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Thesis of Doctorate -1-

Terrorism
In Islam

Researcher : Adel Abdullah Al-Abed Al-


Jabbar

American University in London


2005

http://www.saaid.net/
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Thanks for Allah and peace be upon our prophet Mohamed Ibn Abdullah
and his followers.

Terrorism in Islam

A scientific thesis as other group of scientific thesis s that clarify the clear
Islam attitude towards terrorism. It shows the Sharia' ruling that forbids the
attack and violence against safe people at their homes and societies. Islam
has protected that and prevented any harm to them even by indication of
terror.

Terrorism: International phenomenon from which many non-Islamic and


Islamic countries have complained and suffered. These countries wish to live
in peace and far away from terrorism. Terrorists commit severe crimes and
sins when they kill peaceful people and destroy properties by tripping
vehicles by explosives to threaten and kill people. They do not consider
young, old, sick or disabled people, but they corrupt life and such acts are
hated and forbidden by Allah.
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Terrorism is bad in whole, resulting in destruction, corruption and sadness.


The terrorist has deviated mind, psychologically diseased, absent-minded,
defeated in his personality, telling lies and jealous to others. He hates his
nation and its development. All world hated all terrorism operations which
do not distinguish between nation, nationality, religion, scholarship, time, or
place. All feelings refuse and deny terrorism operations which are beyond
the permitted and reasonable limits. They go beyond the teachings of
religions, regulations, and prevailing laws. The word "terrorism" is limited
in the commitment of killing, threatening, kidnapping, spoilage.

Since the events of 11 Sept. I have the honor to present programs in the
Saudi TV talking about terrorism and the Islamic attitude towards that.
Regretfully we have witnessed some violence incidents in our country. The
blasts harmed and did not benefit, killed and did not give life. Therefore, I
had to spread the right thing among the people through available mass
media. These scientific researches are a group of thesis s to get doctorate
degree in Terrorism and the Islamic Attitude towards that from the American
University in London.

This thesis is a human effort which may be subject to rightness and wrong. I
tried to apply scientific research in dividing the subjects into Section s,
chapters, researches, requirements, and issues. The texts have been
documented and referred to their references and to verses of Quran have
been referred to their chapters. Al-Hadeeth (Prophet Sayings) have been
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briefly tracked and documented. If there are any faults and shortages, they
shall be attributed to me. I hope that this thesis will benefit all people and I
ask them to send me any comments and remarks that can be rectified during
printing.
Researcher:
Adel Abdullah Al-Abed Al-Jabbar
Adel_aa100@hotmail.com
P.O. Box 56 Riyadh 11392
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Thesis Plan

Section One: (Al-Sharia and Terrorist

Chapter One: Definition of Terrorism


Research One: The linguistic meaning of terrorism
Research Two: The meaning of terrorism in terms
UN definition
International Law definition
Arab agreement definition
Al-Azhar definition
The Islamic Fiqeh Complex definition
Research Three: Selected definition of terrorism
Research Four: Elements of terrorism
Research Five: Terrorism objectives

Direct Objectives
Indirect Objectives

Research Six: Types of Terrorism


Classification by Washington Conference 1976
Doctrine Terrorism
National Terrorism
Religion, Race, Faction Terrorism

Sickness terrorism
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Another Division: Individual and group terrorism


Research Seven: Characteristics of Terrorism Operations
Kidnapping and hostages confinement
Ambushes
Assassination method
Faction's violent method
Explosives
Research Eight: Characteristics of Terrorism
Research Nine: Characteristics of Terrorist
Research Ten: Reasons of Terrorism
First Requirement: The General Reasons of Terrorism in the World
Geographical reasons
Psychological sickness reasons
Informative reasons
Economical reasons
Family reasons
Thought reasons
Second Section : (Society and Terrorism)
Chapter One: Society and its Security Demands
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Chapter Two: Role of Society Establishments


Research One: Mosque
Requirement One: Importance of Mosque
Requirement Two: The Mosque is the source of Security and Safety
Requirement Three: Role of Mosque in awareness of the national crimes
Research Two: Friday Sermon and its effect on the society security
Requirement One: Factors of Sermon success
Understanding of reality
Necessity to obey the ruler
Mediation and fairness
Care of Youth
Relation with non-Muslims
Requirement Two: Sermon of Makkah mosque and Prophet Mosque
Sample of Makkah mosque
Sample of Prophet Mosque
Research Three: Scientist and Missioners
Research Four: Terrorism and legal jurisdiction
Importance of jurisdiction
View of jurisdiction towards terrorism acts
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Juristic procedures to investigate terrorists and their crimes


Preventive and remedial precautions for terrorism events
Jurisdiction penalties for terrorism events
Research Five: Family
Requirement One: Islam care for family
Requirement Two: Family function
Requirement Three: Its role in preventing deviation and crime
Research Six: School
Requirement One: Security Role of the School
Requirement Two: Effect of the school in resistance of terrorism, violence,
and extremism.
Requirement Three: Islamic education curriculum
Research Seven: Security Establishments
Research Eight: Local and international forums
International conference for terrorism fighting
The attitude of Islam towards terrorism
Research Nine: Electronic Terrorism
Internet is a safe for the terrorism
Kingdom's efforts to face the electronic terrorism
Factors to preserve the society from the electronic terrorism
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Research Ten: Intellectual security


Preventive means to protect the intellectual security
Remedial means to protect the intellectual security

Section Three (Saudia and Terrorism)


Chapter One: Saudi reviews
Research one: Historical overview of blasts in Saudi Arabia
Chapter Two: Kingdom's efforts in fighting terrorism
Endorsement of terrorism penalty
Spread of mediation and fairness
International participation
Clarify the picture to outside
Security systems
Local level
Intellectual review
Royal forgiveness
Awards
Propagation is continued
Attention to Security men
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Activation of Arab ministers council resolutions


Signing of agreements and covenants
Conclusion
References
Index
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Section One: Sharia and Terrorism


Chapter One: Definition of Terrorism
Research One: Linguistic Meaning of Terrorism
The source of terrorism is "terrify" which means fear.
In the Quran it means fear.
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Research Two: Terrorism


I did not find it a meaning in the Sharia terms of previous Muslim scientists
because the first use of this term was during the French revolution (1789 –
1794). This means that the source of this term is from European thoughts,
and this rejects the wrong claims which characterize Islam by this word. The
scientists of different religions in all over the world have not agreed on a
meaning of terrorism. However, there are some definitions from
international organizations.
United Nations definition: Terrorism means the acts that endanger the
innocent human beings souls or threaten the basic freedoms or violates the
human being dignity.

International law definition: Terrorism a group of acts that are forbidden


by the national laws of most countries.

Arab Agreement definition: Terrorism means each act of terrorism or


threatening of such act, whatever the motives or purposes, implemented for
crime project, individual or collective. It aims to spread terror between
people and threatening them or endanger their lives or freedoms and their
security. Also, it includes harm the environment or facilities or properties
(private and public) or occupy them and conquer them or endanger any of
the national sources.
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Al-Azhar Islamic Research Complex definition: Al-Azhar gave a


definition after the events of 11 Sept. 2001 by saying (horrifying the
peaceful people, destroying their interests and lives, their freedoms and
human dignity and corrupt the life. The country on which such terrorism
occurs has the right to search for the criminals and present them to
jurisdiction constitutions for judgment).

Islamic Fiqeh Complex Definition: Terrorism: an assault committed by


individuals or groups or countries on the human being (his religion, blood,
mind, money and honor). It includes types of threat, harm and killing under
no right. This includes rubbery, acts of threatening and violence that
implement individual and collective crime project to horrify people or
threaten their lives or security or expose their lives to danger. Some of their
types are causing damage to the environment, facilities, private & public
properties and expose the national resources or the nature to danger. All this
are types of corruption on the earth and forbidden by Allah.

