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Coordinates: 51.5045°N 0.0865°W

The Shard
The Shard,[a] also referred to as the Shard of Glass,[9][10] Shard London Bridge[11]
The Shard
and formerly London Bridge Tower,[12][13][14] is a 95-storey skyscraper, designed by
the Italian architect Renzo Piano, in Southwark, London, that forms part of the Shard
Quarter development. Standing 309.6 metres (1,016 ft) high, the Shard is the tallest
building in the United Kingdom, the tallest building in the European Union, the fifth-
tallest building in Europe and the 96th-tallest building in the world.[1][15][16] It is also the
second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the concrete tower of
the Emley Moor transmitting station.[17] It replaced Southwark Towers, a 24-storey
office block built on the site in 1975.

The Shard's construction began in March 2009; it was topped out on 30 March 2012[18]
and inaugurated on 5 July 2012.[19] Practical completion was achieved in November
2012. The tower's privately operated observation deck, The View from The Shard, was
opened to the public on 1 February 2013.[2][20][21] The glass-clad pyramidal tower has 72
habitable floors, with a viewing gallery and open-air observation deck on the 72nd floor,
at a height of 244 metres (801 ft).[5][22] The Shard was developed by Sellar Property
Group on behalf of LBQ Ltd and is jointly owned by Sellar Property (5%) and the State of
Qatar (95%).[7] The Shard is managed by Real Estate Management (UK) Limited on
behalf of the owners.

Contents
Background
Planning
Funding The Shard in April 2015, viewed from
Architecture the "Sky Garden" atop 20 Fenchurch
Layout Street
Construction Former names London Bridge
Gallery Tower
Height Alternative names Shard of
Tenants Glass, Shard
Urban exploration, BASE jumping and climbing London Bridge
In popular culture General information
See also Status Complete
Similar structures
Architectural style Neo-futurism
Footnotes
References
Location London, SE1
United
External links
Kingdom
Coordinates 51.5045°N

Background 0.0865°W
Construction started March 2009
Completed July 2012
Planning
Opening 1 February
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In 1998, London-based entrepreneur Irvine Sellar and his then-partners decided to 2013
redevelop the 1970s-era Southwark Towers following a UK government white paper Cost ~£435 million
encouraging the development of tall buildings at major transport hubs. Sellar flew to (contract cost
Berlin in the spring of 2000 to meet the Italian architect Renzo Piano for lunch. only)
According to Sellar, Piano spoke of his contempt for conventional tall buildings during
Owner State of Qatar
the meal, before flipping over the restaurant's menu and sketching a spire-like sculpture
(95%)
emerging from the River Thames.[23]
Sellar Property
In July 2002, the then-Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, ordered a planning Group (5%)
inquiry after the development plans for the Shard were opposed by the Commission for Height
Architecture and the Built Environment and several heritage bodies, including the Royal
Architectural 309.6 m
Parks Foundation and English Heritage.[24][25] The inquiry took place in April and May
(1,016 ft)[1]
2003,[12][26] and on 19 November 2003, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister
Observatory 244 m (801 ft)
announced that planning consent had been approved.[27] The government stated that:
Technical details
Mr Prescott would only approve skyscrapers of exceptional design. For a Floor count 95 (72
building of this size to be acceptable, the quality of its design is critical. He habitable)
is satisfied that the proposed tower is of the highest architectural quality. Floor area 398,490m2
1,307,383sqft
Sellar and his original partners CLS Holdings Lifts/elevators 36
plc and CN Ltd (acting for the Halabi Family
Design and construction
Trust) secured an interim funding package of
Architect Renzo Piano
£196 million in September 2006 from the
Nationwide Building Society and Kaupthing Developer Sellar Property
Singer & Friedlander. This enabled them to Group
pay off the costs already incurred and to buy Structural engineer WSP Global
out the Southwark Towers occupational lease (structural
from the building's tenants, engineers),
PricewaterhouseCoopers.[28] Vacant Robert Bird
possession of the site was secured a year Group
later, after PricewaterhouseCoopers (concrete
completed the relocation of their operations. temporary
works),
In September 2007, preparations for the
Ischebeck
The Southwark Towers office block, demolition of Southwark Towers began.[29]
Titan on most
which was demolished in 2008 to However, later that same month, turbulence
make way for The Shard floors 40+
in the financial markets reportedly put the
(concrete
Shard's construction in jeopardy,[30]
support)
threatening to render the project an example
of the Skyscraper Index.
Services engineer Arup
Main contractor Mace
In November 2007, building contractor Mace was awarded the contract to build the
References
Shard for a fixed price of no more than £350 million. However, this price increased to
[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
almost £435 million in October 2008.[31]

In April 2008, demolition of Southwark Towers was visibly under way,[32] and by October, the building had been substantially reduced
in height, and was no longer visible on the skyline. The demolition was completed in early 2009, and site preparation began for the
construction of the Shard.

