

4. Water & Steam

Importance, Consumption & source of water, water analysis, types of hardness,
methods of softening of water like lime soda, zeolite, ion exchange methods etc.,
Purification of water by screening, sedimentation, coagulation, filtration & sterilization,
treatment for boiler feed water, Reuse & Recycling of process water, definition of
enthalpy, wet steam, superheated steam, specific volume, Types-classification &
comparison of steam generators, Factors affecting the selection of steam generator.

5. Air & Refrigeration

Introduction, use of air as chemical raw material & utility, concept of compressed air,
blower air, fan air, instrument air etc., various methods of refrigeration in brief like ice,
evaporate, vapor, steam jet refrigeration etc, types of refrigerating agent like ammonia,
carbon dioxide, methylene chloride, water brine etc., selection of refrigerating agents.
Text book:
1. Chemtech vol. I - D. Venkateswarlu
2. Plant Utilites – Ghawane

Reference book:
2. Non-conventional energy sources - G. D. Rai

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 - 1 60 40 - - 100

1. Organization structure & organizational dynamics:

Definition, Goals & factors considered for organization structure, Division of
labour, Scalar & functional processes, Span of control, Delegation of authority,
Centralization of decentralization, Types, Advantages and disadvantages, Application of
organization structure, org. culture & factors.
2. Material , Finance, Production & Marketing Management:
Definition, Function, Importance & brief idea about all these kind of management
3. Production, Planning and Control
Concept of Production, planning and control, Objectives, functions of production,
planning and control etc.
4. Introduction of Plant Design
Importance of Chemical Engg. Plant Design, Role of chemical engineer in Plant
Design,Need for Plant Design, Basis for good design, Relation of Plant Design with
5. Development of Chemical Plant Project
Objectives for development of project, Process evaluation stages with
description, Technical factors, Economic factors, Legal phase, and sources of
6. Process Design for Chemical Plant
Choice of process, selection of process cycle, continuous versus batch process,
shift-operating time schedules types of flow diagrams.
7. Selection of Chemical Process equipments, Auxiliaries & Material
Selection of process equipment , Standard vs. special equipment, Selection of
various equipments like size reduction, material handling, heat transfer, mass transfer
equipments etc., selection of pumps, Piping, - ferrous pipe and tubes, non- metallic pipe,
Selection of pipes &Tubes, Insulation, types of insulation, factors governing selection of
insulation, application of pipe insulation
8. Layout & Location of Chemical Plant:
Importance of plant layout, factors in planning layout, methods of layout
planning, unit area concept, two dimensional layout, scale models, principles of plant layout,
site location, Primary and secondary factors considered in the plant location.

9. Plant Economics
Estimation of total product cost, fixed capital investment, working capital
investment, over- head charges, payout period, Break-even point, Causes of Depreciation,
types and methods of determining depreciation

1. Plant design & Economies for Chemical Engineers - M.S.Peters and K.D.Timmerhaus
2. Chemical Engineering Plant Design - F.C.Vilbrandt and C.E.Dryden.
3. Industrial Management. – Atul Prakashan

1. Modern production Management - Butta.
2. Material Management - N. Nair.

Teaching Scheme (Hours/Week) Examination Scheme (Marks) Total

Theory Practical Theory Practical T/w (Marks)

1 1 --- 50 -- 50



Concept/Introduction to Yoga(1)
Introduction, Definition of Yoga, Misconception of Yoga in modern time,
Importance of Yoga with respect to the Soul, Mind and Body triangle of
Types of Yoga
Brief about different Yoga- Astang yoga, Hath Yoga, Gyan Yoga, Karma
Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Raj Yoga, Mantra Yoga, Sahaja Yoga(Kundalini
Kundalini Yoga(6)
Definition of basic terminologies- Subtle System, Kundalini, Self
realization, Chakras(Energy centers), Nadis(Energy channels),
Energy centers – Mooladhara, Swadhisthan, Nabhi, Anahat, Visuddhi,
Agya, Sahasrara.
(Location, Gross manifestation, Qualities, Function, Spoiling factors,
Sensing points/parts of Chakras)
Energy Channels- Ida Nadi, Pingla Nadi, Sushumna Nadi (Location, Gross
Qualities, Function, Spoiling factors, Element, Sensing points/parts
of Chakras)
Sahaja Yoga – Unique revolution of modern time in Kundalini yoga
Concept/Introduction of Meditation
Introduction, Thoughtless awareness (1), Levels of Consciousness (1),
Practical session as per the technique of sahaja yoga(A unique science of
yoga founded
by H.H.Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi)(1)


