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In-plant Training Report

Ashok Leyland, Ennore


 Introduction

 Shop III

 Frame Assembly

 Sprockets Finishing

 X-member production

 Hub Finishing

 Shop IV

 Front Axle

 Rear Axle

 Chassis Assembly

 Old Conveyer

 New Conveyer

 Shop II

 Marine Engine Assembly

 Crank Case Machining

 Engine Assembly
 Conclusion


Ashok Leyland is a commercial vehicle manufacturing company based

in Chennai, India. Founded in 1948, the company is one of India's leading
manufacturers of commercial vehicles, such as trucks and buses, as well as emergency
and military vehicles. Operating six plants, Ashok Leyland also makes spare parts and
engines for industrial and marine applications. It sells about 60,000 vehicles and about
7,000 engines annually. It is the second largest commercial vehicle company in India
in the medium and heavy commercial vehicle (M&HCV) segment with a market share
of 28% (2007–08). With passenger transportation options ranging from 19 seater to 80
seater, Ashok Leyland is a market leader in the bus segment. The company claims to
carry over 60 million passengers a day, more people than the entire Indian rail
network. In the trucks segment Ashok Leyland primarily concentrates on the 16 ton to
25 ton range of trucks. However Ashok Leyland has presence in the entire truck range
starting from 7.5 tons to 49 tons. The joint venture announced with Nissan Motors of
Japan would improve its presence in the Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) segment
(<7.5 tons).

Shop III

The Shop III is a combination of Frame assembly, Sprockets Finishing, X-member

production and the hub finishing.

Frame Assembly:

Here the Frame Assembly is done. The chassis of the vehicle first step starts from here at this
shop-3. This assembly is divided into 9 stages. At first the sides frames are mounted for
both sides which are hold using the proper clamps. The frames of the vehicles are fixed
together to be sent to the chassis assembly. The skids are mounted on the conveyor belt and frame is
placed on the skids. And frame MTG on which engine is mounted is fixed across the two frames.
On the rear end of the frame BKTS both sides are aligned with taper pin. Fit and tight FSR and
BKTS on both sides with dummy bolts. Tilt both the FSMS to 90 degree by turning tackle and insert
clamps. Tight and apply torque to engine MTG flinches and M12 with bolts. Correspondingly in
every stage each worker tight appropriate bolt to the frame before taken to chassis assembly makes it
a complete frame.

At present two types are made in more numbers. One is for commercial vehicles which is 9meters
long. The other is for heavy vehicles which is 12meters long. This heavy vehicle frame and chassis
will be soon moved to Neptune shop which is planned to construct. For each type of frames separate
distinct connecting rods are used. Thus at the end of the 9 th stage the perfect frame will come to off
track. These frames will be now moved to the chassis assembly. These frames are important for the
chassis, so it is built with the strong bolts.

Sprockets finishing:

The material needed to make the sprockets is outsourced as a moulded part. Then it
has been taken in to milling, grinding, drilling, surface finish, etc. to get the finished
product of the sprockets. There are many sprockets in this usage Leaf spring sprocket,
engine mounting sprocket, etc.

X-member production:

X-member is the connection made to fix both the side members in the place. The x-
member is the combination of gusset plate and the cross member.

The gusset plate is made by cutting sheet of required size and punching of holes in it
by a hydraulic press then making the bend by another hydraulic press. Then the gusset
plate riveted with the cross member to make the x-member.

Hub Finishing:

The hub is also like the sprockets, it has been outsourced as a moulded part then it has
been finished by various processes to get the finished hub.


The shop IV comprises of assembly of front and rear axles. The axle casing and the
differential unit of the rear axle were outsourced. The leaf springs, brake drums are
assembled before being attached to the main frame of the vehicle.

Front Axle assembly:

The front axle is provided with less number of spring sections than the rear.
Stage 1: Axle beam is loaded on the conveyor belt.

Stage 2: Number is punched on the axle beam.

Stage 3: Axle arm is fitted on the beam for steering.

Stage 4: Steering rod is fitted. It is right end of the axle according to Indian standards.

Stage 5: Tracking rod is fitted. It is used for the alignment of the wheel. It helps the left side of the
tyre to turn along with the right side wheel.

