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In conclusion, the objectives of the experiments which are to conduct mass balance and
energy balance in distillation process and to compare the experimental results and the predicted
results from the software are met. The ethanol and water are mixed in this process and then
distilled at temperature 800C to obtain the top product and bottom product. Based from the result
obtained, the value of refractive index for top product and bottom product at 0 minutes are 0.00
and 1.337 respectively. This is because there is no distillate produced at the initial time. The
bottom product RI meets the theoretical refractive index for the water which is 1.33. The refractive
should be more than its theoretical value because it is the mixture of water and ethanol. The value
of refractive index for top and bottom product at 45 minutes are 1.360 and 1.336. The RI for top
product meets the theoretical index of ethanol which is 1.361 and the bottom product also meets
the theoretical value. From the refractive index, the mole fraction of ethanol could be obtained.
The mole fraction of ethanol for the top product is 1.024 meanwhile at the bottom product is 0.00.
This showed that the ethanol has fully recovered to the top product and only left water at the
bottom product. Based from the calculations, the molar flowrate for the inlet is 0.3101 mol/min
with mole fraction of 0.03 ethanol and 0.97 water. The distillate molar flowrate is 0.0093 mol/min
with the mole fraction ethanol is equal to 1.00 which means there is no fraction of water at the
distillate. Also, the bottom product has the molar flowrate of 0.301 mol/min with the mole fraction
of ethanol is 0.00. This means at the bottom product, there is no fraction of ethanol and only pure
water. This due to the temperature reach the vapor phase of ethanol and not approaching the
boiling point of the water which is 100oC. The water did not distillate because the water still not
approaching the liquid-vapor phase. The ethanol has fully recovered, this means that the
distillation column has the efficiency of energy

There were a few possible errors that might affect the result of the experiment. Firstly, the
valves of top and bottom product were not closed tightly before starting the experiment may result
in top and bottom product inadvertently mixed again. Next, during the first refraction index analysis
the bottom product sample did not drained properly and may cause a misreading of result. Lastly,
a difficulty of reading the refractometer due to the some of them that has a problem with the
brightness of the color and may result in misreading of the refractive index.

There were some recommendations to overcome the possible errors. First, all of the
valves need to be checked first before inserting any solution into the column and the valve need
to be open or closed tightly as per safety operating procedure and lab manual. Next, the
refractometer need to be checked and recalibrated by the technician to ensure that it can be used
without any problem. Hence, the ideal expected results could be achieved.