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ANALISA ARTIKEL

PEMANFAATAN DAUN TIN


(Ficus carica L.) UNTUK TERAPI DIABETES

oleh
Dwi Wahyuni
NIM 162310101174

PROGRAM STUDI ILMU KEPERAWATAN


UNIVERSITAS JEMBER
2017

ANALISA ARTIKEL
PEMANFAATAN DAUN TIN
(Ficus carica L.) UNTUK TERAPI DIABETES

Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah Farmakologi dalam Keperawatan


Dosen Pembimbing : Ns. Nur Widayati, S.Kep., MN.

oleh
Dwi Wahyuni
NIM 162310101174

PROGRAM STUDI ILMU KEPERAWATAN


UNIVERSITAS JEMBER
2017
20 April 2017
KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kehadirat Allah SWT yang telah memberikan rahmat dan karunia-
Nya, sehingga penulis berhasil menyelesaikan makalah sederhana ini.
Sholawat dan salam semoga tetap tercurahkan kepada junjungan kita, Nabi
Muhammad SAW beserta keluarganya, sahabatnya dan pengikutnya hingga akhir
zaman.
Penulis menyusun makalah ini dengan judul “Analisa Artikel Pemanfaatan
Daun Tin (Ficus carica L.) Untuk Terapi Diabetes”. Makalah ini disusun dengan
tujuan untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah Farmakologi dan juga untuk menjadi salah
satu sumber bacaan mahasiswa dalam mempelajari obat dan pengobatan tradisional.
Penyusunan makalah ini tidak lepas dari berbagai pihak. Oleh karena itu, penulis
menyampaikan terima kasih kepada :
1. Ns. Nur Widayati, MN. selaku dosen pembimbing yang telah meluangkan
waktu, pikiran dan perhatian dalam penyusunan makalah ini.
2. Ns. Wantiyah, M.Kep. selaku dosen penanggung jawab ada mata kuliah
Farmakologi.
3. Semua pihak yang tidak dapat dituliskan satu per satu.
Penulis menyadari bahwa tidak ada yang sempurna di dunia ini. Oleh karena
itu, penulis sebagai penyusun sangat menerima adanya kritik dan saran dari semua
pihak demi kesempurnaan makalah ini. Dan penulis berharap semoga makalah ini
dapat bermanfaat. Aamiin ya robbal ‘alamin.

Jember, 17 April 2017

Penulis

DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
HALAMAN SAMPUL .......................................................................................……i
HALAMAN JUDUL............................................................................................……ii
HALAMAN PENGESAHAN................................................................................... iii
KATA PENGANTAR.................................................................................................iv

DAFTAR ISI................................................................................................................v

BAB 1 PENDAHULUAN...........................................................................................1

1.1 Latar Belakang...............................................................................................1

1.2 Tujuan..............................................................................................................2

BAB 2 KONSEP DASAR OBAT TRADISIONAL..................................................3

2.1 Obat Tradisional............................................................................................3

2.1.1 Pengertian..............................................................................................3

2.1.2 Macam – Macam Obat Tradisional.....................................................3

2.1.3 Ciri – Ciri Obat Tradisional.................................................................5

2.1 Tingkatan Obat Tradisional........................................................................6

2.2 Syarat – Syarat Obat Tradisional...............................................................8

2.3 Peraturan Terkait Obat dan Pengobatan Tradisional.........................17

BAB 3 ANALISA ARTIKEL...................................................................................18

3.1 Jenis Tanaman..............................................................................................18

3.1.1 Nama Ilmiah Tanaman.......................................................................18

3.1.2 Ciri-Ciri................................................................................................18

3.1.3 Nama Produk yang Sudah Dibuat Obat (Jika Ada).........................20


3.2 Kandungan Dalam Obat Tradisional......................................................20

3.2.1 Zat-Zat Yang Terkandung Beserta Fungsi/Indikasinya...................20

3.3 Farmasetika..................................................................................................21

3.3.1 BSO yang Sudah Ada.........................................................................21

3.3.2 Proses Pengolahan yang Dianjurkan.................................................21

3.4 Farmakokinetik............................................................................................22

3.5 Farmakodinamik.........................................................................................23

3.6 Dosis................................................................................................................23

3.7 Indikasi dan Kontraindikasi.....................................................................24

3.7.1 Indikasi.................................................................................................24

3.7.2 Kontraindikasi.....................................................................................24

3.8 Efek Samping Obat....................................................................................25

3.9 Hal-hal yang Harus Diperhatikan............................................................25

3.10 Implikasi Keperawatan............................................................................26

BAB 4 PENUTUP.....................................................................................................27

4.1 Kesimpulan...................................................................................................27

4.2 Saran..............................................................................................................27

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LAMPIRAN - LAMPIRAN
Lampiran 1. Lembar Konsultasi
Lampiran 2. Jurnal Utama
Lampiran 3. Jurnal Pendukung
1

BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN

1.1 Latar Belakang


Penyakit diabetes adalah penyakit gangguan metabolisme yang merupakan
suatu kumpulan gejala yang timbul pada seseorang karena adanya peningkatan kadar
glukosa darah di atas nilai normal. Berbagai peneitian epidemologi yang dilakukan,
penderita diabetes selalu meningkat dari tahun 1980-an. Data hasil riskesdas tahun
2013 menunjukkan peningkatan dari data hasil riskesdas tahun 2007, yaitu dengan
proporsi dari 5,7% menjadi 6,9% pada penduduk usia 15 tahun ke atas (Riskesdas,
2013). Sedangkan menurut IDM (International Diabetes Federation) tahun 2015
jumlah penderita diabetes di dunia mencapai 415 juta orang yang tersebar di setiap
benua.
Diabetes yang tidak terkontrol dapat menyebabkan komplikasi akut dan kronis,
yaitu seperti hipoglikemia, sering terjadi pada penderita diabetes tipe 1 karena lupa
atau sengaja meninggalkan makan, atau karena olahraga terlalu berat. Selain itu,
penderita diabetes juga berpotensi terkena komplikasi lain seperti hiperglikemia,
makrovaskular dan mikrovakular (Dirjen Bina Farmasi Komunitas dan Klinik, 2005).
Diabetes juga dapat menyebabkan meningkatnya risiko penyakit jantung dan stroke,
neuropati, dan menjadi penyebab utama terjadinya gagal ginjal bahkan kematian
(Kemenkes, 2014).
Dewasa ini tanaman obat menjadi salah satu sumber obat antidiabetes karena
mengandung senyawa – senyawa yang mempunyai aktivitas hipoglikemik yang
memadai. Karena aktivitasnya, tidak beracun, dengan efek samping sedikit atau tidak
ada, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) telah merekomendasikan bahwa tanaman
tradisional bisa menjadi kandidat yang sangat baik untuk pengobatan diabetes
(Irudayaraj et al. 2017). Salah satu tanaman obat tersebut adalah tanaman buah tin
yang memiliki nama latin Ficus carica L. Bagian tanaman tin yang dimanfaatkan
2

untuk terai diabetes yaitu bagian daunnya. Selain buahnya yang manis dan banyak
kandungan untuk kesehatan, daun tin juga dapat dimanfatkan untuk mengobati
penyakit asam urat, kencing batu dan diabetes (Al Jabar, 2013). Beberapa penelitian
yang telah dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun dapat menurunkan kadar gula
dalam darah. Seperti penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Jayakumuar, 2014 menunjukkan
bahwa pemberian ekstrak daun tin pada tikus diabetes dapat mengontrol kadar gula
dalam darah, dan dapat sangat berguna untuk pencegahan lebih dini dalam mengatasi
terjadinya diabetes. Penelitian lain oleh Irudayaraj, 2017 menunjukkan bahwa
kandungan etil asetat dalam daun tin dapat memengaruhi aktivitas antidiabetes yaitu
dengan menstimulasi produksi insulin melalui regenerasi sel beta pada pankreas.
Oleh karena itu dalam makalah ini, penulis membahas akan mengenai pemanfaatan
daun tin untuk mengatasi penyakit diabetes secara alami.

1.2 Tujuan
Meninjau latar belakang pada karya tulis ini tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah :
1. Untuk mengetahui apa itu pengobatan tradisional dan bagaimana cara
pengobatannya
2. Untuk mengetahui jenis – jenis dan pembagian obat tradisional
3. Untuk mengetahui berbagai manfaat dari tanaman buah tin
4. Untuk mengetahui keefektifan daun tanaman buah dalam mengatasi
penyakit diabetes mellitus
3

BAB 2. KONSEP DASAR OBAT TRADISIONAL

2.1 Obat Tradisional


2.1.1 Pengertian

Obat tradisional adalah obat yang didapat dari bahan alam (mineral, tumbuhan
atau hewan), terolah secara sederhana atau dasar pengalaman yang digunakan dalam
pengobatan tradisional (Syamsuni, 2006).
Obat tradisional adalah bahan atau ramuan bahan yang berupa bahan tumbuhan,
bahan hewan, bahan mineral, sediaan sarian (galenik) atau campuran dari bahan
tersebut yang secara turun temurun telah digunakan untuk pengobatan, dan dapat
diterapkan sesuai dengan norma yang berlaku di masyarakat (Peraturan Kepala
BPOM No. 12 Th. 2014).
Obat tradisional merupakan obat-obatan yang dibuat dari bahan alami secara
tradisional dan merupakan resep yang berdasarkan nenek moyang atau sudah ada
sejak jaman dahulu (Redaksi Kesehatan, 2015).

2.1.2 Macam – Macam Obat Tradisional

Menurut Peraturan Kepala BPOM RI No. 12 Tahun 2014 Tentang Persyaratan


Mutu Obat Tradisional, macam – macam obat tradisional adalah sebagai berikut :
1. Sediaan Galenik yang selanjutnya disebut ekstrak adalah sediaan kering,
kental atau cair dibuat dengan menyari Simplisia nabati atau hewani menurut
cara yang cocok, di luar pengaruh cahaya matahari langsung.
2. Simplisia adalah bahan alam yang telah dikeringkan yang digunakan untuk
pengobatan dan belum mengalami pengolahan, kecuali dinyatakan lain suhu
pengeringan tidak lebih dari 60oC.
3. Rajangan adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional berupa satu jenis Simplisia atau
campuran beberapa jenis Simplisia, yang cara penggunaannya dilakukan dengan
pendidihan atau penyeduhan dengan air panas.
4

4. Serbuk Simplisia adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional berupa butiran homogen


dengan derajat halus yang sesuai, terbuat dari simplisia atau campuran dengan
Ekstrak yang cara penggunaannya diseduh dengan air panas.
5. Serbuk Instan adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional berupa butiran homogen
dengan derajat halus yang sesuai, terbuat dari Ekstrak yang cara penggunaannya
diseduh dengan air panas atau dilarutkan dalam air dingin.
6. Kapsul adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional yang terbungkus cangkang keras.
7. Kapsul Lunak adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional yang terbungkus cangkang
lunak.
8. Tablet adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional padat kompak, dibuat secara kempa
cetak, dalam bentuk tabung pipih, silindris, atau bentuk lain, kedua
permukaannya rata atau cembung, terbuat dari Ekstrak kering atau campuran
Ekstrak kental dengan bahan pengering dengan bahan tambahan yang sesuai.
9. Efervesen adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional, terbuat dari Ekstrak,
mengandung natrium bikarbonat dan asam organik yang menghasilkan
gelembung gas (karbondioksida) saat dimasukkan ke dalam air.
10. Pil adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional berupa masa bulat, terbuat
dari serbuk Simplisia dan/atau Ekstrak.
11.Dodol/Jenang adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional dengan konsistensi lunak
tetapi liat, terbuat dari Serbuk Simplisia dan/atau Ekstrak.
12. Pastiles adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional berupa lempengan
pipih, umumnya berbentuk segi empat, terbuat dari Serbuk Simplisia dan/atau
Ekstrak.
13. Cairan Obat Dalam adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional berupa minyak,
larutan, suspensi atau emulsi, terbuat dari Serbuk Simplisia dan/atau Ekstrak dan
digunakan sebagai obat dalam.
14. Cairan Obat Luar adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional berupa minyak,
larutan, suspensi atau emulsi, terbuat dari Simplisia dan/atau Ekstrak dan
digunakan sebagai obat luar.
15. Salep dan Krim adalah sediaan Obat Tradisional setengah padat
terbuat dari Ekstrak yang larut atau terdispersi homogen dalam dasar Salep/Krim
yang sesuai dan digunakan sebagai obat luar.
5

16. Parem adalah sediaan padat atau cair Obat Tradisional, terbuat dari
Serbuk Simplisia dan/atau Ekstrak dan digunakan sebagai obat luar.
17. Pilis dan Tapel adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional, terbuat dari
Serbuk Simplisia dan/atau Ekstrak dan digunakan sebagai obat luar.
18. Koyo/Plester adalah sediaan Obat tradisional terbuat dari bahan yang
dapat melekat pada kulit dan tahan air yang dapat berisi Serbuk Simplisia
dan/atau Ekstrak, digunakan sebagai obat luar dan cara penggunaannya
ditempelkan pada kulit.
19. Supositoria untuk wasir adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional, terbuat
dari Ekstrak yang larut atau terdispersi homogen dalam dasar supositoria yang
sesuai, umumnya meleleh, melunak atau melarut pada suhu tubuh dan cara
penggunaannya melalui rektal.
20. Film Strip adalah sediaan padat Obat Tradisional berbentuk lembaran
tipis yang digunakan secara oral.

2.1.3 Ciri – Ciri Obat Tradisional


Menurut Eraherbs, 2016, obat tradisional memiliki ciri – ciri yang berbeda
dengan obat modern, yaitu :
1. Obat tradisional terbuat dari bahan – bahan tradisional dan alami yaitu
tanaman obat atau dikenal dengan apotek hidup.
2. Dalam meracik obat tradisional, tumbuhan obat yang digunakan tidak perlu
dilakukan pengujian laboratorium terlebih dahulu.
3. Resep obat tradisional yang digunakan untuk menyembuhkan penyait
biasanya diperoleh dari resep nenek moyang. Dengan kata lain, resep racikan
obat tradisional diperoleh secara turun-temurun.
4. Obat tradisional umumnya memiliki efek samping yang lebih kecil dibanding
obat modern. Karena dosis yang digunakan langsung memilki efek positif pada
orang yang mengkonsumsi. Meskipun ukuran dosis obat tradisional tidak
ditentukan secara kuantitatif, namun biasanya dosis obat tradisional tidak terlalu
tinggi.
5. Dalam mengkonsumsi obat tradisional diperlukan dalam waktu lama, karena
obat tradisional memiliki dosis yang rendah dibanding obat modern. Jadi obat
tradisional harus dikonsumsi secara teratur.
6

6. Obat tradisional biasanya tidak hanya dapat menyembuhkan satu penyakit.


Misalnya satu tanaman dapat digunakan sebagai obat antikanker dan hipertensi
juga dapat untuk mengontrol diabetes.
7. Obat tradisional umumnya memiliki harga lebih murah karena mudah
dijumpai.

2.1 Tingkatan Obat Tradisional


Berdasarkan Keputusan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik
Indonesia Nomor HK.00.05.4.2411 Tahun 2004 Tentang Ketentuan Pokok
Pengelompokan dan Penandaan Obat Bahan Alam Indonesia, obat tradisional di
Indonesia dikelompokkan menjadi Jamu, Obat Herbal Terstandar dan Fitofarmaka.
1. Jamu (Empirical Based Herbalmedicine)
Jamu merupakan bagian dari obat tradisional yang digunakan secara turun
temurun dan baru memiliki klaim penggunaan sesuai dengan jenis pembuktian
tradisional (secara empiris/turun temurun) dan telah melewati 3 generasi. Artinya jika
satu generasi rata – rata umur adalah 60 tahun, maka ramuan tersebut sudah bertahan
180 tahun.
Sebagai contoh, masyarakat telah menggunakan rimpang temulawak untuk
mengatasi hepatitis selama ratusan tahun. Pembuktian khasiat tersebut baru sebatas
pengalaman, selama belum ada penelitian ilmiah yang membuktikan bahwa
temulawak sebagai antihepatitis. Jadi Curcuma xanthorriza itu tetaplah jamu. Jadi,
ketika dikemas dan dipasarkan, produsen dilarang mengklaim produk tersebut
sebagai obat dan harus tertera logo berupa ranting daun berwarna hijau dalam
lingkaran. Sediaan jamu dapat berupa simplisia sederhana, seperti rimpang, daun atau
akar kering (Azrim, 2013).

Gambar 2.1 Logo jamu. (Azrim, 2015)


7

2. Obat Herbal Standar (Scientificbased Herbal Medicine)


OHT adalah sediaan obat bahan alam yang sediaannya berupa ekstrak yang
telah dibuktikan keamanan dan khasiatnya secara ilmiah dengan uji praklinik dan
bahan bakunya telah distandarisasi. Disamping itu herbal terstandar harus melewati
uji pra klinis seperti uji toksisitas (keamanan), kisaran dosis, farmakodinamik
(kemanfaatan) dan teratogenik (keamanan terhadap janin). Uji praklinis meliputi uji
in vivo dan in vitro. Uji in vivo dilakukan terhadap mencit, sedangkan uji in vitro
dilakukan terhadap sebagian organ yang teriolasi, kultur sel atau mikroba (Azrim,
2013).

Gambar 2.2 Logo Obat Herbal Terstandar (OHT). (Azrim, 2015)

3. Fitofarmaka (Clinical Basedherbal Medicine)


Adalah sediaan obat bahan alam yang telah dibuktikan kemanan dan khasiatnya
secara ilmiah dengan uji praklinik dan uji klinik, bahan baku dan produk jadinya telah
distandarisasi. Fitofarmaka merupakan tingkatan tertinggi dari bahan alami sebagai
“obat”. Uji klinik sudah dilakukan terhadap manusia dengan dosis yang disesuaikan.
Setelah lulus uji fitofarmaka, produk dapat dikatakan sebagai obat dengan syarat
tidak menyimpang dari materi uji klinis sebelumnya. Artinya, jika uji klinis hanya
sebagai antikanker, maka produk tidak boleh diklaim sebagai antikanker dan
antidiabetes (Azrim, 2013).