Stage 6: Brake carriers with brake linings are fitted to the front and rear axle beam and taken to
chassis assembled.

Rear Axle Assembly:

The rear axle will have more spring arrangements than the front axle.

Stage 1: Casing is fixed on the conveyor and axle shaft is removed.

Stage 2: Brake lining and 10 bolt and washer are fixed on the brake carrier with spring washer.
Dustcover is also fitted.

Stage 3: Brake nut and bolt are tighten and fitted 50 to 75 torque.

Stage 4: Ring for oil seal is fitted on the hub shim is fitted 3-6tau for the clearance flange cover is
fitted with 4 bolts.

Stage 5: Inner oil seal is fitted on ring for inner oil seal. Inner wheel bearing is fitted.

Stage 6: Distance piece is fixed to align the inner and outer wheel bearing in the same axis.

Stage 7: Dry set, where the wheel hub is fixed roughly to verify whether to increase or decrease the
height. Stage 8: Wet set where grease is packed inside the wheel hub.

Stage 9: Axle tube nut is fixed with counter pin and bolt, 190 thou tightness. The given, studs are
fixed in the hub to fixed to the shaft. Grease nipple is fixed on the wheel hub.

Stage 10: Axle studs are tightened. Drum is fixed 8mm bolt is fitted.

Stage 11: Axle shaft is fitted using 8 spring washer and nut on the stud.

Stage 12: Complete assembly of rear axle is unloaded and taken to chassis assembly.

Chassis Assembly:

The chassis assembly is the last part of a production plant. Here all the parts from
other shops are assembled to make a vehicle. In this Ashok Leyland plant there has
been two conveyers, a new one and an old one.
Old Conveyer:

The old conveyer is also the same process as like the new conveyer. But the new
conveyer has been technologically developed.

New conveyer:

Stage 1: Air chamber and air tank (lay down):

Initially air chamber is fitted. The number of chambers depends on the number
of wheels. Air chamber is responsible for the braking system
Stage 2: Front axle mounting:
The axle which is fitted in front body of the vehicle is front axle. It hold the
front wheels
Stage 3: Rear axle mounting:
The axle fitted back is rear axle which holds rear wheels. These wheels are the
actual driving wheels.
Stage 4: Silencer mounting:
Silencer is the long pipe which reduces the noise created by the engine and
contributes in exhaust system
Stage 5: Chassis turnover:
Then the frame is turned upside down which is the normal position.
Stage 6: Fuel tank mounting:
Then the tank which stores fuel is mounted on the right side. Sometimes a
shield is also provided over it.
Stage 7: Engine mounting:
Then the engine is fitted in the front of the chassis.
Stage 8: Radiator mounting:
Radiator is the temperature exchanging unit of the cooling system. It is
mounted now.
Stage 9: Oil filling:
Then the oil is filled using oil gun. Oil is usually greased.
Stage 10: Electrical:
In this stage the electrical wirings are done. A battery is provided to switch the
head & rear lamps, horns, etc.
Stage 11: Wheel mounting:
Then the wheels are mounted. In the twin wheel setup only one wheel is
mounted other one is mounted in the other shops. We use JK, MRF etc brands
of tyres
Stage 12: Vehicle starting:
Finally the vehicle is started and delivered to the customer.
Shop II

This shop comprises of machining of various engine parts and assembly of marine
Marine Engine Assembly:

The engine which has high torque and rpm are used in marines. Rectification of
engines is also done here. They use the normal man driven machines. Both 4 and 6
cylinder engines are made.

Crank Case Machining:

In this shop the perfectly casted part of crankcase arrives from the casting plant situated somewhere
near the main plant. This casted crankcase constitutes the main part of the engine compartment. This
shop-2 consist of the heavy machines of HMT that helps in boring and drilling different sizes of
holes needed for the fitments of various engine spares. There are different process of manufacturing
is done here. Fabrication of Valves:

Stage-1: Facing and the centring (length) of the valves is done here.

Stage-2: Straightening (Bend removing) is done.

Stage-3: Rough turning and finish turning are done.

Stage-4: Again the straightening is done here.

Stage-5: Keyway milling (Gear Fixing, Oil pumping) are done here.

Stage-6: CAM milling (valve inlet, valve outlet) are done.