Research Three: Selected Definition of the Terrorism: Fiqeh Islamic


Complex of the Islamic World League is considered to be the best definition
in defining the Islam prevention of attack, violence and horrifying the
secured people. It has been issued from the strongest complex representing
Islam and Muslims. It includes all types of fear, harm, threat, killing with no
rights and what is related to Al-Hirabah, threat and cut of road and any act of
violence or threat that come as an implementation of individual or collective
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crime project. It aims to cause fear among people and harm them, and
expose their lives, freedom, security and conditions to danger. Some of its
types are causing damage to environment or any private or public properties,
and endanger of national or natural resources. All these are pictures of
corruption which are forbidden by Allah Who has put the penalty for
terrorism, assault and corruption and considered that the same like fighting
Allah and His prophet. There is no human law which gives such a severe
penalty due to the danger of this assault which is considered as fighting
against rules of Allah. The complex confirms that the types of terrorism
include state terrorism, and one its clear pictures and severe types is the
terrorism practiced by the Jews in Palestine. Also, the practice of Serb in
Bosnia, Hersek and Kosova. The complex considered that this type of
terrorism is one of the most dangerous types on peace and security, and
facing it is a type of self-defense and Jihad for the sake of Allah. This
definition indicates that terrorism has no specific religion, country or
nationality. It affects all as it does not have geographical borders and it may
occur any place in the Globe. There is no specific shape of the terrorism. It
may be hijacking airplane, diverting its route by force, or destroying it, or
taking its passengers as hostages or killing them. It may be in the shape of
exploding buildings, occupying certain places and using toxic gases. In
conclusion, it is any assault on persons by killing, or attack of money or any
means of transportation. No doubt that the current scientific development in
the world has increased the danger and complexity of terrorism, either by
making the communication between terrorists easier or by assistance in
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invention of advanced means of crimes or by increasing the number of


criminals which increased the terrorism on all levels and it becomes one of
the most important risks that face the international society. By thorough
review, the fighting of the people under foreign occupation for the sake of
freeing its occupied lands and obtaining their rights and independence are
not considered terrorism as per the UN code and resolutions. Defending the
nations is inherited in the human beings and they practiced this right during
the old ages and they are still practicing it now and they considered that as
one of their duties even if they loose their lives. Those who are defending
themselves do not need a resolution from a commission to defend their
nations. The human laws and the heaven laws have confirmed this right and
ordered people to practice that whatever the price that they will pay. Islam
has confirmed that and ordered its followers to defend their countries and
considered that as fighting for the sake of Allah and a way to paradise. The
Quran and Hadeeth have ordered Muslims and urged them to fight and
defend their nations and considered that as obligatory for all able men and
women. The Arab Agreement signed by Arab Ministers of Interiors for
fighting terrorism has stipulated in Article two: that the armed struggle
against the foreign occupation and aggression for the sake of freedom as per
the international law 22. The Islamic World League has confirmed in
Makkah statement issued by the Islamic Fiqeh Complex conferred in
Makkah during the period from 21-26/10/1422H fighting covenant that all
have the right to defend their countries and honor against occupants and that
this right is allowed by all heaven regulations and human laws. There were
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contradictions between the terms terrorism as some are general and others
are specific. It has been found that the work "Irhab" in Arabic is a translation
of the word "terrorism" in English which is wrong linguistic translation. Fear
from killing or injury or destruction is a materialistic fear expressed in
horror and not "rahbah" since this word in Arabic language is used for fear
mixed with respect and not for fear resulting from threatening by
materialistic or creatural or natural force. Therefore it fear and horror and its
is not "rahbah". The correct meaning for terrorism is horror. However , the
Arab Linguistic Complex approved using "Irhab" as it is widely used in
Arab world and understood for terrorism.

Research Four:
Elements of terrorism:
(1) Power
(2) Violence
(3) Fear
(4) Weapons
(5) Mass media

Research Five: Objectives of Terrorism:

a. Direct Objectives: They are the objectives announced by the


organization during implementation of the terrorism operation. They
are represented in the following:
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1- Obtain funds to finance the organization activities, and recruit new


personnel to work with it.
2- Release prisoners in jails, either they are politicians or members of the
organization and they have been caught during previous operations.
3- Implement killing operations to opponents either as disclosed or
concealed operation.
4- Secure the escape of the persons who implement the terrorism
operation after the end of the operation in achieve the last stage of the
operation to succeed.
5- Perform necessary propaganda for the organization.

b. Indirect Objectives: They are unannounced objectives but the


organization tries to achieve. They may be more important to the
organization than the direct objectives. They are represented in the
following:
1- Weaken the government authority and show it as disabled due to its
inability to discover the operation before it occurs and its inability to
face the situation resulting from the terrorism operation.
2- Obtain official recognition from the targeted country of the existence
of the organization or obtain international recognition due to
announcements of statements that organization mandated
announcement.
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3- Oblige the country to implement works directed against the citizens


who result in loss of confidence in the government due to its inability
to achieve security for citizen and face the terrorism organization to
overcome.
4- Create supporter from the citizens of the targeted country and work to
overcome the ruling regime or achieve the organization objectives.
5- Attach tourism, economy, security and the sources of power that give
country the legality such as religion, economy and security.

Research Six: Types of Terrorism: 24 , In Washington's classification


in 1976 the terrorism was divided into four types:
1. Doctrine terrorism: This includes leftist, communist, rightist
extremists, Zionism and Hindu terrorism.
2. National terrorism: It includes operations targeted to expel
occupants, destroy their machinery and interests, kill their
representatives
3. Religion, or faction race terrorism: such as operations implemented
by Tamil against the Srelankan government and Seek operations
against Muslims in India.
4. Sickness terrorism: It is caused by mental or psychological
malfunction.

Another Division: If we look at terrorism with respect to the one who


implement the violence and extremism, it can be divided into two types:
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1. Individual Terrorism: violent acts implemented by one person or


several limited person.
2. Group Terrorism: It comes from religious or national faction
against another one, or against other people, or one nation against
another. It has two shapes: National group's terrorism and doctrine
group terrorism.

Research Seven: Characteristics of the Terrorism Operations:

1. Hijacking and retain of hostages: It is based on the concept of


retaining one or more persons in a secret place. Hijacking may occur
to an aircraft with all its passengers.
2. Ambush: It a type of sudden attacks whereby the aim is conquered
away from its own protection or guard that are provided to it at his
place of residence and work.
3. Method of killing: The known method in terrorist violence and it
usually executed to politicians, media men, officials, some Sheikhs,
scientists and Doa objecting the thought of the terrorists.
4. Method of faction violence: It is the attack of some groups to some
citizens and their properties. Also attacking mosques, churches and
temples.
5. Blasts: They usually occur to temples, places accommodating person
who are considered enemies or citizens of enemy country or
representing enemy countries although they are victims of certain
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policies and peaceful and innocent people. These blasts may carry a
message to the country whereat the explosions occurred for political,
religion, or financial abuse ( ) or for the purpose of facing the
ruling regime at that country. There are some other operations such as
sniping, threatening of terrorism, and psychological war by using false
terrorism announcements.

Research Eight: Characteristics of Terrorism:

Terrorism is distinguished from other violence works by the following:


1. Violence or threatening and it lasts for long time causing terrorism
2. Organization linked to violence and as it continues it causes terrorism
3. The purpose is illegal although it is clear that it tries to curb the
political authority.
4. The act is not from acquired acts and it has been given a name as
crime that is ruled by jurisdiction so that no mix shall be made
between international crimes.
5. A symbolic limited act that goes beyond the scope of action in order
to make wider and comprehensive effects of fear.
6. Terrorism is an act that means several political indications and it aims
to affect decision making or diverting it.
7. Terrorism acts does not mean military counter acts. It is limited in
terrorism severe tactics, secret and unforeseen implemented by
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political elements opposing the authority and the ruling regime and it
specifically selects its objectives and has specific requirements.
8. Use of power, violence, or threatening by that which is considered the
main role to achieve the objectives.
9. The terrorism act is limited by boundaries or geography and its plan is
implemented in a place that achieves the objectives.
10. Terrorism operations attract the attention, and therefore, its operations
occur to international objectives or super power countries in order to
spread its news to serve the objectives. Therefore, its objectives have
two dimensions: Emotional dimension and mental dimension and it is
characterized by extremism and has no mediation.

Research Nine: Characteristics of the Terrorist:


Terrorists have some characters or personal common features distinguishing
them regardless of their loyalty, identification or organizations to which they
belong, countries associated with and operations implemented by them.
1. Most of them are married males (95%) more than females and they
have no children.
2. If there is a role for women in the terrorism organization, it is limited
in intelligence, information collection, keeping weapon, provide safe
accommodation for terrorists, nursery, publicity, supply and
falsification.
3. They are fictions and heroes of their stories and they try to rectify the
world by violence and they have their own philosophy.
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4. They are full of secrets and they are characterized by harshness,


carelessness and insistence to achieve objectives. It is difficult to
make understanding with them.
5. Some of them takes awaking drugs to increase their motives.
6. They are extremists, aggressive and easy to excite. This is why the
young youth are targeted because they are unable to think about the
results and consequences of terrorism and violence actions.
7. There body growth is complete but their psychological growth is not
complete.
8. In some psychological studies, some terrorists have feminine
characteristics and the resist this feminine and pretend muscularity by
violence which push them to kill and terrify especially in the non-
Muslim societies. In the Muslim society the terrorist may be
uncovered by woman dress to achieve his shameful acts under the
name of the countries traditions and religious reserve values.

The above are ten characteristics we witnessed in the life of the terrorists
who spoil the security of societies. There are other characteristics which
depending on the targeted society based on changes on all over the world.

Research Ten : Reasons of terrorism:

Requirement one: The general reasons for the terrorism phenomena in the
world
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Geographical reasons:
The wide area of the country borders makes it difficult for the armed
forces and security systems in any country that have weakness, factions
usually make it difficult to secure that and impose control on the borders.
This encouraged terrorists to penetrate through borders to inside the
country to achieve objectives and perform their operations. Some
countries or places have certain terrains that are suitable as shelters for
them facilitating terrorism operations. Undeveloped random areas forms
a dangerous challenge to security and stability of the nation and citizen.
In addition to the geographical reasons, hot areas are considered more
suitable than cold areas for spread of political reasons. Similarly is the
aggression on personnel and raising riot. For example, it has been found
that there is increased number of terrorist and it is easy to attract many
youth such as in south of Egypt. It is found that very cold weather
prevent criminals and kill them if they fortify in mountains and their high
tops.