Gambar 2.3 Logo Fitofarmaka. (Azrim, 2015)

2.2 Syarat – Syarat Obat Tradisional


Syarat – syarat obat tradisional menurut Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan RI No.
661/Menkes/SK/VII/1994 tentang Persyaratan Obat Tradisional, yaitu :
8

1. Rajangan
a. Kadar air : Tidak lebih dari 10 %
b. Angka lempeng total : Tidak lebih dari 10 untuk rajangan yang
penggunaannya dengan cara pendidihan; tidak lebih dari 10 untuk rajangan
yang penggunaannya dengan cara penyeduhan.
c. Angka kapang dan khamir : Tidak lebih dari 10
d. Mikroba patogen : Negatif.
e. Aflatoksin : Tidak lebih dari 30 bagian per juta (bpj)
f. Wadah dan penyimpanan
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
2. Serbuk
a. Keseragaman bobot
Tidak lebih dari 2 bungkus serbuk, yang masing masing bobot isinya
menyimpang dari bobot isi rata-rata lebih besar dari harga yang ditetapkan
dalam kolom A dan tidak satu bungkuspun yang bobot isinya menyimpang
dari bobot isi rata-rata lebih besar dari harga yang ditetapkan dalam kolom
B, yang tertera pada daftar berikut:

Bobot rata-rata isi serbuk Penyimpangan terhadap bobot isi rata-rata

A B
5 g sampai dengan 10 g 8% 10 %

Timbang isi tiap bungkus serbuk. Timbang seluruh isi 20 bungkus serbuk,
hitung bobot isi serbuk rata-rata.
b. Kadar air. Tidak lebih dari 10 %.
c. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
d. Angka kapang dan khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10
e. Mikroba patogen. Negatif.
f. Aflatoksin. Tidak lebih dari 30 bpj.
g. Bahan tambahan.
1) Pengawet. Serbuk dengan bahan baku simplisia dilarang ditambahkan
bahan pengawet. Serbuk dengan bahan baku sediaan galenik dengan
penyari air atau campuran etanol air bila diperlukan dapat ditambahkan
9

bahan pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet harus memenuhi persyaratan


pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan.
2) Pil dalam lampiran keputusan ini.
3) Pemanis. Gula tebu (gula pasir), gula aren, gula kelapa, gula bit dan
pemanis alam lainnyayang belum menjadi zat kimia murni.
4) Pengisi. Sesuai dengan pengisi yang diperlukan pada sediaan galenik.
h. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik disimpan pada suhu kamar, ditempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.

3. Pil
a. Keseragaman bobot. Dari 20 pit, tidak lebih dari 2 pil yang masing-
masing bobotnya menyimpang dari bobot rata-rata lebih besar dari harga
yang ditetapkan dan tidak satu pilpun yang bobotnya menyimpang dari
bobot rata-rata lebih besar dari harga yang ditetapkan dalam kolom B, yang
tertera dalam daftar berikut:

Bobot rata-rata isi pil Penyimpangan terhadap bobot isi rata-rata

A B
100 mg sampai 250 mg 10% 20 %
251 mg sampai 500 mg 7,5 % 15 %

Timbang pil satu persatu. Timbang 20 pil sekaligus, hitung bobot rata-rata.
b. Kadar air : Tidak lebih dari 10 %.
c. Waktu hancur :Tidak lebih dari 60 menit.
d. Angka lempeng total : Tidak lebih dari 10
e. Angka kapang dan khamir : Tidak lebih dari 10.
f. Mikroba pathogen : Negatif
g. Aflatoksin : tidak lebih dari 30 bpj.
h. Bahan tambahan
Pengawet. Tidak lebih dari 0,1 %
Pengawet yang diperbolehkan :
1) Metil p - hidroksi benzoat (Nipagin)
10

2)
Propil p - hidroksi benzoat (Nipasol)
3)
Asam sorbat atau garamnya
4)
Garam natrium benzoat dalam suasana asam
5)
Pengawet lain yang disetujui.
i. Wadah dan penyimpanan
Dalam wadah tertutup baik disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
4. Dodol atau jenang
a. Angka lempeng total : Tidak lebih dari 10
b. Angka kapang dan khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10.
c. Mikroba patogen . Negatif.
d. Aflatoksin. Tidak lebih dari 30 bpj.
e. Bahan tambahan.
Pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet yang diperbolehkan sesuai dengan
persyaratan pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan obat tradisional dalam
bentuk pil.
f. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, ditempat dikering
dan terlindung dari sinar matahari.
5. Pastiles
a. Kadar air. Tidak lebih dari 10 %.
b. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
c. Angka kapang dan khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10
d. Mikrobe patogen . Negatif
e. Aflatoksin . Tidak lebih dari 30 bpj
f. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik; disimpan pada suhu kamar, ditempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
6. Kapsul
a. Waktu hancur. Tidak lebih dari 15 menit.
lsi kapsul harus memenuhi persyaratan sebagai berikut:
b. Keseragaman bobot. Untuk kapsul yang berisi obat tradisional kering.
Tidak lebih dari 2 kapsul yang masing-masing bobot isinya menyimpang
dari bobot isi rataratanya lebih besar dari harga yang ditetapkan dalam
kolom A dan tidak satu kapsulpun yang bobot isinya menyimpang dari bobot
11

isi rata-rata lebih besar dari harga yang ditetapkan dalam kolom B, yang
tertera pada daftar berikut :

Bobot rata-rata isi kapsul Penyimpangan terhadap bobot isi rata-rata

A B
120 mg atau kurang lebih ±10% ±20 %
dari 120 mg ±7,5 % ±15 %
Timbang satu kapsul, keluarkan isi kapsul, timbang bagian cangkangnya,
hitung bobot isi kapsul.Ulangi penetapan terhadap 19 kapsul dan hitung
bobot rata-rata isi 20 kapsul. Untuk kapsul yang berisi obat tradisional cair :
Tidak lebih dari satu kapsul yang masing – masing bobot isinya
menyimpang dari bobot isi rata-rata lebih besar dari 7,5 % dan tidak satu
kapsulpun yang bobot isinya menyimpang dari bobot isi rata-rata lebih besar
dari 15 %. Timbang satu kapsul, keluarkan isi kapsul, cuci cangkangnya
dengan eter P. Buang cairan, biarkan hingga tidak berbau eter dan ditimbang,
hitung bobot isi kapsul. Ulangi penetapan terhadap 9 kapsul dan hitung
bobot isi rata-rata 10 kapsul.
c. Kadar air isi kapsul . Tidak lebih dari 10 % .
d. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
e. Angka kapang dan khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10.
f. Mikroba patogen . Negatif
g. Aflatokin . Tidak lebih dari 30 bpj .
h. Bahan tambahan .
Pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet yang diperbolehkan sesuai dengan
persyaratan pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan pil dalam lampiran
keputusan ini .
i. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik; disimpan pada suhu kamar di tempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
7. Tablet
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a. Keseragaman bobot.Dari 20 tablet, tidak lebih dari 2 tablet yang


masing-masing bobotnya menyimpang dari bobot rata-ratanya lebih besar
dari pada harga yang ditetapkan dalam kolom A dan tidak satu tabletpun
yang bobotnya menyimpang dari bobot rata-ratanya lebih besar dari harga
yang ditetapkan dalam kolom B, yang tertera pada daftar berikut :

Bobot rata-rata isi kapsul Penyimpangan terhadap bobot isi rata-rata

A B
25 mg atau kurang 15% 30%
26 mg sampai 150 mg 10% 20%
151 mg sampai 300 mg 7,5% 15%
lebih dari 300 mg 5% 10%
Timbang tablet satu persatu . Timbang 20 tablet sekaligus hitung bobot rata-
rata.
b. Waktu hancur. Tidak lebih dari 20 menit untuk tablet tidak bersalut
dan tidak lebih dari 60 menit untuk tablet bersalut.
c. Kadar air. Tidak lebih dari 10 %.
d. Angka lempeng total . Tidak lebih dari 104
e. Angka kapang dan khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10
f. Mikroba patogen .Negatif .
g. Allatoksin . Tidak lebih dari 30 bpj .
h. Bahan tambahan
Pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet yang diperbolehkan sesuai dengan
persyaratan pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan Pil.
i. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
8. Cairan obat dalam
a. Keseragaman volume.
Perbedaan volume cairan setiap wadah takaran tunggal, tidak Iebih dari 5%
terhadap volume rata-rata. Penetapan dilakukan dengan mengukur volume
10 wadah satu persatu hitung volume rata-rata.
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b. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10.


c. Angka kapang dan khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10
d. Mikroba patogen. Negatif.
e. Aflatoksin . Tidak lebih dari 30 bpj.
f. Bahan tambahan.
1) Pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet yang diperbolehkan sesuai
dengan persyaratan pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan Pil dalam
lampiran keputusan ini.
2) Pewarna. Harus sesuai dengan Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI No.
722/MENKES/Per /IX/88tentang Bahan Tambahan Makanan.
g. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
h. Penandaan
Selain penandaan yang dipersyaratkan dalam Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan
RI No.246/Menkes/Per/VI 1990 tentang lzin Usaha lndustri Obat Tradisional
dan Pendaftaran Obat Tradisional, untuk sediaan berbentuk suspensi atau
emulsi harus juga tertera peringatan 'kocok dahulu'.

9. Sari Jamu
a. Keseragaman volume, Angka lempeng total, Angka kapang dan
khamir, Mikrobapatogen, Aflatoksin, Bahan tambahan sesuai dengan
persyaratan yang tertera pada persyaratan Cairan Obat dalam pada lampiran.
b. Kadar etanol. Tidak lebih dari 1 % v/v pada suhu 20º C.
c. Kadar metanol.Tidak lebih dari 0,1 % dihitung terhadap kadar etanol.
d. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, ditempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
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e. Penandaan
Selain penandaan yang dipersyaratkan dalam Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan
RI No.246/Menkes/Per/V/1990 tentang lzin Usaha lndustri Obat Tradisional
dan Persyaratan Obat Tradisional harus tertera:
1) Kadar etanol yang dikandung pada komposisi obat tradisional yang
bersangkutan.
2) Kadar metanol.
3) Untuk sediaan berbentuk suspensi atau emulsi harus juga tertera
peringatan“kocok dahulu”
10. Parem, Pilis Dan Tapel
a. Kadar air. Tidak lebih dari 10 %.
b. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
c. Angka kapang dan Khamir. Tidak lebih dari 10
d. Mikroba patogen.Negatif.
e. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung darisinar matahari.
f. Penandaan
Pada etiket harus juga tertera obat luar.
11.Koyok
a. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
b. Mikroba patogen. Negatif.
c. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung darisinar matahari.
d. Penandaan.
Pada etiket harus juga tertera obat luar.
12. Cairan Obat Luar
a. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
b. Mikroba patogen. Negatif
c. Bahan tambahan.
Pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet yang diperbolehkan sesuai dengan
persyaratan pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan pil.
d. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
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Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, di tempat kering dan
terlindung dari sinar matahari.
e. Penandaan.
Pada penandaan harus tertera tanda 'obat luar'. Untuk sediaan berbentuk
suspensi atau emulsi harus juga tertera peringatan 'kocok dahulu”.
13. Salep/Krim
a. Persyaratan Umum. Tidak berbau tengik.
b. Angka lempeng total. Tidak lebih dari 10
c. Mikroba patogen. Negatif
d. Bahan Tambahan.
Pengawet. Jenis dan kadar pengawet yang diperbolehkan sesuai dengan
persyaratan pengawet yang tertera pada persyaratan pil dalam lampiran
keputusan ini.
e. Wadah dan penyimpanan.
Dalam wadah tertutup baik, disimpan pada suhu kamar, ditempat kering dan
terlindung darisinar matahari.
f. Penandaan.
Pada etiket harus juga tertera tanda "obat luar”.

2.3 Peraturan Terkait Obat dan Pengobatan Tradisional


Peraturan terkait obat dan pengobatan tradisional tercantum dalam :
1. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor
1076/Menkes/SK/VII/2003 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Pengobatan
Tradisional Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia
2. Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 103 Tahun 2014
Tentang Pelayanan Kesehatan Tradisional
3. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 007 Tahun
2012 Tentang Registrasi Obat Tradisional
4. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan Republik
Indonesia Nomor 12 Tahun 2014 Tentang Persyaratan Mutu Obat
Tradisional
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5. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan RI No. 661/Menkes/SK/VII/1994


tentang Persyaratan Obat Tradisional

BAB 3. ANALISA ARTIKEL

3.1 Jenis Tanaman


3.1.1 Nama Ilmiah Tanaman
Tanaman buah tin memiliki nama latin Ficus carica L. Di Eropa tanaman buah
tin dikenal dengan nama buah Fig. Kebanyakan orang sering menyebutnya tanaman
ara. Sedangkan nama lokal buah tin dikenal dengan nama buah Anjir (Marwat, 2011).
Menurut Rahimah, 2016 tanaman buah tin (F.carica) memiliki klasifikasi ilmiah
sebagai berikut:
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom : Viridiplantae
Super Divisi : Tracheophyta
Divisi : Spermatophyta
Kelas : Magnoliopsida
Super Ordo : Rosanae
Ordo : Rosales
Family : Moraceae
Genus : Ficus
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Species : Ficus Carica Linn

3.1.2 Ciri-Ciri
Tanaman buah tin dengan nama latin Ficus Carica L. merupakan tanaman yang
istimewa. Tanaman buah ini menjadi salah satu nama Surah dalam Al Quran yaitu
Surah At-Tin. Di Indonesia buah tin belum terlalu dikenal, tapi beberapa tahun
terakhir tanaman ini banyak dibudidayakan (Deptan Kota Magelang, 2013). Tanaman
ini berasal dari Timur Tengah yang telah menyebar sampai ke daratan Eropa dan
Amerika yang dikenal dengan nama “Figs”. Sedangkan di India buah tin dikenal
dengan nama “Anjir” (Irudayaraj, 2017).
Menurut Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA), tin alias ara Ficus
carica L. merupakan tanaman buah anggota famili Moraceae. Termasuk semak tinggi
atau pohon kecil yang tingginya dapat mencapai 10 m. Tin memiliki perakaran
dangkal yang relatif sensitif terhadap kekeringan. Batang tin halus dan berwarna abu
– abu keperakan ternyata kurang kokoh, sehingga perlu disanga pada setiap
percabangan agar tidak mudah roboh. Batang tanaman tin memiliki getah cukup
banyak (Rahimah, 2016).
Daun tin berwarna hijau, tumbuh tunggal, berselang – seling, dan lebar
(panjangnya dapat mencapai 30 cm), agak tebal, dan umumnya bergerigi pada bagian
tepi. Tiap daunnya mempunyai 3 – 7 cuping dan berlekuk dalam. Permukaan atas
daun diselimuti bulu – bulu kasar, sedangkan bagian bawah berbulu halus. Tin ideal
tumbuh baik di wilayah daerah tropis dan subtropis. Di wilayah subtropis, tin berbuah
lebat mulai pertengahan musim panas hingga musim gugur. Sementara di wilayah
tropis tin berbuah sepanjang tahun (Rahimah, 2016).
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Gambar 3.1 a) Tanaman Buah Tin, b) Daun Tin

3.1.3 Nama Produk yang Sudah Dibuat Obat (Jika Ada)


Salah satu produk obat tradisional yang memanfaatkan daun tin yaitu daun tin
yang dikonsumsi dalam bentuk teh. Telah banyak produk teh yang berasal dari daun
tin yang memang diperuntukkan sebagai obat tradisional. Teh daun tin juga dapat
diproduksi sendiri di rumah apabila memiliki tanaman buah tin ini.

Gambar 3.2 Produk Obat


Teh Daun Tin
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3.2 Kandungan Dalam Obat Tradisional


3.2.1 Zat-Zat Yang Terkandung Beserta Fungsi/Indikasinya
Menurut Jayakumuar, 2014, daun F. carica positif mengandung saponnin,
tannin, asam amino, protein, alkaloid, karbohidrat, flavonoid, dan glikosida jantung.
Sedangan menurut Irudayaraj et al, 2017, daun tin mengandung furocoumarin,
ficusin yang bisa bertanggung jawab pada efek sensitisasi insulin. Selain itu, ficusin
telah ditetapkan sebagai antioksidan yang baik, antilipidemik sehingga cocok untuk
terapi mengurangi berat badan dan efek antidiabetes dan coumarin sebagai antitumor
dan kanker. Disebutkan juga bahwa aktivitas penurunan kadar gula darah dipengaruhi
oleh kandungan polifenol sebagai antioksidan dan aktivitas antiinflamasi yang
membantu dalam penyembuhan luka (Irudayaraj et al, 2017).
Daun F. carica juga memiliki kandungan saponnin berupa steroid dan
poliphenol seperti flavonoid yang berguna sebagai anti radikal (Marks, 2013).
Flavonoid adalah kelompok penting polyphenol. Menurut para peneliti kanker di
UCLA, perokok yang mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung flavonoid dapat
mengurangi risiko penyakit kanker paru – paru. Selain menghambat dan membunuh
sel – sel kanker, flavonoid juga dapat menghambat invasi tumor. Tannin merupakan
senyawa polyphenol yang tersebar luas dalam tumbuhan terutama tumbuhan
berpembuluh. Tannin memiliki aktivitas antioksidan, akan tetapi flavonoid memiliki
aktivitas antioksidan lebih baik daripada tannin (Refli. R., 2012). Senyawa flavonoid
dalam daun tin terutama quercetin dan luteolin yang merupakan senyawa antiradang
dan antioksidan, khusus luteolin berkhasiat membantu metabolisme karbohidrat dan
meningkatkan sistem imun (Rahimah, 2016).

3.3 Farmasetika
3.3.1 BSO yang Sudah Ada
Daun tin telah banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai obat tradisional karena
kandungannya yang banyak memberikan manfaat bagi kesehatan. Saat ini ada
beberapa bentuk sediaan daun tin yang dapat dikonsumsi sebagai obat, yaitu dalam
20

bentuk kapsul ataupun dalam seduhan teh. Sedangkan dalam penelitian yang
dilakukan oleh Irudayaraj, 2017 bentuk sediaan yang digunakan adalah berbentuk
ekstrak yang dicampur dengan etil asetat.

3.3.2 Proses Pengolahan yang Dianjurkan


Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Irudayaraj et al, 2017, pengolahan daun
tin sebagai obat antidiabetes dalam bentuk ekstrak yaitu dengan mengumpulkan daun
tin dari Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, selama Januari 2015. Selanjutnya, daun tin
dibilas dengan air, lalu keringkan. Tumbuk daun yang sudah kering sehingga
membentuk bubuk. Sebanyak 3 kg bubuk daun tin dengan kualitas baik direndam
dengan 9L heksana, etil asetat dan methanol secara berurutan selama 3x24 jam dalam
suhu kamar. Kemudian ekstrak disaring dan dipekatkan dengan cara diuapkan pada
suhu 40-450C. Dari proses tersebut didapatkan 42 g dari ekstrak heksana, 36 g ekstrak
etil asetat, dan 19 g ekstrak methanol, yang kemudian disimpan dalam lemari es
dengan suhu 40C. Pada penelitian sebelumnya, antara ketiga ekstrak terebut, ekstrak
etil asetat menunjukkan aktivitas penurunan glukosa yang sangan signifikan. Oleh
karena itu, dalam penelitian ini digunakan ekstrak daun tin yang direndam etil asetat.
Ekstrak terebut diberikan melalui oral, sekali sehari selama 28 hari.