Stress Management (3) Introduction, Physical stress, Mental Stress, Managing a
stress-by Pranayama, Meditation as a stress reliever,
Holistic Healthcare (1) Introduction, Yoga & Meditation for Physical & Mental
health, Introduction to common holistic approaches like Ayurveda,
Homoeopathy, Cosmic vibration therapy (Sahaja yoga)
Addiction free life (1), Introduction to addiction, types, Physical, Mental and
Social effect of addictions, Comprehensive strategies adopted by
Governmental bodies and NGOs to control addiction, Solution for
addiction by Yoga & Meditation.
General Health concept (1), Basics about food, Nutrition, Healthy (Satvik) food
concept according to Ayurveda
(B) PRACTICAL (Basic Asans) (8)


1. Kapalbhati, Anulom vilom, Pranayam, Omkar Pranayam, Bharmari, Pranayam,
Roration, Shavasan, Suryanamaskar,

2. Asans for Meditaion

Padmasan, Swastikasan, Siddhasan, Bhadrasan, Vajrasan, Makarasan,

3. Asans to be performed in Standing Position

Trikonasan, Pervatasan, Utkatukasan, Hastpadsan

4. Asans to be performed while lying in Supine position

Servangasan, Halasan, Savasan, Kosthavishramasan, Matshendrasan,

5. Asans to be performed while lying in Prone position

Uttanpadasan, Uttanadhasan, Serpasan, Bhujasan, Salabhasan,
Dhanurasan, Makarasan

6. Asans to be performed in Sitting position

Pavanmuktasan, Hastapadasan, Vajrasan, Ardhamatshyendrasan,
Shishuasan, Saptamudrasan, Gomukhasan.

7. Yoga Mudras(Seven Types)

8. Pranayam (Seven Types)


Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

Introduction, Engineering heat transfer and analogies between various transport
processes, modes of heat transfer, Fourier’s law, Newton’s law, Stefan Boltzmann law,
Thermal conductance and resistance, Convective and radiative conduction, Combined
heat transfer process.
2. Steady State Heat Transfer by conduction
Concept of heat conduction, Linear one-dimensional Heat conduction through wall,
through cylinder and through sphere, Conduction through composite plane wall,
conduction through composite cylinder, conduction through composite sphere, critical
insulation thickness for pipes.
3. Heat Transfer by Convection
The nature of heat convection, The Nusselt Number, Determination of Nusselt
Number, Forced convection (No derivation), Free convection (No derivation)
4. Heat Transfer By Phase Change
Heat transfer accompanied by phase change, Phenomenon of boiling, Regimes of pool
boiling, Nucleate boiling & film boiling, Phenomenon of condensation, Application of
general equations.
5. Thermal Radiation
Nature of thermal radiation, Absorption, Transmission, Reflection and Emission of
Radiation, Emissive power of black body, Plank’s distribution, Total emissive power,
stefan-Boltzman law, Emissivity, Kirchoff’s law, Black body, Wien’s displacement law,
radiation shields.
6. Heat Exchangers
Introduction, types of heat exchangers, overall heat transfer coefficient, Effect of scale
formation, logarithmic mean temperature difference, L.M.T.D. correction factors,
Extended surfaces.
7. Evaporation
Introduction, Liquid characteristics, types of evaporator, Duhring rule & boiling point
elevation, economy & capacity, method of feeding , examples based on single effect
Text Book :
1. Engineering Heat Transfer – Gupta & Prakash
2. Chemical Engineering unit operation – McCabe & Smith
3. Unit Operation – II - K.A. Gavane
Reference :
1. Heat Transfer – J.P. Holman
2. Heat Transfer – D.Q. Kern
3. Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer - Sachendra
DK 402 : Fluid Flow Operations

