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Industrial Network Example

DIgSILENT PowerFactory ∗

Abstract the equivalent motor represents 10 motors


in total, in the basic grid model a number of
only seven motors in parallel is considered,
This paper describes the modelling of an in- since it is unlikely that all ten motors are run-
dustrial network, which is part of the Pow- ning at full power at the same time. The vari-
erFactory examples. It has different voltage ation ”Number of parallel motors” contains
levels, and supplies AC and DC loads. Typi- the full ten motors, as it is needed for the
cal calculations for analysing the network are short-circuit calculation.
prepared in the example and described in
the following: Due to the huge amount of asynchronous
machines the network has a quite low power
factor. Therefore equipment for power fac-
• Load flow calculation tor correction is used. On Subsystem A a
switchable capacitor bank is used with re-
• Short-circuit calculation mote control on ”Terminal HV trf 110/10kV
• Harmonics calculation A”. On Subsystem B an SVC (Static Var
Compensator / System, SVS) is used with
• Motor starting simulation remote control on ”Terminal HV trf 110/10kV
B”.
• Over-current protection

• Arc-flash hazard calculation


2 Load Flow

1 Description of the Indus- The first study case (”01 - Load Flow”) is pre-
trial Network Model pared to perform load flow calculations. This
enables the user to have an overview of the
resulting voltages as well as the impact of
The industrial network example contains automatic tap changing of the transformers
two subsystems, each of them is supplied and the automatic shunt adjustment to con-
by an HV/MV transformer. In case of a trol the power factor.
transformer outage both systems can be
linked on the MV level. In total the sys-
tems consists of three synchronous motors,
14 medium voltage asynchronous motors,
3 Harmonics
four DC motors, one generation unit (syn-
chronous generator), one emergency gen- The rectifiers of the four DC motors are con-
erator (synchronous generator) and one low nected via Yy0 and Yd5 transformers to form
voltage equivalent motor, which represents two 12-pulse rectifiers. There is another rec-
10 LV asynchronous motors. Even though tifier connected to the busbar of the Priority
∗ DIgSILENT GmbH, Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9, 72810 Load. The rectifiers are causing harmonic
Gomaringen, Germany, www.digsilent.de distortions in the AC grid.

DIgSILENT PowerFactory, r1205 1


Industrial Network Example

In the Study Case ”02 - Harmonics” there the corresponding result boxes. On the pre-
are some predefined harmonic distortion di- pared Time-Overcurrent diagrams inside the
agrams with the allowed limits shown. For previously mentioned Study Case the char-
the priority busbar user-defined limits are ap- acteristics of relays are visible.
plied, which represent some special needs
for harmonic sensitive loads. By calculat-
ing the harmonic load flow, the actual har-
monic distortions can be analysed. Without 6 DC Short-Circuit
further measures these distortions would ex-
ceed the limits. Therefore local filters are Since PowerFactory Version 15.1 calcula-
connected to reduce the harmonic voltages tions of short-circuit currents within DC grids
to acceptable levels. up to 250 V are supported [2]. An appropri-
ate DC short-circuit calculation is prepared
in the Study Case ”05 - DC Short-Circuit”.
4 Motor Start

Each motor in the networks has a specific


7 Arc Flash
torque characteristic. The motors ”Asm D-1
Sys B”, ”Asm D-2 Sys B”, ”Asm D-3 Sys B”, The Arc-Flash Hazard Analysis calculation is
”Asm D-4 Sys B” and ”Asm D-5 Sys B” are meant to determine the arc-flash hazard dis-
modeled with different starting methods. For tance and the incident energy to which em-
analysing the starting of these motors, ei- ployees could be exposed during their work
ther a simplified static simulation or a precise on or near electrical equipment [3]. The re-
dynamic simulation can be used. The re- sults may be used to categorize the busbars
sults are reported in the PowerFactory Out- due to their protection group. It is possible
put Window. In case of dynamic simulations to create corresponding Arc-Flash Warning
the results are displayed by means of time- Labels automatically.
dependent result curves in diagrams. Ac-
cording result diagrams are adjusted in the
Study Case ”03 - Motor Start”. It is possible
to analyse the start of only a single motor, References
or of several motors (a motor group) at the
same time. It is also possible to define start-
ing sequences by adjusting different starting [1] IEC 60909-0:2001 ”Short-circuit cur-
times for the individual motors in the dynamic rents in three-phase a.c. systems - Part
simulation. 0: Calculation of currents”
[2] IEC 61660-1:1997 ”Short-circuit cur-
rents in d.c. auxiliary installations in
5 Protection / AC Short- power plants and substations”

Circuit [3] IEEE 1584-2002 ”Guide for Performing


Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations”

The industrial network provides various over-


current relays. Relays of feeders are also
equipped with an interlock. As described in
Section 1 the Study Case ”04 - Protection /
AC Short-Circuit” uses the variation ”Number
of parallel motors” with all ten parallel LV mo-
tors considered. This enables the complete
short-circuit contribution from all machines.

After calculating the short-circuit current on


any busbar of the AC network [1], the tripping
time of the different relays are displayed in

DIgSILENT PowerFactory, r1205 2