3.4 Farmakokinetik
Farmakokinetik merupakan fase yang meliputi waktu selama obat diangkut
menuju organ sasaran, yaitu setelah obat dilepas dari bentuk sediaan kemudian
diabsorpsi ke dalam darah dan segera didistribusikan ke semua jaringan tubuh
(Syamsuni, 2006).
Daun tin dalam bentuk ekstrak diberikan melalui oral kepada tikus diabetes
yang diinduksi dengan High-fat diet (HFD) selama 15 hari dan injeksi interperitoneal
streptozotocin (STZ). Kemudian zat – zat terkandung seperti furocumarin, ficusin,
dan glibenclamide yang berperan dalam mengatasi diabetes diserap di dalam usus
halus yang kemudian menuju pankreas untuk menjalankan tugasnya yaitu
21

memperbaiki kerusakan sel- pancreas dan meningkatkan sensitisasi insulin. Zat – zat
lain yang bermanfaat bagi tubuh juga akan diserap di usus halus, seperti flavonoid,
tannin, dan lainnya (Irudayaraj, 2017).
Kemudian zat kandungan yang tidak terabsorpsi di usus halus, misalnya seyawa
yang lebih kompleks akan menuju usus besar yang akan mengalami aktivitas
katabolik mikrobiota usus. Karena metabolisme gastrointestinal tersebut, metabolit
terkonjugasi cepat dihilangkan dari dalam tubuh melalui saluran pencernaan bersama
kotoran (Khan, dkk, 2013).

3.5 Farmakodinamik
Menurut Irudayaraj et al, 2017, ekstrak Ficus carica yang diberikan melalui
oral, akan diserap di dalam usus dan akan meningkatkan kepekaan dari insulin untuk
merangsang penyerapan glukosa ke jaringan perifer. Dalam penelitian tersebut juga
disebutkan bahwa aktivitas penurunan glukosa darah dan normalisasi kadar insulin
yang diamati pada tikus diabetes yang mendapat pengobatan F.carica terjadi karena
furocumarin dan ficusin yang diserap di dalam usus halus yang kemudian menuju
pankreas untuk memperbaiki sensitisasi insulin, potensiasi ekstra terhadap sekresi
insulin pada pankreas akibat regenerasi sel- atau tindakan melepaskan insulin dari sel-
yang diregenerasi dengan kandungan glibenclamide dan mengubah metabolisme
karbohidrat dengan penurunan glukoneogenesis dan meningkatkan glikolisis.
F. carica memiliki efek perlindungan terhadap enzim metabolik karbohidrat
yang terganggu karena meningkatnya aksi insulin. Aktivitas sensitivitas insulin dari
F. carica yang dibuktikan melalui kandungan glikogen yang ditingkatkan hati pada
tikus diabetes yang diobati. Karena insulin juga berperan dalam mengatur
metabolisme glikogen melalui aktivasi atau inhibisi beberapa enzim mediator dan
protein (Ferrer et al. 2003 dalam Irudayaraj et al, 2017).

3.6 Dosis
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Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Irudayaraj et al, 2017, dosis oral ekstrak
F. carica yang diberikan kepada hewan sample mulai dari (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000,
dan 5000) mg/kg. Menurut data tersebut dapat disimpulkan dalam penentuan dosis
penggunaan ekstrak daun tin sebagai obat tradisional adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Dosis Minimal
Dosis minimal berada pada pemberian ekstrak sebanyak 1000mg/kg, karena
dengan pemberian takaran tersebut sudah dapat berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas
penurunan glukosa pada tikus. Akan tetapi dosis 250 dan 500 mg / kg dosis lebih
disukai untuk percobaan konsekuen (Oliviera at al, 2008 dalam Irudayaraj et al,
2017).
b. Dosis Maksimal
Dosis maksimal yaitu 4000 mg/kg karena dalam pemberian sebanyak takaran
tersebut ekstrak F. carica tidak memberikan efek toksik pada hewan percobaan.
c. Dosis Toksik
Dosis toksik dari pemberian ekstrak F. carica berada pada takaran 5000 mg/kg,
karena dosis tersebut menunjukkan tanda – tanda toksisitas seperti menggeliat,
terengah-engah, palpitasi dan penurunan laju pernapasan, perubahan berat badan,
makanan dan konsumsi air dalam tingkat pengamatan untuk 1 jam terus menerus,
kemudian selama 4 jam dan akhirnya setiap 24 jam sampai dengan 14 hari. Baik
kematian atau efek samping kecuali menggeliat ringan diamati hingga 5000
mg/kg ekstrak Ficus carica L.

3.7 Indikasi dan Kontraindikasi


3.6.1 Indikasi
Menurut penelitian oleh Marwat, 2011 berdasarkan zat – zat yang
dikandungnya, daun tin bermanfaat bagi kesehatan sebagai antioksidan, antiinflamasi,
antivirus, pencegah kanker, mencegah kerusakan hati, mluruhkan batu ginjal,
mengobati hipertensi, dan diabetes.
3.6.2 Kontraindikasi
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Banyaknya kandungan yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan, tidak kemudian semua


masalah kesehatan dapat diobati dengan daun tin tersebut. Seperti untuk masalah
hipotensi, pengobatan ini harus dihindari karena kandungan daun tin yang memiliki
aktivitas untuk menurunkan tekanan darah sudah dipastikan akan mengalami pusing
akibat tekanan darah yang semakin rendah (Ulbricht, 2010).

3.8 Efek Samping Obat


Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) telah merekomendasikan bahwa tanaman
tradisional bisa menjadi kandidat yang sangat baik untuk pengobatan. Begitu juga
dengan daun tin utnuk mengobati diabetes. Karena aktivitasnya yang meunjukkan
dapat menurunkan hiperglikemik, tidak beracun, dengan efek samping sedikit atau
bahkan tidak ada (Irudayaraj et al. 2012 dalam Irudayaraj et al. 2017). Namun
menurut Jayakumuar, 2014 daun Anjir (F.carica) juga mungkin memiliki efek
tindakan hipoglikemik melalui stimulasi yang masih hidup oleh sel-ß pulau
Langerhans pada pankreas untuk melepaskan lebih banyak insulin.
Selain itu, ada beberapa laporan efek samping yang terkait dengan konsumsi
daun ara (F.carica). Setidaknya satu laporan menunjukkan tidak ada efek samping
pada subyek yang diobati dengan ramuan daun ara (melalui mulut) rebusan selama
satu bulan. Namun, karena daun ara mengandung psoralens, bisa menyebabkan
fotodermatitis bila dioleskan pada kulit. Sinar matahari yang berlebihan atau paparan
sinar ultraviolet harus dihindari saat menggunakan produk yang mengandung daun
ara. Meskipun jarang, obstruksi ileus, obstruksi usus, anemia hemolitik (defisiensi sel
darah merah), dan perdarahan retina (perdarahan retina) telah dilaporkan. Sehingga
harus gunakan dengan hati-hati pada pasien dengan gangguan perdarahan (Ulbricht,
2010).

3.9 Hal-hal yang Harus Diperhatikan


24

Dalam produksi teh daun tin ada beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan.
Tanaman tin yang diambil sebagai obat, tidak disarankan pada wanita hamil dan
menuyusui atau jika diperlukan harus dengan dosis yang tepat karena kurangnya
bukti ilmiah yang ada. Begitu juga untuk konsumsi pada wanita hamil yang memiliki
tekanan darah rendah, sebaiknya dengan perhatian khusus karena hampir dipastikan
akan mengalami pusing akibat tekanan darah yang semakin rendah. Hindari pada
individu dengan alergi atau hipersensitivitas yang diketahui pada ara (F.carica) atau
tumbuh-tumbuhan di keluarga Moraceae. Beberapa sindrom alergi oral dikaitkan
dengan kepekaan silang pada orang terhadap serbuk sari rumput dan birch. Secara
teoritis, karena daun ara mengandung furocoumarins, hal itu dapat meningkatkan
risiko pendarahan saat dikonsumsi dengan obat-obatan yang meningkatkan risiko
pendarahan. Beberapa contoh termasuk aspirin, warfarin, NSAID. Maka dari itu,
hindari pemakaian bersamaan dengan obat – obatan tersebut (Ulbricht, 2010).

3.10 Implikasi Keperawatan


Obat tradisional dapat menjadi salah satu pilihan perawat dalam merencanakan
intervensi pengobatan terhadap pasien, akan tetapi tetap harus dalam dosis resep yang
dianjurkan atau dengan resep dokter. Selain itu, perawat sebaiknya tidak hanya
memakai hasil obat tradisional yang sudah ada, akan tetapi perawat juga dapat
melakukan penelitian mengenai suatu tanaman obat, untuk menghasilkan manfaat
dari suatu tanaman untuk kesehatan atau megembangkan hasil yang sudah ada
menjadi suatu produk yang memiliki manfaat lebih dari sebelumnya.
Selain mengaplikasikan dalam pemberian obat, perawat juga berlaku sebagai
edukator terhadap pasien untuk memberi pengetahuan mengenai obat tradisional,
kelebihan dan kekurangannya, sehingga pasien dapat menentukan pilihan dalam
terapi pengobatannya untuk menggunakan obat tradisional atau obat modern. Dalam
hal ini, perawat juga harus dapat menjalankan perannya sebagai consellor yaitu
membantu pasien dalam menentukan pengobatan yang lebih baik.
25

BAB 4. PENUTUP

4.1 Kesimpulan
Daun tin (Ficus carica L.) memiliki banyak manfaat untuk kesehatan sebagai
obat tradisional. Salah satunya yaitu sebagai antidiabetes dengan merangsang
produksi insulin dari sel- pankreas yang mengalami regenerasi oleh kandungan.
Dibuktikan dengan peningkatan kadar insulin pada hewan uji yaitu tikus diabetes
setelah mendapat pengobatan dengan F.carica, positif mengubah metabolisme
karbohidrat dengan penurunan glukoneogenesis dan meningkatkan glikolisis sehingga
menurunkan hiperglikemi.

4.2 Saran
Menurut WHO obat tradisional memiliki sedikit efek samping dan bahkan tidak
ada. Maka dari itu, akan baik jika lebih banyak tanaman obat yang dikembangkan
dalam pemanfaatannya untuk kesehatan. Selain sediaannya banyak, secara tidak
langsung akan menjadi alasan seseorang melestarikan tanaman tersebut. Untuk
perawat juga tidak hanya dapat menjalankan pengobatan dengan hasil yang sudah
ada, tetapi dapat juga melakukan penelitian terhadap tanaman obat lain.
1

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Aljabar. S. 2013. Manfaat, Khasiat dan Cara Budidaya Buah Tin (Buah Surga).
http://asgar.or.id/health/berita-kesehatan/manfaat-khasiat-dan-cara-budidaya-
buah-tin-buah-surga [diakses pada tanggal 23 Maret 2017].

Azrim. 2013. Perbedaan Antara Jamu, Herbal Standar dan Fitofarmaka


http://www.obatherbalfitofarmaka.com/2013/12/perbedaan-jamu-herbal-ter
standar-obat-fitofarmaka.html [diakses pada tanggal 16 Februari 2017].

Deptan Kota Magelang. 2013. Mengenal Tanaman Buah Tin.


http://pertanian.magelangkota.go.id/informasi/artikel-pertanian/112-buah-tin
[diakses pada tanggal 27 Maret 2017].

Dirjend Bina Farmasi Komunitas dan Klinik. 2005. Pharmaceutical Care Untuk
Penyakit Diabetes Melitus. Depkes : Dirjend. Bina Kefarmasian dan Alat
Kesehatan. http://binfar.kemkes.go.id/?wpdmact=process&did=MTc2Lmhvd
Gxpbms= [diakses pada tanggal 09 April 2017].

Eraherbs. 2016. Mengenal Perbedaan Antara Obat Tradisional Dengan Obat


Modern. https://maggo.co.id/blog/tips/mengenal-perbedaan-antara-obat-tradisi
onal-dengan-obat-modern/ [diakses pada tanggal 24 Maret 2017].

Irudayaraj. S. S., Christudas. S., Antony. S., Duraipandiyan. V., Abdullah. A. N., dan
Ignacimuthu. S. 2017. Protective Effects Of Ficus carica Leaves On Glucose
And Lipids Levels, Carbohydrate Metabolism Enzymes And B-Cells In Type 2
Diabetic Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. Vol. 55 (1) 1074 – 1081. http://
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needAccess=true [diakses pada tanggal 03 Maret 2017].
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1

Jayakumar.S.P., Sen. M., Jagadeesan. M., dan Sundararajan. R. 2014. Antidiabetic


And Antioxidant Effects Of Ethanolic Extract Of Anjir Leaves (Ficus carica) In
Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rat. Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical
Research. Vol. 2(1) 1 – 10. http://www.ajpcrjournal.com/article/ ANTI
DIABETIC%20AND%20ANTIOXIDANT%20EFFECTS%20OF
%20ETHANOLIC%20EXTRACT%20OF%20ANJIR%20LEAVES%20(Ficus
%20carica)%20IN%20ALLOXAN%20INDUCED%20DIABETIC%20RAT
%20-%201.pdf [diakses pada tanggal 03 Maret 2017].

Kemenkes. 2014. Pusat Data dan Informasi (Infodatin) Kemenkes RI. Jakarta :
Kemenkes. http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/infodatin/
infodatin-diabetes.pdf [diakses pada tanggal 08 April 2017]

Kepala BPOM RI. 2014. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan
Republik Indonesia No. 12 Tahun 2014 Tentang Persyaratan Mutu Obat
Tradisional. Jakarta : BPOM RI. http://asrot.pom.go.id/img/Peraturan
/Peraturan%20Kepala%20BPOM%20No.%2012%20Tahun
%202014%20tentang%20Persyaratan%20Mutu%20Obat%20Tradisional.pdf
[diakses pada tanggal 19 Februari 2017].

Kepala BPOM RI. 2005. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan
Republik Indonesia Nomor : HK.00.05.41.1384 Tentang Kriteria Dan Tata
Laksana Pendaftaran Obat Tradisional, Obat Herbal Terstandar Dan
Fitofarmaka. Jakarta : BPOM RI. http://sireka.pom.go.id/requirement/HK.00.
05.41.1384-2005.pdf[diakses pada tanggal 19 Februari 2017].

Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan RI. 2003. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan No.


1076/Menkes/SK/VII/2003 Tentang Penyelenggaraan Pengobatan Tradisional
Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Jakarta : Menkes RI. http://pelayan
an.jakarta.go.id/download/regulasi/keputusan-menteri-kesehatan-republik-indo
nesia-no-1076-menkes-sk-vii-2003-tentang-penyelenggaraan-pengobatan-tradi
sional.pdf [diakses pada tanggal 09 April 2017].
Marks. M. 2013. Fig Leaves Balance Blood Sugar And Prevent Oxidative Stress.
http://www.naturalhealth365.com/fig_leaves.html/ [diakses pada tanggal 06
April 2017].
30

Marwat. S. K., Khan. M.A., Ajabkhan. M., Rehman. F., Akbari. A. H., Ahmad. M.,
Zafar. M., Dan Ahmad. F. 2011. Medicinal And Pharmacological Potentiality Of
The Plant At-Tîn-Common Fig (Ficus Carica L.). Asian Journal Of Chemistry;
Vol. 23 (1) 1-10. http://www.asianjournalofchemistry.co.in/User
/Viewfreearticle.Aspx?Articleid=23_1_1 [diakses pada tanggal 17 April 2017
Pukul 02.47 WIB].

PP RI. 2014. Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 103 Tahun 2014
Tentang Pelayanan Kesehatan Tradisional. Jakarta : Kemenkes.
http://tradkom.depkes.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2015/1-PP%20No.%20103%
20Th%202014%20ttg%20Kesehatan%20Tradisional.pdf [diakses pada tanggal
19 Februari 2017 pukul 05.45 WIB].

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI. 2012. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik


Indonesia Nomor 007 Tahun 2012 Tentang Registrasi Obat Tradisional.
Jakarta : Menkes. http://sireka.pom.go.id/requirement/PMK-7-2012-Registrasi
-Obat-Tradisional.pdf [diakses pada tanggal 14 April 2017].

Rahimah, D.S. dan Pujiastuti, E. 2016. Prospek Bisnis Buah Tin. Jakarta Pusat : PT.
Trubus Swadaya. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=mhtHDgAAQBAJ&pg
=PR2&lpg=PR2&dq=google+book+Prospek+Bisnis+Buah+Tin.&source=bl&o
ts=DdxiFx3nU4&sig=FjEYuUURcaerzoljEaVWwK33cw4&hl=en&sa=X&ved
=0ahUKEwiop4H-6bXTAhXLqo8KHUEMA9kQ6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q&
f=false [diakses pada tanggal 14 April 2017].

Refli.R. 2012. Potensi Ekstrak Daun Tin ( Ficus carica L.) Sebagai Antioksidan dan
Aktivitas Hambatannya Terhadap Proliferasi Sel Kanker HeLa. IPB :
Departemen Kimia. FMIPA. Dapat diakses di http://repository.ipb.ac.id
/handle/123456789/57783 [diakses pada tanggal 09 April 2017].

Stalin, Dineshkumar. P., Dan Nithiyananthan. K. 2012. Evaluation Of Antidiabetic


Activity Of Methanolic Leaf Extract Of Ficus Carica In Alloxan - Induced
Diabetic Rats. Asian Journal Of Pharmaceutical And Clinical Research. Vol.
5(3). http://www.ajpcr.com/Vol5Issue3/1038.pdf [diakses pada tanggal 09
April 2017].
Syamsuni. 2006. Ilmu Resep. Jakarta : EGC.

Ulbricht. C. E. 2010. Natural Standard : Herb and Supplement Guide An Evidence


Based Reference. Missouri : Mosby, Inc. Dapat diakses di
https://books.google.co.id/books?
id=WB8PDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA330&lpg=PA330&dq=indication+of+ficus+ca
rica+leaves+treatment&source=bl&ots=yX_7nd9oDe&sig=NLsTro3TrX3RW
n0mZ2qmSQXwbXM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjwvePN_rXTAhVIgI8
KHZM5BvI4ChDoAQgxMAI#v=onepage&q=indication%20of%20ficus
%20carica%20leaves%20treatment&f=false [diakses pada tanggal 17 April
2017].
LAMPIRAN – LAMPIRAN

Lampiran 1. Lembar Konsultasi

Lampiran 2. Jurnal Utama

Lampiran 3. Jurnal Pendukung


Pharmaceutical Biology
ISSN: 1388-0209 (Print) 1744-5116 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/iphb20

Protective effects of Ficus carica leaves on


glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism

enzymes and β-cells in type 2 diabetic rats

Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj, Sunil Christudas, Stalin Antony, Veeramuthu

Duraipandiyan, Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah & Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

To cite this article: Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj, Sunil Christudas, Stalin Antony,
Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah & Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu (2017)
Protective

effects of Ficus carica leaves on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism
enzymes and β-cells in type 2 diabetic rats, Pharmaceutical Biology, 55:1, 1074-
1081, DOI:

10.1080/13880209.2017.1279671

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1279671

Published online: 13 Feb 2017.