Media Reasons
The criminals use the mass media as a means to reach their objectives.
Terrorist organizations in the world conduct terrorist operations to attract
the attention of the world public opinion to their cause which they defend
in order to oblige the aired party to surrender to their demands. Some
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researchers that mass media programs that are shameful and hurt the
honor and spread the sin and sarcastic of the values and principles leads
to creation of environment suitable for terrorism to face these countries
and the dangerous role of that mass media, and the deviated ideas and
view that contracting to the Islamic principles. The resulted in negative
reaction by the Muslim youth who are affected by the media attack. Some
of them try to compromise and they go extremely in understanding Islam.
Others have blocked minds and in both cases the reason is the
misunderstand of the Religion and sharia. Some are affected by some bad
imported scholarships or they blindly follow some misleaders who are
trading in religion. Sometimes they is lack of religion which is not filled
because mass media is involved in programs far away from the Muslim
situation and different from the ambitions of the youth and their needs
and does not discuss their problems and spread the correct religious
awareness and as such it fees the feeling of extremism and terrorism.

Economic Reasons
The economic problems of the undeveloped countries are some of the
dangerous reasons for terrorism in the world. The scientific and technical
development of the world banking systems have facilitated the transfer of
money between the terrorist networks.

Also, individuals in the third world countries suffering of the economical


countries related to housing, debts, unemployment's, and poorness,
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inflation in prices, communication, and health are factors that may lead
the youth to be extremist and terrorist and provide the opportunity to the
terrorism organization to utilize the economic conditions of the youth to
achieve their objectives.

Family Reasons:
Family loose relations, and the lack of supervision of the parents on their
children and the mistreatment of the parents or the negligence and the
lack of dialogue between the children and their sharing in taking the
decisions specially if they are directly related to their future such as
education, work and marriage.

Intellectual Reasons:
The Islamic world suffers of the sharp intellectual division between
different currents:
Secular current that calls for secular life away from religious traditions
and customs and social values so that the society will develop and reach
the civilization. On the other side there is extremist current away from
intermediate and fairness that rejects the current civilization and any
thing associated with the civil development and they reject that under the
pretext that this civilization cause corruption of morals, dismantling of
family, frozen social relations and as such each side refuses the thoughts
of the other party and look at him doubtfully without scrutinizing and
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evaluation to reach the right and basic principles. This caused some
Muslim extremists to be under a state of attraction between both currents
which led at the end to follow terrorism approach which is not approved
by religion and contradict with the civilization path.

Requirement Two: The apparent special causes of terrorism in the


Islamic World:
1. Lack of religious education in some Islamic societies
2. Bad methods of education to provide religious culture.
3. Ignorance of religion and requirements of the current age make
youth issue fatwa and provisions contradicting to the texts
without reference to the specialized individuals in the Sharia
religion.
4. Developments on the Islamic world, and political, social and
economical changes.
5. Lack of religion with youth and their involvement in religious
contradicting and branch issues.
6. Lack of understanding to the order of doing good deeds and
preventing bad things and the one who is authorized to do that.
7. Full obedience to the terrorist leaders in some Islamic societies
and also to fulfill their material needs.
8. No positive participation in the social life.
9. No observation of the five necessities provided by Allah.
Thesis of Doctorate - 27 -

It is hard to specify all reasons but they can be concluded. Although there
are reasons of current terrorism, there is something more dangerous that
reasons. This is the consequences of terrorist which adversely affect the
Islamic society for long years suffering from them and the next generations.
These results can be concluded in the following:
1. The terrorism operations occurred in some Islamic countries by the
hand of those who pretend that they are Muslims have contributed in
giving dark image about Islam and Muslims and linking between
terrorist and Islam.
2. The terrorism operations are considered risks that discourage the
traders and businessmen to expand their trading and commercial
deals with countries suffering of terrorism.
3. The general climate of investment will be discouraging for attraction
of capital from outside.
4. The terrorism interrupt the tourism activities which are considered as
a source of the national income for many Islamic countries
5. The terrorism and the its consequences of non-stability of security and
economy leads to setback of the economic activity. This creates
another type of hidden economy which is trading of weapons and
explosives.
6. The terrorism take dangerous dimensions that may harm the budget of
the country in which terrorism occur in two aspects:
1. The state expenses will be increased on terrorism fighting.
Thesis of Doctorate - 28 -

2. Increase the country's burden of payments to the killed persons


and treatment of injured people, repair of what destruction and
damage resulting from terrorism.
There are routes and many causes of terrorism. Some are religious fed by
doctrine or belief. There are purely psychological reasons aiming to attack
attention to the doer, or discharge psychological charge or jealous against the
party to which the crime occurs. There are social routes such as people, tribe,
party, class or others which may lead by those who have been suppressed to
rebel by making operations called holy operations while it is called
terrorism. The most dangerous type of the terrorism is called the extremist
religious belief where youth are recruited to commit suicide operations
seeking by it to enter paradise and gain the acceptance by Allah while they
are committing acts that Allah does not accept.

Research Five: The reality of religion terrorism: These terrorists are blindly
following orders given to them which indicates that the they have simple
thinking. All terrorism attacks implemented on this land have been
committed by persons carrying diverted believes and want to impose them
on others by committing terrorism in the Muslim society which adopted
Quran and prophet sunna and observe the public interest of the country,
citizens, residences and dealing with the changes in the current age which
can't be ignored in order to maintain the interest and build the future for the
generation. Most of those who exploded themselves and destroyed others or
those captured before they practice their terrorism who are young and
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diverted in their believes, have been attracted and deceived by criminals in


spreading terrorism and killing of people and destruction of public and
private properties. They washed the brains of the youth by holding meetings
in their cells or by distribution of suspicious books and cassettes. The
extreme thinking is one of the main reasons of terrorism and its routes in
Islam, especially the extremist which does not accept the other opinions.
This type of extremism claims that it owns the absolute reality in part and in
whole and the fixed believes that all agree on. Therefore, this type of
opinions tries to exclude the other party who disagree with them. Exclusion
has many features the biggest of it is non-belief. Therefore, this diverted
thinking tries to exclude or cancel the other party and omit him either by be
attracting him or by killing him and try to reach him aim by any means even
if it is terrorism and violence but he does not call that terrorism or
extremism. He call it holy war (Jihad) and teach his followers of the ignorant
youth that what they do of destruction of properties and killing of human
beings is right and it is the path to paradise and it is the jihad ordered by
Allah. Some of the features of terrorism is hijacking of airplanes, trains,
buses. This type of terrorism may be performed by one person or group and
the reason for it may be because the terrorist has fled requesting asylum in
another country. Or he may be requesting ransom and money or he may be
requesting freedom of prisoners or to attract attention, or to disturb the
system and peace or etc. As airplanes are hijacked the human beings may be
kidnapped to take ransom. A child may be kidnapped to get ransom, some
politicians may be taken hostages to put governments in critical situation.
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Some of the features of terrorism operations is blasting of the housing


complexes as what happened in Riyadh, or destruction of recreation centers
as what happened in Moscow, Paly and Indonesia and destruction of metro
channels as what happened in Japan and happened later in Moscow. Some
of its types is called state terrorism where in the ruling is iron fist, closing
mouths, confiscating the freedoms and an example of that is the mass graves
recently discovered in Iraq.

Israel also has practiced this type of terrorism on daily basis against
Palestinians. It destroys houses, removes trees and damage farms, kills
people, and prevents them from living an honorable life in order to accept its
plans. Israel has been distinguished of its ability to hunt leaders, destroy
their houses and homes by airplanes. It has won in kidnapping several
politicians to put them in prison or kill them. Previously, it reached Tunisia
and other adjacent and far countries to kill. This resulted in extremism
among some Muslims and misunderstanding of sharia. Also, it helped to
enable non-Muslims to attack Muslims and their wealth or they may
penetrated among Muslims to separate and differentiate them, get their
capabilities and weaken them to be easy to conquer. This happened in the
last centuries as mentioned above. Therefore, it is clear that Islamic religion
does not have any relation to extremism, violence and terrorism. Islam is the
religion of forgiveness and it is against extremism and it calls for mediation
and peace.
Thesis of Doctorate - 31 -

Islam calls for self review to look for defects and return to the right path.
This is an advantage and therefore, some Islamic groups need to review
themselves to find that there is a mistake in the religious Sermon represented
in lack of moral dimension. It is an aggression against Islam and Muslims to
refer to them as terrorism because of their religion. There are many terrorist
gangs, presently and in the past, practiced more violence and disrupted the
life and they did not know Islam or had any relation to Muslim. Red flags in
Italy, Red Army in Japan, Bask national movement, Ireland Republic Army,
Tamil Tigers in Srilanka, Baderminhouv in Germany, Students for
Democratic society and Black Tigers in America and other terrorism groups
have practiced violence, terrorism and blackmailing without being
associated with any region. This is right because all religions call for good
and avoid bad with some variance. Islam is the leader of their religions as it
is the final religion and is good for any place and time. Therefore, we should
go back to the Quran and Sunna to subtract our needs of texts the educate
human being to be in love and mercy and fairness and respect of human
rights. If we include that in our religion Sermon we will see how the
situation will change and peace will spread on the ground and Islam return to
its superiority.

