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- Basic Heat Transfer
- Ph.D.Thesis_Patle+S.D.
- ME3122_Conduction Notes 2014
- Staedy Conduction Heat Transfer
- Natural Convection Heating of Liquids, Edepotin_t4f7505aa_001
- Thermal Conductivity
- Hmt Lab Report
- Heat Transfer Ch1 Introduction
- CFX12_10_HeatTransfer
- Class 1_Basic Modes of Heat Transfer
- How to Measure Conductivity
- 9D17102 Conduction and Radiation Heat Transfer
- Heat Transfer
- TP (26,27,29)
- A1 1DUnsteady Heat Conduction Physics Based Approach(1)
- Cryogenic EX Loss
- chapter_2
- cortado
- s_20074
- Heat Transfer Lecture I

Anda di halaman 1dari 115

Solid state, material structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Fourier’s law, thermal conductivity, differential equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Differential HT equation. Initial and boundary conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Differential HT equations in other coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Solid object and an infinite fluid medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Thermal resistance: analogy heat transfer - electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Characteristic values in non-steady heat conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Conduction, convection, advection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Differential equation for convective heat tranfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Differential equation for fluid flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Boundary conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Example: Couette Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

External flow. Boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

External flow. Flat plane in parallel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

External flow: some additional remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Free convection. Vertical surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Free convection: Vertical surface - nondimensional analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Free convection: Vertical surface - similarity solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Chapter 3. Radiation. 38

Types of electromagnetic waves. And what is thermal radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Specific features of radiative energy transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Emissive power. Solid angle. Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Diffuse surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Chapter 4.Blackbody. 46

Blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Planck’s distribution. Rayleigh-Jeans and Wein’s approximations . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Total emisive power of a blackbody. Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Spectral directional emissivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Total directional emissivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Spectral hemispherical emissivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

1

Total hemispherical emissivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Solutions to the examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Incident radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Spectral directional absorptivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Kirchhoff’s Law for directional spectral properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Total directional absorptivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Kirchhoff’s Law for directional total properties. Gray surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Spectral hemispherical absorptivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Kirchhoff’s Law for hemispherical spectral properties. Diffuse spectral surfaces . . . . 70

Total hemispherical absorptivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Kirchhoff’s Law for hemispherical total properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

transmissivity 73

Spectral and total bidirectional reflectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Directional reflectivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Hemispherical reflectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Radiosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Special remark 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Spectral and total transmissivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Special remark 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Differential view factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

View factors between a differential surface and a finite one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

View factors for finite surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Algebra of view factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Resulting heat fluxes and temperatures in a diffuse-gray enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Graphical representation of RHT in a diffuse-gray enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Continuation of graphical representation of RHT in a diffuse-gray enclosure . . . . . . 93

Network representation of radiation shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

If Sun is a black body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Scattering in the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

2

Emission from the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Chapter 12. Heat exchange with absorption and emission in the gas volume 106

Absorptivity and emissivity in a volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Kirchhoff’s law for the absorption and emission in the gas. Emissivity of a gas . . . . 107

Average path length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Gray gas model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Nomograms and empirical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Radiating gas in a mixture with non-radiating gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Mixture of radiating gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Radiating gas near a surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

3

Heat transfer: Introduction.

The subject of the course is a heat transfer. But what is the heat transfer?

Definition 1. Heat transfer is a process of the transmitting (transfer) the thermal energy in

space.

q.1. What is thermal energy?

q.2. Why (where) is it transmitting?

q.3. How can it be transmitted?

a.1. Particles of an object (or of a media) posses kinetic energy. Temperature of the object

represents the kinetic energy of particles comprising the body.

a.2. The energy is transmitting due to interactions of the particles – (*it should be clarified

what ”particle” means).

a.3. The modes (types) of heat transfer in a media depend on the physical properties and the

state of the media.

– conduction, which exists in a media (does not exist in a vacuum), both solid and fluid (liquid

and gases). Conduction is provided by interaction of moving microparticles which comprise a

solid object or a fluid.

– convection, which exists in moving fluids (liquid and gases). Here the energy is transferred

due to interactions of agglomerates (microvolumes) of atoms and/or molecules which can move

for some distance.

– radiation, the heat is transferred by waves (or by photons). This mode of the heat transfer

differs significantly from the previous two since it does not require any media between the ob-

jects which exchange with their energies.

In first lectures we will recall fundamentals of conduction and thermal convection. The most

part of the course is devoted to the radiative heat transfer.

4

Chapter 1. Structure of materials. Heat transfer in solids.

To recall fundamentals of the heat transfer we should refer to the materials structure.

Every material consists of atoms and every atom has a nucleus and electrons which ”moves

somehow around” the nucleus. The structure of atoms is given in a Periodic table (Mendeleev

table). Let us consider a silicon, Si. In its nucleus it has 14 protons and 14 neutrons, there are

14 electrons around its nucleus, as shown in fig.1.

Figure 1: Structure of Si

The radius of a stable nucleus can be estimated as R = r0 A1/3 , where r0 = 1.25f m = 1.25 ·

10−15 m) and A = Z + N , Z and N are the number of protons and neutrons, respectively.

Then, the radius of Si nucleus is about Rn (Si) = 1.25f m · 281/3 ≈ 3.8f m = 3.8 · 10−15 m.

The radius of the Si atom can be estimated using the data given in a periodic table: atomic

volume is about 2.05cm3 /mol, a mole contains 6.02 · 1023 atoms, so the radius of an atom is

Ra (Si) = (2.05/6.02 · 1023 )1/3 ≈ 1.54 · 10−8 cm = 1.54 · 10−10 m. The size of the nucleus is

negligibly small compared to that the atom, i.e. the atom is mostly ”empty”.

Electrons ”move near their own” atom in certain areas which are called ”orbitals”. In metals

and also in semiconductors electrons from external orbitals can leave their own atom and

move from one atom to another.

Inside metals the energy is transferred from point to point by mechanical interaction of particles

(mostly electrons) and this mode of energy transfer is named conduction. The heat flux

characterises how fast the energy is transferred in space.

Definition 2. The density of the heat flux ~q is the energy transfered through an isothermal surface

per unit of time per unit of the surface.

W J

[~q] = 2 =

m s · m2

5

An empirical Fourier law relates the temperature distribution and the heat flux.

Fourier’s Law: The density of a conductive heat flux is proportional to the negative tem-

perature gradient:

~q = −κ(x, y, z)∇T (2)

∂T ∂T ∂T

−∇T = −e~x · − e~y · − e~z ·

∂x ∂y ∂z

The κ(x, y, z) in eq.2 presents the thermal conductivity which is generally a tensor but in

many practical cases it is considered as a scalar, which however may depend on temperature.

W J

Dimension of the thermal conductivity is [κ] = = .

m·K s·m·K

In the fig.2 the values of thermal conductivity for some materials are given and the fig.3 provides

a qualitative idea about thermal conductivity of various media.

Figure 3: Qualitative relation of thermal conductivity for various materials at normal temper-

ature and pressure

6

Note:

1. In metals and semiconductors the energy transfer is occurred due to the motion of the

electrons from the highest orbitals which move freely from atom to atom.

2. In solid dielectric materials the energy transfer is occurred via oscillation of the crystalline

cells of materials (see fig.4) which is known as ”phonon conductivity”.

a b

Figure 4: Crystal structure. (a) Unit (elementary) body center cubic (bcc) cell. (b) Crystalline

cell.

3. For the solids the thermal conductivity of metals (Ag, Cu, Pb, Al, Steel, etc) is higher than

the sonductivity of insulator. The exception is the diamond, which is one of crystallographic

modification of the carbon.

4. In gases and liquids the particles which provide the heat transfer are molecules.

5. The Fourier’s law is remarkable since it is valid for all solids, whether they are metals or

dielectrics, and also for liquids and gases.

Fourier’s law is not enough for the solution of the thermal problems. An equation which would

describe the conservation of the total energy is required. Derivation of the equation for

heat transfer is based on the First law of thermodynamics.

the difference between the amount of heat supplied to the system dQ, and the amount of work

performed by the system on its surroundings dW .

dU = dQ − dW (3)

The thermodynamics states that the variation of the internal energy during the period of time

dt of a material with a constant mass m and a constant volume dv is related to the variation

of the temperature T in this volume:

∂T

dU = mCp dT = ρ · dv · Cp dt (4)

∂t

7

where Cp is a specific heat (J/(kg · K)), ρ is a density (kg/m3 ), dv is the volume of the system,

(m3 ).

The work of the system (or over the system) with a constant volume during the period of time

dt related to the internal heat sources with a volume density qv0 :

dW = qv0 · dt · dv (5)

The amount of heat supplied to the system dQ during the time dt is the thermal heat flux ~q

~ which surrounds the volume dv, i.e.

through the surface ds

~ = −(∇

dQ = −~q · dsdt ~ · ~q)dv · dt (6)

∂T ~ · ~q)dv · dt + q 0 · dv · dt

ρCp dvdt = −(∇ v

∂t

Re-writing the previous expression, we obtain a ”classical” form of the equation for the con-

ductive energy transfer:

∂T

~ κ∇T~

ρCp =∇ + qv0 (7)

∂t

If the physical properties of a material (ρ, Cp , κ) are constant, Eq.7 can be re-written in a form

∂T

= a∆T + qv00 (8)

∂t

Where a is the thermal diffusivity and laplasian in cartesian system is written as

2

∆= ∇ ~

∂2 ∂2 ∂2

∆= + +

∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

The eq.7 allows us to solve the problem of heat transfer if we know material properties (Cp , ρ, κ),

distribution of internal heat sources qv0 (x, y, z), and also if we have boundary conditions and,

if the problem is non-stationary, initial conditions are given.

As an illustration, imagine that we have to calculate the temperature distribution in a block

and let us supposed that a block is attached to a surface and is surrounded by the air as shown

in fig.5.

For the surface 6 where the block is attached to the motherboard we can use boundary condi-

tions of the first or of the second type.

8

1. Dirichlet or first-type boundary condition:

this condition specifies the temperature at the boundary of the object (i.e. the temperature of

the motherboard is known for every time):

T (S, t) = TS (t)

this conditions specifies a density of the heat flux at the boundary of the object for every

moment of time:

∂T

−κ = ~q(x, y, z)S · ~n

∂n S

In the example with a processor this condition can be used, for example, if the surface is insu-

lated (which is not generally the case) or if the surface is cooled with a known heat flux.

Let us consider surfaces from 1 to 5. If temperature calculations does not include the temper-

ature distribution in the air, the appropriate boundary conditions are

3. Third-type boundary conditions(Robin boundary conditions):

A widely used form for this type of the boundary condition is

∂T

−κ = h · (T − Text )

∂n S

where h(W/(m2 · K) is a coefficient of the convective heat transfer and Text is a temperature of

the air at a long distance from the surface.

In fact, the coefficient of the convective heat transfer includes all the uncertainties related to

the convective heat transfer in the air. Convection is considered in the next chapter.

Note that a more general form for the third-type boundary conditions is a combination of the

first and second conditions:

∂T

A·T −B·κ = FS (x, y, z)

∂n S

and this formulation is better for the example under consideration because the block loses the

energy via the surfaces 1 − 5 also by radiation.

1. Analytically

If the geometry, boundary and initial conditions and distribution of internal heat sources are

not complicated, it is possible to do analytically, using methods of Mathematical Physics.

Good numbers of examples are given in the book by H.S. Carslaw and J.C.Jaeger, ”Conduction

of heat in solids” (several editions, the 2nd was in 1959). In this case the solution generally has

a form of a series.

2. Numerically

Practically for any configuration, for any conditions the Eq.7 can be solved numerically.

9

Example

Let a temperature distribution in a wall of a thickness of 1m and the area of 10m2 at a certain

time instant is given as

T (x) = a + bx + cx2 (9)

with T (x) given in Celsius degree and x is in meters, with a = 9000 C, b = −3000 C/m,

c = −500 C/m2 . A uniform heat generation q 0 = 1000W/m3 exists inside the wall whose

properties are ρ = 1600kg/m3 , κ = 40W/(m · K), and Cp = 4kJ/(kg · K)

Questions:

1. Make a scheme (drawing) for the given problem and provide its mathematical description

2. Determine:

2.1 Rate of the heat entering the wall at x = 0 and leaving the volume at x = L, L = 1m

2.2 Rate at which the energy is stored in the volume

2.3 Rate at which temperature changes at x = 0, x = 0.25 and x = 0.5m

Another coordinate system, non-Cartesian, can be chosen for the solution of the problems be-

cause of some reasons. The most important is that the geometrical description of the object

under consideration is easier in another system. Example: spherical shell is easier to present

in spherical coordinate system, an ellipsoidal particle in an elliptic system etc.

Yet, the presentation of differential operator ∇ is different in these cases and it accounts for

the variation of the curvature of the spatial coordinates. Also, a differential volume in each

case will be presented in a different manner as shown in figures and equations below.

system

10

Nabla operator in cylindrical coordinate systems:

∇ (10)

∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z

where ~er , ~eϕ and ~ez are unit vectors along the coordinate axes r, ϕ and z, respectively (fig.6).

∇ (11)

∂r r ∂ϕ ∂z

Elementary volume in cylindrical coordinate systems (fig.6).

Accounting for this, the Differential Heat Transfer Equation is presented in the cylindrical

coordinate system as follows:

∂T 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T

Cp ρ = κr + 2 κ + κ + q0 (13)

∂t r ∂r ∂r r ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂z ∂z

Geometry, nabla operator and Heat transfer equation in spherical coordinate sys-

tem

∇

∂

+ ~eθ

1 ∂

(14)

∂r r sin θ ∂ϕ r ∂θ

where ~er , ~eϕ and ~eθ are unit vectors along the coordinate axes r, ϕ and θ, respectively

Elementary volume in the spherical coordinate systems (fig.7)

Accounting for this, the Differential Heat Transfer Equation is presented in the spherical

coordinate system as follows:

∂T 1 ∂ 2 ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T

Cp ρ = 2 κr + 2 2 κ + 2 κ sin θ + q0 (16)

∂t r ∂r ∂r r sin θ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ

11

Boundary condition for a solid object in an infinite fluid medium

Before going into details of convective heat transfer let us consider a solid object inside a liquid

whose velocity and temperature are fixed at infinity (fig.8)

1. if in this situation the boundary conditions for the differential heat transfer equation inside

the object can be written as a constant temperature, equal to that of the liquid?

2. If not, what is a condition to use?

The answer to the first question is ”no”, because it is not possible to assure that the

layers of the fluid adjacent to the object have the temperature T∞ , they will be heated or cooled

depending on the temperature of the object, an example of the temperature distribution in a

wall and inside the liquid surrounding it is given in a figure above, fig.8. Suppose that the given

distribution is steady and is conditioned by internal heat sources in the solid object.

Note that despite the convective flow in the liquid (that will be discussed later) the boundary

condition for the heat flux in the liquid are still the same because of viscosity in the liquid

which creates a thin layer near the object where the liquid does not move:

qs,R = qf,R

qs,L = qf,L

dT

qs,R = −κs |s,R thermal flux in the solid at the right boundary

dx

dT

qs,L = −κs |s,L thermal flux in the solid at the left boundary

dx

dT

qf,R = −κf |f,R thermal flux in the liquid at the right boundary

dx

dT

qf,L = −κf |f,L thermal flux in the liquid at the left boundary

dx

(17)

Here the indices s and f are for the solid and fluid, respectively and L,R ar for the right and

the left boundaries.

12

Note that for both sides is is assumed that the direction of the vector ~q is the same as

direction of the x − axis.

According to the presented illustration, the temperature gradient inside the liquid near the

wall near the the right boundary can be approximated as:

dT T∞ − TS,R

qf,R = −κf |f,R = −κf (18)

dx δR

where δR > 0 is a distance at which the tangent line to the temperature curve in the liquid

Tf (y) constructed at the left boundary of the object cross the level T∞ .

The value of δR is not known a priori (without rigorous calculation).

This condition can be rewritten as:

κL

hR = (20)

δR

(21)

The coefficient hL is termed ”convective heat exchange coefficient.” Note that according to the

choice of the axis, the q is directed out from the object. The same condition can be written on

the left boundary:

dT TS,R − T∞

qf,L = −κf |L,R = −κf

dx δL

qf,L = hR (T∞ − TS,L )

κf

hR =

δL

(22)

13

In this case the qf,L is directed toward the object, consequently, the sign in the temperature

difference has changed.

Attention! In all (to my knowledge) numerical softwares the following agree-

ment exists: the flux is considered to be positive if its direction is the same as

the direction of the normal vector defining a surface.

In the condition written as eq.19, the coefficient h contains uncertainties related to the definition

of the distance δ which, in particular, depends on the velocity of the forced flow. Indeed, if the

velocity is higher, then the fluid with the temperature of the flow T∞ arrives faster, therefore,

the layer of the heated liquid will be thinner fig.10.

Note that in the case of the object of a complex shape, the distance δ can vary along the surface

of the object although the imposed flow is fixed. In this case a local coefficient h(~r) and an

average coefficient h can be introduced.

From previous consideration, it is seen that generally the heat flux in a steady case of conduc-

tiviy between two surfaces can be presented in a form:

κ

q= (Ts,1 − Ts,2 ) (23)

L

and in a case of a surface with convective heat exchange:

q = h(Ts,1 − T∞ ) (24)

An analogy between the heat transfer and the electricity can be made, assuming that q

corresponds ot the electrical current I, the temperature difference to the potential and, conse-

14

quently, having as a resistancesuch that I = U/R, i.e. q = ∆T /RT

1 1

RT = and RT =

κ/L h

This concept becomes really interesting in consideration of more complex objects.

Example

A composite wall shown in fig.11 is subjected to a flow of the hot fluid with T∞,1 on its left side

and to the cold fluid with T∞,2 on the right side. The thermal conductivity and thicknesses of

all layers are known, the two convective heat exchange coefficients are given. Find a heat flux

in the system.

Solution is given in the class

Note: some systems can be presented with parallel thermal resistance, similar to the elec-

trical circuits.

Let us remind a problem considered on the exercises: a cube 0.5cm × 0.5cm × 0.5cm with

the initial temperature T0 = 350K is placed inside a liquid having a temperature Tf = 273K.