© 2017 The Author(s). Published
by Informa UK Limited, trading as
Taylor & Francis Group.

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PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY, 2017
VOL. 55, NO. 1, 1074–1081

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1279671

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Protective effects of Ficus carica leaves on glucose and lipids levels,
carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and b-cells in type 2 diabetic rats
a a b
Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj , Sunil Christudas , Stalin Antony , Veeramuthu
c c a,b,d
Duraipandiyan , Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
a
Division of Ethnopharmacology, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, India; bDivision of Bioinformatics,
Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, India; cDepartment of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for
Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; dVisiting Professor Programme,
Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT
Context: The decoctions of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) leaves are used in the folklore treatment of ARTICLE HISTORY
diabetes. Received 18 May 2016
Objective: To evaluate the effect of F. carica on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism Revised 10 October 2016
Accepted 3 January 2017
enzymes and b-cells protective effects in type 2 diabetes.
Material and methods: Diabetes was induced in 15 days high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Wistar rats by KEYWORDS
intraperi-toneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). The ethyl acetate extract (250 and 500 Ficusin; hypolipidemic;
mg/kg) of F. car-ica leaves was administered for 28 days. Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and hypoglycemic
intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were evaluated on 15th and 25th days, respectively.
Results: The ethyl acetate extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) of n F. carica leaves showed significant effect (p <
0.005) in the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), body weight and hep-atic
glycogen. In OGTT, F. carica (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.005) detained the increase in blood
glucose levels at 60 and 120 min and in ITT, F. carica enhanced the glucose utilization significantly
(p < 0.005) over 30 and 60 min compared to diabetic control. Further, the altered activities of key
carbohy-drate metabolizing enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
and hexokinase in the liver tissue of diabetic rats were significantly (p < 0.005) reverted to near
normal levels upon treat-ment with F. carica. Immumohistochemical studies of islets substantiated the
cytoprotective effect on pan-creatic b-cells.
Discussion and conclusions: F. carica leaves exerted significant effect on carbohydrate metabolism
enzymes with promising hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in type 2 diabetic rats.

Introduction acidosis (Surya et al. 2014). Medicinal plants are used tradition-
ally in many countries to control diabetes. Consequently, many
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or non-insulin-dependent dia- medicinal plants have been investigated with the aim of discover-
betes mellitus accounts for more than 90–95% of world human ing potential hypoglycemic agents (Sunil et al. 2012b). Because of
diabetic population (Naik et al. 2013). Insulin resistance, defect-ive its activity, nontoxic, with little or no side effects, World Health
insulin secretion and pancreatic b-cell damage were observed as Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional plants can
metabolic features of T2DM. It is predicted that by 2030 the total be an excellent candidate for the treatment of diabetes (Stephen
number of people having diabetes will reach 366 million (Shaw et Irudayaraj et al. 2012). Plants used in traditional medi-cine to treat
al. 2010). Along with high blood glucose level (hyper-glycemia) diabetes mellitus represent a valuable alternative for the control
and variation in the levels of serum lipids, diabetes will lead to of this disease.
micro- and macro-vascular complications. These compli-cations Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae), commonly referred as Figs or
are the major cause of morbidity and death in diabetic subjects Anjir, is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of India and
(Sunil et al. 2012a). Insulin, oral hypoglycemic drugs like worldwide for their nutritive and medicinal properties; it has been
sulphonylurea derivatives, biguanides, thiazolidinediones and a- widely used in indigenous systems of medicine, such as ayurveda,
siddha and homoeopathy (Manda et al. 1997). F. carica leaves,
glucosidase inhibitors are currently used to treat type 2 dia-betes.
bark, tender shoots, fruits, seeds and latex are traditionally used
These agents have undesirable side effects: thiazolidine-diones
in the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, nutritional anemia and as
induce obesity, osteoporosis and sodium retention; sulphonylurea
an anti-inflammatory agent (Canal et al. 2000). Decoctions of F.
derivatives produce hypoglycemia and the biguan-ide (metformin)
carica leaves are used as folk medicine for the
puts patients at the risk of developing lactic
CONTACT Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan avdpandiyan@yahoo.co.in Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental
Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box.2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Authors contribute equally for this work.
2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits
unrestricted use, distri-bution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
treatment of diabetes (Perez et al. 1996). Hepatoprotective, hypo-
.
glycemic, antifungal, antispasmodic, antipyretic, anthelmintic,
antioxidant and antimutagenic activities have been reported
(Vikas & Vijay 2011). The antidiabetic property of F. carica has
been reported in alloxan-induced insulin-deficient diabetic rat PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY 1075
model (Stalin et al. 2012). The antihyperlipidemic effect of F. car- 2
(r ) of 0.99700. Using linear regression analysis, the ficusin con-
ica in high-fat diet and Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemic tent was estimated using the calibration cure appearing in the
animal models are reported (Dayanand & Kishanchandra 2014; standard chromatogram using the following equation:
Joerin et al. 2014). Therefore, this study was undertaken to find
the effect of F. carica on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate
metabolism enzymes and b-cells protective effects in HFD-fed STZ- A ð cÞ
induced type 2 diabetic rats. Cðc Þ ¼ A ð st Þ CðstÞ

Materials and methods where C(c) is the concentration of the constituent in the sample,
Chemicals and reagents A(c) is the peak area of the constituent in the sample chromato-
Streptozotocin (STZ) and all fine chemicals were purchased from gram, C(st) is the concentration of the standard in the reference
Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company (St. Louis, MO). Ultrasensitive solution and A (st) is the area of the peak for the standard in the
rat insulin ELISA kit was obtained from Crystal Chem, Inc. reference chromatogram (Vinholes et al. 2011).
(Downers Grove, IL). Glibenclamide and all other chemicals of
analytical grade were purchased from local firm (Chennai, Tamil Experimental animals
Nadu, India). Healthy male albino Wistar rats (170–190 g) were housed and
raised at the animal housed of Entomology Research Institute in
Plant material favourable environmental conditions at temperature (22 ± 2 C), a
F. carica leaves were collected from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, relative humidity (45 ± 5 C) and 12/12 h day/night cycle of 7 days.
India, during January 2015 and were duly authenticated by The animals were fed ad libitum with normal laboratory standard
Ayyanar, the taxonomist of Entomology Research Institute, Loyola pelleted diet purchased from Sai Durga Feeds and Foods,
College (Voucher no. ERI/ETHPH/FC/234). Bangalore. The animal experiments and protocols were approved
by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC-ERI-LC-05/13).
Extraction of crude extracts of F. carica
F. carica leaves were rinsed with water, shade-dried and pow- Fixation of doses and acute toxicity study
dered. Fine powder (3 kg) was soaked in 9 L of hexane, ethyl Overnight fasted rats were divided into five groups of six rats each.
acetate and methanol, sequentially for 72 h at room temperature. F. carica was dissolved in vehicle (0.9% sodium chloride, 0.5%
The extrats were filtered and concentrated using rotary evapor- carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2% tween 80 in dis-tilled
ator at 40–55 C. 42, 36 and 19 g were yielded from the hexane, water) and used for treatment. Treated rats were given oral doses
ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively, and they were of F. carica (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 mg/kg) respect-ively.
The control group was given vehicle alone. The physical signs of
stored in refrigerator at 4 C. In our preliminary studies among
toxicity, such as writhing, gasping, palpitation and decreased
hexane, ethyl acetate and methonal extracts, the ethyl acetate
respiratory rate, body weight changes, food and water
extract of F. carica showed highly significant glucose lowering
consumption or mortality were observered for 1 h continuously,
activity (data not shown). Hence, the study was designed to
then for 4 h and finaly after every 24 h up to 14 days.
investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidaemic and b-cells protect-
Neither mortality nor adverse effects except for mild writhing
ive effects of the ethyl acetate extract of F. carica leaves in HFD-
were observed up to 5000 mg/kg of F. carica extract. Hence, 250
fed STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
and 500 mg/kg doses were preferred for consequent experiments
(Oliveira et al. 2008).
HPLC-DAD analysis
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major constituent/constit- Development of T2DM
uents in F. carica were carried out on Waters Alliance 2695 sepa- All the experimental rats were fed with HFD except normal control
rations Module HPLC system with photodiode array detector
composed of standard rat pelleted diet 68%, dalda (saturated fat)
(Waters, Milford, MA, 2996), with the reversed phase LC col-umn,
YMC pack ODS A (150 mm 4.6 mm, 3.5 lm) was eluted with 0.1% 30%, and cholesterol 2% for 15 days. Single intraperitoneal
orthophosphoric acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) in the ratio of 1:1 injection of freshly prepared solution of STZ (40 mg/kg) in 0.1 M
(A:B, v/v) as mobile phase system with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. citrate buffer (pH 4.5) was used to induce diabetes. Rats were
The samples were injected using a 20 lL loop (Rheodyne, Rohnet given 20% glucose solution for 24 h to prevent initial drug-
Park, CA) and the separations were moni-tored with PDA signal at induced hypoglycemic mortality. After seven days of STZ
270 nm. Peak purity was checked and the quantification was done. administration, blood samples were col-lected from the tail vein
Ficusin (HPLC purity 98.6%) was used as standard and run at five
and plasma glucose levels were deter-mined as described by
concentrations (3–150 lg/mL) and should be linear in the range
Trinder (1969). Hyperglycemia was considered by measuring the
with a correlation coefficient
fasting blood glucose (FBG) level. Rats with a FBG level above 250
mg/dL were categorized as dia-betic and included in the study.
Experimental design
The animals were assigned into five groups of six animals in each
group.
Group I: Normal control rats treated with vehicle alone.
Group II: Diabetic control rats treated with vehicle alone.
Group III: Diabetic rats treated with F. carica (250 mg/kg).
1076 S. STEPHEN IRUDAYARAJ ET AL.

Results
Group IV: Diabetic rats treated with F. carica (500 mg/kg).
Group V: Diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg). HPLC-DAD analysis
Quantification of ficusin (a furocoumarin) by HPLC analysis
Treatments (either vehicle or test drugs) were administered
showed its content to be 6.46% w/w. The retention time (tR) of
orally, once daily using intragastric tube for 28 days.
Biochemical analysis reference standard ficusin was observed at 1.2 min and it was
FBG and body weights of days 0, 14, 21 and 28 were measured. found to be the same with ficusin present in the ethylacetate
Plasma insulin (Ultrasensitive rat insulin ELISA kit), TC (Henley extract of the leaves of F. carica (Figure 1).
1957) and TG (Foster & Dunn 1973) were determined on days 0
and 28. OGTT and ITT were performed on days 15 and 25, Effect of F. carica on OGTT and ITT
respectively. On 28th day, the animals were anesthe-tized and In oral glucose tolerance test, soon after glucose administration,
the plasma glucose levels reached the maximum at 30 min in all
sacrificed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected in dry EDTA
the groups. Treatment with F. carica (250 and 500 mg/kg), sig-
containing test tubes and the liver tissues were sliced quickly and nificantly (p < 0.005) detained the increase of blood glucose levels
washed in ice cold saline and stored at 70 C in liquid nitrogen for at 60 and 120 min (Figure 2). In addition, F. carica treatment (250
further analysis of glycogen. The homogenate prepared in ice- and 500 mg/kg) enhanced the glucose utilization signifi-cantly (p <
chilled 10% potassium chloride in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) 0.005) over the complete period during the ITT com-pared to
solution was used to measure the activities of hexokinase diabetic control rats (Figure 3).
(Brandstrup et al. 1957), glucose-6-phosphatase (Koide & Oda
1959), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Gancedo & Gancedo 1971) Effect of F. carica on FBG and body weight
There was a significant (p < 0.005) increase in the levels of FBG in
and hepatic glycogen (Van Handel 1965), respectively.
HFD-fed STZ-treated diabetic control rats. F. carica (250 and 500
mg/kg) treatment significantly (p < 0.005) reduced the blood
Immunohistochemical analysis glucose level to near normal compared to glibencla-mide-treated
Immunohistochemical study was done as described by Gandhi et (0.6 mg/kg) rats (Table 1). The body weight was also increased in
al. (2012). F. carica-treated (250 and 500 mg/kg) diabetic rats (Table 2).

Statistical analysis Effect of F. Carica on plasma insulin, TC and TG


The results were presented as mean ± SEM. Statistical analyses of Plasma insulin level showed a significant increase (p < 0.005) in
all the data obtained were evaluated using one-way ANOVA untreated diabetic rats. After treatment with F. carica (250 and
followed by Student’s t-test (SPSS Program; Version 11.5, Chicago,
IL). The differences were considered as significant at p < 0.005.

Figure 1. HPLC fingerprint chromatogram of F. carica with ficusin (A) and the standard chromatogram of ficusin (B) peak. FI: ficusin.
PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY 1077

Figure 2. Effect of F. carica on 15th day OGTT.

Figure 3. Effect of F. carica on 25th day ITT.

Table 1. Levels of glucose in normal and diabetic rats after 28 days of treatment with F. carica.
Fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dl)
Groups 0 day 14th day 21st day 28th day
Normal control 77.82 ± 1.93 82.03 ± 2.11 79.21± 4.24 80.55 ± 2.18
Diabetic control 283.26 ± 7.82 319.4 ± 8.42 323.28± 3.64 336.35 ± 6.14
Diabetic þ F. carica (250 mg/kg) 298.31 ± 6.69 249.67 ± 8.12 174.81± 7.42 137.27 ± 7.24
Diabetic þ F. carica (500 mg/kg) 274.37 ± 4.18 251.6 ± 7.44 142.65± 8.12 129.14 ± 8.23
Diabetic þ Glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) 283.61 ± 9.14 256.1 ± 6.72 152.66± 7.74 131.32 ± 9.13
Values indicate mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six rats per group.
p < 0.005, compared with diabetic control values.

Table 2. Effect of F. carica on body weight after 28 days of treatment.


Body weight (g)
Groups 0 day 14th day 21st day 28th day
Normal control 188.12 ± 11.42 185. 2 ± 12.54 190.20± 12.10 190.22 ± 3.21
Diabetic control 209.25 ± 18.24 242.15 ± 10.71 264.16± 10.17 281.22 ± 13.52
Diabetic þ F. carica (250 mg/kg) 180.48 ± 9.69 192.67 ± 9.12 194.65± 8.56 195.26 ± 9.12
Diabetic þ F. carica (500 mg/kg) 190.34 ± 10.18 195.4 ± 12.92 201.21± 9.57 204.46 ± 8.71
Diabetic þ Glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) 202.72 ± 9.14 209.8 ± 17.42 215.89± 9.12 219.51 ± 8.22
Values indicate mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six rats per group.
p < 0.005, compared with diabetic control values.

500 mg/kg), plasma insulin level significantly (p < 0.005) reduced Effect of F. Carica on hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase,
to normal when compared with the diabetic control rats. Similarly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and hepatic glycogen
increased TC and TG levels were observed in untreated diabetic
rats. After treatment with F. carica (250 and 500 mg/kg) for 28 The activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-
days, TC and TG levels were significantly (p < 0.005) reverted to 1,6-bisphosphatase and the level of glycogen content in the liver
the near normal level (Table 3). of normal and diabetic rats are shown in Table 4. A significant
1078 S. STEPHEN IRUDAYARAJ ET AL.

Table 3. Effect of F. carica on Plasma insulin, TC and TG after 28 days of treatment.


Plasma Insulin (lU/mL) TC (mg/dl) TG (mg/dl)
Groups 0 day 28th day 0 day 28th day 0 day 28th day
Normal control 16.86 ± 1.74 16.28 ± 2.0 78.56 ± 5.81 79.14 ± 3.54 74.78 ± 3.42 71.65 ± 4.42
Diabetic control 22.45 ± 1.54 25.31 ± 0.46 99.24 ± 6.54 126.62 ± 7.88 149.74 ± 7.14 169.14 ± 6.12
Diabetic þ F. carica (250 mg/kg) 24.52 ± 1.78 20.77 ± 0.84 96.67 ± 5.32 88.14 ± 1.89 163.78 ± 9.18 106.84 ± 5.23
Diabetic þ F. carica (500 mg/kg) 22.84 ± 1.64 15.84 ± 0.76 96.98 ± 8.12 71.52 ± 4.64 164.83 ± 6.23 94.29 ± 11.68
Diabetic þ Glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) 23.56 ± 1.51 16.13 ± 0.53 91.26 ± 1.76 68.18 ± 4.58 157.18 ± 7.11 89.18 ± 8.16
Values indicate mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six rats per group.

p < 0.005, compared with diabetic control values.


Table 4. Effect of F. carica on hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and hepatic glycogen after 28 days of
treatment.
Hexokinase Glucose-6- phosphatase Fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase Hepatic glycogen
Groups (U/mg protein /min) (U/mg protein/min) (U/mg protein/min) (mg/g tissue)
Normal control 8.13 ± 1.74 0.29 ± 0.12 0.39 ± 0.07 24.74 ± 2.84
Diabetic control 4.98 ± 0.98 0.61 ± 0.12 0.69 ± 0.15 9.54 ± 1.82
Diabetic þ F. carica (250 mg/kg) 6.28 ± 1.67 0.37 ± 0.08 0.53 ± 0.08 18.58 ± 2.92
Diabetic þ F. carica (500 mg/kg) 7.74 ± 1.93 0.26 ± 0.16 0.42 ± 0.06 20.69 ± 1.74
Diabetic þ Glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) 7.18 ± 1.24 0.22 ± 0.05 0.41 ± 0.07 18.27 ± 1.22
Values indicate mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six rats per group.
p < 0.05,
p < 0.005, compared with diabetic control values.