Funding

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In late 2007, the gathering uncertainty in the global financial markets sparked concerns about the viability of the Shard. However, in
January 2008, Sellar announced that it had secured funding from a consortium of Qatari investors, who had paid £150 million to
secure an 80% stake in the project.[33] The consortium included Qatar National Bank, QInvest, Qatari Islamic Bank and the Qatari
property developer Barwa Real Estate, as well as Sellar Property. The deal involved a buyout of the Halabi and CLS Holdings stakes,
and part of the Sellar Property stake.[34] The new owners promised to provide the first tranche of finance, allowing construction of the
tower to begin. In 2009, the State of Qatar consolidated its ownership of London Bridge Quarter (known now as Shard Quarter),
including The Shard, through the purchase of the private Qatari investors' stakes. Shard Quarter is today jointly owned by the State of
Qatar and Sellar.[7]

Architecture
Renzo Piano, the project's architect, designed The Shard as a spire-like sculpture emerging
0:00 MENU
from the River Thames.[23] He was inspired by the railway lines next to the site, the
Audio description of the building by
London spires depicted by the 18th-century Venetian painter Canaletto, and the masts of
Steven Berkoff
sailing ships.[14] Piano's design met criticism from English Heritage, who claimed the
building would be "a shard of glass through the heart of historic London", giving the
building its name, The Shard.[35] Piano considered the slender, spire-like form of the tower
a positive addition to the London skyline, recalling the church steeples featured in historic
engravings of the city, and believed that its presence would be far more delicate than
opponents of the project alleged. He proposed a sophisticated use of glazing, with
expressive façades of angled glass panes intended to reflect sunlight and the sky above, so
that the appearance of the building will change according to the weather and seasons.[36]
The building features 11,000 panes of glass, with a total surface area of 602,779 square feet
(56,000.0 m2) equivalent to the area of almost eight Wembley football pitches.

The Shard was designed with energy efficiency in mind. It is fitted with a combined heat
and power (CHP) plant, operating on natural gas from the National Grid. Fuel is efficiently
converted to electricity and heat is recovered from the engine to provide hot water for the
building.[37]

Following the destruction of New York's World Trade Center (WTC) in the terror attacks of
11 September 2001, architects and structural engineers worldwide began re-evaluating the Internal structure of the Shard's
design of tall structures. The Shard's early conceptual designs were among the first in the spire and radiator floors, seen from
UK to be amended following the publication of the US National Institute of Standards and the 72nd-floor observatory
Technology (NIST) report into the collapse of the WTC. The building is designed to
maintain its stability under very onerous conditions,[38] with its post-tensioned concrete
and composite floors, load-bearing pillars and tapering shape giving it a sway tolerance of 400 millimetres (16 in).[39]

In 2014, The Shard claimed first place at the Emporis Skyscraper Awards, recognising buildings over 100 m (328 ft) completed in the
previous twelve months. The Emporis judges hailed the building as "a skyscraper that is recognized immediately and which is already
considered London's new emblem".[40]

Layout

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Floors Space designation


73–95 Spire
68–72 The View from The Shard (observatory)
53–65 Residences
34–52 Shangri-La Hotel
33 Hutong
32 aqua shard
31 oblix
28 South Hook Gas
27 Arma Partners / Campari Group
26 CoStar Group / Marc Hermann Wealth Management
24–25 The Office Group
23 Foresight Group
22 Khazanah / Jellyfish
20-21 Kraft Heinz
19 Medical Protection Society
18 Gallup / Foresight Group
17 Warwick Business School / Sage Group
16 Al Jazeera English
15 Mathys & Squire / Arcapita / Xio Partners / Fulcrum Chambers
14 Duff & Phelps
13 Tabcorp Holdings / Warwick Business School / Duff & Phelps / Sage Group
12 Mitie
11 Dods Group / Matches Fashion
10 Real Estate Management (UK) Limited / Robert Half / Protiviti
9 IO Oil and Gas / Sapphire Systems
8 Greenberg Traurig / Matches Fashion
7 Tiffany & Co. / Matches Fashion

