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Analog Circuit Design on Digital CMOS

Why it is difficult, and which ideas help. Presented by HP. Schmid.


Background on Hanspeter Schmid

– Dissertation on video-frequency integrated filters (ETH Zürich)


– Analog IC Designer at Bernafon / William Demant Holding:
– Analog electronics: LNAs, amplifiers, regulators, filters, standard
cells, circuits for wireless communication system.
– System design, analog signal processing and signal integrity.
– Communication facilitator between Danish and Swiss Teams.
– IME: research projects (sensor systems, sigma-delta, etc.),
consulting, teaching.
– ETH Zürich: teaching analog (integrated) signal processing
– IEEE CAS:
– Chair Analog Signal Processing Tech. Comm.
– Associate Editor of TCAS-I
– Hobbies: going for walks,
playing trombone, reading.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 2


Tutorial Philosophy

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 3


Philosophy I: Be a fool!

– multiparameter optimization
– noise
– distortion
– power consumption
– signal delay
– chip area
– offset
– yield
– mask costs
– …
– conscious vs. subconscious
– conscious mind: 4…5 criteria
– subconscious: 100? 200?
– what it means to be a fool

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 4


Philosophy II: Be a child

– open for everything


– playful
– does not do
what she should do
– a child has got time!

– Advice for scientists by


Douglas Adams:

See first, think later, then


test. But always see first, or
you will only see what you
expect to see!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 5


Philosophy III: Be a climber

– works hard to achieve a goal


– is well trained
– normally gets to the intended
goal

– Is the intention good?

The direct path leads only to


The most exciting phrase in science,the
thegoal!
one (André Gide) new
that heralds
discoveries, is not Eureka! (I found it!), but
– Will
That's funny ... the fool not fall down?
(Isaac Asimov)
Not if the fool also is a child.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 6


Tutorial Contents

Image from http://www.beatenbergbilder.ch/


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 7
Introduction: What is new?

– More metal layers


– Small lateral distances
– Thinner gates
– more C
– less Vdd
– less gain
– more weak inversion

Image from http://www.ndl.org.tw/cht/ndlcomm/P10_2/7.pdf


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 8
Multi-metal cross section

Example: 6 Metal layers.


Lateral dimensions are smaller than vertical dimensions!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 9


Transconductance in Strong and Weak Inversion

Strong Inversion

Weak Inversion

Moderate Inversion: Superposition

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 10


Maximum gain of single stage is reached in weak inversion

For a given supply current: gain is proportional to supply voltage!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 11


Weak inversion = matching problems?

For a 0.25u process:

Voltage offset Current offset


for identical supply current for identical gate-source voltage

Therefore: Differential pairs in weak inversion


Therefore: Current mirrors in strong inversion
from [Kinget07]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 12
Summary

– Thinner gates (and higher gate tunnelling currents!)


– more gate (overlap, ...) capacitance per area

– No buried channels anymore


Æ pMOS is not better anymore in terms of flicker noise!

– Less supply voltage Æ less signal


– Less gain
– same white noise at same supply current; less flicker noise

– Sub-threshold leakage

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 13


Literature: What is new?

[Annema99] Anne-Johan Annema, "Analog Circuit Performance and Process Scaling",


IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems—II, vol. 46, no. 6,
pp. 711–725, June 1999.

[Huang98] Qiuting Huang et. al., "The Impact of Scaling Down to Deep Submicron on
CMOS RF Circuits," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1023–1036, July
1998

[Kinget07] Peter Kinget, "Device Mismatch: An Analog Design Perspective", ISCAS, New
Orleans, pp. 1245–1248, May 2007.

[Tsividis02] Yannis Tsividis, Mixed Analog-Digital VLSI Devices and Technology, World
Scientific Publishers, 2002.

[Tsividis99] Yannis Tsividis, Operation and Modelling of the MOS Transistor, ed. 2,
McGraw-Hill 1999.

[Dijksterhuis06] Ap Dijksterhuis et. al., "On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-
Without-Attention Effect," Science, vol. 311, pp. 1005–1007, 2006.

[Simons99] Daniel Simons et. al., "Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional
blindness for dynamic events," Perception, vol. 28, pp. 1059–1074, 1999.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 14


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 15
Signal Integrity

– Ground and Power Routing


– Star Connections
– Tapered Stars

– Signal Grounds and Refs


– Improving PSR (theory)

– Finger capacitors and


MIM-capacitors
– Demodulation by nonlinearity
– Decoupling

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 16


Why correct ground and power routing are important

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 17


On PCB: Power plane? No!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 18


On PCB: Split ground plane? Dangerous!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 19


Recommendations for PCB routing

[National05] recommend

– Use a single, unified ground plane

– use separate power planes for analog and digital

– let trace routing control ground currents.