Figure 4. Histogram showing intensity of insulin-immunostaining expression of b-cells in islet of Langerhans. (A) Normal control. (B) Diabetic control. (C and D) Diabetic þ
F. carica (250 and 500 mg/kg b wt.). (E) Diabetic þ glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg). Values represent the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of six rats per
group. p < 0.005, compared with diabetic control values

(p < 0.005) increase in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and compared to the vehicle-received diabetic control group. The
fructose- 1,6-bisphosphatase with significant (p < 0.005) decrease immumohistochemical examinations showed islets with positive
in hexokinase and glycogen were observed in diabetic rats when insulin-immunoreactive expression in the pancreas of normal rats
compared to normal control rats. Oral administration of F. carica (Figure 5(A)). Diabetic rats showed low amount of insulin-
(250 and 500 mg/kg) for 28 days significantly decreased the glu- immunoreactive expression (Figure 5(B)). There was a relative rise
cose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and signifi- in the expression of insulin-immunoreactivity with reliable dark
cantly increased the hexokinase and glycogen to near normal. brown insulin-immunostaining in the F. carica- (250 and 500
Immunohistochemical observations mg/kg) and glibenclamide-treated (0.6 mg/kg) diabetic groups
The results of the intensity of insulin-immunostaining expression compared with the diabetic control group (Figure 5(C–E))
is shown in Figure 4. Diabetic control rats showed a significant (p
< 0.005) reduction in the level of insulin-immunostaining Discussion
expression as compared to normal control rats. F. carica-treated T2DM is a progressive and complex disorder that is emerging as a
(250 and 500 mg/kg) diabetic groups exhibited significant (p < crucial threat to human population (Steppan et al. 2001). We
0.005) increase in the insulin-immunostaining expression observed in our study that HFD treatment along with intra-
peritoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg) damaged the
PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY 1079

Figure 5. Light photo micrographs of rat pancreas showing insulin-immunoreative expression of b-cells in islet of Langerhans. (A) Islet of normal control rat.
(B) Islet of diabetic control rat. (C and D) Islet of F. carica-treated (250 and 500 mg/kg) diabetic rats. (E) Islet of glibenclamide-treated (0.6 mg/kg) diabetic rats.
caused by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues damages the
insulin-secreting b-cells of the pancreas by breaking the DNA structural integrity of b-cells. In our study, the immunohisto-
strand and caused depressed b-cell function, decreased endogen- chemical analysis indicates that diabetic rats showed impaired and
ous insulin release and defects in insulin action (Koning et al. degranulated b-cells with the decrease of insulin-positive staining
2008). Other investigators have also used similar experimental b-cells. But, F. carica treatment preserved the b-cell mass on
T2DM animal model to explore drug discoveries (Zhang et al. diabetic rats. The extensive increase in insulin-immu-noreactive
2010; Veerapur et al. 2012). expression in F. carica-treated diabetic rats substanti-ated the
OGTT and ITT were performed on 15th and 25th day, protective role of F. carica in the reversion of pancreatic b-cell
respectively. The in vivo peripheral insulin action and insulin damage caused by HFD-STZ. Coumarins are reported as potential
resistance in animals can be assed by OGTT, hence it is a simple hypoglycemic agents with insulin sensitization effect (Liang et al.
and widely accepted method (Liou et al. 2002). In our study, F. 2009; Qin et al. 2010). F. carica contains good amount of
carica stimulated the glucose uptake into peripheral tissues of the furocoumarin, ficusin which could be responsible for its insulin
diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. ITT is useful to assess sensitization effect. Moreover, ficusin has been reported as good
insulin sensitivity by exogenous administration of insulin. F. car- antioxidant, antilipidemic and antidiabetic effects with their
ica (250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose significantly effects on GLUT4 translocation and PPARc expression in type 2
at 30 and 60 min, suggesting imporved insulin sensitivity possibly diabetic rats (Stephen Irudayaraj et al. 2016).
by improving one or more defects, namely insulin receptor, insu- The administration of HFD has significantly increased the TC
lin receptor substrate, glucose transporters or enzymes involved in and TG in the diabetic rats. In the present study, HFD-fed STZ-
phosphorylation of glucose (Benwahhoud et al. 2001; El Hilaly & induced diabetic rats have also shown marked rise in their body
Lyoussi 2002). These results from ITT and OGTT tests clearly weights compared to normal control rats. Diabetic condition with
established that F. carica administration reduced the glucose profound alterations in lipid profile leads to the develop-ment of
level by the mechanism of insulin-sensitized glucose uptake. atherosclerosis (Warnholtz et al. 2001). After the oral
Menaka et al. (2010) has also been reported in his study that, the administration of F. carica for 28 days to diabetic rats, there was
similar mechanism of insulin-sensitized glucose uptake has been a significant restoration in altered lipid profile along with con-
observed in ITT and OGTT of Sida rhomboidea extract on the trolled body weight gain compared to untreated HFD-fed STZ
C57BL/6J mice model. group. Dayanand and Kishanchandra (2014) has also reported that
A significant decrease in blood glucose and normalization of the F. carica treatment significantly lowered the TC and TG levels
plasma insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats treated with F. in high-fat diet and Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar
carica. This could be due to the potentiation of the extract on rats. Another study also confirmed the antihyperlipidemic effect of
pancreatic secretion of insulin from regenerated b-cells, or its F. carica leaf extract on high-fat diet-induced Sprague–Dawley
action to release bound insulin from regenerated b-cells by inhib- rats rats (Joerin et al. 2014).
þ
iting ATP-sensitive K channels like glibenclamide (Sunil et al. The activities of key glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase, glucose-6-
2012b). Yuan et al. (2001) have suggested that hyperinsulinaemia phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were significantly
altered during diabetic illness (Vestergard 1999). There is exten- as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase con-
sive evidence to show that elevated gluconeogenic enzymes such tribute to hyperglycemia in the diabetic state (Saxena et al. 1984).
Foster LB, Dunn RT. 1973. Stable reagents for determination of serum trigly-
1080 S. STEPHEN IRUDAYARAJ ET AL.
cerides by a colorimetric Hantzsch condensation method. Clin Chem.
19:338–340.
F. carica significantly normalized the activities of these gluconeo- Gancedo JM, Gancedo C. 1971. Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase,
phosphofructoki-nase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from
genic enzymes in the HFD-fed STZ-treated diabetic rats. F. carica fermenting and non fermenting yeasts. Arch Microbiol. 76:132–138.
has protective effect against the disturbed carbohydrate metabolic Gandhi GR, Ignacimuthu S, Paulraj MG. 2012. Hypoglycemic and b-cells
regenerative effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. bark extract in
enzymes; this is probably due to enhanced insulin action. The
streptozo-tocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 50:1667–1674.
insulin sensitization activity of F. carica was further substantiated
via its improved hepatic glycogen content in the treated diabetic
rats. Insulin plays a role in regulating glycogen metabolism Henley AA. 1957. The determination of serum cholesterol.
through activation or inhibition of several mediatory enzymes and Analyst.
proteins (Ferrer et al. 2003). 82:286–287.
Joerin L, Kauschka M, Bonnl€ander B, Pischel I, Benedek B, Butterweck V.
The immunohistochemical study clearly indicated that the HFD- 2014. Ficus carica leaf extract modulates the lipid profile of rats fed
fed STZ-induced diabetic control rats had decreased insu-lin- with a high-fat diet through an increase of HDL-C. Phytother Res.
immunoreactive expression. A defect in insulin action along the 28:261–267.
peripheral tissues resulting in hyperinsulinaemia eventually Koide H, Oda T. 1959. Pathological occurrence of glucose-6-phosphatase in
serum in liver diseases. Clin Chim Acta. 4:554–561.
damages the structural integrity and functional status of b-cells Koning EJ, Weir BS, Rabelink TJ. 2008. Preservation of beta-cell function by
(Yuan et al. 2001). The increase in insulin-immunoreactive targeting beta-cell mass. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 29:218–227.
expression in F. carica-treated diabetic rats proved the cytopro- Liang HJ, Suk FM, Wang CK, Hung LF, Liu DZ, Chen NQ, Chen YC, Chang CC,
Liang YC. 2009. Osthole, a potential antidiabetic agent, alleviates hyper-
tective role of F. carica in preventing the deterioration of b-cells. glycemia in db/db mice. Chem Biol Interact. 181:309–315.
Liou SS, Liu IM, Hsu JH, Wu YC, Hsu SF, Chen JT. 2002. Release of acetyl-
Conclusions choline by Die–Huang–Wan to enhance insulin secretion for lowering
In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of F. carica leaves pos- plasma glucose in Wistar rats. Auton Neurosci. 100:21–26.
Manda SC, Mukherjee KP, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, Saba PB. 1997.
sesses antidiabetic activity by stimulating the insulin production Hypoglycemic activity of Ficus carica L. leaves in streptozotoin-induced
from the regenerated beta cells of the pancreas. Increased insulin diabetic rats. Nat Prod Sci. 3:38–41.
Menaka CT, Ravirajsinh NJ, Ansarullah, Ranjitsinh VD, Ramachandran AV.
secretion after treatment with F. carica positively altered the
2010. Prevention of high fat diet induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6J
deranged carbohydrate metabolism in the diabetic rats by mice by Sida rhomboidea Roxb. extract. J Health Sci. 56:92–98.
decreasing gluconeogenesis and increasing glycolysis, ultimately Naik SR, Niture NT, Ansari AA, Shah PD. 2013. Anti-diabetic activity of
embelin: involvement of cellular inflammatory mediators, oxidative
decreasing hyperglycemia. stress and other biomarkers. Phytomedicine. 20:797–804.
Oliveira HC, Santos MPD, Grigulo R, Lima LL, Martins DTO, Lima CS. 2008.
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The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Ethnopharmacol. 115:515–519.
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with aqueous extract of Ficus carica (Fig tree) leaves. Phytother Res.
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prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2
diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 4:685–693.
Funding Saxena A, Bhatnagar M, Garg NK. 1984. Enzymes changes in rat tissues dur-
The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the ing hyperglycemia. Arogya – J Health Sci. 10:33–37.
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diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 87:4–14.
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activity of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus carica in alloxan induced dia-
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Jayakumar SP. et al. / Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Research. 2(1), 2014, 1 ­ 10.

Research Article CODEN: AJPCFF ISSN: 2321 – 0915

Asian Journal of Phytomedicine
and
Clinical Research
Journal home page: www.ajpcrjournal.com

ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANJIR 
LEAVES (Ficus carica) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RAT
1 1 1 1
S. P. Jayakumar* , Malini Sen , M. Jagadeesan , R. Sundararajan

*1
Department Pharmacology, Mohamed Sathak A. J. College of Pharmacy, Sholinganallur, Chennai – 600119,
Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Ficus is a pan­tropical genus of trees, shrubs and vines occupying a wide variety of ecological niches; most are evergreen,
but some deciduous species are endemic to areas outside of the tropics and to higher elevations. Healthy Wistar rats
weighing between 180­220 g were used to carry out acute oral toxicity studies by the ‘staircase’ method. All successive
extracts of  Anjir  leaves in 0.5% tween 80 was administered orally by gavages in graduated dose to several groups of
experimental animals, one dose being used per group. The preliminary phytochemical screening like Saponins, Tannins,
Amino acids, Proteins, Glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, Alkaloids, Carbohydrates and Flavonoids was done with the
ethanolic extract of  Anjir  Leaves according to the procedure. The present study, diabetic rats had lower body weights,
high blood glucose level as compared to the normal rats, which confirmed the induction of diabetic by alloxan. In spite of
the increased food consumption, loss of body weight due to defect in glucose metabolism and excessive breakdown of
tissue protein is a characteristic condition in diabetics. The treatment with ethanolic extract of  Anjir leaves improved the
average body weights of rats which indicate control over polyphagia and muscle wasting resulted due to hyperglycemic
condition.

Available online: 
KEYWORDS
www.uptodateresearchpublication.com
Glycosides, Hyperglycemic, Ethanol, and Antioxidant.

Author for correspondence:
S. P. Jayakumar, 
Department Pharmacology,
Mohamed   Sathak   A.   J.   College   of   Pharmacy,
Sholinganallur, Chennai­600119, Tamil Nadu, India.

Email: spjayapharm@gmail.com.
INTRODUCTION
The   therapeutic   properties   of   medicinal   plants   are
conditioned by the presence of active substances, such as
alkaloids,   flavonoids,   glycosides,   vitamins,   tannins,   and
coumarin   compounds,   which   physiologically   affect
humans and animals or which are biologically active in
1
relation   to   the   causative   agents   of   various   diseases .   A
special group of medicinal plants are antibiotics. However,
treatment with medicinal plants must be conducted under
2
the supervision of a physician . More than 30,000 tons
January ­ March 1
Jayakumar SP. et al. / Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Research. 2(1), 2014, 1 ­ 10.
is a pan­tropical genus of trees, shrubs
of   raw   materials   from   approximately and vines occupying a wide variety of
220   species   of   medicinal   plants   are ecological niches; most are evergreen,
used   annually   in   the   USSR.   Of   the but   some   deciduous   species   are
plants collected, more than 75 percent endemic to areas outside of the tropics
of  the  species  grow wild, accounting 7
and to higher elevations . Fig species
for 50 percent of the total weight. The
are   characterized   by   their   unique
rest are cultivated on 23 sovkhozes of
3
inflorescence   and   distinctive
the   Ministry   of   Medicinal   Industry . pollination   syndrome,   which   utilizes
The opium poppy and peppermint are wasp   species   belonging   to   the
also   cultivated   on   kolkhozes.   A   few Agaonidae   family   for   pollination.
dozen species of medicinal plants are Grind four fig leaves along with sugar
exported   annually   from   the   USSR, candy.   Regularly   take   this   mixture
including   several   thousand   tons   of along with a glass of water two times
4 in   a   day.   This   fig   home   remedy   is
licorice roots . Many medicinal plants
are   used   in   the   food   industry,   in   the useful in the natural treatment of liver
perfume   industry   and   in   metallurgy.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is
characterized   by   high   blood   glucose
and   either   insufficient   or   ineffective
insulin. 5.9% of the population in the
United   States   has   diabetes,   and
diabetes   is   the  seventh  leading  cause
of death in our country. Diabetes is a
chronic   disease   without   a   cure;
however, with proper management and
treatment,   diabetics   can   live   normal,
healthy   lives.   There   are   two   main
5
types of diabetes, Type I and Type II .
An   antioxidant   is   a   substance   that
when   present   in   low   concentrations
relative   to   the   oxidizable   substrate
significantly   delays   or   reduces
oxidation   of   the   substrate.
Antioxidants   get   their   name   because
they   combat   oxidation.   They   are
substances that protect other chemicals
of the body from damaging oxidation
reactions by reacting with free radicals
and   other   reactive   oxygen   species
within  the body,  hence  hindering  the
6
process   of   oxidation .   During   this
reaction   the   antioxidant   sacrifices
itself by becoming oxidized. However,
antioxidant supply is not unlimited as
one   antioxidant   molecule   can   only
react with a single free radical.  Ficus
formed which is often coloured.
cirrhosis. Consuming one teaspoon of Test for amino acids
fig   seeds   along   with   a   teaspoon   of
honey   daily   to   control   diabetes. To   the   test   solution   add   2ml   of
8 millions   reagent,   white   precipitate
Follow this therapy for about a week .
indicates presence of amino acid.
Test for proteins
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The test solution take in a test tube and
Preparation of ethanolic extracts of 
heat in boiling water bath, proteins get
Anjir leaves coagulated.
The   leaves   was   separated   from   plant Xanthoproteic test
and   it   was   washed   with   absolute To the 5ml of test solution, add 1ml of
ethanol to avoid the microbial growth, concentrated   nitric   acid   and   boil,
the leaves were dried at open air under yellow   precipitate   is   formed.   After
the shade, cut in to small pieces and cooling it, add 40 %sodium hydroxide
powdered mechanically, then 50 gm of solution, orange colour is formed.
powder  Anjir  leaves   was   extracted Gly
with   250ml   ethanol   in   a   soxhlet cos
apparatus   for   72   hrs.   The   extract
ide
obtained was concentrated by recovery

of   ethanol.   The   concentrated   product
was used as ethanolic extract of leaves Kel
of Anjir. ler 
kili
Phytochemical investigation on  ani
9­12
Anjir leaves   Test for saponins test
Take   2ml   of   drug   solution   in   a   test The test consists of boiling about 1 g
tube. To it add small amount of water, finely powered sample with 10 ml 70
shake   well,   stable   froth   (foam)   is %   alcohol   for   2   to   3   minutes.   The
formed. extract   is   filtered.   To   the   filtrate   is
Test for tannins added, 5 ml water and 0.5 ml strong
To the 5ml of aqueous extract add 0.5 solution   of   lead   acetate.   Shake   well
gm   of   sodium   acid   phosphate.   Then and   separate   the   filtrate.   The   clear
warm it and filter. To the filtrate add filtrate is treated with equal volume of
2% Phenazone solution, precipitate is chloroform and

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precipitate is formed.
evaporated to yield the extractive. The Experimental part
extractive is dissolved in glacial acetic Healthy Wistar rats weighing between
acid and after cooling, 2 drops ferric
180­220 g were used to carry out acute
chloride solution is added to it. These
contents are transferred to a test tube oral toxicity studies by the ‘staircase’
containing 2 ml concentrated sulphuric method.   All   successive   extracts   of
acid. A reddish brown layer acquiring Anjir leaves in   0.5%   tween   80   was
bluish­green   colour   after   standing   is administered orally   by   gavages   in
observed. graduated   dose   to   several   groups   of
Test for cardiac glycosides experimental animals, one dose being
Keddes test used   per   group.   Subsequently,
Extract   the   drug   with   chloroform,
observations of effects
evaporate to dryness. Add one drop of
90% alcohol and 2drops of 2% 3, 5 Di
nitro   benzoic   acid   in   90%   alcohol.
Make   alkaline   with   20%   sodium
hydroxide   solution,   purple   colour   is
produced. The colour reaction with 3,
5 Di nitro benzoic acid depends on the
presence   of   alpha,   beta   unsaturated
lactones in the aglycone.
Test for alkaloids
Dragendorff’s test
To 2­3 ml filtrate, add few drops of 
Dragendorff’s reagent. Orange brown 
precipitate is formed. Mayer’s test
2­3 ml filtrate with few drops of 
Mayer’s reagent gives precipitate.
Test for carbohydrates
Molisch’s test
The   test   is   positive   with   soluble,   as
well   as,   insoluble   carbohydrates.   It
consists   of   treating   the   compounds
with   alpha   napthol   and   concentrated
sulphuric   acid   which   gives   purple
colour   ring   at   the   junctions   of   two
layer.
Test for flavonoids
Shinoda test
To dry powder or extract, add 5 ml 95
%   ethanol,   few   drops   concentrated
HCl   and   0.5   g   magnesium   turnings.
Pink colour observed.
To small quantity of extract, add lead
acetate   solution.   Yellow   colored
15,16
glucometer .   The   diabetic   rats
were made at 0,1,2,4 and 24 h for any
(glucose   level   >300   mg/dl)   were
13,14
mortality .   Ethical   clearance   for separated   and   divided   into   five
handling the animals is obtained from different   groups   for   experimental
the   Institutional   animal   ethical study, with each group containing six
animals.
committee   prior   to   the   beginning   of
Group   I  was   served   as   Normal
the   project   work   from   Institutional
Control,  Group   II  was   served   as
Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC) of Diabetic   control,  Group   III  was
SASTRA   University,   Thanjavur,   and served as Diabetic + Glibenclamide (5
Tamilnadu. mg/kg),  Group   IV  was   served   as
Diabetic   +  Anjir  leaf  Extract   200
Experimental Designs mg/kg, Group V served as Diabetic +
Anti­diabetic   and   Anti­   oxidant Anjir leaf Extract 400 mg/kg.
activity   of  Anjir  leaves   (Alloxan­
induced diabetic model) For all the animals the blood glucose
Alloxan   monohydrate   was   first level is measured on Day 0, 5, 10 and
weighed individually for each animal 15. The results of group IV and group
according   to   their   weight   and   then V (Anjir leaf extract treated groups) is
solubilized   with   0.2   ml   saline   just compared   with   group   I,   II   (control
prior   to   injection.   Diabetes   was groups)  and  group  III   (standard  drug
induced by injecting it at a dose of 150 treated group).
mg/kg b. wt. intraperitonially. After 1
h   of   alloxan   administration,   the Blood samples collected from all the
animals   were   given   feed  ad  libitum, animals   are   further   subjected  to   tests
and   5%   dextrose   solution   was   also for determining Lipid profile, Hepatic
given in  a feeding bottle for a day to glycogen   level   and   tissue
overcome   the   early   hypoglycemic concentration of LPO, SOD and CAT.
phase.   The   animals   were   kept   under The   results   of   the   Anjir   leaf   extract
observation   and   after   48   h   blood treated groups are compared that with
glucose   was   measured   by the control and standard drug treated
groups.