The convective heat exchange coefficient between the cube and the liquid in this case is h =

1W/(m2 · K). Suppose that the temperature inside the cube is uniform during its cooling. Find

the temperature of the cube at t = 5s after beginning of the cooling.

15

The mathematical statement for the described problem is the following:

∂T ~ ∇T ~ )

ρCp = ∇(κ

∂t

T |t=0 = T0

dT

−κ |S = h(T − Tf )

dx

(25)

If in the last equation related to the boundary condition a derivative is replaced with its linear

form ∆T /δ where ∆T is a temperature drop insider the object over its characteristic size δ,

then:

hδ

∆T = − (T − Tf )

κ

the non-dimensional complex on the right side of the equation is termed Biot

number:

hδ conduction thermal resistance

Bi = =

κ convection thermal resistance

The solution of the given problem is presented in a form

The complex in the exponential term shows how fast the temperature of the object will change

in time, it is a time constant which can be seen as follows:

V ρCp 1

τ= = V ρCp = (thermal capacitance) · (convective thermal resistance)

hS h

Introducing some characteristic time related to the system τ and a characteristic distance L, it

is possible to write the conductive heat transfer equation for a media with constant properties

in the form

∆T ∆T

∼a 2 here ∆ is a simple difference!

τ L

Then, the following values can be derived:

1. Diffusion time τd = L2 /a that can be interpreted as:

· time which is required for that a thermal perturbation propagated at the distance L

· time which is required for a thermal perturbation of a size L to be smoothed

√

2. Diffusion length Ld = aτ that can be interpreted as:

· a distance at which a thermal perturbation will propagate during the time tau

· a size of a thermal perturbation which will be smoothed during the time tau

16

Chapter 2. Heat transfer in fluids.

To remind:

The heat is transferred via interaction of individual particles → motion of electrons (in

conductors) AND/OR oscillation of atoms/molecules (in dielectrics)

With increase of the temperature of a solid body, oscillations of the particles in crystalline cell

increase. At some temperature the crystalline structure starts to destroy and the solid phase

tranforms into liquid phase. It happens at the melting temperature of the material. For the

silicon the melting temperature is about 1414◦ C. With further heating the liquid transforms

into gas at the boiling point. For the silicon the boiling temperature is about 3265◦ C

In the liquid state the atoms and molecules do not construct a cell and they can move for

long distances. However, in the liquid state they are still close and groups of them (agglom-

erate) move in the same direction. They say that in a liquid a short-range order is preserved

(Fig.12b). With further increase of the temperature this short-range order destroyes as well.

Distances between the molecules increase even more and transition from the liquid to the gas

occurs (Fig.12c).

What kinds of interactions between the particles exist in fluids? Firstly, in fluids, the micro-

particles (atoms, molecules and electron in the liquid metals) interact ”individually”. Thus,

the conductive mode of heat transfer persists in fluids (it always exists). Secondly, the

17

microvolumes (agglomeration of molecules) of the fluids can move and transfer the energy, see

fig.13.

energy in space by the movement of microvolumes of fluids.

Note, that sometimes the term ”advection” is used in relation to the heat transfer in fluid.

The difference between ”advection” and ”convection” is that

– advection is the transfer of heat in space only by the movement of fluids

– convection unifies advection and conduction.

The first law of thermodynamics (Eq.3) is still valid, whether the fluid or solid is considered.

Equations for 4 and 5 are true as well. Expression for dQ in a form of density heat fluxes is

still OK but the energy may be transferred both by conduction and convection:

~q = ~qcond + ~qconv

Conductive flow is defined by Fourier’s law given by Eq.2 and convective flow is

Combining equations 3, 4, 5, 2 and 26, and assuming that physical properties of the material

ρ, Cp , κ are constant, we obtain:

∂T

ρCp + ρCp V~ · ∇T

~ = κ∆T + qv0 (27)

∂t

Note that in some cases (see an example below) a heat can be generated because of the

”friction” inside the liquid, so-called ”viscous dissipation”. This term can be added to the right

part of te energy equation as will be considered below.

18

This differential equation (eq.27) contains velocity of the motion of the liquid. Therefore,

to solve a general problem of convective heat transfer another equation for the liquid flow is

required. For derivation of the differential equation for fluid flow (the momentum equation)

the second Newton’s law is applied to the elementary volume of the liquid. The derivation

of this equation is beyond the scope of our course. Here we will present basic ideas for its

derivavtion and we will use the equation obtained in a course of fluid mechanics.

Newton’s second law of motion The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly pro-

portional to the net force F~ = and inversely proportional to the mass m, i.e., F~ = m~a.

Forces acting on the element of fluid can be divided into bulk forces and surface forces.

Bulk forces are forces which act on all the particles of the volume. Examples are: gravity

force, centrifugal force, electromagnetic forces. Below we will take into account only the

gravity force.

Surface forces act from the fluid which surrounds the elementary volume and are imposed

to the boundary surfaces of the volume. The pressure and the shear stress are surface

forces

Therefore, three forces act on the elementary volume of the fluid: (i) the gravity force, (ii) the

resultant force of pressure and (iii) the resultant force of the shear stress. This is expressed via

the following equation:

∂ V~

ρ + ρ V~ , ∇ V~ = ρ~g − ∇P + µ∇2 V~ (28)

∂t

here P is the pressure, µ is a dynamic viscosity. Note that

∇2 V~ = ∇(∇ · V~ ) − ∇ × (∇ × V~ ) (29)

∇2 V~ = (∇2 Vx , ∇2 Vy , ∇2 Vz ) (30)

In eq.28 the right part is the sum of forces acting on a differential volume, whereas the left

part is the result of their action which leads to the acceleration of the volume of fluid and to

its deformation. Note that eq.28 can be decomposed into 3 equations, each correspond to a

component of the velocity.

In that way,

∗ the equation of momentum, eq.28,

19

∗ the equation of convective heat transfer, eq.27,

∗ the continuity equation

∂ρ ~

+ ∇ · (ρV~ ) = 0 (31)

∂t

compose the system of equations to solve for a general convective heat transfer

problem

Boundary conditions

Conditions at the wall:

Momentum and continuity equations: no-slip conditions, that is velocities equal to that

of the wall

Convective heat transfer equation: same conditions as discussed earlier for conductive

heat transfer.

Couette flow is a case of a parallel flow in which fluid is moving only in one direction. Couette

flow is a stationary flow between two infinite plates one of which is steady and another moves

with a velocity U in its plane, the distance between plates is L. In the present case suppose

that each plate has fixed temperature T0 and TL , respectively. The illustration to the problem

is given at fig.14, let us define heat transfer and mass transfer in the channel for U = 10m/s,

TL = 300 C, T0 = 100 C, L = 3mm. As a liquid, let us consider two cases: oil and water, whose

properties are given below.

Figure 14: Illustration to the problem of Couette flow with heat transfer

20

First, let us write down the system of governing equations for two dimensions:

∂u ∂v

+ =0 (32)

∂x ∂y

2

∂ u ∂ 2u

∂u ∂u ∂p

ρu + ρv =− +µ + (33)

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2

2

∂ v ∂ 2v

∂v ∂v ∂p

ρu + ρv =− +µ + (34)

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2

2

∂ 2T

∂T ∂T ∂ T

ρcp u + ρcp v =κ + + µΦ (35)

∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2

2

∂ C ∂ 2C

∂C ∂C

ρu + ρv =D + (36)

∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2

" 2 2 2 #

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v

µΦ = µ + +2 +2 (37)

∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y

Boundary conditions:

u|y=0 = 0 u|y=L = U

T |y=0 = T0 T |y=L = TL

C|y=0 = C0 C|y=L = CL

(38)

In the given case v ≡ 0, so, no equation for the v component of the fluid. In the equation

for the x-component of the velocity ∂u/∂x = 0 , the terms which are left:

∂p ∂ 2 u

− + =0

∂x ∂y 2

(39)

The motion of the liquid happens due to the viscosity and the the motion of the plate, but not

because of the pressure difference. Then, the only term which is left and the solution is:

∂ 2u

=0

∂y 2

u(y) = C1 y + C2

y

u(y) = U

L

(40)

21

The energy equation is simplified as well as viscous dissipation term:

∂ 2T

κ + µΦ = 0

∂y 2

2

∂u

µΦ = µ

∂y

2

∂ T ∂u

2

= −µ

∂y ∂y

(41)

Taking the derivative of the velocity, we can solve the equation for the energy taking into

account its boundary conditions:

2

∂ 2T U

2

= −µ

∂y L

2 2

µU y

T =− + C3 y + C4

2Lκ L2

TL − T0 µU 2

C4 = T0 C3 = + (42)

L 2κL

Finally,

µU 2 y y 2

y

T (y) = T0 + (Tl − T0 ) + − (43)

L 2κ L L

y

C(y) = C0 + (Cl − C0 ) (44)

L

Let us consider the case of an oil, the water and the air, properties are given below:

oil water air

Thermal conductivity κ, W/(m · K) 0.145 0.6 0.03

dynamic viscosity µ, P a · s 0.8 0.006 20.8 · 10−6

Illustration to the problem of an external flow around a solid object is given in fig.??. For the

flow in the boundary layer the following simplifications are generally made: the thickness of the

boundary layer δ is very small, so, the dervatives of all variables over direction perpendicular

to the surface within the boundary layer are much larger than derivatives along the surface:

∂Ψ ∂Ψ

>> , Ψ can be one of those: u, v, T, C

∂y ∂x

Also, the velocity along the surface is much higher than the velocity perpendicular to it: u >> v.

∂u ∂v

>> (45)

∂y ∂y

22

Figure 15: A turbine blade in an air stream

Taking this into account, find that equations given for two dimensions eq.32-eq.36 can be

simplified up to the following system:

∂u ∂v

+ =0

∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂p ∂ 2u

u +v =− +ν 2

∂x ∂y ρ∂x ∂y

∂p

=0

∂y

∂T ∂T ∂ 2T

u +v =a 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

∂C ∂C ∂ 2C

u +v =D 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

Let us introduce non-dimensional variables of the form:

x y u v

x∗ = y∗ = u∗ = v∗ =

L L U∞ U∞

and

p T − T0 C − C0

p∗ = 2

T∗ = C∗ =

ρU∞ T∞ − T0 C∞ − C0

The the given equations can be rewritten:

∂u∗ ∂v∗

+ =0

∂y∗ ∂y∗

∂u∗ ∂u∗ dp∗ ν ∂ 2u

u∗ +v∗ =− +

∂x∗ ∂y∗ dx∗ U∞ L ∂y 2

∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ a ∂ 2T ∗

u∗ +v∗ =

∂x∗ ∂y∗ U∞ L ∂y∗2

∂C∗ ∂C∗ D ∂ 2 C∗

u∗ +v∗ =

∂x∗ ∂y∗ U∞ L ∂y∗2

Let us introduce for non-dimensional complexes the following numbers:

23

U∞ L

Reynolds: Re ≡ (46)

ν

ν

Prandtl: Pr ≡ (47)

a

ν

Schmidt: Sc ≡ (48)

D

(49)

∂u∗ ∂v∗

+ =0

∂y∗ ∂y∗

∂u∗ ∂u∗ dp∗ 1 ∂ 2u

u∗ +v∗ =− +

∂x∗ ∂y∗ dx∗ Re ∂y 2

∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ 1 1 ∂ 2T ∗

u∗ +v∗ =

∂x∗ ∂y∗ Re P r ∂y∗2

∂C∗ ∂C∗ 1 1 ∂ 2 C∗

u∗ +v∗ =

∂x∗ ∂y∗ Re Sc ∂y∗2

With the boundary conditions:

u ∗ |y∗=0 = 0 u ∗ |y∗←∞ ← 1

v ∗ |y∗=0 = 0

T ∗ |y∗=0 = 0 T ∗ |y∗←∞ ← 1

C ∗ |y∗=0 = 0 C ∗ |y∗←∞ ← 1

Important: although physical properties affect the motion of the liquid and the heat transfer,

only their combinations will define the character of the flow. In particular, it is clear that

the non-dimensional velocity is a function of the coordinates, of the pressure gradient and of

the Reynolds number:

Similarly:

C∗ = f3 (x∗, y∗, dp ∗ /dx∗, Re, Sc)

Furthermore, as it can be discussed in a previous chapter, the heat flux between the surface

and the fluis is expressed as:

dT

q = −kf on the other hand q = h(T0 − T∞ )

dy y=0

24

consequently, a local convective heat coefficient can be defined as

kf dT /dy|y=0

h=−

T0 − T∞

dT T∞ − T0 dT ∗

=

dy L dy∗ y∗=0

kf dT ∗

h=

L dy∗ y∗=0

Using this, define a non-dimensional heat exchange coefficient which is also termed Nusselt

number:

hL dT ∗

Nu ≡ = (50)

kf dy∗ y∗=0

In a similar way, accounting for the fact that mass transfer in the liquid can be written in the

same way as for the heat:

dC

qm = −D on the other hand qm = hm (C0 − C∞ )

dy y=0

D dC∗

hm =

L dy∗ y∗=0

we can define a dimensionless parameters for the mass transfer termed Sherwood number:

hm L dC∗

Sh ≡ = (51)

D dy∗ y∗=0

It is clear that for a given (defined) geometry which is involved in a heat and mass transfer

(this means that for all cases dp ∗ /dx∗ is the same) with various liquids, one has:

N u = f4 (x∗, Re, P r)

Sh = f5 (x∗, Re, Sc)

Furthermore, the averaged heat and mass transfer coefficient can be obtained by integration

over a surface of the body, i.e., over x∗. consequently, the averaged dimensionless parameters

are:

hL

Nu ≡ = f6 (Re, P r)

a

hm L

Sh ≡ = f7 (Re, P r)

a

Often the average values of N u and Sh related to an object with a characteristic size L can

be presented in a form

N uL = CRem

L Pr

n

ShL = CRem

L Sc

n

25

Example:

A turbine blade is subjected to the air flow as indicated in fig.16. The experimental test shows

that in this case the density of the heat flux from the air to the turbine blade is q = 95kW/m2 .

To maintain the turbine in a steady state with the surface temperature Ts = 8000 C, the heat

should be removed and this is done with a coolant circulating inside the blade. Determine the

heat flux at the same dimensionless location for a similar turbine blade having a chord length

of L = 80mm (two times larger) if the airflow has the same temperature but its velocity is

decreased by two.

In a case of a steady, incompressible laminar flow with constant fluid properties, negligible

viscous dissipation and for dp/dx = 0 the equations for the boundary layer take the form:

∂u ∂v

+ =0

∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂ 2u

u +v =ν 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

∂T ∂T ∂ 2T

u +v =a 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

∂C ∂C ∂ 2C

u +v =D 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

Blasius proposed a method for the solution of these equation with replacing of variables. It is

√

based on an idea that the thickness of the dynamic boundary layer increases as δ ∼ x with

the distance from the edge of the plate. Consequently, it can be supposed that the velocity

within the boundary layer is ”udapted” to its growth and behaves similarly to itslef, or, in

other words

u y

=f

U∞ δ

Actually, using a dimensional analysis it can be shown that

1/2

νx

δ= (52)

U∞

26

Then, first, introduce a new coordinate taken as:

r

y U∞

η= =y (53)

δ(x) νx

Second, the stream function is used instead of two velocities. The stream function ψ is defined

in a way such that a relation between it and the velocities is:

∂ψ ∂ψ

u≡ and v≡−

∂y ∂x

With use of the stream function the continuity equation is automatically satisfied, so, it is not

needed any more.

Third, we introduce a new variable based on a stream function, which is supposed to be

dependent only on η:

ψ ψ

f (η) = =√

U∞ δ(x) U∞ νx

ψ = U∞ δ(x)f (η) (54)

∂ψ ∂ψ ∂η ∂f 1 ∂f

u≡ = = U∞ δ(x) = U∞

∂y ∂η ∂y ∂η δ(x) ∂η

and r

∂ψ ∂ 1 νU∞ df

v≡− = (U∞ δ(x)f (η)) = η −f

∂x ∂x 2 x dη

∂u U∞ d2 f

=− η

∂x 2x dη 2

r

∂u U∞ d2 f

= U∞

∂y νx dη 2

2

∂ u U∞ d3 f

2

= η

∂x2 νx dη 3

Taking obtained derivatives and putting them into the momentum equation, find a third-

order ordinary homogeneous differential equation (Blausius’ equation) with appropriate bound-

ary conditions:

d3 f d2 f

+ f =0 (55)

dη 3 dη 2

df

= f (0) = 0

dη η=0

df

=1

dη

η=1

27

Figure 17: Solution for a Blasius equation: hydrodynamic laminar boundary layer over a flat

plate, from Incropera, De Witt

This equation can be integrated numerically and tabulated. The table of solution is given in

fig.17. It is reasonable to accept the ”edge” of the boundary layer at a coordinate η (or y) at

which u/U∞ = 0.99. From the table at fig.17 we can find that it occurs at η = 5. Then,

5 5x

δ=p =√

U∞ /νx Rex

Note that now the energy equation can be solved: introducing the non-dimensional temperature

T ∗ = (T − Ts )/(Ts − T∞ ) and assuming T ∗ = T ∗ (η), obtain:

d2 T ∗ P r dT ∗

+ f =0 (56)

dη 2 2 dη

T ∗ (0) = 0

T ∗ (∞) = 1

d2 C∗ Sc dC∗

+ f =0 (57)

dη 2 2 dη

C ∗ (0) = 0

C ∗ (∞) = 1

These equations also can be integrated numerically for various values of Re and P r.