Low-power low-noise circuits:


require controlled power/gnd routing!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 20


The problem of the star connection on chip

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 21


Calculation example: hearing aid system

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 22


16μΩ is not a lot!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 23


Solution: Tapered star

This means: we have full control of where the noise currents flow.

But: more chip area or more supply / ground wire resistance!

Paradox: most sensitive nodes are farthest away from pad.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 24


Local decoupling is sometimes needed

The question is: where shall the decoupling capacitor go?

Answer: to the reference of the signal!


But this may not be so easy.
Many "PSR problems" are really coupling problems or problems
with dirty references

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 25


How to improve PSRR and CMRR in a system?

CMRR and PSRR are connected!


Proof: Gauge transformation

from [Säckinger91]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 26
Solution: Additional input from quiet ground

Now we have one more degree


of freedom

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 27


Example: additional signal path

from [Loikkanen06]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 28
Example: additional signal path

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 29


Recommendations for chip routing

Use "tapered" star connections

For every differential signal node, make sure that the signal is
referred to a clean signal.

Input reference

Problem:

the references can change


within a single circuit

Output reference
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 30
Multi-metal Finger-Cap MIM-Cap combination

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 31


Comparison for a six-metal 0.18um CMOS process

MIM capacitor (Metal 5 and Metal 6): 1.0 fF/μm2

Finger structure (Metal 1 … Metal 4): 1.3 fF/um2

MIM capacitor on top of Finger structure (all Metal): 2.3 fF/um2

MOSFET gate capacitance (non-linear): 10.0 fF/um2

Can we use a MOSFET gate capacitor for decoupling?

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 32


Demodulation by a nonlinearity I: DC offset

Normal Operation with HF-Signal on Pad


(weak inversion)

Gives DC Offset! Inputs must be protected against this ...


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 33
Demodulation by a nonlinearity II: receiver

Normal Operation with amplitude-modulated


HF-Signal on Pad (weak inversion)

Demodulates the signal and gives more DC offset!


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 34
Realistic? Yes!

In all digitally driven class-D (PWM) amplifiers, the signal is


amplitude-modulated on the system clock frequency.

The square of this signal appears in the supply current.

If this strays back into a high-gain audio system:


huge distortion or even instability!

Solution:

decouple all inputs


... to the respective reference of the signal
... as close to the pad as possible
... with as big a capacitor as possible

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 35


Literature: Signal Integrity

[Loikkanen06] Mikko Loikkanen et. al., "PSRR Improvement


Technique for Amplifiers with Miller Capacitor," ISCAS 2006,
Kos, Greece, pp. 1394–1397.

[National05] National Semiconductor Analog University, Meeting


Signal-Path Design Challenges, High-performance seminar
series 2005, part no. 570012-001. (Can be ordered from
National for free.)

[Säckinger91] Eduard Säckinger et. al., "A General Relationship


Between Amplifier Parameters, And Its Application to PSRR
Improvement," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems—I, vol. 38,
no. 10, pp. 1173–1181, Oct 1991

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 36


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 37
An amp within an amp

– Weak inversion

– Zero-Vgs amplifiers

– Super-Transistors
– Cascode current mirrors
– Self-biased cascodes
– Regulated cascodes

– Matryoshka amplifiers
– Regulated cascode OTAs
– Nested Miller amplifiers

Image from http://www.souvenironline24.de/shop.aspx


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 38
Weak Inversion = Sub-threshold Operation

from [Tsividis99]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 39
Zero-Vgs folded-cascode opamp in 0.18μm technology

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 40


Zero-Vgs folded-cascode opamp in 0.18μm technology

VGS

VT=230 mV (!), L=min, ID=5uA


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 41
Maximum gain of single stage is reached in weak inversion

For a given supply current: gain is proportional to supply voltage!

Less gain on (deep)


submicron
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 42
Normal current mirror

Output resistance

Increase this with feedback!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 43


Cascode current mirror

Feedback loop:
For a constant signal current, the transistor M4 tries to keep the
drain voltage of M2 constant. The loop gain around M4 is

and the output resistance:

Problem: high voltage drop.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 44


Low-voltage cascode current mirror

Same feedback loop!