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lower   body   weights,   high   blood
RESULT AND DISCUSSION glucose   level   as   compared   to   the
The   preliminary   phytochemical normal   rats,   which   confirmed   the
screening like Saponin, Tanins, Amino induction   of   diabetic   by   alloxan.   In
Acid,   Protein,   Alkaloids, spite   of   the   increased   food
Carbohydrates,   Glycosides   and consumption, loss of body weight due
Flavonoids   was   done.   The   results   of to   defect   in   glucose   metabolism   and
preliminary test of ethanolic extract of excessive breakdown of tissue protein
Anjir  Leaves   were   shown   in   Table is   a   characteristic   condition   in
No.1. diabetics. The treatment with ethanolic
Anti­diabetic   and   Anti­   oxidant extract   of  Anjir  leaves   improved   the
activity   of  Anjir  leaves   (Alloxan­ average   body   weights   of  rats   which
induced diabetic model) indicate   control   over   polyphagia   and
Phytochemical   screening   of   all   the muscle   wasting   resulted   due   to
extract   of  Anjir  leaves   showed   the hyperglycemic condition.
presence   of   various   chemical Alloxan   causes   massive   reduction   in
constituents, mainly tannins, saponins insulin release, through the destruction
and   flavonoids   which   may   be of b­cells of the Islets of
responsible   for   its   antidiabetic   and
anti­oxidant   properties   was   shown   in
Table   1.   The   results   obtained   were
comparable and satisfied the standard
literature.   To   ascertain   a   scientific
base for the usefulness of this plant in
the   treatment   of   diabetes,   it   was
decided   to   evaluate   experimental
design   of   antidiabetic   activity   by
alloxan­induced   model.   As   expected,
in   the   diabetic   control,   there   was
severe hyperglycemia when compared
with   the   normal   animals.   When
compared   with   the   Diabetic   control,
the ethanolic extract of Anjir leaves as
shown in Table No.2 and Figure No.1,
lowered   the   elevated   blood   glucose
levels.   It   was   observed   that   the
standard drug Glibenclamide lowered
the   blood   glucose   level   significantly
bringing   it   nearly   back   to   normal,
whereas   ethanolic   extract   of  Anjir
leaves   significantly   decreased   blood
serum glucose in the diabetic rats on
fifth,   tenth,   fifteenth   and   twentieths
days   compared   with   the   diabetic
control   rat’s   blood   serum   glucose
levels.
In the present study, diabetic rats had
leaves   to   diabetic   rats   decreased   the
Langerhans.   In   our   study,   we   have levels of  tissue lipid peroxidation and
observed a significant increase in the hydroperoxides to normal levels. The
plasma   insulin   level   when   alloxan concentration   of   tissues   LPO,   SOD
diabetic   rats   were   treated   with  Anjir and CAT were significantly decreased
leaves.   This   could   be   due   to in diabetic rats when compared to the
potentiation   of   the   insulin   effect   of control   group.   Administrations   of
plasma   by   increasing   the   pancreatic Anjir  leaves   extract   to   diabetic   rats
secretion   of   insulin   from   existing  β­ tend   to   bring   the   activities   of   these
cells   of   islets   of   Langerhans   or   its enzymes to near normal level.
release   from   bound   insulin.   The
significant and consistent antidiabetic
effect   of  Anjir  leaves   in   alloxan DISCUSSION
diabetic   rats   may   also   be   due   to The currently­available drug regimens
enhanced   glucose   utilization   by for   management   of   diabetes   mellitus
peripheral   tissues.   The   serum   lipid have certain drawbacks and therefore,
profile in Table No.3 and Figure No.2 there   is   a   need   for   safer   and   more
treated   with  Anjir  leaves   extract effective antidiabetic drugs. This study
returned to values nearing that of the was   undertaken   to   assess   the
control   group.   This   showed   that antidiabetic  effect  of  Anjir  leaves. In
treatment   with  Anjir  leaves the present study, the oral treatment of
significantly improved the lipid profile Anjir  leaves   extract   decreased   the
in   diabetic   animals   and   reduces   the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. It
glycogen level in liver shown in Table has been reported that using medicinal
No.4 and Figure No.3. Table No.5 and plant   extract   to   treat   alloxan­induced
Figure   No.4   show   the   concentration diabetic rats results in activation of  ß
lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxides ­cells and insulinogenic effects.  Anjir
in   the   liver   of   both   control   and leaves   may   also   have   brought   about
experimental groups of rats. There was hypoglycaemic   action   through
a   significant   elevation   in   tissue   lipid stimulation   of   surviving  ß­  cells   of
peroxidation   and   hydroperoxides   in islets of
diabetic rats. Administration of  Anjir

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Langerhans   to   release   more   insulin. In   our   study,   concentrations   of   lipid


This   was   clearly   evidenced   by   the peroxides   and   hydroperoxides   were
increased   levels   of   plasma   insulin   in increased   in   liver   of   diabetic   rats,
indicating   an   increase   in   the
diabetic rats treated with  Anjir leaves.
generation   of   free   radicals.   Increased
Since   the   percentage   fall   in   plasma
lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus
glucose levels was different in models can   be   due   to   increased   oxidative
with   varying   intensity   of stress   in   the   cell   as   a   result   of
hyperglycaemia, it implies that the anti depletion   of   antioxidant   scavenger
hyperglycaemic effect of that plant is systems. The present finding indicates
dependent   on   the   dosage   of significantly   increased   lipid
diabetogenic   agent,   which   in   turn peroxidation of rats exposed to alloxan
and   its   attenuation   by  Anjir  leaves
leads to ß ­cell destruction. A number
treatment.   This   suggests   that   the
of   other   plants   have   also   been protective role of Anjir leaves extracts
observed   to   exert   hypoglycaemic could be due to the antioxidative effect
activity   through   insulin   release of flavonoids present in the leaf, which
stimulatory effects. The concentrations in   turn   act   as   strong   superoxide
of   lipids,   such   as   serum   cholesterol radicals and singlet oxygen quenchers.
were   significantly   higher   in   diabetic Numerous   studies   have   revealed
lowered   antioxidant   and   enhanced
rats   than   in   the   control   group.   A
peroxidative   status   in   diabetes
variety of derangements in metabolic mellitus. In the current study, the LPO,
and   regulatory   mechanisms,   due   to SOD   and   CAT   activities   were
insulin deficiency, are responsible for significantly   reduced   in   the   liver   of
the   observed   accumulation   of   lipids. diabetic   rats.   These   observations
The   impairment   of   insulin   secretion emphasize   the   critical   importance   of
results   in   enhanced   metabolism   of maintaining   the   antioxidant   potential
of   the   pancreatic  ß­  cell   in   order   to
lipids   from   the   adipose   tissue   to   the
ensure   both   its   survival   and   insulin
plasma.  Further,   it  has   been  reported secretion   capacity   during   times   of
that   diabetic   rats   treated   with increased   oxidative   stress.   The
Glibenclamide shows normalised lipid decreased activities of SOD and CAT
levels.   Thus,   the   results   indicate   that in   the   liver   during   diabetes   mellitus
an Anjir leaf shows insulin­like action may   be   due   to   the   production   of
by virtue of its lipid lowering levels. reactive   oxygen   free­radical   that   can
themselves reduce the activity of these
Oxidative   stress   has   been   shown   to
enzymes.
play a role in the causation of diabetes
mellitus.   Antioxidants   have   been
shown to have a role in the alleviation
of   diabetes   mellitus.   In   diabetes
mellitus, oxygen free radicals (OFRs)
are generated by stimulating H2O2.
Table No.1: Phytochemical screening results of Anjir 
leaves

S.NO PHYTOCONSTUTIENT RESULT

1. SAPONINS +

2. TANNINS +

3. AMINO ACIDS +

4. PROTEINS +

5. GLYCOSIDES _

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6. CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES +

7. ALKALOIDS +

8. CARBOHYDRATES +

9. FLAVONOIDS +

PRESENT = (+), ABSENT = (­)

Table No.2: Anti Diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
Group Treatment Day 0 Day 5 Day 10 Day 15 Day 20
No. group
I Normal Control 98.67±3.45 92.56±6.23 85.87±8.53 91.23±5.89 87.48±6.74
II Diabetic control 375.39±13.67 398.45±16.72 407.51±13.34 436.67±15.49 452.74±18.39
III Diabetic + 368.73±10.45 304.92±14.39 250.79±14.27 233.44±11.25 208.25±11.59
Glibenclamide
IV Diabetic + 372.21±12.34 364.32±06.53 336.12±04.98 343.46±12.22 295.54±06.74
Extract 200
mg/kg

V Diabetic + 377.63±12.53 352.38±15.64 316.37±16.83 284.79±10.64 253.70±12.92


Extract 400
mg/kg

Table No.3: Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
LPO SOD CAT

Group
Treatment group No. of moles Amount of protein Moles of H2O2
No,
MDA formed/ required for 50% decomposed/minute/mg
mg of protein inhibition of protein

I Normal Control 2.86 7.27 93.64

II Diabetic control 4.23 3.89 49.37

III Diabetic +glibenclamide 3.12 6.53 81.35

IV Diabetic + Extract 200 mg/kg 4.16 4.20 55.26

V Diabetic + Extract 400 mg/kg 3.59 5.66 72.89

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Table No.4: Hepatic Glycogen Level of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves on Alloxan Induced 


Diabetic Rats

Group No. Treatment group Liver glycogen (mg/g)

I Normal Control 42

II Diabetic control 15

III Diabetic + Glibenclamide 36

IV Diabetic + Extract 200 mg/kg 17

V Diabetic + Extract 400 mg/kg 23

Table No.5: Serum Cholesterol Level of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves on Alloxan Induced 


Diabetic Rats
Group No. Treatment group Serum cholesterol (mg/dl)

I Normal Control 97

II Diabetic control 225

III Diabetic + Glibenclamide 126

IV Diabetic + Extract 200 mg/kg 194

V Diabetic + Extract 400 mg/kg 152

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500
Jayakumar SP. et al. / Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Research. 2(1), 2014, 1 ­ 10.
450

400

350

300

250

200 DAY 0

DAY 5
150
DAY 10
100
DAY 15
50
DAY 20
0

Normal Diabetic Diabetic+ glib 5mg Diabetic+Ext Diabetic+Ext 200mg 400mg

Figure No.1: Anti Diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves

100

90

80

70

60

50 LPO

40 SOD
CAT
30

20

10

0
Normal Diabetic Diabetic+ glib 5mg Diabetic+Ext Diabetic+Ext 200mg 400mg

Figure No.2: Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves

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Jayakumar SP. et al. / Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Research. 2(1), 2014, 1 ­ 10.
45

40

35

30

25

20

Liver Glycogen
15

10

0
Normal Diabetic Diabetic+ glib Diabetic+Ext Diabetic+Ext
5mg 200mg 400mg

Figure No.3: Hepatic Glycogen Level of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves

250

200

150

100 Serum Cholesterol

50

0
Normal Diabetic Diabetic+ glib Diabetic+Ext Diabetic+Ext
5mg 200mg 400mg

Figure No.4: Serum Cholesterol Level of Ethanolic Extract of Anjir leaves

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Jayakumar SP. et al. / Asian Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Research. 2(1), 2014, 1 ­ 10.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
1. Preliminary phytochemical analysis report data. 
2. In   this   experimental   model,   the   ethanolic   extract  Anjir   leaves  (200,   400   mg/kg)   with   reference
standard   Glibenclamide   5mg/kg   significantly   effective   in   abnormalities   of   enzyme   profile   in
experimental rats. 
3. The data that Anjir leaves extract is beneficial in controlling the blood glucose level, improves the
lipid metabolism and prevents diabetic complications from lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in
experimental diabetic rats. 

4. This could be useful for prevention or early treatment of diabetic disorders. 
5. We   conclude   that   the  Anjir   leaves  have   potent   anti­diabetic   and   anti­oxidant   effects   in   alloxan
induced diabetic rats. 
6. The present investigation has also opened avenues for further research especially with reference to
the development of potent formulation for diabetes mellitus from Anjir leaves. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are sincerely thanks to Mohamed Sathak A. J. College of Pharmacy, Sholinganallur, Chennai,
Tamil Nadu, India for providing the facilities to complete this research work.

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Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 23, No. 1 (2011), 1-10

REVIEW

Medicinal and Pharmacological Potentiality of the Plant At-Tîn-Common Fig (FICUS CARICA L.)

SARFARAZ KHAN MARWAT1,*, MUHAMMAD ASLAM KHAN2, MIR AJAB KHAN3, FAZAL-UR-REHMAN4,
ABDUL HAKIM AKBARI4, MUSHTAQ AHMAD3, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR3 and FAROOQ AHMAD3
1
University WENSAM College Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan
2
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies & Research Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP,
Pakistan 3Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
4
Faculty of Pharmacy Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: E-mail: skhan.marwat@gmail.com

(Received: 2 April 2010; Accepted: 16 August 2010) AJC-8973

At-Tin (Ficus carica L.) of family Moraceae is commonly known as edible fig. This plant has been mentioned in the Holy Qur'an (in
Sura 'At-Tin') only once. Islamic scholars have different views regarding the interpretation of the plant At-Tin. Most of them have
interpreted it in the meaning of common fig in their interpretation on the Holy Qur'an. According to some authorities the fig means
Mosque of Syria or Mountain of Syria or Mosque of Nuh which was built upon the Mountain Al-Judi. Some commentators say that At-
Tin signifies a mountain nearby to which 'Jerusalem' is situated and that is the place of birth of Hazrat Essa (Alaihi Salaam). The fruit
of Ficus carica (Fig) has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient, galactogogue,
vermifuge, nutritive, stimulant for the brain, poultice for gumboils and for the treatment of anemia, dental abscesses, heart-disease,
hemorrhoids, osteoporosis and tumors. Consequently, fig has been extensively studied for its biological activities and has been shown
antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiwart, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Key Words: FICUS CARICA, Qur'an, Pharmacological Potential

(Radiallaho Anho) narrates that Rasullullah (Sallallhu Alayhi


Wasallam) said, "Eat fig, for it cures the piles and is useful for
INTRODUCTION rheumatism"6. In another Hadith, Hazrat Abu Darda
(Radiallaho Anho) narrates that someone presented to the
The Holy Qur'an is the last revealed book and the only
Prophet a plate containing figs. He said, "eat figs! If I would
complete divine guidance that exists in the world for mankind 1.
say a certain type of fruit was sent down to us from the heavens
The Holy Quran from the very start has a claim that it covers
every aspect of life and is full of wisdom 2. Sura 'At-Tin' is only
one surah from the Qura'n which has taken its name from its 1st
verse indicating a specific plant, At-Tin, "The Fig."3. I would say it's a fig because it has no seeds. It ends (cures) the
According to the Holy Qura'n (Surah 95. At-Tin, Verse 1- piles and is useful for rheumatism."7.
4): "By the fig and the olive, By mount Sinai, By this city of According to Ibn Sireen, a scholar in the science of
security (Makkah).Verily, We created man in the best stature dreams, figs, if seen in dreams, denote wealth and prosperity.
(mould)"4. Our Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) The benefits I have restricted myself to mentioning here is an
used certain herbs and recommended various medicinal plants indication of the compassion, Allah feels for human beings8.
for cure of common diseases. He recommended fig for the Fig (Ficus carica) is one of the earliest fruits cultivated 9.
According to some commentators, when the man appeared on
treatment of piles and rheumatism 5. Hazrat Abu Darda
the earth, the fist tree planted for his benefits was the fig 10. (2900 B.C.) and the Assyrians (2000 B.C.) were familiar with
When Hazrat Adam (Alayhi Salam) and Hazrat Hawa (Alayha fig12. They also mentioned in a Babylonian hymnbook dated
Salam) were expelled from the paradise and they knew that about 2000 B.C. Every inhabitant of Athens was a
they were naked, they sewed fig leaves together and made "philosykos," literally translated, "a friend of the fig"9.
themselves aprons10,11. The early Greeks so highly prized figs that it was consi-
The fig is the most mentioned fruit in the Bible. Ancient dered an honor to bestow the foliage and fruit. In the original
records indicate both King Urukagina of the Sumarian era
2 Marwat et al. Asian J. Chem.