Stage-7: Gear hobbing is done through gear hobbing machine.

Stage-8: Gun drilling is done (through hole).

Stage-9: Counter boring and tapping (nuts, front and rear).

Stage-10: Oil hole drilling.

Stage-11: Washing and number punching is done.

Stage-12: Index hardening and tempering and hardening are done.

Stage-13: Harden testing (moderate hardening) is tested here.

Stage-14: Once again the straightening is done here.

Stage-15: Bearing (journal) outer grindings are done.

Stage-16: CAM grindings are done.

Stage-17: Crack checking is done.

Stage-18: Inspection of valves is done at the final.

The flywheel housing is tested and fitted at the engine case.

So the major works done here are Grinding, Wilding, Lathe works.

As most of the machines in this shop are very old model also they are not maintained
properly they will consume more power than usual. This will increase the cost of
operating machines.

Engine assembly:

Engine assembly is done by fitting the below components. Their functions we learnt
are also given below

Stage 1: Cam bearing

After the arrival of cylinder block cam bearing is fitted. It is used for
reducing the friction in the chain drived cam shaft
Stage 2: Cam shaft
Cam shaft is the cylinder rod with projections called cam lobes. Cam
lobes are responsible for opening the inlet and exhaust valves
Stage 3: Crank shaft/ crank assembly
Next is the assembly of crank shaft. Crank shaft is the power
transmitting agent to the flywheel. It is fitted with connecting rod and
the flywheel.

Stage 4: Stud (M-14)

Then the stud bolt is fitted

Stage 5: Timing belt (back plate)

Back plate is a metal plate which sits behind the cam pulleys. It is a belt
which starts the ignition in time.

Stage 6: Cam gear

They attach to the cam and allow advancing or retarding the ignition
timing. Then housing the cylinders is done.

Stage 7: Flywheel
Flywheel is the larger circular disc attached to the crank shaft to produce
uniform torque.
Stage 8: Oil pump
Oil pump is the part of engine lubricating system which provides oil to
the parts of engine by various actions.

Stage 9: Piston
Next is the fitting of the piston which is the energy converting agent
which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy. It is cylindrical
in shape which travels between top dead centre and bottom dead centre.

Stage 10: Connecting rod bolt

Then the connecting rod is fixed. It is the agent which drives the crank

Stage 11: Idler gear

The gear which switches the idling condition is idler gear

Stage 12: Cylinder head

Then the cylinder heads with the valves are fitted.

Stage 13: Sump

Sump is the bottommost part of the engine which contains the
lubricating oil which can be taken up by connecting rod`s motion.

Stage 14: Rocker Arm

Rocker is the important arm which holds the inlet and exhaust valves.

Stage 15: Air compressor

It compresses the air and let it into the inlet manifold

Stage 16: Fuel injector pump

This pump injects the fuel from the tank to the engine.

Stage 17: Valve cover

Rocker covers are also called valve covers. It covers the rocker arm.

Stage 18: Oil cooler

Then the oil cooler is fixed. It cools the lubricating oil

Stage 19: Injector pipe

It is a double walled pipe which injects the fuel in diesel engines

Stage 20: Side cover

It covers the side of the engine

Stage 21: Water pump

Water pump is a component which circulates the cooling water into the
engine’s outer body

Stage 22: Starter motor

Starter motor is the engine starting agent which starts the engine when
ignition is on.

Stage 23: Exhaust manifold

The pipe which connects exhaust valve and exhaust system

Stage 24: Turbo charger

Turbo charger is a system which is fitted to the exhaust system of the
engine which pumps to compress the intake air to increase air in air-fuel
mixture which in turn increases the efficiency of the engine. Final
fittings are the cylinder head plugs, radiators etc.

The profit of an organization entirely depends on the way the top chairs manage the
Resources the organization has. Whatever the other aspects may be, it was seen that
managing human resource was extremely difficult. The stability or the sustainability
of the Organization mostly depends on this factor.
On the other hand, it was prominently seen that thinking should precede doing. In
most cases It could be seen that there exists easier or better ways to do something. As
far as the above mentioned factor is considered, continuous knowledge mining
followed by experience in a cycle upholds the entire system in every aspect.

Earning and living a satisfactory life is the desire of all.