28

Important to note:

1. The eq.55, eq.56 and eq57 are similar, moreover, they are identical for P r = 1 and Sc = 1.

This means that if P r ≈ Sc ≈ 1, then the hydrodynamic, thermal and concentration boundary

layer will behave similarly. More generally:

δ

1 ≈ P r1/3 (58)

δT

2. It is demonstrated that for P r > 0.6 the non-dimensional gradients of temperature and

concentration are

dT ∗

= 0.332P r1/3

dη η=0

dC∗

= 0.332Sc1/3

dη η=0

q 1 −kf dT

hx = =

Ts − T∞ Ts − T∞ dy

hx x 1/2

N ux ≡ = 0.332Rex P r1/3 (59)

ν

In the same manner:

q 1 −DdC

hm,x = =

Cs − C∞ Cs − C∞ dy

hm,x x 1/2

Shx ≡ = 0.332Rex Sc1/3 (60)

ν

Then the values of the convective coefficient averaged over a finite distance can be found

that gives:

hx = 2hx

hm,x = 2hm,x

1/2

N ux = 0.664Rex P r1/3

1/2

Shx = 0.664Rex Sc1/3

3. For small P r numbers the solution given above is not applicable. According to 58, the

thermal boundary layer will be thinner than the hydrodynamic one and for the estimations a

uniform velocity equal to U∞ can be taken within the thermal boundary layer. An appropriate

relation is:

1/2

N ux = 0.565P ex

1/2

Shx = 0.565P em,x

where P e = Rex P r and P em,x = Rex Sc

4. Finally, a general correlation is proposed for all P r numbers:

1/2

0.3387Rex P r1/3

N ux = 1/4

(61)

[1 + (0.0468/P r)2/3 ]

29

External flow: some additional remarks

Laminar to turbulence transition

The formulae obtained in the previous section are valid for the laminar flow over the plate.

Yet, it is known that a laminar flow may transform into a turbulent flow if a critical Reynolds

number is achieved (fig.18). The value of the critical Reynolds number lies between 105 to

3 × 106 depending on various factors, so, a representative value Rec = 5 × 105 is often taken.

Figure 18: Transition from laminar to turbulent flow inear the flat plate. From F.P.Incropera,

D.P.DeWitt, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 4th edition

e1TbkLIDWys.

When flow becomes turbulent, its character changes, in particular all its characteristics (u, v, T )

oscillate because of multiple vortices existing everywhere in the liquid. These vortices provide

additioinal transport of the momentum, heat and mass and to take this into account the Navier-

Stokes equations were ”updated”. Also, the flow character near the wall changes and it can

be shown that for turbulent flows δ ≈ δT ≈ δm . Proposed relations for local values of the

non-dimensional convective heat and mass transfer coeficients are:

4/5

N ux = 0.0296Rex P r1/3 , 0.6 < P r < 60 (62)

4/5

Shx = 0.0296Rex Sc1/3 , 0.6 < Sc < 60 (63)

30

External flow across a steady cylinder

An example of the external flow across a cylinder is shown in fig.19. It is seen that the distance

between the streamline closest to the cylinder and the surface of the latter increases alongthe

flow and wakes (vortices) appear behinf the cylinder. A more detailed scheme is shown in fig.21.

Figure 19: Transition from laminar to turbulent flow inear the flat plate. From a movie at

https: // www. youtube. com/ watch? v= TOUylg7Eyec

Note that the “forced” velocity (upstream velocity) V is different from the velocity around the

cylinder (free stream velocity) u∞ The flow is stopped at the stagnation point and, according to

Bernulli law, the pressure is the highest at this point, from this point the fluid starts to accelerate

and a boundary layer starts to develop. Further it moves, the pressure gradient along the surface

decreases till zero and becames negative. At this point a boundary layer is separated from the

surface and the wake (region of recirculating flow - cf.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wake)

appears downstream. Yet, appearance of wake is different from the transition from a laminar

flow to the turbulent!

Figure 20: Transition from laminar to turbulent flow inear the flat plate. From F.P.Incropera,

D.P.DeWitt, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 4th edition

For the circular cylinder the characteristic length is the diameter, and the Reynolds number is

31

defined with the upstream velocity V as

VD

ReD ≡ (64)

ν

Since the momentum of fluid in a turbulent boundary layer is larger than in the laminar

boundary layer, it is reasonable to expect transition to delay the occurrence of separation. If

ReD ≤ 2 × 105 , the boundary layer remains laminar, and separation occurs at θ = 800 , if

ReD ≥ 2 × 105 , boundary layer transition occurs, and separation is delayed to θ = 1400 .

Various correlation are proposed for the non-dimensional heat transfer coefficient, i.e. Nus-

selt number, most of which are of the form

N uD = CRem

DP r

1/3

(65)

Churchill and Bernstein have proposed a single comprehensive equation that covers the

entire range of ReD for which data are available, as well as a wide range of P r. The equation

is recommended for all ReD and P r ≥ 0.2 and has the form:

Figure 21: Churchill and Bernstein general equation for a Nusselt number for a flow across

the cylinder, From F.P.Incropera, D.P.DeWitt, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 4th

edition

32

Free convection. Vertical surface

In a previous chapter a case of the forced convection was considered, where the flow is defined

by an imposed velocity and does not depend on temperature distribution in the system. Yet,

there is a force in the momentum equation 28:

∂ V~

ρ ~

+ ρ V , ∇ V~ = ρ~g − ∇p + µ∇2 V~

∂t

Let us consider a motion of the liquid near a vertical plate, the temperature of the plate is

higher than that of the liquid: Tp > Tf , the gravity vector is directed downward

Figure 22: Illustration to the formation of the boundary layer near a vertical surface due to

natural convection From F.P.Incropera, D.P.DeWitt, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer,

4th edition

In this situation the fluid near the plate is moving up due to buoyancy force (Archimede

force) and it is quiescent (immovable) far from the plate. Also, a temperature in the fluid will

change from the value equal to the temperature of the plate to the temperature of the fluid.

In other words, a kinematic boundary layer and a thermal boundary layer will appear near

the plate. Moreover, in this situation temperature distribution affects the motion of the fluid.

Indeed, the governing equations within the boundary layer are:

∂u ∂v

+ =0

∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂ 2u

u +v =− −g+ν 2 (66)

∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y

∂p

=0

∂y

∂T ∂T ∂ 2T

u +v =a 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

Outside the boundary layer the velocity is zero and x momentum equations are reduced to

1 ∂p

− =g (67)

ρ∞ ∂x

33

Since the pressure does not change with the distance from the plate (derivative on y is zero), the

pressure gradient remains similar within the boundary layer and outside the boundary layer,

i.e. eq.67 can be put in the momentum equation:

∂u ∂u g ∂ 2u

u +v = (ρ∞ − ρ) + ν 2

∂x ∂y ρ ∂y

In the first term the density is variable since it depends on temperature. This dependence can

be introduced with the use of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient:

1 dρ

β=− (68)

ρ dT

The derivative of the density over the temperature can be approximated as

1 ρ∞ − ρ

β≈−

ρ T∞ − T

(ρ∞ − ρ) ≈ −ρβ(T∞ − T )

with this approximation, the complete system of equation for the flow is:

∂u ∂v

+ =0

∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂ 2u

u +v = gβ(T − T∞ ) + ν 2 (69)

∂x ∂y ∂y

2

∂T ∂T ∂ T

u +v =a 2

∂x ∂y ∂y

Note that variation of the density was taken into acount only in the term related to the force,

but not in other terms. This approach is named Boussinesque approximation.

Remark: for the gases which can rather often be considered as ideal, the thermal expansion

coefficient is obtained directly from the equation of the state ρ = p/RT . Then:

1 ∂ρ 1

β=− = (70)

ρ ∂T p T

A non-dimensional analysis of the problem can be done using the an approach similar to the

one used in the case of the forced flow. First, introduce the non-dimensional coordinate and

variables:

x y

x∗ = y∗ =

L L

u v T − T∞

u∗ = v∗ = T∗ =

u0 u0 T0 − T∞

Note that since the initial statement problem does not contain any velocities, u0 is an arbitrary

velocity of the upstream flow and L is a characteristic size (length of the plate)

34

Then x- momentum and energy equation take the following form in the non-dimensional coor-

dinates:

∂u∗ ∂u∗ gβ(Ts − T∞ ) 1 ∂ 2u

u∗ +v∗ = T ∗+

∂x∗ ∂y∗ u20 ReL ∂y 2

∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ 1 ∂ 2T ∗

u∗ +v∗ =

∂x∗ ∂y∗ ReL P r ∂y∗2

It is convenient to introduce a ratio of the buoyancy and viscous force which is termed Grashof

number GrL :

gβ(Ts − T∞ )L3

GrL = (71)

ν2

Then the equations take the form

∂u∗ ∂u∗ GrL 1 ∂ 2u

u∗ +v∗ = T ∗+

∂x∗ ∂y∗ Re2L ReL ∂y 2

∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ 1 ∂ 2T ∗

u∗ +v∗ =

∂x∗ ∂y∗ ReL P r ∂y∗2

From these equations it can be expected that

1.The non-dimensional velocity (and the kinematic boundary layer) will be the function of the

numbers ReL and GrL

2.The non-dimensional temperature gradient, i.e.N u number, will be the function of the ve-

locities and the P r number, that is, of numbers P r, ReL and GrL . But this will be the case

only if both types of convection exist in the system: a forced convection characterized by the

ReL (with the imposed velocity U∞ ) and a free convection characterized by the GrL , and if

GrL /ReL ≈ 1. In other cases:

· The forced convection is absent or weak, then

GrL /ReL >> 1 => N u = f (GrL , P r)

· The forced convection prevails over the free convection:

GrL /ReL << 1 => N u = f (ReL , P r)

A system of equation describing the problem is given above. It should be subjected to the

boundary conditions:

uy→∞ → 0 Ty→∞ → T∞

1/4

y Grx

η≡ (72)

x 4

35

and introduce a stream function ψ(x, y) related to the u and v velocities similar to the case of

the forced convection. Then, introduce a new function f (η):

" 1/4 #

Grx

ψ(x, y) ≡ f (η) 4ν (73)

4

1/4 1/4

∂ψ ∂η Grx 0 1 Grx

u= = 4ν f (η)

∂η ∂y 4 x 4

in a similar way a velocity v = −∂ψ/∂x can be obtained and all required derivatives. Finally,

a system of equations for a functions f (η) and a non-dimensional temperature T ∗ can be

obtained:

f 000 + 3f f 00 − 2(f 0 )2 + T ∗ = 0

T ∗00 +3P rf T ∗0 = 0

0

fη=0 = fη=0 =0 T ∗η=0 = 1

0

fη→∞ →0 T ∗η→∞ → 0

Since temperature enters into the equation for f (η) and temperature depends on P r, the

function f (η) also depends on P r. So, solutions can be obtained for various values of the P r

number. Some examples are given below in fig.23.

Now, when the temperature distribution is known, we can obtain the convective heat transfer

coefficient, which will be (obviously) a function of the P r number:

q

q = h(Ts − T∞ ) => h =

Ts − T∞

hx qx

Nu = =

κ κ(Ts − T∞ )

On the other hand, by definition: q = −κ(dT /dy)y=0 and using non-dimensional variable:

1/4

dT κ Grx dT ∗

q = −κ = (Ts − T∞ )

dy y=0 x 4 dη η=0

That gives for N u:

1/4 1/4

hx Grx dT ∗ Grx

Nu = =− = g(P r)

κ 4 dη η=0 4

dT ∗

The dependence of the non-dimensional derivative on P r is easily observed in fig.23b.

dη

From numerical simulations an interpolation formula was found for g(P r):

0.75P r1/2

g(P r) = 0 ≤ Pr ≤ ∞

(0.609 + 1.221P r1/2 + 1.238P r)1/4

36

Figure 23: Laminar, free convection boundary layer conditions on an isothermal, vertical sur-

face. (a) Velocity profiles. (b) Temperature profiles. From F.P.Incropera, D.P.DeWitt, Fun-

damentals of heat and mass transfer, 4th edition

Similar to the case forced convection, it can happen that the flow will change its regime from

the laminar to turbulent (fig.24).

This transition is defined by a Rayleigh number which is a product of the Grashof and

Prandtl numbers:

Ra = GrP r (74)

gβ(Ts − T∞ )x3

Rax,c = Grx,c P r = ≈ 109 (75)

νa

Example

Consider a 0.25-m-long vertical plate that is at 70C. The plate is suspended in air that is at

25C. Estimate the boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of the plate if the air is quies-

cent. How does this thickness compare with that which would exist if the air were flowing over

the plate at a free stream velocity of 5 m/s?

37

Figure 24: Transition from laminar to turbulent free convective flow near a heated vertical

plate From F.P.Incropera, D.P.DeWitt, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 4th edition

Hint: use the results presented in fig.23 to answer the question related to the free convection.

38

Chapter 3. Radiation - Introduction.

To remind:

Fluids:

mechanical interaction of individual particles → conduction

+

mechanical interaction of microvolumes (agglomeration of molecules) → advection.

conduction + advection = convection

Conclusion: conductive and convective modes of heat transfer require presence of media

(presence of particle). Here we start to learn radiation, a process of energy transfer which can

occur without any media.

Definition 4. Thermal radiation is the transfer of internal energy by electromagnetic waves.

Classically, we can consider that electromagnetic waves are originated by a charged particles

wich moves with acceleration, for examples, by electrons.

The electromagnetic wave can be considered as related to each other oscillations of electrical

and magnetic field in time and space. Examples of a linearly polarized el.-m. wave is given in

Fig.25

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is a transverse wave meaning that the oscillations of the waves are

perpendicular to the direction of its propagation and to the energy transfer. The electromag-

netic wave propagates (moves) with a velocity v and is characterised by a wavelength λ or by

a frequency f . The frequency and the wavelength are inversely proportional and related to the

39

velocity v:

v = fλ (76)

[f ] = Hz = s−1

[λ] = [L] = m, µm = 10−6 m, nm = 10−9 m

The maximal velocity the el.-m. wave has in vaccum and it is equal to the speed (velocity) of

light c = 299792458m/s or (3 · 108 m/s).

Definition 5. Inside a material the velocity of the wave is less by n times: n = c/v, n is called

”index of refraction” or ”refractive index” of material.

Definition 6. The range of all possible wavelength (or all possible frequencies) is called ”spec-

trum”.

As you see in Fig.26, according to the wavelength (or to the frequencies) the electromagnetic

waves are divided into: radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet

radiation, X-rays, gamma rays.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EM_Spectrum_Properties_edit.svg

! IMPORTANT ! Usual indication for the thermal radiation is that the electromagnetic

waves which transfer the thermal energy cover a small part of ultraviolet spectrum, a visible

light and an infrared part of the spectrum as it is shown in fig.27 and 28

40

Figure 27: ” ”

41

Figure 28: Place of the thermal radiation in spectrum.

In fact, any electromagnetic radiation can heat a material when it is absorbed. To prove,

several phenomena can be mentioned, e.g.:

* Microwaves heat the food in the microwaves ovens (λ = 120 − 320mm). It occurs due

to interaction of el.-m. waves with polar molecules which typically can be found in liquids.

Some remarks about the term ”microwaves” (e.g. ”microwave oven”) Microwaves are

radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter,

or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz.

The prefix ”micro-” in ”microwave” is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer

range. It indicates that microwaves are ”small” compared to waves used in typical radio broad-

casting, in that they have shorter wavelengths.

* Also, radio waves interact with electrons in antennas and make them move and produce an

electromagnetic current in a wire. This current can heat the antenne.

However, if a ”usual object” has a temperature different from the absolute zero, it emits the

most intensively electromagnetic waves in a spectrum range which is defined as spectrum of

thermal radiation. This is conditioned by the energetical levels (which are discrete!) available

for particles (e.g. electrons) which make up the body.

Generally, an object can emit the electromagnetic waves in the whole spectrum (fig.29a). This

is the first ”feature” of the thermal radiative heat transfer. The second ”feature” is that

these waves can be emitted by the object with various intensity in different directions (fig.29b).

That is in a general case the radiative heat flux can depend:

42

Figure 29: Illustration to spectral and directional dependence of radiative energy transfer: a)

Liquid iron radiates in visible spectrum but also in infrared; b) and c) show examples of different

directional radiation

1. on coordinates (x, y, z)

3. and on the direction which is defined by a polar angle θ and azimuatl angle φ

We start to study the radiative heat transfer from radiation of surfaces. Let Q be the rate

at which energy leaves the surface A in all directions over the whole spectrum. Dimension of

[Q] = J/s = W , Watt.

A value which is similar to the density of the heat flux ~q which was defined in the first lecture

is called emissive power.

Definition 7. A total hemispherical emissive power E∩ is the energy which leaves a unit surface

dA in all direction over the whole spectrum per unit of time.

Figure 30: Radiation from a surface – for definition of the emissive power

dQ W

E∩ = [E∩ ] = (77)

dA m2

Let dQλ (λ) be the rate at which energy leaves the surface A in all directions within the spectral

range [λ, λ + dλ] (around the wavelength λ). Dimension of [dQλ (λ)] = J/(s · µm) = W/µm.

R∞

Evidently: Q = 0 dQλ (λ)dλ.

43

Definition 8. A spectral hemispherical emissive power dE∩,λ (λ) is the energy which leaves a

unit surface dA in all direction within the spectral range [λ, λ + dλ] per unit of time.

d2 Qλ (λ) W

E∩,λ (λ) = [E∩,λ ] = (78)

dAdλ m2

· µm

Also, we can consider waves which leave the elementary surface dA in a certain direction. A

direction in space is defined by the two angles, polar angle θ and an azimuthal angle φ, the

last can be chosen arbitrarily, but the polar angle is always calculated from the normal to the

surface. Similarly to ”small” (elementary) surface or volume, a small spatial angle (or solid

angle) is considered in space.

Definition 9. The value of a spatial angle dω is defined as a ratio of the element dAsp which

the angle cuts on a sphere (see Fig.31) to the square of the radius of the sphere. The measure

of the solid angle is steradian, sr.

2

dω = dAsp /rsp (79)

dAsp = rsinθdθrdφ

dω = sinθdθdφ (80)

Figure 31: (a) For definition of a solid (spatial) angle. (b) Illustration to ”directional” radiation

Definition 10. Intensity I(θ, φ) is the radiative energy flux in a solid angle (θ − dθ, θ +

dθ; φ − dφ, φ + dφ) per unit area normal to the direction (θ, φ).

44

Intensity is a radiative flux of the thermal energy related to the area of a surface

which is perpendicular toward a direction of interest, fig.32.

d2 Q0θ,φ

Iθ,φ = (81)

dA cos θdω

Definition 11. Consequently, the spectral intensity Iλ (θ, φ) is the radiative energy flux in

a solid angle (θ − dθ, θ + dθ; φ − dφ, φ + dφ) per unit area normal to the direction (θ, φ) within

a spectral range [λ, λ + dλ].

d3 Qλ,θ,φ

Iλ,θ,φ (λ, θ, φ) = (82)

dAcosθdωdλ

Similarly to the emissive power, the relation of the intensity and spectral intensity is via the

integral:

Z ∞

Iθ,φ = Iλ,θ,φ (θ, φ)dλ (83)

0

The dimension of the intensity is J/(m2 · sr) and of the spectral intensity J/(m2 · m · sr).