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Fluid Statics:
Definition of fluid, fluid mechanics, static pressure, head, gauge pressure, absolute
pressure, dynamic pressure, vacuum. Pressure measuring devices, Simple U tube
manometer, differential U tube manometer, inclined tube manometer, measurement of
absolute and gauge pressure by manometer, manometric liquids, purpose of pressure
measurement. Mechanical pressure gauges, Bourdon tube, diaphragm & bellow
gauges. Derivation & Calculation of pressure drop.
2. Fluid dynamics :
Purpose of flow measurement, definition of average mass & volumetric flow rates,
Classification of flow meters, orifice meter, venturimeter, pitot tube, flow nozzle,
rotameter, open weirs. Comparison & merits-demerits of flow meters. . Calculation of
flow rates by direct use of formulas.
3. Behavior of different types of fluids :
Definitions of ideal & real fluids, Newtonian & non-Newtonian fluids, behaviour
of non Newtonian fluids, definitions of different viscosities, viscosity measurement
by Hagan Poiseuille’s method, steady state & unsteady state flow. Reynold
experiment, conclusions, definition of laminar flow, turbulent flow, and Reynold
number, critical velocity, transition flow, assumptions of simple & modified
Bernoulli’s equation and its applications. Friction factor chart, significance,
roughness parameter, relative roughness, skin friction, form friction comparison.
Derivation of Fanning’s friction equation. Head loss & pressure drop through pipe
calculation. net head developed by pump, fluid HP, BHP calculation.
4. Transportation of fluids :
Pipes, tubes, pipe size, pipe fittings, their uses & sketches, joints-flange,
expansion, Different types of valves, their construction, function & uses.
Classification of pumps. Centrifugal pumps- volute & turbine type. Positive
displacement pumps & gear, sliding vane, lobe, piston, plunger & diaphragm types
fans – centrifugal forward & backward curved blades type. Blowers & compressors –
reciprocating & rotary types (all fluid moving machineries are in brief) characteristic
curves of centrifugal pump. Derivation of NPSH & calculation. Cavitation – causes
& remedies.
5. Conveying :
Pneumatic type – vertical & horizontal types, Hydraulic type – vertical &
horizontal types homogeneous flow & Industrial applications.
6. Fluidization :
Aggregative & particulate types. Mechanism, applications, calculation of pressure
drops through fluidized bed. Comparison of packed & fluidized beds, their merits,
demerits & applications.
7. Level measurement :
Direct level measurement – tape, sight glass & float methods. Indirect level
measurement – Air trap box, diaphragm box, bulbar system, differential U tube
manometer methods.
Textbooks :
1. Unit Operations in Chem. Engg. - McCabe & Smith
2. Introduction to Chem. Engg. - Badger & Banchero.
Reference :
1 Principles of Unit Operations -Foust & Wenzel 2 Industrial Instrumentation - Eckman
2 3 A text book of fluid mechanics - R. S. Khurmi 4 Instrumentation - Kerk & Rimboy

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 -- 1 60 40 -- -- 100

1. Introduction
Dimensions & Units, Different systems of units, Conversion of
units & simple problems on such topics.

2. Basic Chemical Calculation

Composition of solids, Liquid mixtures, Ideal gas law, Gas
constant, Composition of gaseous mixtures, Dalton’s & Amaget’s law and
simple problems on above topics.

3. Material Balance
Concepts and importance of material balance, Classification of material balance
Problems, Problems based on tie material, Inert material balance & simultaneous
equation involving various unit operations, Concepts of recycle, purge and bypass.

4. Material Balance with chemical reaction

Simple steady state material balance problems with chemical

5. Energy Balance
Forms of energy, Concepts of Cp, Cv, Calculation of enthalpy
change, Thermo chemistry involving concepts & simple calculations of
Hc, HR & Hf, Simple energy balance problems.

6. Combustion
Types of fuels, calorific value, Simple problems to find out the air requirement &
composition of exit gases etc.

Text Book:
1. Stoichiometry - Bhatt & Vora.

1. Basic principles of calculation in chemical engineering - Himmelbau.

Teaching Scheme (hr/W) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Introduction
Importance of mass transfer operations, classification of mass-transfer operations,
methods of conducting mass transfer operations and fundamental design principles.

2. Molecular Diffusion Of Fluids

Concept of molecular and eddy diffusion, Fick’s law for diffusion, general
equation for steady-state molecular diffusion in fluid within laminar flow, thermal
diffusion , simple problems on diffusion by direct use of formula.

3. Interphase Mass Transfer

Concept of equilibrium, local and average overall mass transfer coefficient, film
theory, penetration theory, analogy between mass and momentum transfer and concept of
stage, stage efficiency, cascade etc.