Section Two (Islamic Society and Terrorism)


Chapter One: Society and need for security:
Security is an urgent necessity for Islamic society by which the good life for
individuals is realized and the society will develop to be close to advanced
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countries. Therefore, Islam has given this aspect the utmost attention and
annotated that in its provisions in the Quran and Sunnah. The meaning of
Allah saying: "Those Believers who do not mix their belief of unfairness
will have security and they are on the right path".
Also "When he leaves he endeavors to corrupt on the earth and damage
cultivation and life and Allah does not like corruption"
Those who are only interested in killing and destroying are considered
criminals because security is a main pillar in society on which the human life
is based. It is the basis for innovation and creativity of human beings. It is an
objective that all individuals and groups intend to achieve and governments
and countries would like to realize. Society would like security when there
are disasters, riots and disturbances. Islamic society is distinguished by its
provisions to control security and its regulations which are taken from its
pure doctrine and core of its Sharia. It is united and associated regardless of
the various races, nationalities and levels. If we refer to the prophet sayings,
we will find that they call for security. Therefore, when prophet entered
Makkah he said his famous Sermon (The one who enters the house of Abu
Sofian will be secured). He concluded his life by establishing them principle
in Hijat Al-Wada in front of people (Don't go back after me unbelievers
killing each other).
Islam ordered and put penalties to the one who violates this principle.
(Those who fight against Allah and his prophet and corrupt will be awarded
of being killed, or crucified or their legs and hands are cut or dismissed from
the land… ". This is because their practice is aggression on the rightness and
Thesis of Doctorate - 33 -

fairness that should spread in the society. The penalties in Islam are
established to punish those who violate these principles. The mosque, home,
family, university, juristic institutions shall maintain and keep security as it
is and important basis for life and feeling of stability for all society
members. Security is great gift and it is created by love, loyalty, respect of
others rights, perform hospitality to non-Muslims in the Muslim society and
give them all their legal and security rights. That is considered worshiping
and compliance by Muslims to Allah teachings.

Chapter Two: (Role of Society Institutions)


Research One: (Mosque).
Requirement One: The importance of mosque: Islam has a special and
important look towards mosque is it is a wide field in which Allah is
worshipped and obeyed. Therefore, it has been given unique advantages and
distinctive characteristics is it is the source of the propagation to Allah.
Islam gave the mosque the highest level and established its as a sacred place.
Allah added it to Him when he said (mosques are for Allah and don’t call
with him any one else).

In the mosque Muslims purify themselves, the souls are united and the
Muslims worship Allah. The mosque has a comprehensive, variant and
multiple message that organizes different fields to spread the Islamic values
and good ethics. It presents the value of the human being and maintain him
and rectify his behavior. It provides the psychological and spiritual calmness
Thesis of Doctorate - 34 -

which ease the burden of their lives and conquer their desires and establish
the good relations between the people. It spreads security and stability in the
society.

Requirement Two: Mosque is the source of security and safety.


The mosque has a special sacredness in which the verses of Quran are
recited to clarify and purify souls and feed them by spiritual awareness and
right path. As long as the Muslim goes repeatedly to the Mosque he
increases his love to Allah and he question himself and prevent the
aggressive and criminal motives.

The individual strengthen his relation to the mosque and that affects the
whole society when it gets in the mosque the meanings of virtue and the
Islamic meanings which spread the calmness and put the Muslim to the right
path and prevent him from the path of extremism and terrorism. The
worshipping leads to be the source of mediation and balance in the prayers
selves and it become a path for Allah spirit and the Quran method. It helps
the society to bring his individuals to the right path and create a feeling of
security. Therefore, the mosque has a vital role in establishing the pillars of
security, establish the basis of stability in the society. The praying has direct
effect on rectifying the behavior individual and it is an effective means to
protect from deviation and crime.
Thesis of Doctorate - 35 -

Requirement Three: The role of the mosque in the awareness of the


security crimes
The mosque is the safety valve for the Islamic society and without which the
life in the society will not be go straightforward. The mosque also secure the
society from deviated ideas and acts, so it fights the bad behaviors and social
corruption. In this regard the Islamic sharia is distinctive by the basic
principles of workshop and dealing and maintain the social life to achieve
the security and fairness between people. It maintains the freedom of
individuals and the collective public rights. This role of the mosque has not
been away from other social institutions. It has been giving these institutions
and establishments the light of the rightness. When we review some of the
effects of the mosque on these establishments we find that it has positive
effects on them by teaching people the rightness without extremism.

Research Two:
Friday Sermon and its effect on security of the society:

Friday Sermon is the source of light for security, peace and rightness. It is
role in the society is clear and established as it is the first support and great
pillar to achieve social security. It deepens the unity and eliminate the
differences. It feeds the society with social and mental orientation. Although
these meanings have effective meanings in the Friday Sermon, its role is not
effective if the one who performs it does not convey the meanings
Thesis of Doctorate - 36 -

effectively of it and show its effective role in the life of the individual and
society.

On Friday, many prayers attend the Sermon of and they need some one to
remind them and draw their attention and direct them to the right way, solve
the society problems, contribute in rectifying the public life, return the
individual to the religion and its principles, spread the soul of love and good
relations among people. The person who conveys the Sermon and the Imam
of the mosque is more effective and have more impression on the crowd than
any other means that affect the society.

The speaker uproots the wickedness from the criminal and make him afraid
of Allah. He makes him like the rightness, accept the fairness, cooperate
with people, rectify the souls, awake the emotions in the people and educate
them to do the good things and cool down the selves. He takes the directions
from the book of Allah and from sunna of prophet Mohammed PBUH. In
order to be effective, the scientists took care of it and mentioned factors of
its success and benefits:

Requirement one: Factors of the Sermon success:

(Understand the situation) the speaker will not succeed in his mission
unless he attracts his listeners in a good effective method. He should be
aware of the current situation and the fluctuation in the environment. He
Thesis of Doctorate - 37 -

should rectify the wrong concepts in Islam and face the bad ideas be
presenting the correct Islam and its advantages of forgiveness,
comprehensiveness, balance, depth and positive ness. To achieve the object
of the Sermon it should be linked to the events of the society and the human
beings situation. It should concentrate on treatment of society problems,
provide solutions. It should fix the Islamic brotherhood and resist the racism
and differences.

(Urge to obey the ruler) The speakers should concentrate on the security of
the society, its stability, spread of peace, and relieve it from differences and
motives of sin and difference. They should urge the prayers to strengthen
their faith and fear of Allah and his punishment. They should call them to
observe Allah orders and good conduct, get the benefits of the current life
and the judgment day. Islam will establish security in the society and taking
care of the human being and the social life and prevent society from riot and
violence and prevent the criminals from doing their acts.

Obeying the ruler and respecting his personality is very important to avoid
differences and riots. The wise people understand these meanings and know
the consequences. They know that they have to yield to the provisions of
Islam. It is a sign of unity when the people obey the rulers and gather around
their leadership. This will be the way for their progress and development and
that provide protection of the society against wickedness. The suspected
criminals shall be reported and it is the responsibility of each Muslim to
Thesis of Doctorate - 38 -

protect the country from wicked people and avoid the country of riot and
disruption.

(The Islamic Unity and Faith Brotherhood) The speakers in the Mosque
shall establish the unity meanings in prayer selves, establish the warm
relations between themselves. Islam accepted the brotherhood as the base of
social unity and family tidiness should concentrate on the security of the
society, its stability, spread of peace, and relieve it from differences and
conflict. In case of conflict, a lot of dangers may occur resulting in horrible
incidents and instability of the society. The key role of the Imam is to solve
the problems between the people and remove the conflict between
themselves and establish the good relations. Therefore, the main role is
remind the people of their unity and they should be united as prophet
Mohammed PBUH has instructed by saying "the believers in their mutual
passion and mercy are like the one body when one organ complains the rest
of the body will suffer of fever).
Thesis of Doctorate - 39 -

(Mediation and Fairness): The call of Islam for mediation and fairness is
one of the important things that should be explained to the people. He should
explain to them that they should feel that Islam concentrates on fairness and
balance. Some people especially youth may become extremists due to their
ignorance of Islam and they call others as unbelievers or secular and this has
bad effects on the society.