Diffuse surface

Note that

d2 Q

=

dAdλZ

= dωIλ,θ,φ (θ, φ)cosθ =

∩

Z π/2 Z 2π

= dθ dφIλ,θ,φ (θ, φ)cosθsinθ =

0 0

= E∩,λ (84)

45

Definition 12. A surface dA is called diffuse if intensity of the emitted radiation is independent

on direction of this radiation.

Using Eq.84, we obtain the relation between the hemispherical emissive power and inten-

sity which is emitted by a surface dA for spectral and total values:

Eed,∩ = πIed (86)

46

Chapter 4.Blackbody.

To remind:

• Radiative heat transfer: energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves

• Two features of RHT: dependence on wavelength, dependence on direction

• Spectrum. Solid (spatial) anlge

• Characteristics of radiation:

– Total hemispherical emissive power, spectral hemispherical emissive power

– Intensity, spectral intensity

• Diffuse emitters

In fact, in addition to its two specific features (spectral and direction dependence), radiative

heat transfer has a third feature that radiative properties of materials are defined with respect

to an ideal object which does not exist in reality and which is called ”blackbody”. To remind:

a body can emit, abosrb and reflect radiation.

Blackbody

Definition 13. A blackbody is defined as an ideal body which absorbs (internally) all the inci-

dent radiation regardless of wavelength and direction (whatever is wavelength or direction).

1. The blackbody is an ideal emitter – no body emits more than a blackbody being at the

same temperature

2. The blackbody is a perfect emitter at every wavelength, i.e. (at a fixed temperature) it

emits maximal energy at every wavelength

3. The blackbody is a perfect emitter at every direction, i.e. it emits maximal energy in

any direction

The properties (1)-(4) of a blackbody can be proved based on the definition of a black-

body, as you can read, for example, in a book ”Thermal radiation heat transfer”, vol.1,

R.Siegel,J.R.Howell (1st ed.1968).

Despite that the blackbody is an ideal object which does not exist in the nature, there are some

models of it. The most known ”approximation to a blackbody” is a cavity with a small opening

(a hole), as shown in fig.33. When radiation falls into the hole, it undergoes multiple reflections

and absorptions. If the opening is small, very little of incident radiation will escape back, i.e.

the energy will be completely absorbed that corresponds to the definition of the black body.

This model can be used also as a source of a ”black radiation” which can be obtained by

47

heating up the cavity. The copper walls (or another material witha high thermal conductiv-

ity), can provide equal temperature distribution over the walls, i.e. a radiation of the same

temperature will be emitted by any part of the wall.

Figure 33: A model of a blackbody, from Thermal radiation heat transfer, vol.1,

R.Siegel,J.R.Howell, 1968

There are several modern versions of black bodies and black surfaces, as you can find in litera-

ture or in the internet. A super-black coating based on chemically etching of a nickel-phosphorus

alloy was created in 2002 by Richard Brown and his colleagues at the UK’s National Physical

Laboratory (NPL) in Teddington. In Fig.34 a surface of this material is shown.

Later, in 2009, a team of Japanese scientists created a material whose absorption is even closer

to the ideal black body. This material is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon

nanotubes shown in fig.35.

This material absorbs between 98% and 99% of the incoming light in the spectral range from

the ultra-violet to the far-infrared regions. The photo as well as microscopic images of this

material is taken from the open article in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 April 14;

106(15): 60446047 . An abbreviation SWNT means ”single-walled carbon nanotubes”.

The properties of the blackbody is known, its model exists. The question is how to calculate

the magnitude of the energy which blackbody with a temperature T emits at each wavelength

λ, or within a range of the spectrum? The relation which allows one to do this, was obtained by

48

Figure 34: SEM (scanning electronic microscope) image of NiP black surfaces with different ini-

tial concentration of phosphorus R.J.C.Brown, P.J.Brewer, M.J.T. Milton, J. Mater. Chem.,

2002, 12, 27492754

Max Planck. It is necessary to stress that this formula cannot be obtained from purely thermal

(thermodynamic) consideration. The knowledge from quantum physics is required.

For a blackbody the spectral distribution of hemispherical emissive power in a vacuum is given

as a function of the absolute temperature T and the wavelength λ by:

2πhC02

E∩,λ,b (λ, T ) = (87)

hC0

λ5 exp −1

λkT

h = 6.6266 · 10−34 J · s Planck’s constant

J

k = 1.381 · 10−23 Boltzmann constant

K

m

C0 = 299792458 ≈ 3 · 108 speed of light

s

If a blackbody is surrounded by a media with the index of refraction n, the Eq.87 takes the

form:

2πhC02

E∩,λ,b (λ, T ) = (88)

hC 0

n2 λ5 exp −1

nλkT

For most engineering problems where surrounding media is the air or a gas the eq.87 (without

n) is applicable.

2πC1

E∩,λ,b (λ, T ) = (89)

C 2

λ5 exp −1

λT

2 8 W · µm4

C1 = hC0 = 3.742 · 10 − − 1st radiation constant

m2

C2 = hC0 /k = 1.439 · 104 µmK − − 2nd radiation constant

49

Figure 35: Microscopic structure of SWNT forest. (A) SWNT forest grown on an 8-in silicon

wafer. (B) SEM image of SWNT forest vertically standing on a silicon substrate. (Scale bar,

0.5 mm.) (C) SEM image showing top surface of SWNT forest. (Scale bar, 0.5µm.) (D) SEM

image showing side surface of SWNT forest. (Scale bar, 5µm.)

Before we plot the graph Eλ,b (λ, T ), let us investigate characteristics of this function.

Firstly, With temperature increase the Eλ,b (λ, T ) increase as well.

Secondly, what if λT >> hC0 /k? Then (let x = hC0 /(λkT )):

x2

ex = 1 + x + + ...

2

2πhC02

E∩,λ,b (λ, T )λT →∞ = " 2 #

hC0 hC0

λ5 1+ + + ... − 1

λkT λkT

2πC0

E∩,λ,b (λ, T )λT →∞ = kT (90)

λ4

The eq.90 is known as Rayleigh-Jeans distribution which is valid for long wavelength (or

for a very high temperatures). It is seen that at a constant temperature Eλ,b (λ, T ) decreases

when λ increases.

C2

exp >> 1

λT

2πhC02

E∩,λ,b (λ, T ) = (91)

hC 0

λ5 exp

λkT

The eq.91 is known as Wien’s approximation (do not confuse with Wien’s displacement law

considered below). It is seen that Eλ,b (λ, T )λ→0 → 0

50

Since Eλ,b (λ, T ) tends to zero when its argument λ approaches either to 0 or to ∞, but it is

not zero for other λ, it can be expected that this functions has a maximal value within this

range. To obtain this value, one has to differentiate the initial eq.87 over λ and equate to zero.

As a result, a transcendental equation will be obtained, solution of which gives the following

relation:

λmax T = C3 (92)

C3 = 2898µm · K

Eq.92 is called Wien’s displacement law. From it follows that if temperature of a black body

increases (T2 > T1 ) then the maximum of the spectral emissive power will occur at another

wavelength: λ2 < λ1 , i.e. – with growth of the temperature, the wavelength at which the

blakbody emits the maximal energy displaces toward shorter values.

Knowing the fundamental properties of the Planck’s distribution, it is possible to plot a distri-

bution of the spectral emissive power over the wavelength, which is given in fig.36.

Problem 1. The radiation from the Sun and from the Earth can be considered similar to

radiation of a blackbody. At what wavelengths has the Sun and the Earth their maximal emissive

power? The TSun = 5777K, TEarth = 298K

To solve the Problem 1, the Wein’s law is applied. Consequently, for the Sun λmax,Sun ≈ 0.5µm

(corresponds to green color), for the Earth λmax,Sun ≈ 10µm (infrared).

51

For info: wavelength range for visible light

violet: 380 ÷ 450nm = 0.38 ÷ 0.45µm yellow: 570 ÷ 590nm = 0.57 ÷ 0.59µm

blue: 450 ÷ 475nm = 0.450 ÷ 0.475µm orange: 590 ÷ 620nm = 0.59 ÷ 0.62µm

cyan: 475 ÷ 495nm = 0.475 ÷ 0.495µm red: 620 ÷ 750nm = 0.62 ÷ 0.75µm

green: 495 ÷ 570nm = 0.495 ÷ 0.570µm

Knowing the spectral emissive power, the total value can be obtained by integration over the

whole range of the wavelengths:

Z 0

E∩,b = E∩λ,b (λ, T ) · dλ = . . . = σT 4 (93)

∞

W

σ = 5.67 · 10−8

m2

· K4

here σ is a Stephan-Boltzmann constant. To remind: from geometrical point of view, the inte-

gral gives the area under the curve.

For some reasons it is often required to know the emissive power emitted by a unit surface dA

within a wavelength band (wavelength range) [λ1 , λ2 ]. How to find it? To perform the inten-

gration similar to one in eq.93 but from [λ1 , λ2 ]. This can be done either NUMERICALLY

or with use of tabulated values which called ”fractions”.

Definition 14. Fraction at a certain temperature T , F0→λ1 ,T , is defined for a wavelength band

which lies between 0 and λ1 a ratio of a hemispherical emissive power of a blakbody in this band

to the total hemispherical emissive power of a blackbody at this temperature:

R λ1 R λ1

0

E∩,λ,b (λ, T )dλ E∩,λ,b (λ, T )dλ

F0→λ1 ,T = = 0 (94)

E∩,b (T ) σT 4

1 λ1 T 1 1 λ1 T 2πhC02

Z Z

F0→λ1 ,T = E ∩,λ,b (λ, T )d(λT ) = hC0

d(λT ) (95)

σ 0 T5 σ 0 (λT )5 exp kλT −1

As you can see from the eq.94, the faction F0→λ1 ,T depends only on the product λT , that

gives the possibility to tabulate this value. The table given below is taken from the book

”Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer”, 6th edition, by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine.

a. What is the total emissive power of the surface?

b. What is the wavelength below which 10% of emitting radiation is concentrated?

c. What is the wavelength above which 10% of emitting radiation is concentrated?

See the scheme for the problem below in fig.37.

52

Figure 37: Illustration to the problem 2 (from the book ”Fundamentals of heat and mass

transfer”, 6th edition, by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine)

For a: E∩,b (T ) = σT 4 = 5.67 · 10−8 · 20004 = 5.67 · 204 = 907.22kW/m2 For b: F0→λ1 ,T = 0.1.

From the Table: λ1 T = 2195µmK. Therefore, λ1 = 2195/2000 ≈ 1.097µm

For c: F0→λ2 ,T = 0.9. From the Table: λ2 T = 9382µmK. Therefore, λ2 = 9382/2000 ≈

4.691µm

53

54

Chapter 5. Opaque materials. Emissivity of real surfaces

To remind:

• In radiative heat transfer (RHT) we deal with intensity and emissive power.

• These values can be spectral or total that is related to the wavelength of electromagnetic

waves.

• In RHT a ”reference body” – blackbody – exists

• The properties of the black body were derived with the help of a quantum physics and are

well-known

• The spectral hemispherical emissive power of a blackbody is given by Planck’s distribution

• The total hemispherical emissive power of a blackbody is given by Stephan-Boltzmann law

• Balckbody is a diffuse emitter.

• Diffuse emitter is a body (a surface) intensity of which is independent of direction.

The ideal behaviour of a blackbody serves as a standart. The ability of a particular body (or

surface) to emit or to absorb radiation is first of all related to its atomic structure. But it also

depends on the quality of the surface (if we speak about a solid body).

In the next lectures we will discuss opaque materials, i.e. materials (body or surfaces) which

do not allow electromagnetic waves (within the spectral region which coreponds to the thermal

radiation - see lecture 2) to propagate. We will follow the notation proposed in the book

”Thermal radiation heat transfer”, vol.1, R.Siegel, J.R.Howell,

Notation:

dQ0 means the flux of energy emitting within a small (differential ) solid angle

dQλ means the flux of energy emitting within a wavelength range [λ, λ + dλ]

d2 Q0λ means the flux of energy emitting in a unit direction within a wavelength range

[λ, λ + dλ]

d3 Q0λ means the flux of energy emitting in a unit direction within a wavelength range

[λ, λ + dλ] per unity of the surface (by a differential area).

It follows from the definition of the blackbody, that any real body must emit less energy than

a blackbody. It is logical to introduce a coefficient which would describe a relation between the

ability to emit radiation at a temperature T for a real body and for a blackbody, i.e.

(emissivity) = (96)

energy emitting by a blackbody at temperature TA

Consequently, a blackbody would have the emissivity equal to 1 for all wavelength.

In general case the amount of energy emitting by a surface may vary with wavelength and

55

direction. Therefore, the emisivity has to be dependent on these values as well. In fig.38

a qualitative illustration of a directional spectral emissivity is given. Here an intensity of

emitting power of a real surface for various angles is given in comparison with an intensity of

a blackbody.

which is defined as the ratio of the emissive ability of the real surface at a temperature TA into

a solid angle directed at (θ, φ) at the wavelength λ to the emissive ability of the blackbody at a

temperature TA at the same wavelength λ within a differential solid angle at the same direction.

The ”emisive ability” to be understood by the energy heat flux:

d3 Q0λ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA )

0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) = 3 0 (97)

d Qλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )

0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) =

Iλ,b (λ, TA )cosθdω(θ, φ)dA

Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA )

0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) = (98)

Iλ,b (λ, TA )

Example 1. At 600 from the normal, a surface heated to 833K has a directional spectral

emissivity of 0.70 at a wavelength of 5µm. What is the spectral intensity in this direction?

Spectral directional emissivity is a property which is often unknown for a given material.

However under certain conditions radiative properties of materials can be estimated using the

elecromagnetic theory. For large wavelengths (after the visible spectrum) the electromag-

netic theory predicts different behaviour of 0 (θ, φ, T ) for dielectric and metals (see fig.39).

For dielectrics (Fig.40) the spectral emissivity remains constant until the angle from the

normal direction to the surface is about 700 , then 0λ (λ, θ, φ, T ) decreases rapidly to zero. There

is very few emitted radiation from dielectrics for θ > 700 .

56

Figure 39: Behaviour of the (spectral or total) directional emissivity for metals (conductors)

and dielectrics (non-conductors)

Figure 40: Behaviour of the total directional emissivity for dielectrics (non-conductors), illus-

tration from the book ”Radiative Heat Transfer”, 2nd edition M.F.Modest, page 63

For metals the electromagnetic theory also predicts constant behaviour in the range between

00 and 700 (generally, with a rather small value of emissivity). But in the range between 700 and

900 the 0λ (λ, θ, φ, T ) firstly increases sharply and then drops to 0. For example, this behaviour

was obtained theoretically for a pure and smooth surface made of Platinum and was confirmed

by the measurements (see fig.41).

Figure 41: Spectral directional emissivity of a smooth Pt surface at λ = 2µm for temperatures

300K – 5, 687K – ◦ and 1400K – , the straight line shows theoretical values, from ”Thermal

radiation heat transfer, vol.1” by Robert Siegel and John R. Howell.

57

Similar dependence of 0λ (λ, θ, φ, T ) on the direction is shown in Fig.42 for Nickel (Ni), Chromium

(Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Aluminium (Al) (without the drop of the emissivity to the zero).

Figure 42: Behaviour of the total directional emissivity for metals, from ”Radiative Heat Trans-

fer”, 2nd edition M.F.Modest, page 63

Important remark: For radiation of shorter wavelength (visibile spectrum) the dependence of

0λ (λ, θ, φ, T ) on direction may be quite different! As an example, in fig.43 a directional spectral

emissivity of pure titanium is shown, the example is taken from the book ”Thermal radiation

heat transfer, vol.1” by Robert Siegel and John R. Howell. Here for the wavelength ≥ 4µm

directional emissivity is constant for 0 < θ ≤ 450 , then it increases and then drops to zero. But

for λ = 1.62µm, 1.0µm and 0.43µm the directional emissivity does not vary with angle!

Figure 43: Spectral directional emissivity of pure titanium, from ”Thermal radiation heat

transfer”, vol.1, R.Siegel, J.R.Howell

Another example which shows comparison between the values of normal (perpendicular to the

emitting surface) spectral emissivities obtained theoretically and experimentally is given in the

table 44. Note, that values for Mg differ in 4 times.

58

Figure 44: Normal spectral emissivity 0λ,n (λ, T ) of various metals in visible and inrared spec-

trum (n and η - are spectral refractive and absorption indice, respectively. From ”Thermal

radiation heat transfer”, vol.1, R.Siegel, J.R.Howell

If for a certain material a spectral directional emissivity is known, the intensity of the radiation

which emits this surface can be calculated using the eq.98. However, for most of materials only

averaged values of emissivity are known and they are discussed below.

Definition 16. Total directional emissivity 0 (θ, φ, TA ) is defined as the ratio of the emis-

sive ability of the real surface at a temperature TA into a solid angle directed at (θ, φ) at all

wavelength to the emissive ability of the blackbody at a temperature TA within a differential solid

angle at the same direction at all wavelength. The ”emisive ability” to be understood by the

energy heat flux:

d2 Q0e (θ, φ, TA )

0 (θ, φ, TA ) = (99)

d2 Q0b (θ, φ, TA )

Recalling that the total heat flux is an integral over the whole spectrum of the spectral heat

flux, the eq.99 can be re-written:

R∞ 3 0

0

d Qλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

(θ, φ, TA ) = R0 ∞ 3 0

0

d Qb (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

R∞

0 Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θdω(θ, φ)dAdλ

(θ, φ, TA ) = 0 R ∞

0

Iλ,b (λ, TA ) cos θdω(θ, φ)dAdλ

R∞ R∞

Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, T A )dλ Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

0 (θ, φ, TA ) = 0 R ∞ = 0

0

Iλ,b (λ, TA )dλ σTA4 /π

59

Further, we can use spectral directional emissivity that has been defined above to continue:

R∞

0 0

0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, TA )dλ

(θ, φ, TA ) = (100)

σTA4 /π

The last eq.100 shows that the total directional emissivity is an average (over the wavelength)

of the spectral directional emissivity an that the Planck’s distribution Iλ,b /(σTA4 ) plays the role

of the density probability function.