Careful design needed such that


M3 and M1 are always saturated

Bias voltage necessary

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 45


Self-biased low-voltage cascode current mirror

Still same feedback loop!

But: for the same current, Vgs3 < Vgs1!

– M1, M2 in strong inversion


M3, M4 in weak inversion
(makes Aloop small and M3,M4 huge)
– M1, M2 normal-Vt transistors
M3, M4 low-Vt transistors
(requires low-Vt transistors, which
most submicron processes have)

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 46


Different view: build super transistors

Then: build good super transistors!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 47


The regulated cascode

Increasing the loop gain ...

... gives much higher output resistance

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 48


The "original" by Säckinger

simplest loop amplifier, but needs a lot of supply voltage

from [Säckinger90]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 49
Matryoshka-style regulated-cascode amplifier

several OTA one OTA Slice


Slices
from [Treichler06]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 50
Matryoshka slice layout!

One OTA Slice

Full OTA

[Treichler06]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 51
Matryoshka Miller OpAmp: Two stages

from [Huijsing01]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 52
Matryoshka Miller OpAmp: Three stages

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 53


Matryoshka Miller OpAmp: Four stages

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 54


Conclusion

On modern digital technologies, we lose


– supply voltage
– gain

If we need gain:
– we need to combine more gain stages
– and, if possible, use weak inversion

Intuitive way to think about it:

An Amp within an Amp within an Amp

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 55


Literature: New uses of old parts

[Burger96] Thomas Burger and Qiuting Huang, "A 100dB 480MHz OTA in
0.7um CMOS for sampled-data applications," Proc. CICC,
pp. 101–104, 1996.

[Huijsing01] Johan H. Huijsing, Operational Amplifiers—Theory and Design,


Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

[Säckinger90] Eduard Säckinger et. al, "A High-Swing, High-Impedance MOS


Cascode Circuit," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 25, no. 1,
pp. 289–298, Feb 1990.

[Treichler06] Jürg Treichler et. al., "A 10-bit ENOB 50-MS/s Pipeline ADC in
130-nm CMOS at 1.2 V Supply," Proc. ESSCIRC, Montreux, Switzerland,
pp. 552–555, 2006.

[Tsividis99] Yannis Tsividis, Operation and Modelling of the MOS Transistor,


ed. 2, McGraw-Hill 1999.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 56


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 57
Switched capacitors

– Speed limit of SC filters

– SC noise filtering
– Switches and T-gates

– Voltage doublers
– for clock signals
– for OTA tails
– for control voltages

– Flicker Noise
– Autozero, CDS and Chopping

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 58


Simple SC resistor

Pole frequency of SC resistor


loaded with capacitance:

from [Gregorian86]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 59
SC becomes much faster on modern processes

from [Johns97]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 60
Huge SC resistor for noise filtering

"Bucket Chain" technique Requires RC filters for antialiasing

Possible: 1s time constant! e.g., 80fF, 160kHz, 13 elements Æ 1 GΩ

Beware of offset!!!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 61


Bad Layout: asymmetries of clock lines!

This can give huge offset.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 62


Good Layout: as symmetrical as possible

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 63


Types of switches

from [Johns97]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 64
Voltage-level limitation

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 65


Benefitting from Narrow-Channel Effects

from [Tsividis96]

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 66


Reduce switch threshold voltage by slicing

VT=610mV

0.18u Process
Normal-VT Transistors
VT=540mV
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 67
Clock voltage doubler

"Doubling" pMOS gate voltages below VSS is also possible!

from [Basu99]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 68
What is flicker noise?

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 69


Fllicker noise comes from a process with memory!

from [Keshner82]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 70
Why is it called "flicker" noise?

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 71


On flicker noise:
the Yahoo Aaaaaargh!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 72


On flicker noise: the Yahoo Aaaaaargh!

from [Schmid07]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 73
Nature of Memory in MOSFETs

Mainly interface traps at the channel-to-oxide and gate-to-oxide


interfaces:
– Spectrum caused by a single trap with time constant τ:

– Distribution of the time constants:

– Flicker noise slope is a physical property.