4. Gas Absorption
Definition and application of absorption, equilibrium solubility of gases in liquids,
effect of temperature and pressure on solubility, characteristics of ideal liquid solutions of
Raoult’s law, choice of solvents, material balance for the component transfer in counter
current and concurrent flow, concept of HETP and simple problems on absorption.

5. Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Definition and application of liquid extraction, liquid equilibrium for three
component system, equilibrium triangular coordinates, system of three liquids one pair
partially soluble, effect of temperature and pressure on the solubility curve, choice of
solvents for the operation, simple problems using direct formula.

6. Leaching
Definition and industrial application of leaching, preparation of solid, methods of
operations and equipment for inplace leaching and heap leaching, shanks system, filter-
press leaching and equipment like Rotacel, Kennedy extractor and Balloman extractor.
7. Equipment For Gas-Liquid Operation
Construction and working of gas dispersed equipments like bubble column
(Sparged vessel), agitated vessel, tray tower etc. and liquid dispersed equipments like
venturi scrubbers, wetted wall column, spray tower, packed tower and comparison
between tray and packed tower.
Text books:
1. Mass Transfer Operations - Robert E. Treybal, Mc-Graw Hill Publications.
1. Unit operations in chemical engineering - McCabe & Smith.
2. Introduction to chemical engineering -Badger & Banchero.
3. Chemical engineering vol. 2 -Coulson & Richardson.
4. Hand book of chemical engineering - J.H.Perry.

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 -- 1 60 40 -- -- 100

1. Introduction to Instrumentation
Concept and importance of instrumentation, classification of instruments, basic
elements of instruments, characteristics of instruments in detail, brief explanation of
first order system and second order system.

2. Temperature Measuring Devices

Definition of thermometer, temperature scale, mercury in glass thermometer,
Bimetallic & pressure spring thermometers, Principle of thermo electricity, Sebeck
effect, Peltier effect & Thomson effect, Industrial thermocouple, lead wire
thermowells, Resistance thermometer, Single wheatstone bridge circuit & Null bridge
resistance thermometer, Deflection resistance thermometer circuit, Radiation &
Optical pyrometers.

3. Measurement of Pressure & Vacuum

Pressure, Vacuum & Head measuring elements for gauge pressure & Vacuum,
Indicating elements for pressure gauges, Brief explanation about measurement of
absolute pressure, Measuring pressures in corrosive fluids, Static accuracy of pressure
gauges, Response of Mechanical Pressure gauges.

4. Measurement of Head & Level

Head, density & Sp. Gravity, Direct measurement of liquid level, Pressure (Level)
measurements in open vessel, level measurement in pressure vessels, Measurement of
Interface level, Density measurement, level measurement by weighing, level of dry

5. Process Recording Instruments

Recording Instruments, Indicating & Signaling Instruments, and Transmission of
instrument readings, Control center, and Instrumentation diagram.

6. Distributed Control Systems

Principle of working, important control modes with simple diagram, Comparison of
PLC & DCS system, Principle of modem.


1. Industrial instrumentation - Donald P Eckman

2. Instrumentation - K. Johnson
3. Industrial Instrumentation & Control - S. K. Singh
4. Instrumentation - Eckman

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
- 3 - - - 50 25 75

Refer and draw the standard code/decodes and symbols for Chemical Engineering

Prepare sketches of various types of Valves, Pipe fittings, Joints etc.

Free hand sketch drawing of various Chemical Engineering Unit Operation equipments
like Heat Transfer equipments, Mechanical Operation equipments, Mass Transfer
equipments etc.

References :
1. Outlines of Chemical Technology – Gopala Rao.
2. Chemical Engineering Unit Operation – McCabe Smith.
3. Introduction to Chemical Engineering – Badger & Banchero.

Teaching Scheme (hr/W) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Distillation
Importance of distillation as separation method, vapor-liquid equilibrium, relative
volatility, ideal solutions with Raoult’s law, Henry’s law, maximum & minimum liquid
azeotropes, flash vaporization with material balance calculation, calculations of vapor-
liquid equilibrium, Differential distillation with Rayleigh’s equation of simple
calculation, steam distillation, continuous rectification – binary system based on McCabe
& Thiele methods with calculation, Extractive & Azeotropic distillation

2. Humidification
Concept of partial pressure & vapor pressure, definitions & simple calculations
for absolute humidity, relative saturation & percentage saturation, concept of wet bulb
temperature, dry bulb temperature, dew point, humid volume, humid heat, psychrometric
chart, construction & working of different types of cooling tower, spray pond.