Note: If a total directional emissivity of a surface is known, than the total intensity Ie (θ, φ, T )

of the radiation emitting by the surface in a direction (θ, φ) may be calculated using eq.100.

Remark: Most of dependecies discussed above for directional spectral values are applicable to

the total directional emissivity.

a total directional emissivity can be calculated, let us consider another example.

Example 2. At TA = 556K the directional spectral emissivity 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) of a surface can

be approxmated by 0.8 in the range λ = 0 ÷ 5µm and 0.4 for λ > 5µm. What is the value of

0 (θ, φ, TA )?

Definition 17. Spectral hemispherical emissivity ∩,λ (λ, TA ) is defined as the ratio of the

emissive ability of a real surface at a temperature TA into a hemisphere at a wavelength λ to the

emissive ability of the blackbody at a temperature TA into a hemisphere at the same wavelength.

The ”emisive ability” to be understood by the energy heat flux:

d2 Qλ,e (λ, TA )

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = (101)

d2 Qλ,b (λ, TA )

Recalling that the hemispherical spectral heat flux is an integral over the hemisphere of the

directional spectral heat flux, obtain:

R 3 0

d Qλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA )dω

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = R∩ 3 0

∩

d Qb (λ, θ, φ, TA )dω

Using intensity as above, we can re-write:

R R

I (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θdAdω

∩ R λ,e

Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θdω

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = = ∩ R

∩

I λ,b (λ, TA ) cos θdAdω Iλ,b (λ, TA ) ∩

cos θdω

R 2π R π/2

0

dφ 0

dθIλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θ sin θ

∩,λ (λ, TA ) =

π · Iλ,b (λ, TA )

60

Further, Iλ,b (λ, TA ) can be introduced into the inegral since it does not depend on the angle

Z 2π Z π/2

Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θ sin θ

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = dφ dθ

0 0 π · Iλ,b (λ, TA )

Z 2π Z π/2

1

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = dφ dθ 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θ sin θ (102)

π 0 0

Z π/2

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = 2 · dθ 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θ sin θ (103)

0

The eq.102 demonstrates that the hemispherical directional emissivity is a spectral directional

emissivity averaged over a hemisphere. A distribution of the radiative energy of a black body

over space (cos θdω = cos θ sin θdθdφ) plays the role of the density probability function.

Illustration to the hemispherical spectral emissivity is given in fig.45. Using notation given in

this figure, it can be written that ∩,λ1 = b/a

Figure 45: Illustration to a hemispherical spectral emissivity, from ”Fundamentals of heat and

mass transfer”, 6th edition, by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine

Remark: Both, for metals and dielectrics, hemispherical spectral emissivities does not differ

much from the normal value of the emissivity. This is explained by the fact that they varies

strongly only in a very narrow region of the angles.

Generally, for dielectrics

∩,λ (λ, T )

0.95 ≤ 0 ≤ 1.0 (104)

n,λ (λ, θ = 0, T )

And for metals

∩,λ (λ, T )

1.0 ≤ 0

≤ 1.3 (105)

n,λ (λ, θ = 0, T )

61

Spectral emissivities for different materials

In this section some illustrations to spectral behaviour of emissivities of different materials are

given. Since there is almost no difference if a hemispherical emissivity or emissivity in normal

direction is taken (eq.104, eq.105) for most of materials the value of the 0n,λ (λ, θ = 0, T ) is

presented.

For metals in the visible and infrared spectral range the emissivity decreases if the wavelength

increases (Fig46). The curve 5 for copper in fig.46 is an exception.

Figure 46: Normal spectral emissivities. a. Spectral nomal emissivity of polished Ni, curves

1-4 are experimental data from diffferent sources: 1-T=294K, 2-T=1200K, 3- T=1272K, 4-

T=294K, another work; curves 5 and 6 are calculated: 5-T=1100K, 6-T=294K. b: Variation

with wavelength of normal spectral emissivity for polished metals, 1 - Mo at 1110K, 2- Fe at

1317K, 3 - Pt at 1217K, 4 - Ni at 1200K, 5 - Cu at 1242K. From ”Thermal radiation heat

transfer”, vol.1, R.Siegel, J.R.Howel

For dielectrics there are very few measurements which cannot be summarized briefly. This

is explained by the fact the dielectric surfaces cannot be smoothed (polished) as metallic one

and the quality (roughness) of the surface affects the emissivity.

Normal spectral emissivities for a SWNT forest and NiP alloy (presented in the previous lecture)

and some other commercialle available ”black surfaces” are given in the fig.47

The authors of the article ”...report that among all known materials, a forest of vertically aligned

single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) behaves most similarly to a black body. Specifically,

from optical studies, we revealed that a SWNT forest possesses a nearly constant and near-

unity emissivity (absorptivity) of 0.980.99 across a wide spectral range from UV (200 nm) to

62

Figure 47: Normal spectral emissivity of SWNT forest (red line) and commercially available

black surfaces that are denoted as NiP alloy (blue), black coating (black), and black paint

(yellow)

far infrared (200µm). We speculate that this important black body behavior originates from

the homogeneous sparseness and alignment of the SWNTs within the forest.”(Kohei Mizuno,

Juntaro Ishii, Hideo Kishida, Yuhei Hayamizu, Satoshi Yasuda, Don N. Futaba, Motoo Yumura,

and Kenji Hata, PNAS, vol.106, April 14 2009)

Finally, as it follows from a previous consideration a total hemispherical value represents a

directional spectral emissivity averaged over the whole spectrum and over the whole hemisphere.

The averaging over a spectrum is done with a Planck’s distribution taken as an probability

distribution function and the averaging over a hemisphere is done with an expression of an

elementary solid angle.

Definition 18. Total hemispherical emissivity (TA ) is a ratio of the emissive ability of

the real surface at a temperature TA into a hemisphere over the whole spectrum to the emissive

ability of the blackbody at a temperature TA into a hemisphere over the whole spectrum. The

”emisive ability” to be understood by the energy heat flux:

dQe (TA )

(TA ) = (106)

dQb (TA )

The eq.106 can be re-written using the definition of intensity and the ”fundamental value” of

a spectral directional emissivity:

R∞ R

dλ dω · Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θdA

∩ (TA ) = 0 R ∞ ∩ R

0

dλ ∩ dω · Ib (λ, TA ) cos θdA

R∞ R

0

dλ ∩ dω · 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, TA ) cos θ

∩ (TA ) = (107)

σTA4

63

The eq.107 can be written in different ways, for example:

Z ∞ Z

1

∩ (TA ) = dλIλ,b (λ, TA ) dω · 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θ

σTA4 0 ∩

Using relations obtained above the value of a total hemispherical emissivity ∩ (TA ) can be

expressed via hemispherical spectral emissivity ∩,λ (λ, TA ) or directional total emissivity

0 (θ, φ, TA ).

Generally, for metals emissivity of metals increases with increasing temperature (fig.48).

Figure 48: Temperature dependence of total hemispherical emissivity for different material: 1

- Graphite, 2 - Magnesium oxide, 3 - polished inconel, 4 - Magnesium, 5 - Tunsten (W), 6 -

polished gold. From ”Thermal radiation heat transfer”, vol.1, R.Siegel, J.R.Howel

For dielectrics the emissivity may either increase or decrease with increasing temperature. It

depends on the material, see fig49 and curve 2 in fig.48.

Figure 49: Temperature dependence of total normal emissivities 0n of selected materials

64

Emissivities for various materials

• Generally, emissivities are small for metallic polished surfaces.

• Emissivity of rough surfaces are higher, than for polished.

• Oxide layer may increase eissivity.

Solution to the example 1:

From the table on page 29, for a blackbody at λTA = 5 · 833 = 4165µm · K,

Iλ,b (λ, TA )/(σT 5 ) ≈ 0.540391 · 10−4 (µm · K · sr)−1 .

Then: Iλ,b (λ, TA ) = 0.540391 · 10−4 · 5.67 · 10−8 · (8.33)4 (100)4 · 833 = 1.2289 · 103 .

noindent Let us look at dimensions:

(µm · K · sr)−1 · W/(m2 · K 4 ) · K 5 = µm−1 · sr−1 · W/m2

Then, the intensity from the surface is

0λ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA ) · Iλ,b (λ, TA ) = 8.6 · 102 µm−1 · sr−1 · W/m2 = 8.6 · 108 W/(m3 · sr)

Since the spectral directional emissivity is known, we start with the eq.100 which can be re-

written as follows:

R5 0 R∞ 0

0 (λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

0 λ 5

λ (λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

(θ, φ, TA ) = + (108)

σTA4 /π σTA4 /π

Further, R5 R∞

0 0

Iλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ 5

Iλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

(θ, φ, TA ) = 0.8 + 0.4 (109)

σTA4 /π σTA4 /π

Recalling the previous lecture:

(110)

λ · TA = 2830µm · K (111)

65

Chapter 6. Opaque materials. Absorptivity of real sur-

faces

To remind:

• In RHT a ”reference body” – blackbody – exists

• To define the ability of emit radiative energy for real surface a coefficient named ”emissivity”

is used

• The emissivity can be directional or hemispherical with respect to the space

• The emissivity can be spectral or total with respect to the wavelengths (spectrum)

The definition of the blackbody is that it absorbs all the possible radiation incident on it re-

gardless the direction or the wavelength of radition. Obviously, any real surface cannot absorb

more radiation than a blackbody, but it will absorb less radiation than a blackbody. In order

to characterise the ability of a real surface to absorb the energy a coefficient termed ”absorp-

tivity” is used.

Note that absorption is related to the energy which is incident onto the surface (or the object)

which is discussed below.

Incident radiation

In fig.50a a surface dAe (this surface is a part of a hemisphere, it is not a black surface) emits

the energy. A part of this energy reaches a surface dA.

a b

Figure 50: Incident radiation. a - In terms of energy emitting by the surface dAe , b - In terms

of energy intercepting by the surface dA.

This part of the energy is defined by a solid angle dωe and by the radiative properties of the

surface dAe that can be written as follows:

dA cos θ

dωe = (114)

R2

66

On the other hand, this is the energy incident on the surface dA, which we will denote as

d3 Q0λ,e = d3 Q0λ,i , here the index ”i” in d3 Q0λ,i means Incident:

Note that

dA cos θ dAe

dωe · dAe = 2

· dAe = dA cos θ 2 = dA cos θ · dω

R R

Therefore,

d3 Q0λ,i = Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ, TAe ) cos θ · dωdλdA (115)

Finally, intensity with which the surface dAe emits the radiation can be considered as intensity

of the radiation incident on the surface dA

Similarly to the definition of the intensity of the energy which a surface emits, the intensity

of the incident radation can be defined as follows:

Definition 19. Spectral intensity of the incident radiation Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) is the energy

incident from a unit solid angle dω(θ, φ) per unit time, per unit wavelength interval per area

normal to the direction of the solid angle.

Definition 20. Total intensity of the incident radiation Ii (θ, φ) is the energy incident

from a unit solid angle dω(θ, φ) per unit time, per area normal to the direction of the solid

angle.

to which the intensity of the incident radiation corresponds.

Similary to the spectral hemispherical emissive power E∩,λ the following value can be defined:

Definition 21. Hemispherical spectral irradiation G∩,λ is the energy incident onto a unit

surface dA from all direction per unit time, per unit wavelength interval.

Z

G∩,λ = Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θ · dω

∩

Z 2π Z π/2

G∩,λ = dφ dθIλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θ (117)

0 0

W

[G∩,λ ] =

m2 · µm

Definition 22. Hemispherical total irradiation G∩ is the energy incident onto a unit

surface dA from all direction in a whole spectrum.

67

Z ∞

G∩ = G∩,λ (λ)dλ

0

Z ∞ Z 2π Z π/2

G∩ = dφ dθIλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θ sin θdλ (118)

0 0 0

W

[G∩ ] =

m2

An opaque body (or an opaque surface) which is subjected to the radiation can absorb or not

the incident energy. A fraction of the energy which is absorbed can be defined with absorption

coefficient (absorptivity):

absorptivity = (119)

energy f lux incident onto a real surf ace

Similarly to the emisivity, absorptivity has to be dependent on directions and wavelengths.

The fig.50b is a good illustration for directional absorptivities, the first of which is a spectral

directional absorptivity

Definition 23. The fraction of spectral energy incident within the unit solid angle dω(θ, φ)

which is absorbed by the unit surface is defined as the directional spectral absorptivity a0λ (λ, θ, φ).

d3 Q0λ,a (λ, θ, φ)

a0λ (λ, θ, φ) = (120)

d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θ, φ)

The eq.120 can be re-written in the form of intensity of incident radiation:

d3 Q0λ,a (λ, θ, φ)

a0λ (λ, θ, φ) = (121)

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλdA

Absorptivity depends on the temperature of the surface which is subjected to the radiation

(Ta ).

There are multiple formulation of the Kirchchoff’s law in radiation, the one is given here.

Kirchhoff ’s Law For a body of any arbitrary material, emitting and absorbing thermal

electromagnetic radiation at every wavelength in thermodynamic equilibrium, the ratio of its

emissive power to its dimensionless coefficient of absorption is equal to a universal function

only of radiative wavelength and temperature, the perfect black-body emissive power.

68

d3 Q0λ,e (λ, θ, φ, TA )/dA

= d3 Q0λ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )/dA

a0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA )

0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) · d3 Q0λ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )/dA

= d3 Q0λ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )/dA

a0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA )

That is:

0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) = a0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) (122)

Remark: since dependence of spectral directional emissivity on the temperature is rather weak,

eq.122 is often used even if the temperature of the surface TA is not equal to the ”effective

temperature” of the incident radiation, i.e. if the surface is not in thermal equilibrium with the

environment.

Definition 24. The directional total absorptivity is the ratio of the energy including all wave-

lengths that is absorbed from a given direction to the energy incident from that direction.

R∞ 3 0

0 d2 Q0a (θ, φ, Ta ) 0

d Qλ,a (λ, θ, φ)

a (θ, φ) = = ∞ (123)

d2 Q0i (θ, φ)

R

0

d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θ, φ)

Similarly to emissivities, a relation between a ”fundamental” value a0λ (λ, θ, φ) and all averaged

absorptivities can be obtained:

R∞

a0 (λ, θ, φ)d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

a0 (θ, φ) = 0

R∞

0

d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

R∞

a0 (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

a0 (θ, φ) = 0 R∞

0

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

R∞ 0

0 a (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

a (θ, φ) = 0 R ∞ (124)

0

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

With use of Kirchhoff’s law the equation 124 can be re-written in terms of spectral directional

emissivity: R∞ 0

(λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

a (θ, φ, Ta ) = 0 λR ∞

0

(125)

0

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

What is a relation between a0 (θ, φ) and 0 (θ, φ)?

To remind: relation between 0 (λ, θ, φ) and 0 (θ, φ) is given in Chapter 5, eq.100, which is

repeated here: R∞ 0

(λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA )dλ

0 (θ, φ, TA ) = 0 λ 100

σTA4 /π

69

There are 2 situations when a0 (θ, φ) = 0 (θ, φ)

• The first case: if intensity of the incident radiation can be presented as a product of two

functions, one of which depends on angles but does not depend on wavelengths C(θ, φ) and

another part is proportional (with a coefficient V independent of wavelength) to the intensity

of the blackbody, with the same temperature TA i.e: Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ, TA ) = C(θ, φ) · V · Iλ,b (λ, TA ).

Then:

R∞ 0

(λ, θ, φ, TA )C(θ, φ) · V · Iλ,b (λ, TA )dλ

a (θ, φ) = 0 λ R ∞

0

0

C(θ, φ) · C · Iλ,b (λ, TA )dλ

R∞ 0

(λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, TA )dλ

a0 (θ, φ) = 0 λ R ∞ = 0 (θ, φ, TA ) (126)

0

Iλ,b (λ, TA )dλ

Note that if ”effective temperature” of the incident radiation is not equal to the temperature

of the surface, total directional emissivity and total directional absorptivity are not equal!

• The second case: If directional spectral emissivity does not depend on wavelength, then

directional spectral absorptivity does not depend on wavelength as well as 0λ (θ, φ) and eq.43

becomes: R∞

0 0 Iλ (λ, θ, φ)dλ

0

a (θ, φ) = λ (λ, θ, φ) R ∞ = 0 (θ, φ)

0

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

Definition 25. A surface which behaves like this, i.e. a0λ (λ, θ, φ) = 0λ (λ, θ, φ) = a0 (θ, φ) =

0 (θ, φ) is termed a directional gray surface.

”Gray” here indicates that the surface is ”almost black”: absorptivity is constant for all wave-

length but is not unity.

Definition 26. The hemispherical spectral absorptivity is the fraction of the spectral energy that

is absorbed from the spectral energy incident from all directions over a surrounding hemisphere

(see fig.51): a∩,λ (λ) = d2 Qλ,a /d2 Qλ,i .

70

The incident energy on dA from all directions of the hemisphere (fig.51) is given by the integral

Z

2

d Qλ,i (λ) = Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdAdλ

∩

The amount of the incident energy which is absorbed by the surface dA is

Z

2

d Qλ,a (λ) = a0λ,i (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdAdλ

∩

a0λ (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω

R

∩

a∩,λ (λ) = R (127)

I (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω

∩ λ,i

R 0

(λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω

a∩,λ (λ) = ∩ λ R (128)

I (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω

∩ λ,i

tral surfaces

To remind: a hemispherical spectral emissivity is given in the Chapter 5 102 and is repeated

here:

1 2π

Z Z π/2

∩,λ (λ, TA ) = dφ dθ 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θ sin θ 102

π 0 0

The question is: when a∩,λ (λ) = ∩,λ (λ, TA )?

Looking at the eq.128, two cases can be revealed:

• The first case:

if Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) is independent of (θ, φ) that is, if the incident spectral intensity is uniform over all

directions (diffuse irradiation of the surface). If this is the case, the eq.128 can be re-written:

Iλ,i (λ) ∩ 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θdω

R

a∩,λ (λ) = R = ∩,λ (λ, TA ) (129)

Iλ,i (λ) ∩ cos θdω

• The second case:

If the directional spectral properties are independent of angle, then:

for any angular variation of incident intensity. A surface for which the eq.130 is true is termed

a diffuse spectral surface.