4–6 Clinic (HCA Healthcare at the Shard)[41]


3 Shard Quarter Management Suite
2 Office Reception
Ground Hotel, restaurant and observatory entrances

Sources: The-Shard.com[42] and The-Shard.com[43] and Billionpoints.de.[44]

Construction
In February 2009, a mobile crane and a small piling rig arrived on site. In early March 2009, the crane began putting steel beams into
the ground, as part of preparations for the core of the building. Full construction began on 16 March 2009. Demolition work on New
London Bridge House started in May 2009, as part of the concurrent London Bridge Place project. The first steelwork went into The
Shard's piles on 28 April.[45] Five cranes were used to build The Shard, with four of them 'jumping' with the tower as it rose. Crane 1
was erected in September 2009 and Crane 2 was erected at the beginning of October.[46] By 20 October 2009, steel beams began
appearing on site, with concrete being poured at the northern part of the site, ready for Crane 3.

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By March 2010, the concrete core was rising steadily at about 3 metres (9.8 ft) a day.[47]
After a pause in March–April 2010, it continued rising, reaching the 33rd floor in mid-
June, almost level with the top of Guy's Hospital, which stands at 143 metres (469 ft). On
27 July 2010, the core stopped rising, having reached the 38th floor, and was reconfigured
for further construction.[48] By mid-November 2010, the core had reached the 68th floor,
with the tower's steel reaching the 40th floor and glass cladding enveloping a third of the
building. In late November, the core's height exceeded 235 metres (771 ft), ending One
Canada Square's 18-year reign as Britain's tallest building.[49]

The Shard's concrete core topped out at the 72nd floor in early 2011, standing at 244
metres (801 ft). The early part of January 2011 saw the installation of hydraulic screens,
which were used to form the concrete floors of the hotel and apartment section of the
tower, and rose with the floors up to the 69th floor. On 25 January 2011, the concrete
pumps began pouring the first concrete floor at the 41st floor. By the end of February 2011,
concrete flooring had risen to the 46th floor, with a new floor being poured on average
every week. The cladding of the structure also progressed, mainly on the tower's The Shard pictured from Great
"backpack". Tower Street in April 2012

In February 2011, a red fox (V. vulpes) was discovered to be living on the partially-
completed 72nd floor, having climbed the building site's central stairwell. Nicknamed 'Romeo' by the RSPCA, the animal was rescued
and later released back into the wild.[50]

August 2011 saw steady progress in construction, with cladding enveloping more than half
the building's exterior. Pouring of the concrete floors reached the 67th floor, and
progression on the tower's cladding reached the 58th floor. By mid-August, the core box
had been removed. By 19 September 2011, the tower's steel was approaching the height of
the completed core, reaching almost 244 metres (801 ft).[51] On 24 September, a final
crane – at the time, the tallest ever built in Britain – was erected to install the skyscraper's
upper spire.[52] The spire was pre-fabricated and pre-assembled based upon 3D models,
and underwent a "test run" in Yorkshire before being lifted onto the building itself.[53] By
late December 2011, the Shard had become the tallest building in the European Union,
superseding the Commerzbank Tower in Frankfurt, Germany.[54]

The Shard's steel structure was topped out on 30 March 2012, when its 66-metre (217 ft),
500-tonne spire was winched into place.[55][56] The steel structure thus reached a height of
308.5 metres (1,012 ft). The final 516 panes of glass were added shortly after, topping the
tower out at its full height of 309.6 metres (1,016 ft).[57]

The Shard was inaugurated on 5 July 2012 by the Prime Minister of Qatar, Hamad bin
Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, in a ceremony attended by Prince Andrew, Duke of York.[58] The inauguration of The Shard on 5
The inauguration ceremony featured a laser light show comprising 12 lasers and 30 July 2012
searchlights, which illuminated the building on the London skyline.[19] Practical
completion of the building was achieved in November 2012.