3. Drying
Applications, understanding of various definitions, types and classification of
drying operations, equipments, freeze drying, drying test and derivation of equations for
drying time and simple calculations.

4. Adsorption and Ion Exchange

Concept and application, types of adsorption, hystersis, characteristics and nature
of adsorbents, effect of temperature, Freundlich equation and it’s applications for single
stage operation, heatless adsorber, major applications and factors affecting ion-exchange.

5. Crystallization
Concept and application, methods for supersaturation, classification of
crystallizer, Meir’s theory, concept of nucleation and crystal growth, effect of seeding
and simple calculations for percentage yield, construction and working of Swenson
Walker, tank, DTB, Krystal and Vacuum crystallizes.

Text books:
1. Mass Transfer Operations - Robert E. Treybal , Mc-Graw Hill Publications.

1. Unit operations in chemical engineering - McCabe & Smith.
2. Introduction to chemical engineering - Badger & Banchero.
3. Chemical engineering vol. 2 - Coulson & Richardson.
4. Hand book of chemical engineering - J.H.Perry.

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 -- 1 60 40 -- -- 100

1. Introduction and First law of thermodynamics

Scope of thermodynamics, Internal energy, the first law of thermodynamics, Thermodynamics
State and static function, Enthalpy, The steady state flow process Equilibrium, The phase rule, the
reversible process, Constant volume and constant pressure process, Heat capacity.
2. Second law of thermodynamics
Statement of the second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamics
temperature scale, Entropy, Entropy change of an ideal gas, Mathematical
statement of the second law, the third law of the thermodynamics
3. Introduction to refrigeration and liquefaction
The Carnot refrigeration, the vapor compression cycle, Compression of
refrigeration cycle, the choice of refrigerant, Adsorption refrigeration, heat pump
Liquefaction process
4. Introduction to reaction engineering
Thermodynamics, Chemical kinetics, Classification of reactions, Variable
affecting the rate of reaction, Definition of rate.
5. Kinetics of homogeneous reaction
(1) Concentration dependent term of a rate equation
 Single and multiple reaction
 Elementary and nonelementary reaction
 Kinetic view of equilibrium for elementary reaction
 Molecularity and order of reaction
 Representation of reaction rate
 Testing of kinetic model
(2) Temperature dependent term of a rate equation
 Arrhenius law
 Collision theory
 Transition state theory
 Comparison of theory
 Comparison of theory with Arrhenius law
 Activation energy and temperature dependency
 Rate of reaction prediction by the theories
(No derivation for all topics)
6. Interpretation of batch reactor data
Constant volume batch reactors, Temperature and rate of reaction, the search of
rate equation.
7. Introduction to reactor
Batch reactor; plug flow reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor.
Text book: -
1. Chemical engineering thermodynamics - Smith and Vanness
2. Chemical reaction engineering & Thermodynamics - Ghavane

Reference book: -
1. Physical chemistry - Bhall and Tuli 2 Chemical kinetics - J. M. Smith
3 Chemical reaction engineering - Octave Levenspiel 4 Thermodynamics - P. K. Nag
DK 503: Petroleum Refining & Petrochemical Technology

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Origin, Formation & Composition of Petroleum

Origin & formation of petroleum , Reserves & deposit of world , Indian petroleum
refineries with their location & capacity, composition of petroleum.
2. Petroleum Processing Data
Classification of crude oil, Crude Assay Analysis, ASTM Distillation, Thermal
properties of petroleum.
3. Fractionation of Petroleum
Dehydration & Desalting of crude, pipe still heaters, Distillation of crude oil,
Important products, properties & test methods, additives for various petroleum products.
4. Treatment Techniques
Physical & Chemical Impurities, Treatment of gasoline, Kerosene & lubes by
various methods. Removal of sulfur and sulfur compound.
5. Thermal & Catalytic Processes
Objective of cracking & Reforming operations, effect of temperature & pressure on
cracking, advantages of cracking, Reforming & Platforming.
6. Introduction of Petrochemical Industry
Definition, History, Major Petrochemical products and their producers in India,
Raw materials for Petrochemicals, Characteristics of Petrochemical Industry.
7. Manufacture of Cl compound
Methanol, Formaldehyde.
8. Manufacture of C2 compound
Ethylene & Polyethylene , Vinyl chloride , Ethanol, Ethylene di- chloride, Ethylene
9. Manufacturing of C3 compound
Propylene & Polypropylene , Cumene, Acrylonitrile.
10. Manufacture of C4 Compound
Butadiene, Iso butylene, Butanol.
11. Aromatics Chemicals
Styrene LAB, Phenol, Terphthalic acid & DMT, Phthalic anhydride & Malaik

Text Books:
1. Petroleum Refining - B.K. Bhaskar Rao.
2. Petrochemicals - B.K. Bhaskar Rao.