Definition 27. The hemispherical total absorptivity represents the fraction of energy absorbed

that is incident from all directions of the enclosing hemisphere and for all wavelengths (see also

fig.51).

71

The total incident energy (per unit of time) dQ∩,i that is intercepted by a surface element dA is

determined by integrating equation 116 over all λ and all angles (θ, φ) of the hemisphere which

results in: Z ∞Z

dQ∩,i = Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλdA

0 ∩

The total amount of energy absorbed is equal to

Z ∞Z

dQ∩,a = a0λ (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλdA

0 ∩

Then, R∞R

a0 (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

a∩ = 0 R ∞λ R

∩

(131)

0

I (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

∩ λ,i

or using Kirchhoff’s law for directional spectral values:

R∞R 0

(λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

a∩ = 0 ∩R ∞λ R (132)

0

I (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

∩ λ,i

Total hemispherical absorptivity can be expresses via two others averaged absorp-

tivities:

from eq.124, it follows that

Z ∞ Z ∞

0 0

a (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ = a (θ, φ) Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ

0 0

then the hemispherical total absorptivity can be written in terms of directional total ab-

sorptivity: R R ∞

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ)dλ a0 (θ, φ) cos θdω

∩ 0

a∩ = R∞R

0

I (λ, θ, φ) cos θdωdλ

∩ λ,i

or: R 0

a (θ, φ)Ii (θ, φ) cos θdω

a∩ = ∩ R (133)

I (θ, φ) cos θdω

∩ i

from eq.127, it follows that

Z Z

0

aλ (λ, θ, φ)Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω = a∩,λ (λ) Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω

∩ ∩

then the hemispherical total absorptivity can be written in terms of spectral hemispherical

absorptivity: R∞ R

a (λ) ∩ Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω dλ

0 R ∩,λ

a∩ = ∞ R

0 ∩

Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω dλ

or, using the definition 21 of irradiation:

R∞

a∩,λ (λ)Gλ (λ)dλ

a∩ = 0 R λ (134)

0

G(λ)dλ

72

Kirchhoff ’s Law for hemispherical total properties.

To remind, the total hemispherical emissivity is given in the Chapter 5 by eq.107 which is

repeated here:

R∞ R

dλ ∩ dω · 0λ (λ, θ, φ, TA )Iλ,b (λ, θ, φ, TA ) cos θdA

∩ (TA ) = 0 R∞ R eq.107

0

dλ ∩

dω · Ib (λ, TA ) cos θdA

By comparison of the eq.132 and eq.107 it is seen that in a general case, the a∩ is equal to ∩

only if the intensity of the incident radiation can be presented in a form Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) = C ·Iλ,b (λ),

i.e. if the incident radiation arrives from an object ”similar to a black body”.

However, there are others possible combinations. The simplest case is, obviously, when the

surfaces are diffuse-gray, i.e. when directional spectral properties do not depend on direction

or wavelength, in this case

Example 3. A diffuse firewall made of brick with a temperature Tw = 500K has the spectral

emissivity shown in fig.52a and is exposed to a bed of coals at 2000K (see a scheme of the

process in fig.52b. a.Determine the total hemispherical emissivity and emissive power of the

brick firewall. b.Determine the total absorptivity of the wall to the radiation from emission

by the coal (suppose that the emission from the coal proportional to that of the blackbody at

2000K).

Figure 52: a.Directional spectral emissivity of a brick wall; b.Scheme of the problem

73

Chapter 7. Opaque materials: reflectivity. Remarks on

transparent materials: transmissivity

To remind:

• Emissivity

• Absorptivity

• Emissivity and absorptivity of a certain surface (body) are linked by the Kirchhoff’s law

• Kirchhoff’s law is true for spectral directional values for a surface in the ”thermal equilibrium

with incident energy”

• Kirchhoff’s law is true for averaged values under certain conditions (see lectures)

The reflectivity is a property that determines the fraction of the incident radiation reflected by

a surface.

Similarly to the emissivity and absorptivity, the reflectivity can be related to a specific wave-

length or to the whole spectrum, i.e. it can be spectral or total. With respect to the space (to

directions) the situation is more complicated since the incident energy is characterised by a cer-

tain distribution over directions, i.e. d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θi , φi ) but also a reflected energy is characterised

by (another) distribution over directions, i.e. d3 Q0λ,r (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi ), see fig.53. Therefore, the

reflectivity depends on two combinations of angles, in other words it is a bidirectional prop-

erty.

Figure 53: Incident and reflected radiation – illustration to bidirectional reflectivity. Note,

generally θr 6= θi and φi 6= φr

74

REMARK: There are various definitions for the bidirectional spectral reflectivity. The one is

taken from the book ”Thermal radiation heat tranfer”, vol.1, R.Siegel,J.R.Howell (1st ed.1968)

and is given below

0

that Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi makes to the reflected spectral intensity Iλ,r (λ, θr , φr ) in the (θr , φr )

direction:

0

Iλ,r (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi )

ρ00λ (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi )

= (136)

Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

Then, for the illustration in fig.53, the energy which leaves the surface dAe and then is reflected

from the surface dA toward the surface dAf is

0

d3 Qλ,r (λ, θi , φi , θr , φr ) = Iλ,r (λ, θr , φr , θi , φ) cos θr dωr · dA · dλ (137)

d3 Qλ,r (λ, θi , φi , θr , φr ) = ρ00λ (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi )Iλ,i cos θi dωi cos θr dωr · dA · dλ

Note that definition 28 presents a ratio of a reflected intensity divided by the energy

which an infinitesimal surface dA got from the direction (θi , φi ).

It can be demonstrated (see Seigel, Howell, ”Thermal radiation heat transfer”) that for the

bidirectional reflectivity defined with eq.136 the reciprocity law is fulfilled, i.e.

Directional reflectivities

Directional-hemispherical reflectivity defines how much of the radiant energy incident

from one direction will be reflected into all directions (fig.54,left).

ing from incident radiation coming from all directions, see (fig.54, right).

tral energy reflected into all solid angles divided by the incident energy from one direction (θ, φ).

d3 Q0λ,r (λ)

ρ0λ (λ, θi , φi )= 3 0

d Qλ,i (λ, θi , φi )

R 0

Iλ,r (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi ) cos θr dωr

ρλ (λ, θi , φi ) = ∩

0

(139)

Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

If the intensity of the reflected radiation does not depend on the angle of reflection, i.e. the

energy is reflected diffusely, then it can be taken out of the integral and we obtain

0

Iλ,r,d (λ, θi , φi )

ρ0λ,d (λ, θi , φi ) = (140)

1

· Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

π

75

Figure 54: Illustration to directional reflectivities. On the left: directional - hemispherical

reflectivity; On the right: hemispherical - directional reflectivity.

The problem is that along with the definition 29, you can find other definitions for spectral

directional-hemispherical reflectivity,as, for example, one given below:

as the fraction of the spectral intensity incident in the direction (θ, φ) which is reflected by the

surface:

Iλ,r (λ, θi , φi )

ρ0λ (λ, θi , φi ) = (141)

Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi )

REMARK 1. The definition 30 with eq.141 in fact is not good because it is not clear what is

Iλ,r (λ, θi , φi ), note, that we usually define intensities via the energy.

REMARK 2. Even if we suppose that Iλ,r (λ, θi , φi ) in the definition 30 with eq.141 is fo a

diffuse surface, there will be a difference between two definitions in π/(cos θi dωi ) !

Nevertheless, to solve various problems we will use the definition 30 with eq.141.

As it is indicated above, another directional spectral reflectivity is spectral the hemispherical-

directional spectral reflectivity.

Definition 31. The spectral hemispherical-directional spectral reflectivity is the reflected spec-

tral intensity in the (θr , φr ) direction divided by the integrated average incident spectral intensity.

From eq.136, the intencity of radiation incident from the direction (θi , φi ) and reflected into the

direction (θr , φr ) is given as

0

Iλ,r (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi ) = ρ00λ (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi ) · Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi (142)

Then, the reflected intensity into the (θr , φr ) direction is found by integrating equation 142 over

all incident directions:

Z

Iλ,r (λ, θr , φr ) = ρ00λ (λ, θr , φr , θi , φi ) · Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

∩,i

76

Then, the spectral hemispherical-directional reflectivity is:

R

0 ∩,i λ

ρλ (λ, θr , φr ) = 1

R (143)

I (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

π ∩,i λ,i

Hemispherical reflectivity

Finally, for the hemispherical reflectivity (spectral and total) which is schematically shown in

fig.55 the definition is unique.

Definition 32. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity is the ratio of the amount of spectral energy

d2 Qλ,r that is reflected by the surface dA into all directions to the amount of incident spectral

energy d2 Qλ,i that is intercepted by the surface dA from all directions.

Z

2

d Qλ,i = dλdA Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi = Gλ (λ)

∩,i

Gλ,r (λ)

ρλ = (144)

G (λ)

R λ 0

ρ (λ, θi , φi )Iλ,i (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

∩,i λ

ρλ = R (145)

I (λ, θi , φi ) cos θi dωi

∩,i λ,i

Gr

ρλ = (146)

RG ∞

0

ρλ (λ)Gλ,r (λ)dλ

ρλ = R∞ (147)

0

Gλ dλ

77

Radiosity

The radiation which leaves the surface consists of the radiation emitting by the surface and

reflecting by it. That is the spectral energy which leaves the surface dA in a direction (θ, φ) is

usually given as

d3 Qλ,tot (λ, θ, φ) = (Iλ,r (λ, θ, φ) + Iλ,e (λ, θ, φ)) cos θdω(θ, φ)dλdA (148)

For radiation which leaves the surface in all direction a term ”radiosity” is used. The spectral

radiosity is:

Z Z

3

Jλ (λ) = d Qλ,tot (λ, θ, φ)) = Iλ,r+e (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω(θ, φ)dλdA (149)

∩ ∩

Z ∞ Z ∞ Z

0

J= Jλ (λ)dλ = dλ Iλ,r+e (λ, θ, φ) cos θdω(θ, φ)dA (150)

0 0 ∩

Special remark 1

If a surface is opaque, i.e. there is no transmission of the radiation, then the radiative energy

incident on the surface is either absorbed, or reflected, i.e.

d Q0λ,r (λ, θi , φi )

3

d Q0λ,a (λ, θi , φi )

3

1= +

d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θi , φi ) d3 Q0λ,i (λ, θi , φi )

1 = ρ0λ (λ, θi , φi ) + a0λ (λ, θi , φi ) (152)

Using a Kirchhoff law for the spectral directional values, we can write:

1. It is possible to integrate the eq.151 over the spectrum that will lead to

0

If the surface is gray or if the itensity of the incident radation Iλ,i (λ, θ, φ) = C(θ, φ) · Iλ,i (λ, Ta )

a Kirchhoff law for total directional properties can be used:

2. If the incident radiation arrives from all direction, the eq.151 can be inegrated over the

hemisphere that will lead to

78

If the surface is diffuse or if the itensity of the incident radation does not depend on direction,

a Kirchhoff law for spectral hemispherical properties can be used:

3. Finally, if the incident radiation arrives from all direction and the whole spectrum should

be taken into account, the eq.151 can be inegrated over the hemisphere and over the spectrul

that will lead to

1 = ρ + a∩ (158)

If the surface is diffuse and gray or if the intensity of the incident radiation is proportional to

the one from the black surface, a Kirchhoff law for total hemispherical properties can be used:

In fig.56 the normal relfectivity and absorptivity are plotted for different materials.

Figure 56: Spectral normal reflectivity and absorptivity of selected materials, from the book

”Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer”, 6th edition, by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine.

The transmissivity is not a characteristic of the surface, but of a layer of a material.

This is a property that determines the fraction of the incident radiation propagated through

the layer. If the layer is not very thick the following simplified parameters may be introduced

in order to characterize the ability of the object to let the radiation pass through it.

79

Definition 33. Hemispherical spectral transmissivity is defined as a ratio of the energy at a

certain wavelength propagated through the surface (thin layer) to the energy incident onto the

surface (layer) from all directions at this wavelength.

d2 Q∩,λ,tr (λ)

τλ = (160)

d2 Q∩,λ,i (λ)

Spectral transmissivities τλ for some materials are presented in Fig.57. Note, that for each

material its thickness is indicated.

Figure 57: Spectral transmissivities τλ of selected materials, from the book ”Fundamentals of

heat and mass transfer”, 6th edition, by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine.

Definition 34. Hemispherical total transmissivity is defined as a ratio of the energy over the

whole spectrum propagated through the surface (thin layer) to the energy incident onto the

surface (layer) from all directions over the whole spectrum.

dQ∩,tr

τ=

dQ

R ∞ ∩,i

τλ (λ)d2 Q∩,λ,tr dλ

τ = 0 R∞ 2 (161)

0

d Q∩,λ,i

Note that glass or water transparent in the visible spectrum are opaque at longer wavelengths.

The transmissivity of plastic (Tedlar) in the infrared region is higher than the transmissivity

of the glass.

80

Example 4. The cover galss of on a flat-plate solar collector has a low iron content and its

spectral transmissivity may be approximated by the distribution presented in the fig.58. What is

the total transmissivity of the cover glass to solar radiation? Note that the spectral distribution

of solar irradiation is proportional to that of the blackbody emission at 5800K.

To answer the question, use the eq.161 using the fact that d2 Q∩,λ,i = f (T ) ∗ Eb,λ (T ).

Figure 58: Spectral transmissivities τλ (λ) of the cover glass for the example 4

Special remark 2

It should be noted that if the surface under consideration is not opaque than the relations pre-

sented in the section Special remarks 1 should be updated because the transmitted radiation

has to be taken into account, see fig.59.

Figure 59: Energy balance for a thin semitransparent layer, from the book ”Fundamentals of

heat and mass transfer”, 6th edition, by Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman, Lavine.

With definitions given above we cannot update the eq.154 for spectral directional balance

since there is no notion for the spectral directional transmissivity. But we can re-write eqs.156

and 158 in the forms, respectively:

81

1 = ρ∩,λ (λ) + a∩,λ (λ) + τ∩,λ (λ) (162)

1 = ρ∩ + a∩ + τ∩ (163)

82

Chapter 8. Radiative heat exchange between black isother-

mal surfaces

Differential view factors

Consider two differential isothermal surfaces as shown in fig.60. The surfaces dAi and dAj are

isothermal at temperatures Ti and Tj , respectively, arbitrarily oriented, and have their normals

at angles θi and θj to the line of length R joining them.

The total energy per unit time leaving dAi and incident upon dAj is d2 QdAi→dAj = Ii cos θi dAi dωij ,

where dωij , is the solid angle subtended by dAj when viewed from dAi : dωij = dAj cos θj /R2 .

So,

cos θi dAi cos θj dAj

d2 QdAi→dAj = Ii (164)

R2

A similar expression can be written for the total energy per unit time leaving dAj and incident

upon dAi :

cos θi dAi cos θj dAj

d2 QdAj→dAi = Ij

R2

To make the next step, suppose that the surfaces dAi and dAj are black. Then intensities

Ii = σTi4 /π and Ij = σTj4 /π

Definition 35. A fraction of energy which leaves the black surface element dAi and arrives at

black element dAj is defined as the differential geometric configuration factor or view factor

dFdAi−dAj .

d2 QdAi→dAj d2 QdAi→dAj

dFdAi−dAj = =

dQe σTi4 dAi

cos θi cos θj dAj

dFdAi−dAj = (165)

πR2

83

Note that the differential view factor dFdAj−dAi is

cos θi cos θj dAi

dFdAj−dAi = (166)

πR2

Comparing equations 165 and 166 we obtain the first relation of the algebra of view factors

or view factors reciprocity law:

dAi · dFdAi−dAj = dAj · dFdAj−dAi (167)

If no other surfaces are included in the system (no other sources of radiation), the resutling

radiative flux for the surface dAi is

cos θi dAi cos θj dAj

d2 QdAi,res = d2 QdAi→dAj − d2 QdAj→dAi = (Ii − Ij )

R2

d2 QdAi,res = σ(Ti4 − Tj4 )dFdAi−dAj dAi (168)

Note that the resulting flux for the second surface is

cos θi dAi cos θj dAj

d2 QdAj,res = (Ij − Ii )

R2

d2 QdAj,res = σ(Tj4 − Ti4 )dFdAj−dAi dAj

It is possible to consider the radiative heat exchange between an elementary surface dAi and a

finite surface Aj as it is shown in fig.61.

As in previous case, we can consider a small (differential) part dAj of the surface Aj . Then

Figure 61: Radiative interchange between a differential element and a finite area.

the energy which leaves the surface dAi and arrives to the subsurface dAj will be given by the

eq.164. To obtain the energy which leaves the surface dAi and arrives to the surface Aj the

integration over the latter should be performed:

Z

cos θi dAi cos θj dAj

dQdAi→Aj = Ii

Aj R2

Z

cos θi cos θj dAj

dQdAi→Aj = σTi4 dAi (169)

Aj R2

84

Similarly to the definition 35, the definition for a view factor between a differential element dAi

and a finite surface Aj can be obtained:

dQdAi→Aj

dFdAi−Aj =

σT 4 dAi

Z i

cos θi cos θj dAj

dFdAi−Aj = (170)

Aj πR2

dQAj→dAi

dFAj−dAi = R

Aj

σTj4 dAj

Z

dAi cos θi θj dAj

dFAj−dAi = (171)

Aj Aj πR2

Comparison fo the eqs.170 and 171 shows that the reciprocity law is valid:

Similar consideration for finite surfaces (as shown in fig.62) gives view factors in this case as:

Z Z

1 cos θi cos θj

FAi−Aj = dAi dAj (173)

Ai Ai Aj πR2

Z Z

1 cos θi cos θj

FAj−Ai = dAi dAj (174)

Aj Ai Aj πR2

(175)

85

Algebra of view factors

Algebra of view factors includes (1)definitions, (2) reciprocity laws and (3) a law of additivity

wich is illustrated with a fig.63

It follows from the definition of the view factor that fot the surface shown in fig.63

Example 5. Let for the fig.63 the FA1−A2 and FA1−A22 are known. Find FA21−A1

86

Chapter 9. Radiative heat exchange in a black enclosure

In fig.64 a cross-section of an enclosure is shown. The heat balance equation for a surface k

Figure 64: Enclosure composed of N black isothermal surfaces (shown in cross section for

simplicity).

can be written in a form of the energy which leaves the surface k and the energy which arrives

from all other surfaces:

N

X

Qk,res = σ · Tk4 · Ak − σ · Tj4 · Fj−k · Aj (178)

j=1

P

j=1 Fkj = 1 ∀ k, the eq.178

can be re-written in a form of the energy exchange between the surface k with every other

surface j:

N

X

Tk4 − Tj4 · Fk−j

Qk,res = σ · Ak (179)

j=1

In an enclosure which consists of N surfaces there are Q1 , . . . , QN resulting heat fluxes and

T1 , . . . , TN temperatures, that gives 2N variables. The problem of the heat transfer lies in find-

ing of either the temperature or the heat flux for a surfaces if other heat fluxes and temperatures

are known. Let us look for example at the next problem:

insulated furnace wall 1 at Tw1 = 500K. The opposite wall, wall 2, is at uniform temperature

of Tw2 = 300K. The insulated wall experiences convection with air at Tair = 450K and a

convection coefficient of 200W/(m2 · K). Assuming the walls and elements are black, estimate

the required operating temperature for the elements Tel . See illustration to the problem at fig.65.