– Flicker noise magnitude is related to the absolute number of
interface traps.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 74


Model of scaling-invariant memory

from [Schmid08]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 75
RMS behaviour of flicker noise

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 76


Reducing flicker noise by deleting memory I

from [Klumperink00]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 77
Sampling noise

from [Schmid08]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 78
Reducing offset and flicker noise by auto-zeroing

Correlated
Autozero Double
Sampling

1: Vos
1: −Vin+Vos
2: Vin+Vos
2: Vin+Vos

2−1: Vin
2−1: 2Vin

from [Enz96]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 79
Reducing offset and flicker noise by auto-zeroing

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 80


Reducing offset and flicker noise by chopping

from [Enz96]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 81
Simulated chopped noise

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 82


Chopper circuit

from [Schmid08]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 83
Matryoshka Chopper

from [Schmid08]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 84
Multipath Chopper

Chopped
High
Gain

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 85


Reducing offset and 1/f noise by correlated double sampling

– Auto-zeroing: sample offset in one phase; sample signal in


other phase while compensating offset.
Auto-zeroing works in sampled time.
– Chopping: modulate input signal to a higher frequency;
modulate signal back after amplifier, and therefore modulate
offset and 1/f noise to higher frequencies.
Chopping works in continuous time!
– Correlated double sampling combines both: first sample signal,
then sample inverse, then subtract.
Correlated double sampling works in sampled time.
CDS can be used most effectively in capacitive sensor systems
where the sensor can be controlled to give normal or inverse
output signals! Then sensor offset and 1/f noise is reduced too.
– In auto-zero and CDS, the transistor bias history must be
the same for both samples!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 86


Literature: Switched capacitors

[Basu99] S. Basu and G. Temes, "Simplified Clock Voltage Doubler," Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 22, pp. 1901–1902, Oct 1999.

[Duisters98] Tonny A. F. Duisters and Eise Carel Dijkmans, "A −90-dB THD rail-to-rail input opamp using a new local charge pump in
CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 947–955, Jul. 1998.

[Enz96] Christian Enz and Gabor Temes, "Circuit Techniques for Reducing the Effects of Op-Amp Imperfections: Autozeroing, Correlated
Double Sampling, and Chopper Stabilization," Proc. IEEE, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 1584–1614, Nov 1996.

[Gregorian86] Roubik Gregorian and Gabor Temes, Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons 1986.

[Johns97] David Johns and Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons 1997.

[Keshner82] Marvin Keshner, "1/f Noise," Proc. IEEE, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 212–218, March 1982.

[Klumperink00] Eric Klumperink et. al., "Reducing MOSFET 1/f Noise and Power Consumption by Switched Biasing," IEEE J. Solid-State
Circuits, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 994–1001, Jul. 2000.

[Schmid02] Hanspeter Schmid, "An 8.25-MHz 7th-Order Bessel Filter Built with Single-Amplifier Biquadratic MOSFET C Filters", Analog
Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, NORCHIP special issue, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 69–81, January 2002.

[Schmid07] Hanspeter Schmid , "Aaargh! I Just Loooove Flicker Noise," IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, pp. 32–35, First Quarter
2007.

[Schmid08] Hanspeter Schmid, "Offset, flicker noise, and ways to deal with them": Chapter in Circuits at the Nanoscale, CRC Press,
2008, edited by Krzysztof Iniewski.

[Wel07] Arnoud P. van der Wel et. al., "Low-Frequency Noise Phenomena in Switched MOSFETs," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 42,
no. 3, pp. 540–550, March 2007.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 87


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 88
Feedback or no feedback

– The benefit of feedback

– Current mode and


voltage mode

– Example: Open-Loop Sigma-


Delta A/D converter

– Case study with CSEM Zürich:


Low-feedback approach
applied to buffer design

Image from [Black34]


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 89
Feedback (in Black's words)

Advantages:

constancy of amplification

freedom from nonlinearity

reduced delay and delay distortion, reduced noise disturbance from


the power supply circuits

Disadvantages:

[difficult] because of the [] special control required of phase shifts

Unless these relations are maintained, singing will occur

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 90


No free lunch!

The famous no-free-lunch theorem states that even if we say, e.g.,


"A system with feedback gives us low distortion for free", it is not
really for free, we just cannot possibly optimize power by trading in
distortion or other parameters.