Reference :
1. Advanced Petroleum Refining - G.N. Sarkar.
2. Petroleum Refining Engineering - Nelson.
3. Petroleum Technology, Volume – I - Ludivig

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 3 1 60 40 50 25 175

1. Introduction
Need of fertilizer, type of fertilizer, ments and dements of fertilizer, fertilizer
industries at glance.

2. Nitrogenous fertilizer
Roll of Nitrogenous fertilizer, sources and properties of hydrogen, nitrogen and
ammonia, manufacture of synthesis gas by steam hydrocarbon, reforming and partial
oxidation methods, synthesis of ammonia, types of converters, storage and handling
of ammonia.
A. Urea: properties and uses, manufacture of urea by total recycle process
with Montocetini and Toyokotsu process.
B. Ammonium nitrate: properties, manufacturing process and uses.
C. Ammonium sulfate: properties, manufacturing processes and uses.
D Ammonium chloride properties, manufacturing processes and uses.

3. Potassium fertilizer
Roll of potassium as fertilizer, properties, and sources of potash and production of

4. Phosphatic fertilizer
Roll of potash as fertilizer, types of rock phosphate, production of elemental
phosphorus (yellow or red) manufacture. of phosphoric acid by wet method, electric
arc furnace method, production of normal and super triple phosphate, ammonium
phosphate, major engineering problem of such industries.

5. Mixed fertilizer
Manufacture and granulation of mixed fertilizer and bulk blending.

6. Environmental aspects of fertilizer industry

Brief idea about air pollution, methods of controlling the air pollution and
effluent treatment for fertilizer industries.

Text book:
1. Dryden’s Outline of Chemical Technology – Gopal Rao
2. Shrieve’s Chemical Process Industries – Beorge Austin.

1. Chemistry and Technology of Fertilizers – Vincent Sauchelli, Reinhold publications
DK 505 Dyes and Dyes Intermediate Technology

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 - 1 60 40 - - 100

1. Introduction and classification of Dye & Dye-Intermediate

-Classification of dyes: By application, by Manufacturing & by color code.
- R. M. & testing parameter
- Basic Unit Operations involved in manufacturing of dyes: Filtration, Size reduction,
Sublimation, Freezing, Precipitation, Decantation, Filtration, Centrifugation, , Blending,
Crystallization, Drying, Evaporation, Distillation, Extraction
- Basic Unit Processes in manufacture of Dyes: Nitration, Sulfonation, Alkylation,
Amination by reduction, Amination by amonolysis, Helogenation, Hydrolysis,
Hydroxylation, Oxidation, Esterification, Hydrogenation, Diazotization, Cynurization,
Coupling, Isolation.
2. Dyes Intermediate
- Benzene Series: Name, structure, physical properties, Chem. Rxn, Mfg. process,
- Naphthalene Series: Name, structure, physical properties, Chem. Rxn, Mfg. process,
- Anthracene Series: Name, structure, physical properties, Chem. Rxn, Mfg. process,
- Hetrocyclic series: Name, structure, physical properties, Chem. Rxn, Mfg. process,
3. Dyes:
- Introduction, Mfg process of Dyes.
- Reactive dye: Reactive Black B, Turquoise Blue, Congo Red, Acid Yellow 3.
- Vat dye: Indigo, – Monoazo type, Diazo type.
- Basic dye: Rhodamine, Methylene Blue, Acid Dyes, – Acid Blue 45, Acid Green 25.
4. Pigments:
- Classification of Pigments – Organic Pigments, Inorganic Pigments, Manufacturing
Processes – CPC Green, CPC Blue, Uses of Pigments.
5. Application of Dye:
Types of Fiber, Dyeing Methods, Fastness Properties of dyestuff – Washing Fastness,
Light Fastness, Degree of staining
6. Effluent Treatment methods in Dye-Industries\
- Physical methods, Chemical methods, Biological methods