The system presented in fig.65 can be considered as an enclosure which consists of 3 ”effective

surfaces” characterised with appropriate view factors Fw1−el , Fw1−w2 , Fel−w1 , Fel−w2 , Fw2−el ,

87

Figure 65: Illustration to the example 6. Cylindrical elements heat the lower surface which is

insulated.

Fw2−w1 . For each of these three surfaces the heat balance equation can be written and these

surfaces has a temperature Tw1 , Tw2 or Tel , respectively. That is there are 3 resulting heat

fluxes and 3 temperatures in the system, i.e. 6 variables. Three of them are known: Tw1 , Tw2

and Qw1 = 0. Therefore, all others can be found from 3 equations of the heat balance. Since

the question if the problem is related only to the temperature of the heating elements, it is

convinient to write the heat balance for the wall 1.

Example 7. An enclosure of triangular cross section is made up of three plane plates each of

finite width and infinite length (thus forming an infinitely long triangular prism). The surfaces

are maintained at temperatures T1 , T2 , and T3 , respectively. Determine the amount of energy

that must be supplied to each surface per unit time in order to maintain these temperatures.

Note that this amount of energy is also the net radiative loss from each surface.

Equation 179 is written for each surface as:

Example 8. The enclosure of example 7 has two of its sides maintained at temperatures T1

and T2 , respectively. The third side is an insulated (adiabatic) surface, Q3 = 0. Determine Q1 ,

Q2 , and T3 .

Again equation 179 can be written for each surface as

From the last equation the unknown temperature T3 can be found. After that the heat fluxes

Q1 , Q2 can be calculated.

88

Chapter 10. RHT in an Enclosure Composed of Diffuse-

Gray Surfaces

A black surface is a too strong assumption for a real surface. In practice, the enclosure shown

in fig.64 can have non-black internal surfaces. The next approximation which provides rather

simple solution is an enclosure composed of diffuse-gray surfaces.

Because a gray surface is not a perfect absorber, a part of the energy incident on a surface

is reflected. The total energy which leaves a gray surface k, Qout,k consists of the emitting

energy Qe,k and a reflected energy Qr,k . With regard to the reflected energy, two assumptions

are made:

1 – the reflected energy is diffuse, that is, the reflected intensity at each position on the bound-

ary is uniform for all directions

2 – the reflected energy is uniform over each surface of the enclosure.

and absorptivity do not depend on either angle or wavelength. As a result of this definition,

the hemispherical total absorptivity and emissivity are equal and depend only on TA , that is,

∩ = a∩ .

Moreover, since the reflected energy is also distributed uniformly everywhere, a hemispher-

ical diffuse reflectivity ρ∩ can be considered and

ρ∩ = 1 − a∩ = 1 − ∩ (180)

Also, the view factors F which were derived for black surfaces can be used for the present

enclosure theory.

REMARK. Most of the problems encountered in practice are at steady state. However, the

radiative heat balances considered here are not limited to steady-state conditions.

Radiative heat balance equations can be written in different ways, however, the starting point

is the same: resulting heat fux which is a difference between the energy which leaves a surface

and which arrives to it:

where Qout,k is the energy which leaves a gray surface k and Qinc,k is the energy which is incident

on the surface k. Then:

Ak · qout,k = Ak · k · qeb,k + Ak · (1 − k ) · qinc,k

89

and accounting for Planck’s relation:

Equations 181 and 182 contain too many unknowns: N · Qres , N · Qout , N · Qinc and N · T ,

the system of equations can be simplified. But there are different ways to simplify it. Let us

consider the first way which was proposed by Poljak.

What is the energy flux incident on the surface k? From the one hand using the eq.182:

qout,k − k · σTk4

qinc,k = (183)

(1 − k )

+ Aj · qout,j Fj−k + . . . + Ak · qout,k Fk−k + . . . + AN · qout,N FN −k (184)

+ Ak · qout,j Fk−j + . . . + Ak · qout,k Fk−k + . . . + Ak · qout,N Fk−N

N

X

qinc,k = Fk−j qout,j (185)

j=1

N

X

qout,k = k · σTk4 + (1.0 − k ) Fk−j qout,j (186)

j=1

Coming back to the eq.181, the resulting heat flux can be written as:

N

!

X

Qres,k = Qout,k − Qinc,k = Ak qout,k − Fk−j qout,j (187)

j=1

qout,k − k · σTk4

Qres,k = Ak qout,k −

1 − k

(1 − k )qout,k − qout,k + σk Tk4

Qres,k = Ak ·

1 − k

k 4

Qres,k = Ak · σTk − qout,k (188)

1 − k

The equations 187 and 188 is a required system of equations written for non-black surfaces

(!). In that way for each surface there are 2 equations with 3 unknowns: Qres,k , qout,k and Tk ,

that are 3N variables. If N variables are known, the system of equations can be resolved.

90

Example 9. As an example, let us consider 2 infinite surfaces characterised with 1 and 2 and

having the temperatures T1 and T2 . Find the resulting heat fluxes for these surfaces.

There are 6 variables in the equations, 2 are known + 2 equations for each of 2 surfaces, i.e.

4 equations and 2 temperatures are known. Therefore, the system of equations can be solved.

Let us write down the system. The solution is not given here. Please see your own

notes for details.

Example 10. Derive an expression for the radiation exchange between two concentric diffuse-

gray spheres at uniform temperatures as shown in figure 66

The solution is not given here. Please see your own notes for details.

Note that in fact in the system consisting of eq.187 and 188 the heat flux qout,k is not important.

The system can be re-written without this heat flux. The eq.188 is used in order to find qout,k

and subsitute the result in eq.187. As a result, one can obtain a general equation for the surface

k:

Q1 1 − 1 Q2 1 − 2

− Fk−1 − Fk−2 − ...

A1 1 A2 2

Qk 1 1 − k QN 1 − N

+ − Fk−k − ... − Fk−N =

Ak k k AN N

= −Fk−1 σT14 − Fk−2 σT24 − . . . + 1 − Fk−k σTk4 − . . . − Fk−N σTN4

(189)

This equation can be re-written in a compact form using the Kronecker delta defined as:

1 if i = j

δij = (190)

0 if i 6= j

91

Then the eq.189 becomes:

N N

X δkj 1 − j Qj X

− Fk−j = (δkj − Fk−j ) σTj4 (191)

j=1

j j Aj j=1

Generally, using the system of equations 187 and 188 it is possible to solve the problem of the

radiative heat exchange for any enclosure for N variables ( resulting heat fluxes or temperatures)

if N other are known. Sometimes utilisation of eq.189 is easier. The problem which arises in

analytical solution (without computers) that it is necessary to solve a system of 2N equations

(i.e. for 3 surfaces it gives 6 equations) that is not always easy. Therefore, in some publications

a graphical representation of a RHT in diffuse-gray enclosure is provided.

To use this representation and to make our equations shorter we will us following notations,

some of which you already know:

·Gk - irradiation of the surface k, i.e. the radiation (energy) incident onto surface from ev-

erywhere per unit surface per second;

·Ek,b = σTk4 - hemispherical emissive power power of a black surface k;

·Jk = Ak · qout,k = Ak · (k σTk4 + ρk · qinc,k ) - radiosity, i.e the radiation (energy) which leaves

the unit surface per unit of time.

The graphical representation of the energy incident onto the surface k (or i) and the energy

leaving the surface k (or i) is given in fig.67(b,c).

Then the eq.188 for a surface k can be re-written in another way:

Qres,i = = (192)

(1 − i ) / (i Ai ) (1 − i ) / (i Ai )

To be consistent with the figures, the index k used in eq.181–188 is changed to the index i.

The eq.192 provides a convinient interpretation for the net radiative heat transfer from a sur-

face. This transfer (see fig.192) is associated with a driving potential (Eb,i − Ji ) and a surfaces

radiative resistance of the form (1 − i )/(i Ai ). That is a surface is like a ”sandwich” with a

”resistance inside”. Hence, if the emissive power of a black surface i at temperature Ti exceeds

radiosity of the surface i, there is a net (resulting) radiation heat transfer from the surface; if

the inverse is true, the net (resulting) radiation transfer is to the surface.

REMARK A If i = 1 then there is no resistance and ”potentials” Ji and Eb,i are equal!

REMARK B Sometimes one of the surfaces can be very large relative to the other surfaces

(e.g. small surfaces in a large room). In this case it is possible to say that Ai → ∞, thereforen

the surface resistance (1 − i )/(i Ai ) → 0. Situation is similar to a black surface (considered in

the remark A) when i = 1. Hence, Ji = Eb,i and a surface which is large relative to all other

92

Figure 67: Radiation exchange in an enclosure consisting of diffuse gray surfaces. (a) –

Schematic of the enclosure; (b) Radiative balance for a surface i with irradiation and ra-

diosity; (c) Radiative balance using emitted, incident and reflected energy (d)Network element

representing the net radiation transfer from a surface according to eq.192.

Note that the eq.187 can be also re-written in terms of radiosities:

N N

X X Ji − Jj

Qres,i = Ai (Fi−j qout,i − Fi−j qout,j ) = (193)

j=1 j=1

(Ai Fi−j )−1

N

Ei,b − Ji X (Ji − Jj )

= (194)

(1 − i ) /i Ai j=1

(Ai Fij )−1

The eq.197 and eq.198 are presented in the fig.68 This figure (as well as equations) represents

a radiation balance for the radiosity node associated with the surface i. The rate of radiation

transfer (flow of the current) to the node i through its surface resistance (1 − i ) /(i Ai ) must

equal the rate of radiation transfer (currents flow) from i to all other surfaces through the

corresponding geometrical resistances Ai Fij .

REMARK. Note that the network can include parallel curcuit and/or series circuits,

similar to electrical circuits.

93

Figure 68: Radiation exchange for the node i

.

enclosure

In eq.192 a misprint was made. Please, correct eq.192 in the following way:

Ei,b − Ji

Qi = (195)

(1 − i ) /i Ai

To use the eq.195 for the solution of the heat exchange problem, the knowledge of the radiosity

Ji is necessary. It can be defined by consideration of the heat exchnage between the surface

i with all other surfaces. It can be written that irradiation Gi of the surface i is a sum of

radiosities J from all surfaces taken with appropriate view factors Fj−i :

N

X

Ai Gi = Fji Aj Jj

j=1

N

X

Ai Gi = Fij Ai Jj

j=1

94

Using eq.?? Qi = Ai Ji − Ai Gi , i.e. Ai Gi = Ai Ji − Qi :

N

X

Ai Ji − Qi = Fij Ai Jj

j=1

N

!

X

Qi = Ai Ji − Fij Jj

j=1

PN

From the summation rule j=1 Fij = 1, the last equation can be written in the form:

N N

! N N

X X X X

Qi = Ai Fij Ji − Fij Jj = Ai Fij (Ji − Jj ) = qij (196)

j=1 j=1 j=1 j=1

This result equates the net radiative flux Qi from the surface i to the sum of radiative heat

exchange fluxes qij between the surface i with all other surfaces. It can be rewritten in the

following form:

N

X (Ji − Jj )

Qi = −1 (197)

j=1

(A i F ij )

It is preferable to use the equation of the radiative heat exchange between a par-

ticluar surface i with other surfaces in the form of eq.197 if the net heat flux Qi is

known for the surface.

It is not always the case and the temperature Ti of the surface i is known. Then, making a

combination of the eq.195 and the eq.196, obtain:

N

Ei,b − Ji X (Ji − Jj )

= (198)

(1 − i ) /i Ai j=1

(Ai Fij )−1

This figure (as well as equations) represents a radiation balance for the radiosity node as-

sociated with the surface i. The rate of radiation transfer (flow of the current) to the node i

through its surface resistance (1 − i ) /(i Ai ) must equal the rate of radiation transfer (currents

flow) from i to all other surfaces through the corresponding geometrical resistances Ai Fij .

95

This figure (as well as equations) represents a radiation balance for the radiosity node asso-

ciated with the surface i. The rate of radiation transfer (flow of the current) to the node i

through its surface resistance (1 − i ) /(i Ai ) must equal the rate of radiation transfer (currents

flow) from i to all other surfaces through the corresponding geometrical resistances Ai Fij .

Example 11. Let us consider an eclosure that involves only 2 surfaces as it is shown in fig.69a.

Note that this enclosure is similar to the case of 2 infinite plates (that was considered last time).

The enclosure can be presented using network approach as it is shown in fig.69b. This network

represents two radiative nodes (marked as ”surface 1” and ”surface 2”) with a resistance

A1 F12 = A2 F21 between them. Note, that every node is not a simple ”point” but it looks like a

sandwich (see also fig.67), which consists of an ”internal rezistance” (1 − i ) /(i Ai ), of driving

potential Eb,i − Ji and of resulting ”current” Qi .

Figure 69: illustration to the example 11. (a)A two-surfaces enclosure and (b) network repre-

sentation of the RHT in enclosure.

However, despite this complicated structure it can be seen that the driving potential between

the two surfaces is U12 = Eb,1 − Eb,2 and the total resistance of the network is the sum of all

resistances connected in series:

(1 − 1 ) 1 (1 − 2 )

Rtot = + + (199)

1 A1 A1 F12 2 A2

96

Therefore, the resulting ”current”, i.e. the resulting flux Q12 is

U12

I12 = (200)

Rtot

Eb,1 − Eb,2

Qres,1 =

(1 − 1 ) 1 (1 − 2 )

+ +

1 A1 A1 F12 2 A2

4 4

σ (T1 − T2 )

Qres,1 = (201)

(1 − 1 ) 1 (1 − 2 )

+ +

1 A1 A1 F12 2 A2

Note that result given by eq.201 is consistent with results obtained during the last lecture for

the two infinite surfaces.

Radiation shields constructed from low emissivity (high reflectivity) materials can be used to

reduce the net radiation transfer between two surfaces.

Example 12. For example, consider placing a radiation shield (surface 3) between the two

large parallel planes as shown in fig.70.

Similarly to the case of two-surfaces enclosure, this configuration can be presented using network

approach as it is shown in fig.70 Using the same idea of driving potential, current and resistance

(eq.200), and taking into account that Fij = 1 ∀ i, j obtain:

qres,12 = = (202)

A 1 (1 − 3,1 ) (1 − 3,2 ) 1

+ + +

1 3,1 3,2 2

97

Figure 71: Network representation for the example 12

If the temperatures of the surfaces T1 and T2 are known, the eq.202 provides the values of

the resulting heat flux between the surfaces 1 and 2 but this flux is equal (up to sign) to all

resulting heat fluxes in the system:

Taking the last equation into account the temperature of the shield T3 can be found.

Example 13. In manufacturing the special coating on a curved solar absorber surface of area

A2 = 15m2 is cured by exposing it to an infrared heater of width W=1m. The absorber and the

heater are each of length L = 10m and are separated by a distance of H = 1m. There is no

other heat exchange processes in the system.

The heater is at T1 = 1000K and has an emissivity of 1 = 0.9, while the absorber is at

T2 = 600K and has an emissivity of 1 = 0.5. The system is in a large room whose walls are

at T3 = 300K.

What is the net rate of heat transfer to the absorber surface? The scheme of the problem is

given in fig.72

1. Steady state conditions

2. Surfaces of absorber and heater are diffuse and gray

3. The wall of the room can be considered as black

98

The radiation network is constructed by first identifying nodes associated with the radiosi-

ties of each surface as shown in step 1, fig.73. Then each radiosity node is connected to each of

the other radiosity nodes through the appropriate space resistance as shown in step 2, fig.73.

Difficulty: the surface of the room wall is not known. However, it can be replaced with the use

of the reciprocity law: A3 F31 = A1 F13 and A3 F32 = A2 F23 .

The last step is to connect the ”internal resitances” and ”driving potentials” to each of the

node as it is shown in fig.73, step 3.

Summation of all ”currents” (i.e. heat fluxes) in the node 1 gives zero:

Eb,1 − J1 J1 − J2 J1 − J3

= + (204)

(1 − 1 )/1 A1 1/(A1 F12 ) 1/(A1 F13 )

Similarly for the node 2:

Eb,2 − J2 J2 − J1 J2 − J3

= + (205)

(1 − 2 )/2 A2 1/(A2 F21 ) 1/(A2 F23 )

Form the equations 204 and 205 radiosities J1 and J2 can be found, the only difficulty is to

define all view factors in the system. The way of the solution is as follows:

1. To simplify the problem, the surface of the absorber A2 can be replaced with an ”effective’

surface A02 as shown in fig.74. Then, the view factor F12 = F120

2. The view factor F120 can be found from the figures (or schemes) that you have for view

factors

3. From the summation rules F11 + F120 + F13 = 1 and F11 = 0, i.e. F13 = 1 − F120

4. The view factor F23 is required. In order to find it first, we use a reciprocal law: A2 F23 =

A20 F20 3 , and from the symmetry F20 3 = F13 . Therefore, F23 = A20 F20 3 /A2

With known F23 , F12 = F120 and F13 the system of equations 204 and 205 an be solved and the

final answer can be obtained.

99

Figure 74: Illustration to the example 13

100

Chapter 11. Solar radiation. Environmental radiation.

Solar radiation is essential for the life on Earth. The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar

System. It consists of hot plasma, i.e. ionized gas at high temperature. These gases are mostly

hydrogen (75%) and helium while the rest (about 1.7%) are heavier elements includin oxygen,

carbon, neon, iron and some others.