(Care of Youth) The speaker has effective role in directing the people
especially the youth to comply with the right path and follow the Allah
instructions and strengthen the religious incentives and purify the self, show
the privileges of being straight and the bad effects of the deviation. They
should fear Allah and if a criminal escape from punishment in this life, he
will not escape from the punishment of Allah in the day after. The five
necessities of Islam should be explained. They are the protection of religion,
self, mind, honor and money. Islam warned of spoiling and assaulting on
these necessities. Islam has put penalties for violation of these necessities in
order to prevent aggression on them. These punishments have been approved
to overcome the terrorist gangs which threaten the peaceful people and
spread fear among them.

The speaker bears a major responsibility in instructing people especially the


youth of the security controls that stipulated by the Islamic jurisdiction to
protect the society from the crime, protect from deviation, fight of terrorism
acts and bad conducts which seek violation of the public system and
Thesis of Doctorate - 40 -

breaching of the security and killing and robbery of properties and money,
stirring of conflict and differentiation between Muslim groups. Any
violation of the Islamic jurisdiction is considered aggression, violation of
these rules.

(Relation with Non-Muslims)


The speaker shall explain from the Mosque to the people the superior
Islamic values, the fair situations, the Islam view to non-Muslims in the
Islamic society. The existence of non-Muslim groups living among Muslims
is an evidence of forgiveness of Islam and avoiding differentiation and
discrimination. Islam spreads love, security, calmness and coherence
between all people. Some of the Islamic society advantages, is the coherence
and living between all community individuals. This principle was the first
one that Prophet Mohammed was interested to establish in the first Islamic
state in Madinah to establish combined security system with all groups of
the society. He considered that the provision of security is one of the most
important requirements. The society included other groups in addition to
Muslims. Islam put provisions and rules that regulate the relation of
Muslims with other non-Muslim societies throughout the generation and
during all times.

Islam approved the secured social living with peaceful residents in the
Islamic State and permitted to eat their food and slaughtered animals. It
approved marriage with them and prophet Mohamed PBUH recommended
Thesis of Doctorate - 41 -

to keep the rights of other believers, maintain their blood and money and not
to assault against them. Abdullah Ibn Amru Ibn Alass said that the prophet
Mohammed PBUH said (if someone kills the covenant person he will not
find the smell of paradise).

This indicates the soul of Islam and its justice. This soul is for the whole
human being to spread mercy and security and strengthen the human
relations. Islam strengthen the relations between all elements of society and
respects the covenant and agreements and does not accept betraying.

Requirement Two:
Tracking the Sermons of the Two Holy Mosques see clearly the attitude of
the speakers in understanding the current situation, follow up the first event
including fighting violence, terrorism and bad acts. The terrorism events that
happened in our country are considered crimes. We are happy that Makkah
mosque Sermon is broadcasted directly by satellites via Saudi TV (channel
one) and Madinah mosque Sermon is broadcasted via channel two. Also
Saudi broadcasting stations of the general program in Riyadh and second
program in Jeddah participate in this broadcasting and that give the sermon
more importance and attention in the Islamic world.
Thesis of Doctorate - 42 -

Research Three : Scientists and Propagators. Allah has honored this


Ummah by the scientists and propogators whose core of work is to call
people and guide them to the right path and to justice and good deeds by
being easy, wise, and have full knowledge of Quran and sunnah. In
implementing wisdom to convince others there was a gradual method in
dealing with others. In Quran there are principles that should be considered
and observed by scientists and propogators which include three steps of
propagation starting from wisdom which is very important and should not be
neglected while dealing with others. Therefore, extremism is not right and if
it is not solved it may lead to negative impact on propagation for Islam.

In this case the scientists shall exert all efforts to subscribe the right effective
medicine for this disease. They are entrusted to be inherent of prophets.
They should teach those who are involved in such acts and discuss their
ideas and their psychological status. Scientists are assigned to bear
responsibilities to order bring happiness for the nation in its presence and
future. All are united to overcome terrorism and eliminate this phenomena.

Scientists are required to perform their duty to stand against this


phenomenon and protect the society from corruption by those deviators who
want to destroy the society and break its unity and security.
Thesis of Doctorate - 43 -

One of their first objectives is to fight the terrorism conduct and protect the
interests of individuals and society. This is objective is that for all other
previous religions. There the fives necessities that should be protected:
maintain religion, self, mind, birth and money.

Scientists shall explain their five matters and stand in front of the one who
tries to violate any of them. The terrorism conduct shall be overcome by
discovering the reasons for this misconduct. The persons who practice such
acts shall studies and their personalities shall be verified to know their ideas
and review their forums in the modern means of communications and know
their leaders and how they think.

Scientists shall explain the religion and the danger of these extremists. They
should activate the national loyalty of the country and the people and the
principles and valued fundamentals which identify their behavior. For
example the youth shall be encouraged love Makkah, Madinah and Palestine
and try to defend them. The bad conduct of terrorism has bad effects on our
religion as in the view of non-Muslims it will be considered as it is religion
of terrorism. This what is now spread in the mass media by the offenders of
Islam. Therefore, we should overcome such behaviors of terrorism and shall
show patience and good ethics.
Thesis of Doctorate - 44 -

Research Four : (Terrorism & Legal Jurisdiction). Jurisdiction is one of


the main mandatory after belief in Allah. It is ordered by Allah and He sent
his prophets PBUH to execute that and then their follower took that role.

Terrorism in its wide recent concept means the acts related to aggression
made by criminals and aggressors to frighten secured people and kill them,
cause instability to society security either by act, saying or procedure and
this what is called by the Sharia scientists (corruption on the earth). This
term is used now a days for such acts and it is considered a crime and the
one who commit it shall be punished as per legal jurisdiction.

The Jurisdiction View to Terrorism:

First: The Sharia texts stipulated that corruption in the earth is forbidden as
mentioned in Al-Hadeeth Al-Qudsi.
Also, in the verses of Quran he says (Don't corrupt on the earth after
rectifying it).
Also, old Muslim scholars such as Ibn Katheer and AlQurtibi explained that
Allah called for no corruption.

Second: Terrorism acts takes the shape of violence and fear for those living
in the society. Therefore, the terrorist does not care to terrify peaceful people
or fighters as he does not differentiate between women, children and old
people. Therefore, he attacks residential compounds where women and
Thesis of Doctorate - 45 -

children live as well as hospitals and education institutions. All society


resources are subject to terrorism attacks and that is considered by the
jurisdiction as aggression on the country's capabilities.

Third:
The terrorism acts deformed the picture of the Islamic society and harmed
the nation because the Islam is accused of terrorism. The reason that some
extremists who pretend Islam conducted bad behavior considering that as
part of Islam. No doubt that the terrorism acts made some people who hate
Islam to accuse it of terrorism, and they were keen to make people hate to
become Muslims.

Jurisdiction Procedures to investigate terrorists and their crimes.


1. Obtain assistance from the experts to give their opinion in
matters related to investigation.
2. The investigator should go to the place of the crime
immediately when it is reported to make inspection before
evidences are removed.
3. Search the houses where the terrorist lives and also search his
body.
4. Listen to the sayings of the witnesses unless the investigator
deems that there is no need for listening to them.
Thesis of Doctorate - 46 -

5. Question the accused person, confirm his personality, inform


him of the matter accused of and face him with other accused
persons or witnesses.
6. Retain the accused person after investigation if it is found that
there are enough evidences to charge him, or for the sake of
investigation he shall be uphold.
7. If the evidences are enough against the accused person they will
be presented to the court where he shall attend after
investigation. After proving the crime and following rules shall
apply:
First: The juristic principle which show the crime, and identify
the penalty.
Second: The Crime purpose: to qualify for imposing penalty.
Third: execute or start its stages. The person who is accused
will be subject to penalty to preserve the society and its
interests.

The preventive and remedial precautions for terrorism incidents:

1. Spread the awareness and knowledge among people so that the


citizens will coordinate to have the perfect method and strongest way
to support.
Thesis of Doctorate - 47 -

2. Take care of the rehabilitation aspects of the person committed the


crime because cutting the reasons of crime will prevent their
occurrence.
3. Direct the penalties through the best way that defend the crimes and
eliminate them.
4. Impose proper penalties for crimes even if they are small and not
related to terrorism incidents, because crimes and violations may lead
to others.
5. Enforce penalties on the crime incidents if they are combined by
terrorism.
6. Find penalties that the support the basic penalties as required such as
announcement.
7. Impose precisely and accurately the juristic penalties for the crimes
because Allah has decided that to rectify the affairs of the people.
8. Develop the juristic and security organizations which track the crime
before occurrence. It proposes the juristic recommendations and
proper social and scientific remedies.

Juristic Penalties on the Terrorism Incidents

Juristic penalties can be divided based on the terrorism incidents to several


divisions based on the crime. These penalties may be stipulated by Allah or
estimated by the judge depending on the crime. Such penalties include:
1. Penalty for planning
Thesis of Doctorate - 48 -

2. Penalty for urging


3. Penalty for assistance
4. Penalty for starting the crime and not preventing it.
5. Penalty for execution.
6. Penalty for knowing and not reporting (covering).