Gallery

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February 2010 July 2010 September 2010 November 2010

January 2011 April 2011 August 2011 October 2011

April 2012 May 2012 October 2016

The Shard dominating the City of London skyline, as seen from Forest Hill in July 2013

Height
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Standing 309.6 metres (1,016 ft) at its highest point, and 308.5 metres (1,012 ft) at the highest point of its steelwork,[18] The Shard
became the tallest building in the European Union in December 2011,[54] and the tallest completed building in Europe on 30 March
2012. It thus surpassed Frankfurt's Commerzbank Tower, which, at 259 m (850 ft), was Europe's tallest building between 1997 and
2005. Thereafter, The Shard successively exceeded the heights of three Moscow skyscrapers, the Triumph-Palace, Naberezhnaya
Tower, and City of Capitals, each of which had held the European height record for roughly 2.5 years. However, upon its completion in
November 2012, Moscow's 339-metre (1,112 ft) Mercury City Tower replaced The Shard as the tallest in Europe.[59][60] The Shard may
eventually be surpassed as the EU's tallest building by the 323-metre (1,060 ft) Hermitage Plaza building, which is planned to be
completed in La Défense, Paris, in 2019.[61][62]

The Shard is the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the 330-metre (1,083 ft) concrete transmission
tower at Emley Moor.[17] Another planned London skyscraper, the Pinnacle, was originally proposed to rival the height of The Shard,
but was reduced to a height of 287.9 metres (945 ft) because of concerns from the Civil Aviation Authority.[63]

Tenants
The Shard comprises a 26-floor office complex, occupied by 32 companies across ten business sectors, three restaurants - aqua shard,
oblix and Hutong, the five-star Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, ten residential apartments and the UK's highest viewing gallery, The
View from The Shard.

In February 2013, The Sunday Times reported that the developers of The Shard were in negotiations to secure the first tenants of the
building's 26 floors of office space. In May 2013, the Daily Mail reported that only six of The Shard's 72 habitable floors were in use, as
a combination of high prices and poor situation discouraged buyers.[64] At the time, potential tenants included financial restructuring
specialists Duff & Phelps, private equity firm Hatton Corporation and the South Hook Liquefied Natural Gas Company.[65][66]

The Shard's fourth, fifth and sixth floors host the HCA (Hospital Corporations of America), part of London Bridge Hospital. The
Shard's 31st, 32nd and 33rd floors host three restaurants: Oblix,[67] Hutong[68] and Aqua Shard.[69] The building's Shangri-La Hotel,
occupying floors 34–52.[70] The hotel was initially expected to open by the end of 2013,[71][72] but its opening was ultimately delayed to
6 May 2014.[73] In March 2014, Mathys & Squire became the first law firm to take tenancy in the building.[74][75] In May 2014, the
Foresight Group, an investment firm, moved its head UK office into The Shard on the 17th floor.[76] In June 2015, Warwick Business
School opened its new base in The Shard, occupying the same floor and was officially opened by the mayor of London, Boris
Johnson.[77] It houses a 100-seat lecture theatre and a smaller one at 60 seats, plus eight seminar rooms and an IT lab, offering
postgraduate and executive education.[78]

In July 2013, the Qatari broadcaster Al Jazeera Media Network announced that it would open a new television studio and newsroom
for Al Jazeera English in The Shard.[79] Al Jazeera moved in on 13 September 2014, and its first live broadcast from the building took
place on 10 November 2014.[80] The facility currently houses all primary operations for Al Jazeera Media Network's channels in
London; it is capable of running an entire channel independent from Al Jazeera's other hubs, and is the network's second-biggest hub
after its facility in Doha, Qatar.[81]

In January 2015, further tenants for The Shard were announced, including IO Oil & Gas Consulting, Gallup and The Office Group.[82]
In May 2015, the American recruitment consultancy Robert Half International announced that it would move several branches of its
business into The Shard, having purchased 20,000 square feet (1,900 m2) of floor space on the tower's tenth floor.[83] In August 2015,
the international law firm Greenberg Traurig announced that it would open its offices on the eighth floor of The Shard by the end of
the year.[84]

Matches Fashion took over 35,000 sq ft in January 2016, and six months later expanded its headquarter's presence in The Shard by
40%. In March 2016, marketing agency Jellyfish signed a lease for 9,017 square feet (837.7 m2) of office space on the 22nd floor, with
occupancy beginning later in the year.[85] A month later, publishing house Dods Group let almost 17,000 sq ft on Level 11, becoming
The Shard's 28th office occupier. In December, Kraft Heinz relocated their European and UK headquarters from Hayes in Middlesex
to The Shard after taking 38,000 sq ft on Levels 20 & 21.