The Sun is almost spherical with a diameter of about 1392684km (109 times that of Earth) and

its mass is ≈ 1.99 · 1030 kg that is about 330000 times the mass of Earth. The mass of the Sun

accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. A mean distance between the

Sun and the Earth is 1.496 · 108 km. That is the solid angle at which the Sun is seen from the

Earth is

πDS2 πRS2

ΩS = = (206)

4 · RS2 E RS2 E

3.14 · (1.39 · 109 )2

ΩS = 11 2

= 0.67 · 10−4 sr

4 · (1.496 · 10 )

Since the solid angle is very small, is is generally assumed that solar radiation comes from a

single direction, i.e., that all the light beams are parallel.

Example 14. The energy which is emitted by the Sun is generated by nuclear fusion of hydrogen

nuclei into helium. The surface temperature of the Sun is approximately 5778K. Let us assume

that the Sun is a black body and calculate the total solar heat flux incident on the collector (per

unit area) which is mounted on a satellite orbiting Earth and directed at the sun (i.e., normal

to the sun’s rays) as shown in fig.75a.

Figure 75: Solar radiation incident onto a solar collector in outer space

The total heat rate leaving the sun is Qsol = 4·πRS2 ·Eb (TS ). If we construct a sphere around the

Sun in that way that a satellite is on its surface, then the area of this sphere is Ssat = 4πRS2 E .

Note, that a geostationary orbit for satellites is at 36000 km which is negligible compared with

101

the distance to the Sun. Then, the heat flux which leaves the Sun and pass through a unit area

of this sphere is

qse = = 2

= 2

= ΩS

Ssat 4πRSE π RSE π

σTS4 W

qse = ΩS = 1.8057 · (57.78)4 · 6.77 · 10−5 = 1348 2 (207)

3.14 m

Note that if the collector is not perpendicular to the solar rays, but parallel to the Earth’s surface

(as in fig.75a) the total flux GS,0 (extraterrestrial solar irradiation) may be calculated as

where f is a small correction factor which account for the eccentricity pf the arth’s orbit about

the Sun 0.97 ≤ f ≤ 1.03.

The calculated value qse ≈ 1340W/m2 is called solar constant. The most accurate measure-

ments and spectral integration of extraterrestrial solar irradiation data have been made during

the past twenty years by Earth-orbiting satellites (F.Modest ”Radiative transfer”) resulting in

(1367 ± 2)W/m2 .

As it is seen in fig.76 the spectrum of extraterrestrial radiation approximates black body radi-

ation with temperature between T = 5800K and T = 5770K.

102

Scattering in the atmosphere

Solar radiation is attenuated significantly as it penetrates through the atmosphere. The change

is due to absorption and scattering of the radiation by the gases in the atmosphere. In the

UV (ultraviolet) spectrum ozone O3 absorbs almost all radiation with λ < 0.3µm and some

part of radiatio in 0.3µm < λ < 0.4µm. In the visible spectrum some absorption occurs due

to O3 and O2 and in the near and far IR (infrared) region absorption is dominated by water

vapor.

Atmospheric scattering consists (mainly) of two kinds shown below

Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh (molecular) scattering by very small gas molecules occurs when the ratio of the effective

molecule diameter D to the wavelength of radiation λ is much less then unity: πD/λ << 1.

This condition provides nearly uniform scattering of radiation in all directions (fig.77a), hence,

about a half of the scattered radiation is redirected to space while the remaining portion strikes

the earth’s surface. After Rayleigh scattering the scattered radiation continues to propagate in

all directions.

Rayleigh scattering is more effective with shorter waves an therefore it provides a blue color of

the sky in daytime.

Mie scattering

Mie scattering occurs due to larger dust and aerosol particles in the atmosphere when πD/λ ≈ 1

and direction of the radiation changes only a little as shown in fig.77b.

The cumulative effect of the scqattering processes of the solar radiation is shown in fig.78.

The radiation which arrives to the observer (surface) consists of a part of direct radiation (or

lightly scattered) and of scattered radiation which is often supposed to be diffuse. The diffuse

contribution may vary from 10% of the total solar radiation on a clear day to nearly 100% on

a totally cloudy day.

Scattering may also happen on particles with a characteristic size significantly large than a

wavelength in a visible range of the spectrum. This leads for various optical phenomena as,

103

Figure 78: Cumulative scattering effect

for example, rainbow. A brief descritpion of rainbow’s formation is given in the end of the

chapter.

Radiation from the Sun is concentrated in short wavelength range of the spectrum. The long

wavelength form of environmental radiation include emission from the Earth’s surface as well as

from atmospheric elemnts. The emissive power from the Earth’s surface may be approximated

as

4

Eearth = εσTearth (209)

where ε ≈ 0.97 and Tearth ≈ 250 − 320K. That is the peak of the emission from the Earth’s

surfaces is about 10µm and most of radiation in concentrated within the range 4µm to 40µm.

As it was mentioned above in that region the most absorption in the atmosphere occurs due to

CO2 and H2 O molecules which then re-emit this energy. This emission does not similar to

that of the blackbody but its contribution to irradiation of the earth’s surface can be estimated

as

4

Gatm = σTsky (210)

where Tsky is an ”effective sky temperature” which varies from 230K to 280K.

REMARK 2 Absorption by CO2 and H2 O of radiation emitted by the Earth and its re-

emission leads to w well-known ”greenhouse effect”.

REMARK 2 If a problem includes a solar radiation incident onto a surface (on the Earth)

and emission from that surface in most cases the surface cannot be considered as a gray one!

Example 15. A flat-plate solar collector has a selective abosrber surface of εa = 0.1 and

solar absorptivity aS = 0.95. The absorber temperature is Ta = 1200 C, the colar irradiation is

750W/m2 , the effective sky temperature is −100 C and the air temperature Tair = 300 C. Take

104

the heat transfer convective coefficient h = 1W/m2 (see fig.79).

Question What is useful heat removal rate (W/m2 ) from the collector for these conditions?

What is the efficiency of the collector?

where Ee is emission from the surface and qu is a useful heat removal rate. The emission ”from

the sky” is

4

Gsky = σTsky (212)

The solar absorption coefficent aS is given, but the absorption coefficient asky should not be

taken equal to aS because the temperature of the surface differs significantly from the ”effective

temperature” of the solar radiation. According to Kirgchoff law, asky ≈ εa !

Combining everything,

4

qu = aS · Gs + εa σ · Tsky − h(Ta − Tair ) − εa σTa4 = 516W/m2 (213)

qu 516

η= = = 0.69 (214)

Gs 750

Seasons change

Season variation of temperature occurs due to the inclination of the Earth’s axis with respect

to its rotational orbit around the Sun (fig.80

105

Figure 80: Inclination of the Earth’s axis which leads to the change of the seasons

106

Chapter 12. Heat exchange with absorption and emission

in the gas volume

Attenuation of the radiation in a participating medium

As it was discussed starting from the beginning of the course, intensity is the main chrac-

teristics of the energy flux in the radiative heat transfer. We will consider a radiation at a

wavelength λ from an elementary surface dF into a volume filled with a participating media

whose index of refraction is 1 (i.e. this is a gas)(fig.81). Let us find how intensity of the radia-

tion varies along the path of the ray beacuse of absorption and scattering on the gas molecules.

First, we assume that the temperature of the gas is low, i.e. emission of the gas is negligible.

Let s is the path length, I0 (λ) is a known intensity at a certain s0 .

proportional to the intensity and to dS:

This equation is written with the assumption that no intensity is scattered from the radiation

field into the direction of S. The coefficient Kλ is called the extinction coeficient of the material.

The extinction coefficient is a physical property of the material and has the units of reciprocal

length. For gases, it is a function of the temperature T, pressure P, composition of the material

(specified here in terms of the concentration Ci of the i component), and the wavelength of

the incident radiation so that Kλ = Kλ (λ, T, P, Ci ). Since it is directly proportional to the

pressure, it can be written also as Kλ = κλ · p where p is the (partial) pressure of the gas.

107

Integrating equation 215 over a length S of the ray’s path, obtain

Z Iλ (L) Z L

dIλ

=− Kλ dS ∗

Iλ (0) Iλ 0

Z L

Iλ (L)

ln =− Kλ dS ∗

Iλ (0) 0

Z L

∗

Iλ (L) = Iλ (0) exp − Kλ dS (216)

0

Equation 216 is known as Bouguer’s law. It shows that the intensity of monochromatic radiation

along a path is attenuated exponentially while passing through an absorbing-scattering medium.

The eq.216 can be re-written as eq.220 known as Beer’s equation:

where the κλ (L) is called optical thickness of the gas and in case that Kλ does not vary with

the path, κλ (L) = Kλ · L, L is a characteristic size of the volume.

If the optical thickness of the gas is high, attenuation of the radiation because of its propagation

through the gas will be significant. In case of a small opticla thickness, it is possible to neglect

the presence of the gas in the volume.

The coefficient of the radiation attenuation (extinction coefficient) Kλ is equal to the sum of

two coefficients: absorption coefficient aλ (λ, T, P ) and scattering coefficient σλ (λ, T, P ):

In further consideration we shall neglect the scattering. Then, using Beer’s (or Bouger’s)

equation, an absorptivity for a volume of gas of thickness L can be obtained as:

Iλ,L − Iλ,0

ag,λ = − = 1 − e−κλ (L) = 1 − e−aλ L (219)

Iλ,0

and transmissivity for a volume of gas of thickness L is given as

Iλ,L

τg,λ = = e−κλ (L) = e−aλ L (220)

Iλ,0

It should be noted that absoprtion in gases is (highly) selective, i.e. it is big in some

spectral zones, ”spectral bands” around certain wavelengths. The most important gases in

engineering practice are water vapor and carbon dioxide since they are product of combustion

and other chemical reactions. In fig.82 and 83 spectral absorptivities are shown for water vapor

and and CO2

Kirchhoff ’s law for the absorption and emission in the gas. Emissivity

of a gas

Similar to the radiative heat properties related to the surfaces, it is of high interest to relate

absorption and emission properties of the gas. To do this, let us conisder geometry presented in

108

Figure 82: Spectral absorptivity of water vapor for layers a,b,c,d,e of different thickness, from

V.P.Isachenko, V.A.Osipova, A.S.Sukomel, ”Heat transfer”

Figure 83: Spectral absorptivity of CO2 for a layer of thickness 50mm (1), 20mm (2), 63mm

(3) and 1m (4), from V.P.Isachenko, V.A.Osipova, A.S.Sukomel, ”Heat transfer”

fig.81. Assume that the black surface dF and the gas have the same temperature. The surface

emits the energy, the gas absorbs it and re-emits. Since we assume the thermal equilibrium,

the resulting heat fluxes in the system should be zero. Therefore, :

the gas above the surface emits toward the black surface dF the same amount of energy as it

aborbs.

Absorbed radiation along each direction within a hemisphere is given as

where I0,λ,b (λ, T ) is intensity of the radiation of the surface dF . On the other hand, this is the

energy emitted by the gas which can be expressed in terms of emissivity and radiation of the

109

black body:

Ie,λ = g,λ I0,λ,b (λ, T )

The eq.221 is valid for any direction in space. If the distance L does not vary with direction or

if we can use an averaged value L̄, it is possible to integrate these relations over a hemisphere

and to introduce a hemispherical emissive power at a surface of a gas volume from a hemisphere

of a radius L filled with a gas:

In practice the volume of gas can have a shape different from a hemispherical one, i.e. the path

length for a radation varies with direction. However, it can be averaged and in the table below

mean path lenghs are given for various geometries.

Definitions given above were obtain for a certain wavelength λ, i.e. for a monochromatic rada-

tion. This approach is natural for gases because their absorption and emission are characterised

by separate spectral bands (i.e. it is not continuous as for liquids and solids). However, the

practical approach requires simpler description and gray gas model is used where a total

emissivity is used:

Eg (T ) = g Eg,b (T ) = g σT 4

110

Total emissivity g , similar to extinction coefficient, depends on T, C, P etc. Let us consider as

an example a gray gas model for a carbon dioxide at T = 1400K. At this temperature main

absorption bands are ( see also fig.85 below), note that these data are a little different from

those given above):

2.56 − 2.88µm

4.15 − 4.76µm

9 − 20µm

Then, emissive power can be calculated within each bands of the spectrum assuming that the

coefficient Kλ is constant within this band:

Z λi,2

∆Ei,g = i,g (λ, L)Eg,b,λ (λ, T )

λi,1

Z 2.86µm

−aλ,1 L

∆E1,g = (1 − e ) σTg4 (222)

2.56µm

Z 4.76µm

∆E2,g = (1 − e−aλ,2 L ) σTg4 (223)

4.15µm

Z 20µm

∆E3,g = (1 − e−aλ,3 L ) σTg4 (224)

9µm

Figure 85: Line 1: Spectrum of emission for a black body at T=1400K; line 2: spectrum of

emission for CO2 , with L=3m; line3 : spectrum of emission for gray gas approximation of CO2

Note that spectral emissivity for the gas depends not only on the absorption coeffcient but also

on the path length of the radiation inside the gase volume:

i,g = 1 − e−aλ,i L

This means that at a certain given L the emissive power of radiation in one spectral band can

be equal to that of the black body because the coefficient aλ is high for this band whereas in

other spectral bands emissivity is below unity as it is shown in fig.85.

The total emissivity of the gas can be calculated via a standard definition of emissivity as

∆E1,g + ∆E2,g + ∆E3,g

g (T ) =

σT 4

111

For given data for CO2 , obtain

(1 − e−aλ,3 L )F9→20 (λ, T ) (225)

where notation in term of fraction Fλ,1→λ,2 is used for the emission within a spectral band (not

from the zero!). Now remember that Kλ,i = kλ,i · p. Then equation 225 shows that the total

emissivity of the gas depends on the size of the gas volume, on the absorption coefficient aλ

(we neglect the scattering), on the partial pressure of the gas. When Kλ,i L = kλ,i · pL >> 1

the exponents go to zero and the total emissivity of the gas has the maximal value which is for

the case under consideration, for T = 1400K CO2 = 0.2

Dependence of the total emissivity on temperature is manifested in two ways. First, the den-

sity of the gas decreases with temperature, therefore, the extinction coefficient decreases that

decreases Kλ . Second, the width of spectral bands increases if temperature decreases that in-

creases the value of fractions involved in calculation of the total emissivity of the gas, so there

is competition between two effects. In fig.86 the dependence of maximal possible values of total

emissivities for water vapor and carbon dioxide is shown (i.e. in this case kλ,i · pL >> 1). Note

that presented value for CO2 is sligntly different from the one just calculated (0.2).

Experimental data on emissive power of CO2 and H2 O may be interpolated with formulae

3.5

0.33 T

ECO2 = 3.5(pc L)

100

3

0.8 0.6 T

EH2 O = 3.5pw L

100

This generalization shows that the emissive power of a gas may differ significantly from the

Stephan-Boltzman law, nevertheless, the emissive power is still proportional to the temperature.

112

Nomograms and empirical formulae

Radiating gas in a mixture with non-radiating gases

gases under different conditions. In particular, they present variation of the total emissivity of

a gas volume (hemisphere for a given case) dependent on the temperature of the gas Tg , the

total and the partial pressure of the gas p and pg , and the raidus of the hemisphere L. Two

nomograms are shown in fig.87a,b for the total pressure p = 1atm.

A B

Figure 87: A:Total emissivity of water vapor in mixture with nonradiating gases at 1-atm total

pressure and of hemispherical shape; B:Total emissivity of CO2 in mixture with nonradiating

gases at 1-atm total pressure and of hemispherical shape. From Incropera, DeWitte, Bergman,

Lavine, ”Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer”.

To evaluate the emissivity under total pressure different from 1 atm the emissivities given in

fig.87 should be multiplied by the correction factor Cw and CC which are given in fig.88

Nomograms given above are apply when water vapor or carbon dioxide appear separately in the

mixture with other gases that are nonradiating. For the gaseous mixture of H2 O and CO2

the total emissivity is given as a sum of the total emissivities of these gases with a subtraction

of a correction factor:

m = w + c − ∆gm (226)

113

A

Figure 88: Correction factors for total pressure different from 1 atm for water vapor H2 O (A)

and for carbon dioxide CO2 (B). From Incropera, DeWitte, Bergman, Lavine, ”Fundamentals

of heat and mass transfer”.

Correction ∆gm is presented in graphical form in the fig.90 and takes into account the mutual

absorption between two gases.

Figure 89: Correction factor for the total emissivity of water vapor and carbon dioxide mixture

given by eq.226. From Incropera, DeWitte, Bergman, Lavine, ”Fundamentals of heat and mass

transfer”.

Note that in the nomograms the value p · L is given in f t · atm, 1f t = 30.48cm ≈ 0.3m.

Instead of nomograms, formulae developed by various reseracher (Hottel et al) can be used.

114

Radiating gas near a surface

Consider heat fluxes in a system consisting of a black surface with temperature Ts and a gas

volume with temperature Tg near this surface. The rate of the radiant heat transfer to a surface

due to the emission is given as

Qg,e = Ag σTg4

Radiation emitted by the surface σTs4 is absorbed by the gas with a coefficient ag . Therefore,

the resulting heat flux for the gas is

However the question rises about the absorption coefficient ag since the radiant flux in gas

depends both on the gas temperature and surface temperature. Recommended formula for

evaluation of absorptivity in water vapor and carbon dioxide are

0.45

Tg Ts

aw = C w · w (Ts , pw · L · ) (228)

Ts Tg

0.65

Tg Ts

ac = C c · c Ts , pc · L · (229)

Ts Tg

where w and c are avaluated from fig.87a and b, respectively, accoutning for that Tg is replaced

with Ts and pw L is replaced with pw LTs /Tg (pc L is replaced with pc LTs /Tg ). In the presence

of both gases the total gas absorptivity is expressed as

ag = aw + ac − ∆am (230)

Example

A gas turbine combustion chamber may be considered as a long tube with of 0.4 m diameter.

The combustion gas is at T = 10000 C and pressure of 1 atm, the temperature of the chamber

surface is 5000 C. If the combustion gas contains CO2 and water vapor, each with a mole frac-

tion of 0.15, what is the net radiative flux between the gas and the chamber surface (which can

be approximated as black body)?

115

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