For each act of crime there shall be penalty. The above order does not mean
the order of penalties. A planner may deserve more penalty that executor.
The penalty shall be approved by Sharia and shall be limited to the criminal
and not to any who has not contributed in that crime.
Thesis of Doctorate - 49 -

Research Five: (Family)

Requirement One: Islam Care of Family

Islam gives more attention to the family and consider it as the first cell of the
society. Islam clarified all details, small or big, related to the family.

Family is the human umbrella necessary to build the self and practice the
calm happy life. Building this complementary family of the man and woman
is made by marriage to fulfill the inherited desires and meet the emotional
and body requirements. This will achieve a moderate and fair method that
fulfill the desires and does not spread sexual freedom. Practicing the calm
happy life is through the family which compose a small gathering the make
coordination and build a family that overcomes the living problems. In this
life they spread love, calmness, peace and satisfaction. The Muslim family is
the first forte where the child grows in Islamic education. The most
important objective of the family is to form the family and apply the Islamic
rules. This means to build the Islamic house which build itself on slavery to
Allah. Therefore, the child will be educated to achieve that objective by
acquiring the Islamic habits of his parents under he becomes mature and
aware of life. If both the wife and the husband live together in a mutual
respecting and merciful life, then their children will live in a calm family
environment away from anxiety and psychological sickness which weaken
his personality or create in him the violence and terrorism. Parents are
Thesis of Doctorate - 50 -

responsible for education of their sons and protect them from loss and
hellfire that wait every one who does not believe in Allah.

Although the family relations are correlated, we would like to highlight the
relation of parents with their sons. This relation has been arranged in the
Quran verses.

Requirement Two: the Family Function: Family is the basis for building the
human structure, with respect to spiritual, intellectual, doctrine, body,
emotional, and social aspects. Therefore, we found that Islam was careful to
make this structure to ensure that the new borne are free from inherited
diseases which lead to delivery of disabled new borne. After birth, the
family has the role of building the spiritual and doctrine structure of the
human being after birth.

Islam has stated the provisions for family and indicated the secrets behind
these provisions in many verses of Quran and Hadith, such as inheritance,
marriage, divorce, and stated the good relation between the family members.
There are limits that should be considered in order for the family to live
happy life and educate its members to learn the Islamic teachings. This cell
will be good to accommodate good men and women. By this the human
beings know each others and coordinate and have free movement and travel,
trading and other interests between human beings. By ensuring to have good
individuals in the family, the whole family to trend to good deeds and the
Thesis of Doctorate - 51 -

reasons for violence and other crimes in the society will eliminate. However,
there are other reasons for terrorism, violence and extremism in various
societies although the family structure remained the same. The family
contributed in that by exposing its members to some strange ideas not
available before. Satellites and internet penetrated in the privacy of the
Muslim family. Despite our understanding of their importance and benefits,
we know that they have can be harmful if they are misused because in this
case they will lead to bad results. If they are best utilized they will have great
benefits. Therefore, the parents play a major role to follow up the sons
activities and prevent them from following the deviated paths which spread
corruption. The Muslim family is targeted for corruption and spoiling of
their youth to be extremists and terrorists being away from the family
control which is supposed to be fully aware of the movements of the sons
and daughters and their social relations and the parties they contact and get
ideas form. Parents shall watch them so that they will not be surprised by the
change in the habits of their sons by contacting suspected parties. Disasters
may occur in many cases, therefore, the family should be aware of its role
and should work according to the Islamic Education principles and bear the
responsibility towards each of its members.

Requirement Three: It role in preventing deviation and crime:

There are seven basic functions performed by the family summarized as


follows:
Thesis of Doctorate - 52 -

• Produce economic and material and basic materials.


• Provide the individual his social position.
• Educate the children
• Develop the religion belief among kids.
• Protection
• Renew the activity
• Love

Although it is possible to protect the child by other social institutions, the


protection of the family is more effective since the family combines between
the personnel favorite response and the social strong care in the Arab and
Islamic societies. The family function extends to spirit of the human being
by teaching and directing it to the correct direction which matches the nature
of human being. By that combination the individual will be on the right path
and psychologically and socially secured. In addition, the family's function
in Islam is that it is the spring that feeds the child with the correct doctrine
and moderate thoughts from the Quran and Hadith.

The individual acquire his correct behavior and think techniques by the
social interaction and dealing with others. Parents are the first persons he
deals with, and they socialize the child because he obeys them and that
strengthens the relationship between the child and his parents. It is clear
there is a role of the family in developing the criminal behaviors of the child
Thesis of Doctorate - 53 -

since it bears the first responsibility for his appearance of any criminal
conducts. The family also is responsible for forming the correct behavior
since the children imitate their parents. Also, the problems and contradiction
inside the family may develop this attitude. The family is the first social
institution prepare and develop the child as per the society requirements. The
family is the first bricks in the society after the individual and as such it
bears a big responsibility because if the family is good the society will be
good. The family is the only social basis which is organic rather than
functional. Therefore, it gives it the opportunity to loosen the psychological
and material stresses on the individuals.
Accordingly, the family is responsible for direction of the children to the
doctrine, intellectual and cultural principles. We have mentioned Hadith that
the new baby is born on Islam and his parents make him a Jew, Christian or
majosi either by his father or mother.

The family has a great role in the social security as it is the first defense line
against bad things. However, it cannot play this role unless its strong in its
structure and its internal and external relations. One of the important aspects
that family should take care of is the social planning for children and their
activities and practices especially during summer holidays in order to utilize
their time. There is a close relation between the misuse of the free time
available for the children with their friends and tribe individuals and the bad
conduct and deviation. Therefore, the free time should be best utilized by
sport, cultural and social activities.
Thesis of Doctorate - 54 -

The family by its attention to have correct social education and best
utilization of free time with other various social institutions will have
valuable contribution in making up the good person in the society who will
provide security to the society now and in future.
Thesis of Doctorate - 55 -

Research Six : (School)

Requirement One: The Security Role of the School

The student, curriculum, teacher and school environment are basic


fundamentals to plant moderate and fairness or charge the violence and
extremism. We cannot discuss the role of the school in fighting the extremist
thoughts apart from the development and discovering of our mistakes in
teaching and its outputs. Teaching in Islamic society is based on teaching the
student to memorize the information until he passes the exam. He only stores
this information without understanding it. Therefore, they will be easy to be
attracted by other thoughts which the will be more stringent to implement
without thinking or discussion. They will be easy tools for practical and
mental implementation. Activation of the school's role to fight deviated
behavior should be based on teaching the students by dialogue that is based
on thinking and innovation and will make the student thinks about the
matters and see the reality from several corners. In this case he will be
preserved from attraction by deviated thoughts which call for violence and
terrorism. The school represented by its teachers and staff shall identify the
targeted parties in the big society which will be subject to the bad ideas and
shall direct them and establish special programs for them. The inability to
accommodate the student's needs may lead them to practice the crime
behaviors outside the school and they will be easy hunt for terrorism groups
to implement their thoughts. Therefore, the teacher represents the core to get
Thesis of Doctorate - 56 -

the information to the student and if the teach does not have strong
command of the material he presents to the student he will not be able to
give him the information in a correct way and accordingly the education
process will fail. Teachers are the alternatives for parents outside the family.
Some teachers assist the students to overcome some defects and problems
that affect his understanding, while others may negatively affect the
students. They should be an example to their students by learning from them
the best dealing and behavior.

Requirement Two: The School role in fighting terrorism, violence and


extremism.

The school bear the main role in decreasing the criminal attitude of the
society individuals. Security is closely linked with education and teaching.
When the noble ethical values are planted in the society individuals the
security will spread and the feeling of stability is spread. Education is one of
the important parties the plays a vital and important role to preserve
structure of society and its stability. Education transfer the social values and
standards from one generation to another. Education unites the society and
strengthens the national loyalty and unity among his individuals. Therefore,
the school has a security role to fight violence, terrorism and extremism
despite the claims of failure of education curriculums to teach the children
the positive social values and standards. There have been positive elements
of the curriculums on the stability of the social and cultural system in society
Thesis of Doctorate - 57 -

and they assisted directly on keeping the security in the past which is not all
bad. Present is not necessarily the best.

Requirement Three: Islamic Education Curriculums

It is the best evidence of the success of the teaching curriculums in fighting


violence and extremism. It has an active role in serving the security for
students. Islamic education materials have been taught all through the
academic stages from preliminary to high classes in all Arab and Islamic
countered. These materials strengthen and establish the Islamic doctrine in
the students in the primary classes. This is reflected on the student and make
him good citizen maintain the security of his nation. Reviewing the primary
stages of Islamic education we find that it concentrates on the Quran verses
and Hadith that teach the student the good values and warn him from
committing violation, and corruption in the earth and make him discuss
important issues of security such as the effects of conflict between Muslims.