A more scientific version of the no-free-lunch theorem states:

A general-purpose optimization strategy is impossible, and


the only way one strategy can outperform another is if it is
specialized to the structure of the specific problem under
consideration.

from [Ho01]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 91
High-Impedance node in AD844 current-feedback amplifier

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 92


Simple example: voltage-controlled current source

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 93


AD844: the first stage is a Current Conveyor (CCII)

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 94


Current Amplifier without high-impedance node

from [Schmid00]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 95
Real difference

from [Schmid03]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 96
Very simple, very fast voltage integrator

from [Nauta92]
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 97
Impedance mismatch

– to decouple
– feedback couples again
– no FB
– decoupled
– optimization is much faster
– optimization space becomes tidier
– the child finds out more in a shorter time
– the fool won't fall
– Example
– aggressive design time
– first time right

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 98


© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 99
Case Study: Low-feedback approach applied to buffer design
Hanspeter Schmid, IME/FHNW
Simon Neukom and Yue-Li Schrag, CSEM Zürich

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 100
Standard SC amplifier
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 101
Why an open-loop solution?

We needed
– Voltage level shift from arbitrary low voltage to 1.6V
– Less supply current variation (lowered by 20dB)
– 12-bit precise settling at 4 MHz sample rate, 12-bit precise offset

Our open-loop continuous-time solution gave


– less offset (3σ=3.3mV compared to SC amp's 3σ=11.4mV)
– less power (14mW compared to SC amp's 63.5mW)

Disadvantages are:
– more harmonic distortion
– more noise

but since this is an output driver after high-gain pre-amplifier chain,


both disadvantages do not matter in our application.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 102
Operation principle: (with matched resistors)

Stage 1: single-ended voltage to differential current


Stage 2: current to voltage

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 103
Offset compensation with current-output Track&Hold

Signal is processed in "Hold" mode

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 104
Offset compensation with current-output Track&Hold

Offset is compensated in "Track" mode individually for each output path

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 105
The remaining offset comes only from the T&H OTA!

All other offsets, including random offsets in the gnd references, are cancelled.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 106
Input transconductor

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 107
Output transresistance amplifier

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 108
Track&Hold amplifier

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 109
Static offset: value settled at the end of calibration cycle

Dynamic offset: mean value of full-scale settled values

Static Offset

Durch Bild oder Grafik


ersetzen
(Grösse und Position beibehalten)

Dynamic Offset

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 110
Static and dynamic offset Offsets of two channels do
correlate very well not correlate well

digital correction possible!

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 111
Supply current for full-scale steps

The current peaks are much smaller than for SC amplifiers

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 112
Monte-Carlo simulation of third-order (left)
and second-order (right) harmonic distortion (full scale, full speed)

Efficient Simulation of Harmonic Distortion in Discrete-Time Circuits


Wednesday May 27, 2009 from 15:30 - 17:00 in Room 101B.
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 113
What causes odd-order distortion
non-idealities?

even-order distortion

gain error

NOISE offset

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 114
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 115
Design time!

– two weeks including all


simulations and layout

– has been used on


three chips

– first time right;


meets specs

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 116
Literature: Feedback or no feedback

[Black34] Harold S. Black, "Stabilized Feed-Back Amplifiers," Electrical Engineering, vol. 53, no. 1,
pp. 114–120, Jan 1934. Reprinted in Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 379–385, Feb 1999.

[Ho01] Y-C. Ho, D. Pepyne, "Simple Explanation of the No Free Lunch Theorem of Optimization",
Proc. 40th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, Orlando, pp. 4409–4414, Dec. 2001.

[Mahattanakul98] Jirayuth Mahattanakul, "Current-Mode Versus Voltage-Mode Gm-C Biquad Filters:


What the Theory Says," IEEE Trans. CAS–I, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 173–186, Feb 1998.

[Nauta92] Bram Nauta, "A CMOS Transconductance-C Filter Technique for Very High Frequencies,"
IEEE J. Solid-State Circ., vol. 27, no. 2., pp. 142–153, Feb 1992.

[Schmid00] Hanspeter Schmid, "Approximating the Universal Active Element." IEEE Trans. CAS–I,
vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1160–1169, Nov 2000.

[Schmid03] Hanspeter Schmid, "Why 'Current Mode' Does Not Guarantee Good Performance,"
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 79–90, April 2003.

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 117
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 118
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 119
© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 120
Thank you for coming!

Hanspeter Schmid
Institute of Microelectronics
Steinackerstrasse 1
5210 Windisch
Switzerland

Tel +41 56 462 46 25


Fax +41 56 462 46 15

hanspeter.schmid@fhnw.ch

Lab: http://www.fhnw.ch/technik/ime/
Publications: http://www.schmid-werren.ch/hanspeter/

© Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland ISCAS 2009 121