The Shard offices were announced as fully let in October 2017, following lettings to Mitie and existing occupiers, Foresight Group and
Warwick Business School.

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Urban exploration, BASE jumping and climbing


In December 2011, a group of recreational trespassers calling themselves the Place Hackers evaded security and made their way to the
top of the Shard building site, climbing one of the tallest cranes in the process.[86] They later posted photographs of the London skyline
taken from the top of the Shard on the Internet and received wide media attention. One member of the group, Oxford University
researcher Bradley Garrett, later revealed to various news outlets that over 20 urban explorers had made their way to the top of the
building during its construction.[87] In a 2012 article for Domus magazine, Garrett wrote that "the conceptual barrier to places in our
cities is brought about by a process of engineered exclusion" and that the explorers were "cultivating the creative city that money can't
buy".[88]

BASE jumpers reportedly jumped from The Shard more than a dozen times between 2009 and 2012. Four jumps were reportedly
made by Essex roofer Dan Witchalls, who had filmed one attempt with a helmet-mounted camera. The highest jump was said to have
been from a height of 260 metres (850 ft).[89] In March 2016 another person BASE jumped from The Shard.[90]

On 3 September 2012, a team of 40 people, including Prince Andrew, Duke of York, abseiled from the tower's 87th floor. This feat was
performed to raise money for the Outward Bound Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.[91][92] In November 2012, the
French urban climber Alain Robert was spotted in the building by security guards. At the end of the month, the Shard's owners won an
injunction to prevent him from entering or climbing the building.[93]

On 11 July 2013, six female Greenpeace volunteers climbed the Shard and unfurled a flag in protest against Arctic oil drilling by Royal
Dutch Shell.[94] The women announced they were "experienced climbers", but medical personnel were summoned to the base of the
tower nonetheless.[94] The Shard's staff closed the tower's observatory and gave the women a safety briefing and other advice during
their climb.[94] After completing their 16-hour climb, the six women were arrested by police on suspicion of aggravated trespass.[94]

In popular culture
The Shard appears in the 2012 short film The Snowman and The Snowdog and its tie-in computer game.[95]
The Shard has a significant role in the 2013 Doctor Who episode "The Bells of Saint John", as it is the headquarters of the
episode's antagonist, the Great Intelligence. The Doctor vertically rode a motorbike on the face of the building and through a
window to reach the Great Intelligence's headquarters.[96]

See also
List of tallest buildings and structures in London
List of tallest buildings in the world

Similar structures
Ryugyong Hotel
Transamerica Pyramid
Lakhta Center

Footnotes
a. The building's operators officially stylise its name as The Shard, with the word "the" capitalised.

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30. Monaghan, Angela (17 September 2007). "London's tallest skyscraper grounded by global credit crunch" (http://www.telegraph.c
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External links
Official website (http://www.the-shard.com)
The Shard, London (http://www.icrazyworld.com/2014/11/amazing-skycrappers-icon-pf-their-cities.html)
The Shard (http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/london/the-shard/451/) on CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
The Shard Special (http://www.estatesgazette.com/shardspecial/). Estates Gazette. 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
Live daylight webcam image (https://web.archive.org/web/20111202232348/http://sites.google.com/site/shardcam/) via Google
Sites.
Internal and external photos of the Shard (http://www.shardldn.com/the-shard.html) via Shardldn.com.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Shard 12/13
3/18/2018 The Shard - Wikipedia

Records

Tallest building in London


2010–present
Preceded by 309 metres (1,014 ft)
One Canada Square
Tallest building in the United Kingdom
Current holder
2010–present
309 metres (1,014 ft)

Preceded by Tallest building in the European Union


Commerzbank Tower 2010–present
309 metres (1,014 ft)

Preceded by Tallest building in Europe Succeeded by


City of Capitals January 2012 – November 2012 Mercury City Tower
309 metres (1,014 ft)

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