The moderate Islamic education teaches the security culture to the students
and take them away from suspected matters. It discusses some important
subjects to them in view of the book and sunnah during the advanced stages
of their age. Those who develop the curriculums consider to eliminate riot,
and extremism and encourage moderation. Therefore, it is clarified that
Thesis of Doctorate - 58 -

weapon even by indication shall not be used to frighten Muslims. Bearing


weapons by Muslims to fight each other is forbidden. There are some
security subjects related to society security and protection form crime which
are contained in the Islamic education, including penalties, prevention of
bloodshed, ordering obey of the ruler, suicide forbidden, dealing with non-
Muslims, controls of calling non-believer. The Islamic Fiqeh contains many
subjects and writings in the past and now regarding identification of crime,
division, and harmful effects on the society and the penalty for the one who
commits violation on order to prevent him from committing that crime.
However, in some Islamic schools the religion education is not strong and it
is a minor subject by in Saudi Arabia it plays a major role in security
education to preserve the society from crime and deviation. This is in
addition to other subjects that plays a major role in this issue. However, the
teacher remains the most important factor of success of the education
process to achieve good results based on the education policy of the
Kingdom which confirms that education of the faithful citizen is the basic
objective of this policy in order to be a good brick in building his nation and
country and defend them as required. Therefore, the school in the Saudi
society plays a vital role to spread security feeling among the student.
Nationalism has recently become an important matter that should be
considered by the socialists, psychologists and politicians in order to create a
feeling of loyalty to the official authority. The important role of the school is
to confirm the national education where security is realized when all feel of
the responsibility towards the nation. Nationalism is not a material of
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teaching but rather it is a behavior through which interaction is made by all


study materials. Teacher, school and it staff shall set an example in front of
the students to confirm the nationality loyalty concept so that it becomes a
behavior and a practice and not only theoretical material taught apart from
the reality. The modern societies opt that the school as a teaching institution
shall have social function goes along with the social developments in life.
School is called small society where students are trained on the local work
and on bearing the responsibility as they accept the meanings of discipline,
and rightness and duty. Some calls the school as an organization institute
that serve the society and study the environment, resources, requirements
and the people's participation in funding its projects because it is the only
institution linked to all individuals. The school function is a social institution
has developed to participate in big society works after it was isolated. It
allowed the fathers and mothers to enter the school to discuss the interests of
their sons and school. The expansion of the school calls to understand the
importance of this entity. Home performs his role and duties and send his
children to the school where the education system teaches those children the
good things through syllabus in order to be good citizens in their future days.
It is the factory of youth, male and female, who will lead the society one
day. The danger is to misuse these minds by giving the students ideas
presented as they are the right ideas although they are subject to rejection.
We have a problem of deviation from the teaching process by some teachers
because the relation between the student and his teacher is not limited in the
classroom, but it goes to other activities whereat strange ideas may be
Thesis of Doctorate - 60 -

planted resulting in violence and extremism. The student may deviate and
tries to impose on his classmates the ideas he received from his teacher. He
does not have the tools for verification because he is not aware of the
subjects of difference which shall be referred to the Quran and Sunnah.
Regretfully, this group may bear the seeds of violence, extremism and
terrorism. When he leaves the school he faces the society with all its
cultural, educational and religious concepts. He considers himself right and
he rejects all religious teachings which call for forgiveness and avoidance of
extremism. He will find himself isolated and have to work in darkness to
implement his ideas. The catastrophe occurs when these terrorisms damage
the properties by explosive, considering that part of religion.

The school endeavors to control the student's relation with the small society
in accordance with regulations and systems that ensure the entitlements and
duties. This is a practical training on practicing control in the big society
between the individual and those around him in work, home and in the state
institutions. The students are given the opportunity to be trained on using
their minds and ideas to abstract the solutions to their problems apart from
violence or terrorism. Other institutions have major effect to eliminate the
difference between the students without interference from the superiors.
However, there will be a big danger if they adopt the ideas of other and
reject the other party and try to isolate him, because this is against unity and
forgiveness and fulfillment of commitments. This attitude may be the first
Thesis of Doctorate - 61 -

seed that increases the spirit of aggression, violence, extremism and


terrorism.

Research Seven:
Security Institutions: Security is the basis for each organization because it is
the backbone for the human life and basis of civilization and development in
all fields of knowledge, art, culture, commerce and tourism and omrah
performance. The security agencies are assigned to maintain security for
these accomplishments. Tracking the development of the Ministry of Interior
in the world we find that it includes various dvisions taking care of security
in addition to colleges, acadamies and technical training activities aims to
upgrade the level of security men. Security activities are known for all and
they are to protect the system, public security, protect lives, honors, and
funds. Security men shall ensure the calmness and stability.

The control conducted by security forces is primarily related to those who


are isolated from society and who cannot be controlled unless a policeman is
put on each street corner to watch . The society needs conditions to decrease
the violence and disturbance. These conditions shall be provided within the
frame of traditions and social customs and systems that serve the society and
maintain it. Security forces in the advanced societies are responsible for the
society and serve it. To perform their responsibilities, security forces shall
assume four missions:
1. control of crime.
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2. prevent crime
3. organize behavior
4. prepare for service.

The bright history of security work in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia makes
us understand the important and dangerous role assumed by these forces
which have different skill and training. However, the last terrorist attacks
implemented inside the Kingdom forced us to think about a mysterious
sickness we did not expect to be among us. The security forces have
controlled the situation and after chasing the terrorists who implemented
their bad deeds, they started to discover planned operations before
implementation and this is hoped by all citizens and residents. I am sure that
our security leaderships are able to dissolve the terrorism cells and uproot
them. Those who are alive will go back to his nation after he finds right path
and the wrong path. All efforts, civil and security, shall be correlated to
bridge the gap and unit and foster the defense to face terrorism and curtail it
to the minimum.

The duty of society towards the security forces: security is necessary for
life and one factor of continuity. Security cannot be achieved without its
men whatever the names and functions of keeping security. Under security
honor and properties are preserved, and life continue by protecting the
individuals. Weakness of security is the first spark for internal fighting
especially that disturbance is much easier than control it. In case of lack of
Thesis of Doctorate - 63 -

security, killing, assassination and explosions and other terrorism acts may
occur. The efforts of security forces are very clear and shall be appreciated
since they controlled big quantities of weapons and explosions by being used
such as C4, TNT, grenades, biological materials, RBG which were presented
by the mass media. One TNT is enough to destroy a building area of 100
meters, PBX is enough to destroy a building of 10 floors. Security forces
have been able to control such operation before occurrence. They should be
supported against these terrorists, because their work as part of the Jihad and
I ask our people to understand their searching and the long lines on check
points for the interest of the society. They are standing under climate
changes for long time and bear the insults of some people in order to protect
us especially during these critical times.

Killing of the security men during inspection and attacks of terrorist places
is a bad thing and should be strongly condemned. The scenes of their dead
bodies of security forces shall be remembered and consider them as martyrs
since the protect the holiest places. They should be patient and track the
criminals and overcome them. Their efforts are appreciated and their
activities are permitted. Investigation includes follow up and retain to find
the truth. Spying is forbidden if it is uncover Awrah and violation of
preserved things for sake of desire and that is not part of security men
activities.
Thesis of Doctorate - 64 -

Security men are part of the society and congratulations for parents, wives
and children of the security forces for their being in this important
organization. He performs the great job by keeping the security of the holy
places from the criminals and their work is part of Jihad and they should
support them. It is good for the security man to see his father, brother or
family member appreciates and support him to face the problems. The wife
shall consider the situation of her husband to decrease its demand since his
time is not for him but for all especially in this critical situation.

Research Eight: Local and International Meetings and Forums

It is good to see the decision makers respond and support the meetings for
fighting terrorism. These meetings show the correct view and stand of Islam
towards terrorism and violence and that it rejects all types of aggression on
others or frightening them by any means especially those who are living in
the Kingdom of the other religion believers. The Kingdom hospitalized two
international conferences about terrorism in 1423 and 1425 and both
conferences had good coverage by mass media from all over the world. The
conveyed the real attitude of Islam in fighting terrorism. This is in addition
to local meetings arranged by various social institutions.

Conference I: (International Conference for fighting terrorism):


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This conference was organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and held
at King Abdulaziz Center for Conferences in Riyadh under the custody of
His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah Ibn Abdulaziz Al-Saud and
direct follow up from His Royal Highness the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
This conference included seventy five countries, organizations and Arab and
International union represented by experts to discuss and exchange
information and technical methods for fighting terrorism are a response to
the one who harm the reputation of Islam which is the religion of
forgiveness, moderation and fairness.

Conference Objectives:
• Explain the reasons for appearance of this phenomena
• Watch the historical and intellectual developments of
this phenomena.
• Know the organizational aspects and the terrorism
organizations and their structure, method of process and
fight the organizations which call for violence in
extremism.
• Study the relation of terrorism and money wash.

Conference Topic:
• routes of terrorism
• relation between terrorism and drugs
Thesis of Doctorate - 66 -

• culture and terrorism thoughts.


• Relation between terrorism, smuggling of weapons and
money wash.