Europe. Today the United States, Turkey, Greece and Spain are
the primary producers of dried figs9.

olympic games, winning athletes were crowned with fig leaves


and given fig fruits to eat12.
Figs were one of the crops that became known in China
during the T'ang dynasty which rose to power in the 700's BC 13.
By the end of the Roman Empire during 5th century, fig culture
was well distributed throughout the Mediterranean and along
the shores of the Atlantic12.
Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79) records several stories about
fig trees in Rome. He asserts that a sacred fig tree grows in the
Roman Forum. Alluding to the myth that Rome was founded
by the twins, Romulus and Remus, who suckled on a she-wolf,
Pliny tells us that, "This tree is known as Ruminalis because
the she-wolf was discovered beneath it giving her teats (rumis
in Latin) to the infant boys"13.
In the first half of the sixteenth century, the fig was
brought to England by Cardinal Pole, a few years before Cortez
introduced the tree to Mexico. Fig trees reached North America
in about 179013. Figs were first introduced into the New World
by Spanish and Portuguese missionaries12.
Interpretion of ‘At-Tin’ (Fig) by Islamic
Scholars:
There are different views of commentators about the interpre-
tation of 'At-Tin' (fig) mentioned in the Holy Qur'an. Most of
them have interpreted it in its actual meaning (i.e. common fig
plant) and described its medicinal and nutritional qualities in
their commentaries on the Holy Quran14,15. Some authorities
are reported to have interpreted it as the Mosque of Syria or
Mountain of Syria16, Noah's mosque on Mount Judei (Ibn
Abbas--), the earth of Damascus where Hazrat Essa (Alaihi
Salaam) was born17, the mosque of the sleepers in the cave 18, a
mountain near Jerusalem19. According to some authorities the
fig symbolizes the countries in which this tree predominates,
i.e. Palestine and Syria20, a mountain of the sacred earth or a
mosque of Damascus or a famous city 21, the place where
Hazrat Ibrahim (Alaihi Salaam) migrated22,23.
Allah has sworn by this tree (At-Tin) due to its multitude
of benefits that come from this tree and its fruit; additionally, to
the fact that its overwhelming presence in the land of as-Sham
[Sierra] is the same place where 'Esaa' (son of Mary) Alaihi
Salaam was given the prophethood 24. The various views of
Islamic scholars have been summarized in Table-1.
Taxonomic aspect: Botanical name: Ficus carica L.;
Family: Moraceae; English name: Common Fig; Local name:
Anjeer; Arabic name: At-Tin; Habit & Habitat: A small tree
cultivated in poor soil; Part used: Fruit, leaves, latex.
Description: A small deciduous tree, 5-6 m high; shoots
densely pubescent. Leaves petiolate, petiole 1.8-3.5 cm long
densely pubescent, lamina ovate to ovate-cordate, 4.3-12.8 ×
5.4-12 cm, acute, serrate, scabrid on the upper side, wooly
tomentose beneath, lateral veins 8-9 pairs. Hypanthodium
(inflorescence) axillary. Male flowers with 3-5 perianth
segments and 3-5 stamens. Female flowers with 5 perianth
segments; ovary with lateral style, stigma 1-2. Fruit usually
pyriform-obovoid, 2-3.8 × 1-2.8 cm, hispid, yellowish to
brownish violet25.
Distribution: Cultivated and sub spontaneous in India,
Pakistan, Afghanistan; Russia, Iran, Middle East, N. Africa and
19 Ikrama Maula ibn Abbas Common Fig 66
20 Ismail ibn Kathir Common Fig 18
TABLE-1
VIEWS OF ISLAMIC SCHOLARS ABOUT THE 21 Jarullah Mehmood bin Umar Common Fig 73
INTERPRETATION OF FIG MENTIONED IN HOLY QURAN Al-Zemakhshari
22 Subhan-Ul-Hind Maulana Ahmad Common Fig 74
S. Saeed
Name of the commentator Views Ref. 23 Maulana Hussain Ali Place where 22
No. Hazrat Ibrahim
1 Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Mahmood Common Fig 63 (A S) migrated
An-Nasafi 24 Mufti Muhammad Shafi The land of the 20
2 Abdul Hameed Swati Common Fig 64
3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi Common Fig 15
tree (Palestine
4 Abdullah Yousaf Ali Common Fig 65
and Syria)
5 Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi Mosque of the 18
25 Muhammad Abdur Rashid No’mani, Common Fig 21
sleepers in the
26 Muhammad Afzal Khan Place where 23
cave
Hazrat Ibrahim
6 Abu ashaathaa Jabir bin Zaid Alazdy Common Fig 66 (A. S) migrated
7 Abul Kalam Azad The earth of 17 27 Muhammad Ashraf Ali Thanawi Common Fig 75
Damascus 28 Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-Tabari Common Fig 18
8 Abu Muhammad Abdul Haq Mountain of 67 29 Mujahid bin Jabr Common Fig 66
30 Muhammad Shah Abdul Qadir A garden on a 76
Haqqani Syria
hill
9 Abu Tahir Muhammad Bin Yaqoob Mosque of 16
Al-Ferozabadi Syria or 31 Qazi Muhammad Sana Ullah Pani Common Fig 77
Mountain of Patti
Syria 32 Shabir Ahmad Usmani, 1989 Common Fig 19
10 Abi Muhammad Al-Hussain Bin Mountain of 68 33 Shaykh 'Abdur Rahman as-Sa'di Fig tree, Sierra 24
Mas’ud Al-Baghvi Syria Medicinal uses: Fig has been extensively studied globally,
11 Al-Hassan bin Yasaar Al-Basri Common Fig 66 which justifies its broad traditional therapeutic value. The fruit,
12 Allaud Din Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Common Fig 69 root and leaves of Ficus carica are used in the native system of
Ibrahim Al-Bughdadi Al-Khazin medicine in different disorders such as Gastro intestinal (colic,
13 Al-Qazi Naasir-ud-Din Abi Saeed Common Fig 14 indigestion, loss of appetite and diarrhea), respiratory (sore
Abdullah Bin Umar Al-Bayzawi throats, coughs and bronchial problems), inflammatory and
14 Al-Syed Mehmood Alusi Common Fig 70 cardiovascular disorders and as antispasmodic26.
Al-Bughdadi
15 Attaa bin Abi Ribah Common Fig 66
16 Syed Hamid Hassan Balgrami Common Fig 71 The fruits are used as a galactogogue and tonic and as a
17 Fakhruddin Al-Razi Common Fig 72 poultice in the treatment of gumboils, dental abscesses, tumors
18 Ibrahim Nakh’i Common Fig 66 and other abnormal growths. Fresh and dried figs fruit and its
Vol. 23, No. 1 (2011) Medicinal and Pharmacological Potentiality of Ficus carica L. 3

syrup have long been appreciated for their laxative with considerable risk27. Medicinal uses of Ficus
action27,28. Figs are good for eye sight29. carica have been summarized in the Table-2.

Recently, some beneficial effects of fig tree (Ficus carica) Scientific miracle of the holy Quran
leaf extract has been argued30,31 having therapeutic benefits in
cases of hyperglycemia32, cancer33, helminth infection34,
hypercholesterolemia35, hypertriglyceridemia36 and bovine
Metallothionein (MT): Metallothionein is a Sulfur
papillomatosis37. The latex is widely applied on warts, skin containing protein which can easily bind with zinc, iron and
ulcers and sores and taken as a purgative and vermifuge, but
phosphorus. It is produced in small quantity in the brains of
humans and animals. It is considered very important to human

TABLE-2

MEDICINAL USES OF COMMON FIG (Ficus carica)

Diseases Part used Treatment Ref.

Anemia Fruit Figs contain iron which enriches the blood, and helps to produce it. Dried figs give about 3.0 40

mg of iron for every 100 g. They are ideal for women, girls and those suffering from Anemia.

Asthma Fruit Syrup made from methi seeds, figs and honey is very effective in bronchial asthma. 8

Blood pressure Fruit Figs are a good source of potassium. They lower Cholesterol and are useful for those with high 29

blood pressure. People who eat potassium-rich foods tend to have lower blood pressure.

Bronchitis Fruit A quarter of a liter of boiled milk with 12 dry figs for ¼ of an hour. Drink the liquid once 80

strained and sweetened.

Cancer Fruit Figs are used for the treatment of cancer in Japan. About twenty kinds of cancer has been 8

treated with figs.

In USA fresh fruit is used for the treatment of cancer. 80

The fig compound angelicin, has been recommended currently for the treatment of skin cancer. 9

Chills Fruit Figs are also recommended in the treatment of chills. 8

Colics Fruit It is useful in colics and is a good diuretic. 8

Constipation Fruit Decoction of dry figs is useful. Boil 3 dry figs in water for ¼ an hour. Leave to rest and drink 85

the liquid and eat the figs the following morning

Diabetes Leaf The leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diabetes. 27


Digestion To eat five figs is excellent in aiding digestion and improving the condition of the stomach and 29

bowels.

Eye sight Fruit Figs are good for eye sight. Eating three or more servings of the fruit per day lowers the risk of 29

age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).

Galactogogue Fruit The unripe green fruits are cooked with other foods as a galactogogue and tonic 28

Gumboils, Dental Fruit The roasted fruit is emollient and used as a poultice in the treatment of Gum boils, dental 28

abscesses abscesses etc.

Hemorrhoids Fruit The Holy Prophet Muhammad PBUH is recorded to have said to make use of figs in order to 6

curb Hemorrhoids.

Insects bites Latex In Turkey scorpion bite and bee sting are treated by applying externally the fresh latex of stem. 80

The application of the latex of the leaves are also useful for scorpion &bee stings. 85

Insomnia Figs contain a nutrient called tryptophan. This promotes good sleep and helps the brain use 40

glucose properly, encouraging and stimulating good circulation

Intestinal obstruction Fruit It clears the intestinal obstruction, as if has laxative, anti-ulcer and antibacterial powers. 8

Kidney and urinary Fruit It can dissolve and expel kidney and urinary bladder stones, and can help patients suffering 29

bladder stones from kidney failure and patients who has had a kidney transplant.

It can clear the obstruction of liver and gall-bladder and relieves inflammations of kidney and 8

urinary bladder

Mouth disorders For the treatment of the mouth disorders (Inflamation, wounds etc.) decoction of dry figs is 85

advantageous. Boil 3 dry figs in water for ¼ an hour. Leave to rest and drink the liquid and eat

the figs the following morning.

During fevers, if it is chewed, the patient feels relief from the dryness of mouth. 8

Osteoporosis Fruit Figs, rich in calcium, play a very important role in the development of bones. They are 29

invaluable for those suffering from osteoporosis and brittle bones.

Skin ulcers Latex The latex is widely applied on externally. 27

Sores Latex The latex is widely applied on externally. 27

Stress Fruit There are many causes of physical and emotional stresses. Figs are extremely nutritious, and 29
over-all an ideal fruit to overcome stresses and anxieties.

Sore throat Fruit In Latin America, figs are much employed as folk remedies. A decoction of the fruits is gargled 27

to relieve sore throat.

Swollen gums Fruit In Latin America figs boiled in milk are repeatedly packed against swollen gums. 27

To lose weight Fruit Figs are ideal for those trying to lose weight. It contains the digestive enzymes for all the three 8

components of diet: Proteins, carbohydrates and fat.

Toothache Latex The latex soaked cotton is placed in the cavity of the affected tooth for the treatment of 10

toothache.

Tumor Fruit In Latin America the fruits are much used as poultices on tumors and other abnormal growths. 27

According to Japanese tests, figs and the fig syrup (benzaldehyde) have helped shrink tumors. 8

Warts Latex In Italy and Turkey and Tunisia the latex is externally applied on the warts several times daily. 80

Fruit In France fresh fruit juice is externally applied on warts. 80


4 Marwat et al. Asian J. Chem.

Lipids: Various lipid compounds have been identified from


the fruit of the fig tree. The main groups are triacylglycerols, free
beings by playing vital role in reducing cholesterol, performing and esterified sterols, mono-and digalactosyl diglycerides,
metabolism, strengthening the heart and controlling breath. Its ceramide oligosides, cerebrosides, esterified sterol glycosides and
production level decreases after the age of 35 years and stops at phosphatidyl glycerols41. Fatty acids in fig fruit, deter-mined were
the age of 60 years. So it is not easy to obtain metallothionein myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid
from human. Scientists, therefore, targeted plants for this and linolenic acid5,27,42. Dried seeds have also been found to
purpose. A team of Japanese scientists found this magical contain fixed oil27. Sitosterol was the most predo-minant sterol in
substance, metallothionein only in two plant species: fig and all parts of fig. Campesterol, stigmasterol and fucosterol were also
olive. They found that the use of metallothionein extracted detected42. A mixture of 6-O-acyl-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterols, the
from fig or olive alone did not give the expected beneficial acyl moeity being primarily palmitoyl and linoleyl with minor
result for human health. The useful results were achieved only amounts of stearyl and oleyl, has been isolated from fig (Ficus
when the mixture of metallothionein extracted from both the carica) latex and soybeans43.
plants was used. The team tried to find the best mix ratio
between fig and olive that provides the best influence. The best
mix ratio was found to be 1:7 (1 fig to 7 olive). Phenolics: The analyzed phenolics present at the highest
content were rutin, followed by (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid,
(-)-epicatechin, gallic acid and finally, syringic acid44.
In holy Quran the fig has been mentioned only
once while the olive seven times (six times explicitly
and one time implicitly). The information gathered Coumarins: Besides their ubiquitous polyphenols,
from the holy Quran were sent to the team of Japanese figs have other compounds, specifically benzaldehyde
scientists. After verifying that the discovered and the
information were mentioned in the holy Qur'an 1427
years ago, the President of the Japanes Research team
declared to accept Islam38.

Phytochemistry

Phytochemical investigation of Ficus carica was


under-taken and led to the identification of over 100
compounds, summarized in Table-3. Several
coumarins were isolated from it. Multiple flavonoids
have been identified from its stem, leaves and roots.
Also prominent were triterpenoids from the roots,
leaves and the latex.

Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of


numerous bioactive compounds: arabinose, β-amyrins,
β-carotenes, glycosides, β-setosterols and
xanthotoxol39.

Carbohydrate: Figs are high-carbohydrate food


and an extraordinarily good source of dietary fiber.
Ninety-two per ent of the carbohydrates in dried figs
are glucose, fructose and sucrose. The rest is dietary
fiber, insoluble cellulose in the skin, soluble pectin in
fruit.

Mineral contents of figs closely resembles that of


human milk. The most important mineral in dried figs
is iron. Figs have about 50 % as much iron as beef
liver. Calcium and potassium are also present 40.
Anticancer activity: Besides their polyphenols, figs have
other compounds with anticancer activity, specifically benzal-
coumarins, furocoumarins including angelicin, dehyde and the coumarins. Benzaldehyde has been used
marmesin, psoralen, umbelliferone and bergapten9. success-fully to treat terminal human carcinomas. Treatment of
Fruits of the dark-coloured Mission variety fig contain squamous cell carcinomas with benzaldehyde induced the
the highest levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and cancer cells to change into keratinized, normal squamous cells.
anthocyanins, having cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside Coumarins, isolated from the volatile extract of fig have also
(cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside; C3R) as the main been used for the treatment of prostate cancer. The fig
anthocyanin45. compound angelicin are currently being investigated for the
treatment of skin cancer and have been recommended for
clinical trials because they have low skin phototoxicity 9.
Enzyme: The latex contains enzymes such as
ficin, proteases, lipodiastases, amylase, proteolytic
enzymes: diastase, esterase, lipase, catalase and The extracts from latex of Ficus carica was found
peroxidase27. The Fig fruit contains, tyrosin, cravin, to have the highest in vivo antitumor activities, using
lipase, protease41. At PDT bioassay (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato
Disc Tumor bioassay)48. A mixture of acyl moeity with
minor amounts of stearyl and oleyl, isolated from fig
Flavonoids: The major flavonoid contents of leaf extracts
(Ficus carica) latex and soybeans have been shown in
from Ficus carica was found to be quercetin and luteolin46.
vitro inhibitory effects on proliferation of various
cancer cell lines43.
Five triterpenoids newly isolated from the leaves of Ficus
carica investigated by open mouse ear assay. Total methanolic
extract, calotropenyl acetate, methyl maslinate and lupeol Antioxidant: The extract prepared from the leaves of
acetate showed potent and persistent irritant effects47. Ficus carica L. was evaluated for α-tocopherol content, total
flavonoid and total phenol content and were investigated for
antioxidant capacities. The results visibly confirmed that these
The chemical constituents of Ficus carica cited in extracts have antioxidant capacity, which are consistent with
various literatures have been listed in the Table-3. total flavonoid and phenol contents49.

Pharmacological activities In another study, fruits of different verities of fig


were analyzed for polyphenols and anthocyanins
contents. It was found that dark-coloured Mission
Ficus carica has been reported to exhibit variety contained the highest levels of polyphenols,
antioxidant, anti-HSV, Haemostatic, hypoglycemic, flavonoids and anthocyanins than red Brown-Turkey
hypo-lipidemic activities, antispasmodic and anti- variety, exhibiting the highest antioxidant capacity
platelet activities. The 6-O-acyl-β-D-glucosyl-β- which is correlated well with the amounts of
sitosterols along with its palmitoyl, linoleyl, stearyl polyphenols and anthocyanin45.
and oleyl derivatives isolated from the fruit of Ficus
carica exhibited strong cytotoxic effect26. Hepatoprotective activity: The methanol extract
of the leaves of Ficus carica was evaluated for
hepatoprotective
Vol. 23, No. 1 (2011) Medicinal and Pharmacological Potentiality of Ficus carica L. 5

TABLE-3

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF FIG (Ficus carica) COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS LITERATURE

Name of the comp. m.f. Class Parts Ref.

Adrenaline C9H13NO3 Neurotransmitter – 78

C H O
Aflatoxin B1 17 12 6 Mycotoxin Fruit 78,79

C H O
Aflatoxin B2 17 14 6 Mycotoxin Fruit 78,79

C H O
Aflatoxin G1 17 12 7 Mycotoxin Fruit 78,79

C H O
Aflatoxin G2 17 14 7 Mycotoxin Fruit 78,79

Alanine C3H7NO2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

Amylase – Enzyme Latex 26


C H O
β-Amyrin 30 50 Triterpene Leaf 39,78

Apigenin-glycosides – Glycoside Fruit 39

C HO
Angelicin 11 6 3 Coumarin Fruit 9,78

CH O
Arabinose 5 10 5 Aldopentose Fruit 39,78

C H O
Arachidic acid 20 40 2 Fatty acid Fruit 39

Arginine C6H4N4O2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

CHO
Ascorbic Acid 6 8 6 Vitamin Leaf and Fruit 39,78

Aspartic acid C4H7NO4 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

C H N O PS
Azinphos-methyl 10 12 3 3 2 Insecticide – 78

C H O
Baurenol 30 50 Sterol Leaf 80

Benzaldehyde C7H6O Aromatic aldehyde Fruit 81

C HO
Bergapten 12 8 4 Coumarin Leaf 80

C H
Cadalene 15 18 Hydrocarbon Leaf 39,78

Calcium Ca Mineral Leaf and Fruit 78

C H O
Caltropenyl acetate 32 52 2 Ttiterpenoid Leaf 50,82

C H O
Campesterol 28 48 Sterol Plant 50

5-Carboxypyranocyanidin-3-rutinoside – Anthocyanin Fruit 83


C H
β-Carotene 40 56 Tetraterpenoid Fruit 39

C H
γ-Carotene 40 56 Tetraterpenoid Fruit 78,81
C H O
(+)-catechin 15 14 6 Flavonoid Fruit 44

Catalase – Enzyme Latex 27

Cerin – Latex Plant 78

Ceramide oligosides, Lipid Fruit 41

Cerebrosides, Fruit 41
C H O
Chlorogenic acid 16 18 9 Phenolic Fruit 44

Citric acid C6H8O7 Organic acid Latex, Fruit 39,84

Carotenoids – Pigment Leaf 81

Caoutchouc – Latex Leaf 39,78

Copper Cu Mineral Fruit 39

C H O Cl
Cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside 27 31 16 Anthocyanin Fruit 78,81

Cyanidin-3-monoglucoside – Anthocyanin Fruit 78,81

C H O
Cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside 27 31 15 Anthocyanin Fruit 78,81

Cyanidin-3-rutinose dimmer – Anthocyanin Fruit 83

9,19-cycloarlane – Terpenoid Leaf 50


C H
p-Cymene 10 14 Hydrocarbon Leaf 39,78

CH NOS
Cystine 6 12 2 4 2 Amino acid Fruit 39

C H O
(E)-2-Decenal 10 18 Aldehyde – 78

Diastase – Enzyme Latex 39,27

Digalactosyl diglycerides – Lipid Fruit 41

4’,5’-Dihydroxy-psoralen – Coumarin Leaf 80

Dopamine C8H11NO2 Neurotransmitter – 78

Endo-B-N-acetylglucosaminidase – Enzyme – 81

C H O
(-)-epicatechin 15 14 6 Phenolic compound Fruit 44

Epirutin – Flavonoid – 78,81

Esterase – Enzyme Latex 39,81

Ficin – Enzyme Latex 81

C HO
Ficusin 11 6 3 Latex Leaf 39,78

C H O
Ficusogenin 27 44 5 Triterpenoid Leaf 39,80

C H O
Ferulic acid 10 10 4 Phenol Plant 39

Fixed oil – Lipid Seed 27

CH O
Fructose 6 12 6 Carbohydrate Fruit 39,40
C H O
Fucosterol 29 48 Sterol Plant 50

Fumaric acid C4H4O4 Organic acid Latex, Fruit 39,84

C H O
Furocoumarinic acid-O-β-D-furnglucoside 17 18 9 – – 78

CHO
Gallic acid 7 6 5 Organic acid Fruit 44

CH O
Glucose 6 12 6 Carbohydrate Fruit 40,78
6 Marwat et al. Asian J. Chem.