1. Technology of Dyeing by V.A Shenai; Sevak Publishers, Mumbai.
2. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres by E.R Trotman;
B.I. Publication, New Delhi.
3. A textbook of Dyes by Arora.
4. Dyes and their Intermediates by Abrahart.
5. Dyes and their Intermediates by Chatwal.
6. Introduction to the Chemistry of Dyestuffs by V.A. Shenai, Sevak Publishers,
7. Dyes and Dyeing by Charles E. Pellow; Abhishek Publishers, Chandigarh.
8 Fundamental Processes of Dye Chemistry by Fierz-David.
DK 505 Polymer Technologies

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
3 - 1 60 40 - - 100

1. Introduction to polymers (9)

Brief history, About polymers, Classification of polymers according to chemical and geometrical
structure of polymer molecules, General remarks on polymer microstructure, Microstructure based on the
chemical structure – Organic and inorganic polymers, Homochain and heterochain polymers,
Homopolymers and copolymers, Microstructure based on the geometrical structure – Linear, branched
and cross-linked polymers, Random, alternating, block and graft co-polymers, Stereo-regular polymers –
Optical isomerism, Geometrical isomerism, glass transition temperature
2. Chemistry of Polymerisation (5)
Introduction, Chain polymerisation – Free radical polymerisation, Ionic polymerisation, Introduction to
catalytic polymerisation, Step polymerization
3. Polymerization Techniques (3)
Bulk polymerisation, Solution polymerisation, Suspension polymerisation, Emulsion polymerisation,
Melt polycondensation, Solution Polycondensation, Interfacial polymerization
4. Plastics (7)
Introduction, Classification of Plastics, Raw Materials, Preparation, properties, and applications for the
Addition Polymerization Products like Poly Ethylene, LDPE, HDPE, PVC, Poly Styrene, Alloys, blends,
and composites, Engineering Plastics like Nylon, ABS, Poly Carbonates, TEFLON etc, Recent trends in
plastics like bio degradable plastics etc.
5. Rubbers (3)
Introduction and classification of rubber, vulcanization, reinforcement with carbon black, Natural rubber,
Prepartion, properties, and applications of synthetic rubbers like SBR, Poly Butadiene, Poly Ethylene-
Propylene & Butyl Rubber, Brief of some important rubber like Nitrile rubber , Neoprene, Reclaim
6. Resins for Adhesives and Protective Coating (3)
Introduction, Condensation polymerization products like Phenol Formaldehyde (Phenolic Resins), Amino
Resins, Polyester Resins, Alkyl Resins and Epoxy Resins, Polyurethane Resins, Poly Amide Resins
7. Fiber and Film (5)
Introduction to fiber, Properties of fiber, Cellulosic fiber: Viscose Rayon and Cellulose Acetate,
Polyamide fibers, Polyester fiber, Acrylic fibers, carbon fibers, Films: Viscose & Cellulose Acetate, Poly
olefins, Poly Vinyl Chloride
8. Polymer processing (6)
Extrusion, injection molding, compression molding, blow molding, film extrusion, spinning, extrusion
film blowing, etc.

Text book:
1.Polymer Science by V R Gowarikar.
2.Outlines of polymer Technology by R Sinha

Reference book:
1. Textbook of polymer scince by Fred W Billmeyer Jr.
2. Experimental methods of Polymer by A Ya. Malkin et al.
DK 601: Industrial Training / Project Work

Teaching scheme (Hr/w) Exam Scheme (Marks)

L Pr T Th Sess Pr Tw Total
- - - - - 100 50 150

A student will undergo in-plant training for about 18 weeks and submit a training report
which covers following aspects or he will prepare a complete project report comprising
product properties, various manufacturing processes, process selection, material balance
energy balance, plant location and layout etc. under the guidance of concerned faculty.

1. Factory Organisation
Operation, Supporting, Engineering Services, Plant Location, Layout, Waste
management, Utility Supply.

2. Operation of Chemical Plant

Key activities, Technology absorption, Process control, Safety Awareness/Emergency
Handling, Troubleshooting, and In-process Quality Control.

3. Construction/Working/Operation/Inspection of
Pipes/Pipe fittings, Instruments, Distillation Tower, Filtration, Centrifuges, Heat
Exchanger, Evaporator, Drier, Cooling Towers, Pumps etc.

4. Concept of Startup / Shutdown / Emergency handling / Maintenance etc.