C H
Germacrene D 15 14 Sesquiterpenes – 78,81

Guaiacol C7H8O2 Aromatic oil Leaf 39,78


CH O
Galactose 6 12 6 Carbohydrate Leaf 39,78
CH O
Galacturonic acid 6 10 7 Monobasic acid Leaf 39,78

Glutamic acid C5H9O4 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

Glycine C2H5NO2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

Glycolipids – Lipid Fruit 41

Glycoside – – Fruit 39

C H
Guaiazuline: 15 18 Sesquiterpene Root 39,78

(Z)-3-hexanol – Volatile oil – 81

Z)-3-hexenyl acetate – Volatile oil – 81


CHNO
Histidine 9 6 2 3 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

C H O
Imperatorin 16 14 4 Furocoumarin – 78

Iron Fe Mineral Fruit 39


C H O
Isoimperatorin 16 14 4 Furocoumarin – 78

C H O
Isoschaftoside 26 28 14 Coumarin – 78,81

C H NO
Isoleucine 6 13 2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

Isoquercitrin – Flavonoid Leaf 80,81


CH O
Isovaleric acid 5 10 2 Organic acid – 78

C H O
Lupeol 30 50 Sterol Leaf 80

Lupeol acetate Ttiterpenoid Leaf 50,81


C H O
Lutein 40 56 2 Pigment Fruit 39,81
C H O
Linoleic acid 18 32 2 Fatty acid Fruit 27,39

C H O
Linolenic acid 18 30 2 Fatty acid Fruit 27,39

Lipase – Enzyme Fruit and Latex 27,39

Lipodiastases – Enzyme Latex 26

Leucine C6H13NO2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78


C H O
Luteolin 15 10 6 Flavonoid Leaf 46
CH NO
Lysine 6 14 2 2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

CH O
3-Methylbutyl acetate 7 14 2 Ester Fruit 39,78

CHO
Malic acid 4 6 5 Organic acid Fruit and Leaf 39,84

Malonik acid C3H4O4 Dicarboxlic acid Fruit 39

Magnesium Mg Mineral Fruit 39

Manganese Mn Mineral Fruit 39

C H O
Marmesin 14 14 4 Coumarin Leaf 9,80

Methionine C5H11NO2S Amino acid Fruit 39,78

CH O
Manoheptulose 7 14 7 Carbohydrate – 78

C H O
24-Methylenecycloartanol 31 52 Sterol Leaf 80

Methyl maslinate – Triterpenoid Leaf 47

6-(2-methoxy-Z-vinyl)-7-methyl-pyranocoumarin – Coumarin Leaf 50

Methyl salicylate C8H8O3 Volatile analgesic – 81

C H O
Myristic acid 14 28 2 Fatty acid Fruit 37,39

Monogalactosyl diglycerideses Lipid Fruit 41

Neoxanthine – Carotenoid Leaf 39

Neutral lipids – Lipid Fruit 41

Niacin C5H4NCO2H Vitamins Fruit 39

Noradrenaline C8H11NO3 Neurotransmitter – 78

CH O
Nonanoic acid 9 18 2 Lipid – 78

Nonanal C9H18O Aldehyde – 78

C H O
Oxypeucedenin hydrate 17 18 6 – – 78
C H O
Oleic acid 18 34 2 Fatty acid Fruit 37,39

C H O
Oleonolic acid 30 48 3 Fatty acid Leaf 81,82

C H
Octacosane 28 58 Hydrocarbon – 78

(E)-2-Octenal C8H14O Aldehyde – 78


CH O
Octanoic acid 8 16 2 Fatty acid – 78

Ochratoxin A C20H18CINO6 Mycotoxin – 78

Oxalic acid C2H2O4·2H2O Organic acid Latex, Fruit 39,84


C H NO
Pantothenic acid 9 17 5 VitaminB5 Fruit 39

Pectin Carbohydrate Leaf and Fruit 39,78


C H O
o-Phenylphenol 12 10 Phenol – 78

Pelargonadin-3-rhamnoglucosid – Ttiterpenoid Fruit 78,81

Pentosan – Polysaccharide Leaf and Fruit 39


C H NO
Phenylalanine 9 11 2 Amino acid Fruit 39

2-Phenylethanol C8H10O Alcohol – 78

C H O
2-Phenylethylacetate 10 12 2 Ester – 78

Phospholipids – Lipid Fruit 41


Vol. 23, No. 1 (2011) Medicinal and Pharmacological Potentiality of Ficus carica L. 7

Phosphorus P Mineral Fruit 39

Phosphatidyl glycerols – Lipid Fruit 41

Potassium K Mineral Fruit 39

Propectin – Polysaccharide Fruit 78

Protease – Enzyme Fruit 26


C H O
Psoberan 23 14 7 Coumarin Leaf 78,81

C HO
Psoralen 11 6 3 Coumarin Leaf and Root 80

Pectose – Carbohydrate Fruit 78

Peroxidase – Enzyme Latex 37,78

Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid C6H11NO2 – Fruit 39,78

C H O
Palmitic acid 16 32 2 Fatty acid Fruit 27,78

C H O
Quercetin 15 10 7 Flavonoid Leaf 46,78

CH O
Quinic acid 7 12 6 Organic acid Latex 39,84

C H O
Raffinose 18 22 16 Carbohydrate – 78

Resin – Latex Plant 78

C H NO
Riboflavin 17 20 4 6 Vitamin Fruit 39

C H O
Rutin 27 30 16 Flavonoid Leaf 80

CH O
Rhamnose 6 12 5 Carbohydrae Leaf 39,78

C H O
β-Sitosterol 29 50 Sterol Leaf and Root 80

C H O
Sucrose 12 22 11 Carbohydrate Fruit 40,78

Sapogenin – – Leaf 82

Serine C3H7NO3 Amino acid Fruit 39

C H NO
Serotonin 12 10 2 Monoamine – 78

C H O
Stachyose 24 42 21 Carbohydrate – 78

C H O
Stigmasterol 29 48 Sterol Plant 50

C HO
Scopoletin 10 8 4 Coumarin – 78,81

C H O
Schaftoside 26 28 14 Glycoside Fruit 39,78

CH O
Shikimic acid 7 10 5 Organic acid Latex 78

CH O
Sedoheptulose 7 14 7 Carohydrate – 78
Sodium Na Mineral Fruit 39

C H O
Stearic acid 18 36 2 Fatty acid Fruit 37,39

CH O
Syringic acid 9 10 5 Phenolic Fruit 44

C H
Tricosane 23 48 Hydrocarbon – 78

C H
Tetracosane 24 50 Hydrocarbon – 78

C H O
ψ-Taraxasterol 30 50 Sterol Leaf 78,82

ψ-Taraxasteryl ester – Sterol Leaf 80

C H NO
Thiamin 12 17 4 5 Vitamin B1 Fruit 39

Threonine C4H9NO3 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

C H NO
Tryptophan 11 12 2 2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

Tyrosine C9H11NO3 Amino acid Fruit 39

Umbelliferone C9H6O3 Coumarin Leaf 80

C H O
Violaxanthin 40 56 4 Pigment Fruit 39,78

Valine C5H11NO2 Amino acid Fruit 39,78

C H O
Vitamin A 20 30 Vitamin Fruit 78

Vitamin G – Vitamin Fruit 78

CH O
Valeric acid 5 10 2 Fatty acid – 78

C HO
Xanthitoxin 12 8 4 Coumarin Leaf 39,81

C HO
Xanthotoxol 11 6 4 Coumarin Leaf 39,81

CH O
Xylose 5 10 5 Monosaccharide Leaf 39,78

Zinc Zn Mineral Fruit 39

6-O-acyl-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitsterol Fruit 50

6-O-linoleyl-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitsterol Latex Fruit 80

6-O-oleyl-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitsterol Latex Fruit 80

6-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitsterol Latex Fruit 80

6-O-stearyl-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitsterol Latex Fruit 80

levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase,


total serum bilirubin and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index
of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical
observations were supplemented by histopathological
activity in rats. The extract at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg exhi- examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also
bited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum
comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective50.
extract of leaves of Ficus carica. The cytotoxicity caused by
CCl4 was estimated by quantization the release of LDH in the
medium. CCl4 induces twice the amount release of LDH from
the liver as compared to the cells from untreated liver tissue
In another study liver slice culture model have been used
and this was significantly reduced in the presence of plant
to evaluate in vitro hepatoprotective activity of methanolic
extract. The results clearly point out that Ficus carica leaves
8 Marwat et al. Asian J. Chem.

adrenaline-induced human platelet aggregation. This study


showed the presence of spasmolytic activity in the ripe dried
extract mitigates the CCl4 induced liver damage by fruit of Ficus carica possibly mediated through the activation
decreasing LDH level51. of K(+) (ATP) channels along with antiplatelet activity which
provides sound pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in
the gut motility and inflammatory disorders26.
In another study, petroleum ether extracts of Ficus
carica were tested for antihepatotoxic activity on rats
treated with 50 mg/kg of rifampicin orally. The Antibacterial activity: Both in in vitro and in vivo tests,
parameters assessed were serum levels of glutamic aqueous extract from Ficus carica fruit reduces the survival
oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamic pyruvic and the damages (disease incidence and disease severity)
transaminase, bilirubin and histological changes in caused by bacterial pathogens of kiwifruit (Pseudomonas
liver. Liver weights and pentobarbitione sleeping time syringae pv. Sy ringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava) and of tomato
as a functional parameter were also monitored. There (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) plants. The
was significant reversal of biochemical, histological
and functional changes induced by rifampicin
treatment in rats by petroleum ether extract treatment,
indicating promising hepatoprotective activity52.

Antidiabetic effect: The antidiabetic effects of Ficus


carica leaf extracts have been reported previously. The aqueous
decoction of fig leaves has caused decline in the levels of total
cholesterol and a decrease in the total cholesterol/HDL choles-
terol ratio (with respect to the control group), together with a
reduction of the hyperglycaemia in rats35.

The effect of decoction of leaves of Ficus carica as a


supplement to breakfast, was studied in insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients. Post-prandial glycaemia
was lower during supplementation with Ficus carica and with-
out pre-prandial differences. It was concluded that the addition
of Ficus carica to diet in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
could help to control postprandial glycaemia32.

In another study to investigate the hypoglycaemic activity


of Ficus carica leaf aqueous extract, was administered to rats
in lieu of drinking water for 3 weeks. The extract decreased (p
< 0.025) plasma glucose in diabetic while not in normal rats.
Plasma insulin levels were decreased by treatment (p < 0.05) in
non-diabetic rats. Lactate released was lower in untreated
diabetic vs. untreated non-diabetic rats. Thus, Ficus carica
extract showed a clear hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic rats.
Such an effect cannot be mediated by an enhanced insulin
secretion, so as yet undefined insulin-like peripheral effect,
may be suggested36.

Inflammatory effect: An aqueous-ethanolic extract of


Ficus carica was studied for antispasmodic effect on the
isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and for antiplatelet effect
using ex vivo model of human platelets. When tested in isolated
rabbit jejunum, Ficus carica (0.1-3.0 mg/mL) produced
relaxation of spontaneous and low K(+) (25 mM)-induced
contractions with negligible effect on high K(+) (80 mM)
similar to that caused by cromakalim. Ficus carica (0.6 and
0.12 mg/mL) inhibited the adenosine 5'-diphosphate and
Effect on secretion and contents of cholesterol: Leaves
of Ficus carica were dried, powdered and extracted using
extract shows in vitro antimicrobial activity, against all methanol. Ficus carica leaf on the secretion and cell content of
bacterial strains utilized at different cholesterol in HepG2 cells were studied. Extracts were added
concentrations(106-108 cfu mL-1). In vivo tests Ficus to the media in both basal and glucose stimulated condi-tions
carica extracts confirm their antimicrobial activity on and incubated for 48 h. While glucose significantly increased
Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, reducing DI and DS cholesterol secretion (17 ± 0.76 mg dL-1) vs. basal condition
after 2 week until to 60 % and 67 % to 32 % and 22 %, (6.91 ± 0.66 mg dL-1), co-incubation with extracts reduced
respectively53. secretion of cholesterol in many concentrations of the
stimulated condition. On the other hand, cholesterol content of
HepG2 in glucose stimulated condition (2.73 ± 0.39 mg dL -1)
Antifungal activity: Ficus carica has also been evaluated showed significant increase compared to the basal status (1.96
for antifungal activities. In one study a low-molecular-weight
± 0.14 mg dL-1) (p < 0.001). Moreover such decrease was
protein, isolated from freshly collected latex of the Ficus
shown in response to many concentrations of the extracts.
carica was found to possess antifungal activity54.
These properties making the hydro-extracts of fig leaf a poten-
tially safe intervention to modulate postprandial hyperlipi-
Antiviral activity: The antiviral activity of the F. carica demia57.
leaf extract was evaluated in Hep-2, BHK21 and CEF human
cell lines which showed a significant inhibitory activity with
The results showed that all aqueous extracts can signi-
MTC value 0.5 mg/mL, against Newcastle disease virus
ficantly decrease (p < 0.001) secretion of cholesterol from the
(NDV). The leaf extracts with ethanol and water recorded TDO
liver cell in both stimulated and basal condition which is
values of 55 and 50 mg/mL and TI values of 1100 and 100,
resemble to the diabetic animals. These findings are in good
respectively. The results suggested that the extract from F.
carica leaves had significant activity against NDV and may agreement with other findings35,58,59. However, Future studies
will need to examine the mechanism of different FTE effects
have applications in drug preparation55.
on the basal and glucose induced lipid changes to deduce if the
effect is due to altered de novo cholesterol synthesis or
In other study the extract from the leaves of Ficus carica increased catabolism of cholesterol. In conclusion these
preliminary data suggest that hydroextract of fig leaf adminis-
was tested for its anti-virus effects on Hep-2, BHK21 and PRK
tration may be an alternative method to reduce hyperlipidemia,
cells. The water extract from the leaves of Ficus carica
possessed distinct anti-HSV-1 effect. It possessed low toxicity particularly postprandially induced ones57.
and directly killing-virus effect on HSV-1. The leaves of Ficus
carica possess anti-HSV-1 effect and their application on the
area of medicine, food and drugs has expensive foreground 56. The ease with which adipose tissue takes up
VLDL-TG is the major contributor to fattening of the
rooster Hermier showed that plasma VLDL-TG of
obese roosters was twice
Vol. 23, No. 1 (2011) Medicinal and Pharmacological Potentiality of Ficus carica L. 9

fig tree latex therapy was marginally less effective than


cryotherapy. Adverse effects were observed only in cryo-treated
that of lean roosters. The VLDL-TG in plasma comes warts. At the 6 month follow-up study there was an 18 %
from hepatic lipogenesis. Despite knowing the recurrence rate. Fig tree latex therapy of warts offers several
deleterious effects of hepatic lipogenesis, very little is beneficial effects including short-duration therapy, no reports of
known about the physiolo-gical and pharmacological any side-effects, ease-of-use, patient compliance and a low
agents mediating the synthesis and secretion of lipids, recurrence rate. The exact
apolipoproteins and VLDL-assembly and secretion in
avian species.

Another study was designed to investigate the possible


effect of the fig tree leaves (FTE), on hepatic triglyceride (TG)
content and secretion of triglyceride and cholesterol (TC) from
the liver of 8 week-old roosters. After administration it was
found that fig tree leaf extract drastically reduced these effects
to the basal levels in a concentration-dependent manner (p <
0.001). we have shown for the first time that fig tree leaf
extract can have a novel effect on both the insulin induced
triglyceride hepatic storage and insulin induced VLDL-TG
secretion in vitro It is suggested that that Ficus carica leaf
extract could be a beneficial supplement to modulate
triglyceride and choles-terol secretion from the poultry liver.
Interestingly, the decrease in triglyceride secretion observed in
the fig tree leaf extract treatment was concurrent with decreases
in cell triglyceride content and cholesterol secretion. In
agreement with our find-ings, Canal et al.35 showed that
chloroform extract of Ficus carica leaves led to a decline in the
levels of total cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol
ratio in hypercholester-olemic streptozotocin induced diabetic
rats. In this respect, Perez et al.36 showed while a Ficus carica
leaf decoction decreased serum triglyceride values of
hypertriglyceridemic rats, it had no effect on cholesterol levels.
The mechanism of the effect of fig tree leaf extract on the
hepatic lipid is presently unclear60.

Irritant potential of triterpenoids from FICUS CARICA


leaves: The irritant potential of total methanolic extract and
five triterpenoids newly isolated from the leaves of Ficus
carica were investigated by open mouse ear assay. Total
methanolic extract, calotropenyl acetate, methyl maslinate and
lupeol acetate showed potent and persistent irritant effects47.

Antiwart activity: A traditional method for the treatment of


warts in some rural areas of Iran comprises the use of fig tree
(Ficus carica) latex as a local treatment. However, there is no
scientific evaluation of its efficacy. A prospective, open right/left
comparative trial of fig tree latex therapy vs. local standard of
cryotherapy was carried out. Twenty-five patients with common
warts were recruited into the study from an outpatient clinic. The
patients were instructed in self-application of fig tree latex to warts
on one side of the body. The wart on the opposite side was treated
using standard cryotherapy. A 6-month follow-up study was
planned. In 11 (44 %) of the 25 patients complete resolution of fig
tree latex-treated warts was observed. The remaining 14 patients
(56 %) had a complete cure following cryotherapy. Two patients
had complete remission on both sides. Two patients failed to
respond to either cryo-therapy or fig tree latex. It was found that
8. Q.S.A. Borhany, Fig: The Medicinal Fruit of the Quraan, Yemen
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unclear but is likely to be the result of the proteolytic 9. J.A. Vinson, The Functional Food Properties of Figs, Cereal
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