Recommendation of the Conference


One of the most important is:
• agreement to establish international center for fighting
terrorism.
• Consider the united nations as the main place for
uniting the international cooperation in fighting
terrorism.
• There should be agreement on comprehensive
agreement of (terrorism)
• Urge countries to take all necessary precautions to
prevent terrorist from obtaining mass destruction
weapons.
• Call to reinforce international and regional bilateral
coordination to identify and remove the financial line
for terrorism.
• Support national reformation efforts to face the
conditions that foster the terrorism and extremism.
• Call all countries to adopt national active
comprehensive and united strategy against terrorism.
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• Encourage establishment of national and regional


centers specialized in fighting terrorism.

Conference II: (Islam Attitude towards terrorism):

This conference was organized by Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud university in


the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A group of opinion leaders from several
Arab, Islamic, European and American countries. Studies and discussions
made in the conference have been distributed in five languages being Arabic,
English, French, and Spanish and Persian languages. These can be reviewed
at the website prepared for this purpose www.islamstand.org

Conference Objectives:
• Find the routes of terrorism, violence and extremism
and that it is the result of deviation from the Islam
teachings.
• Clarify the mediation of Islam and its fairness and its
call for dialogue and conversation in a good method.
• Clarify the legal opinion based on evidences regarding
the last incidents.
• Contribute in defending the Kingdom scientifically and
intellectually and expel outside rumors and lies about
its attitude.
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• Submit scientific, educational, psychological, and social


suggesions to the concerned agencies to contribute in
providing the required remedy.
• Clarify the stand of Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud Islamic
University about deviation and then repel accusations of
the Kingdom.
• Participate with other sectors in the protection and
secure of the internal front.

Axis One : The Nature of Terrorism, Violence and Extermism


• concept and differences of opinions
• roots
• concepts and shapes

Axis Two: Terrorism, Violence and Extremism evaluated by


Jurisdiction
• Quran and Sunnah
• Stands of Sahabah and Tabi'een
• Scientists stand presently and in the past.

Axis Three: Terrorism, Violence and Extremism (History, reasons and


results)
• History
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• Reasons (intellectual, economical, political, social,


psychological, educational .. etc).
• Results : (intellectual, economical, political, social,
psychological, educational .. etc).

Axis Four: Dealing with Terrorism, Violence and Extremism


• The function of the scientists and propogators
• Function of family
• Function of school
• Function of the social institutions
• Media organizations functions
• Security organizations functions

Axis Five: Moderation, Forgiveness of Islam and its call for dialogue
• Islam mediation
• Islam forgiveness
• Call for dialogue

Axis Six: The Kingdom's stand towards terrorism, violence, extremism


in present and the past.
• Basis on which the Kingdom fights terrorism, violence
and extremism in the past (internally and externally)
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• The Kingdom's efforts in fighting terrorism, violence


and extremism in the present.

Recommendations of the Conference:


• Confirm rejection of terrorism which is represented in
aggression either by individuals, groups, or countries.
Terrorism is a crime not accepted by heaven religions
and local rules. It is international phenomena not related
to religion, culture or race.
• The importance of international agreement to identify
the accurate concept of terrorism to refer to in case of
dispute and contradiction so that the term will not be
subject to pretexts and ambiguity.
• Importance of the university and other educational
institutions in conducting meetings and seminars
periodically to discuss this current phenomena in which
local and international societies are interested.
• Emphasize the bad results of extremism, aggression and
terrorism as it is not part of the religion and causes
destruction of the nations, and it contradicts with the
meaning of forgiveness of sharia and requesting the
scientist to explain to the Muslims and others the
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Islamic sharia and consider the rights of all human


beings.
• Write books and researches specialized in terrorism,
extremism and violence and translate them to
international languages.
• Emphasize treatment of extremism reasons and roots by
spreading education and realize justice and remove
injustice from the societies and respect the human rights
and peoples privacy.
• Be interested to fortify and protect the youth and protect
them from following violence and extremism through
ways such as:
a. Dialogue and convincing
b. Utilize the free times of the youth in some thing
beneficent to them that develop their skills.
c. Confirm the concepts of forgiveness and avoid
extremism by the teaching curriculums and mass
media and education means.
d. The necessity to differentiate between terrorism
that is rejected by the Islamic sharia and all other
heaven religions and local rules and the legal
resistance to liberate from foreign occupation.
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• Emphasize the reformations called by Sheikh


Mohammed Ibn Abdul Wahhab as it is the Islamic
propagation based on Islam principles away from
extremism and terrorism.
• Establish a center for Current Islamic Studies and
dialogue between cultures aiming to study the factors
that affect the relationship between civilizations and
what hurdle the relation between them such as negative
impacts of terrorism, extremist and violence.
• Emphasize and foster the communication and mutual
visits between scientist and intellectuals from the
Kingdom and other western scientists to contribute in
fostering the dialogue and remove misunderstanding
about many issues.
• Confirm the importance of the scientists efforts exerted
to increase intellectual contacts with youth through
extensive meetings and dialogues about terrorism and
violence.
• Emphasize the importance of the mass media, audio and
video, in respecting the values, ethics and public
conduct.
• Publish the conference researches and discussion in a
scientific record and translate that to other languages.
Thesis of Doctorate - 73 -
Thesis of Doctorate - 74 -

Research Nine : (The Electronic Terrorism)

Terrorists found a wide space to spread their false ideas and call for their bad
principles in the internet where they freely launch their activities under false
names through their sites and their audible or video forums and even the
chatting rooms called pal talk that becomes one of their targets to feed the
terrorism ideas and attract many youth and supporters and get from them
financial and moral support by various possible means under names of
(Tafjeer.com) and (Takfeer.com). Such sites have taught the methods and
means to perform terrorism operations by establishing sites to teach how to
manufacture explosives and ways of assassination and burning of critical
establishments and the best ways to kidnap and clean the small arms and the
first aids and how to attack policemen and also spread all methods to destroy
and access sites and e-mails and how to enter barred sites and how to spread
viruses.

Internet is a secured place for meeting: Although the meetings of terrorists


and criminals in a certain place to learn terrorism and crime methods are
difficult be held on nature, the internet has facilitated that because several
persons can meet at a certain time and exchange the talk and listen to each
other on the internet. The may get supporters by spreading their ideas and
principles via internet sites, and dialogue forums and the chatting rooms.
Although it is difficult to establish TV and broadcasting station as mass
media, it is easy to create internet site, utilize the dialogue forums to serve
Thesis of Doctorate - 75 -

the terrorist objectives. There are thousands of sites for terrorism


organizations to ensure wide spread so if some sites destroyed others can be
reached.
Terrorists found these digital means and information revolution to be their
best means in the electronic terrorism.

The Kingdom's efforts in fighting terrorism.


The Kingdom is distinguished by depending on Quran and Sunnah as a
ruling in all life affairs. Therefore, dealing with the information technology
as other fields of life are subject to Sharia. In view these provisions the
respective agencies set forth bylaws stipulating the rights and duties of all
parties. The government issued some bylaws and regulations and
instructions to face the electronic assault and terrorism. These regulations
stipulated penalties for violation of these rules such as the resolution of the
minister's cabinet No. 163 on 1417H which provided rules and controls to
use the internet and subscribe in it, including:

1. Prohibit access or try to access to any computer systems


connected to internet without permission from the owner or
those who have the ownership rights for such systems,
information and resources.
2. Prevent sending or receiving coded information without
permission from the service provider.
Thesis of Doctorate - 76 -

3. prevent access to other accounts and try to use them without


permission.
4. prevent others from participation in using others accounts and
inform them of the pass word of the user.
5. comply to respect internal regulations for local and international
networks upon access to.
6. prevent from exposing the intranet to danger by opening
security gaps in it.
7. abandon extensive use of the network to get busy so that others
may not make use of it.
8. comply with the instruction issued from the internet service unit
at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology with
controls and policies to utilize the network.
9. The resolution stated formation of permanent committee
chaired by Ministry of Interior and membership of Ministries
of: Defense, Finance, Culture and Information, Telecom and IT,
Commerce, Islamic Affairs, Planning, High Education,
Education, Intelligence Headquarters, King Abdulaziz City for
Science and Technology to discuss fields of control and
utilization of internet and coordinate with other parties
especially:
a. Security control related to incoming and outgoing
information through the external line of the internet
which contradicts to our religion and regulations.
Thesis of Doctorate - 77 -

b. Coordinate with the parties utilizing the service in


relation to management and security of the national
network.
This resolution shows the Kingdom's initiative to organize and
control the electronic transactions.

The Kingdom started to conduct training sessions being the first


about the subject of fighting the computer crimes by
participation of international experts. Computer crimes are
estimated to cost USD 600 million in the middle east. 25% of
these crimes happened to individuals and organizations in Saudi
Arabia during 2000 only. There is a Saudi government
committee composed of respective Ministries to accomplish the
e-commerce project. It is also required to put regulations and
details, and evaluation of the infrastructure and all elements
related to electronic transactions. These preparations are to
prevent spread of this type of local crime after opening of the e-
commerce especially that the world is suffering of such crimes
and now there are a lot of such crimes and means of fighting
them in addition to provisions and regulations to prevent their
occurrence.

The procedures in the Kingdom aim to develop knowledge and


skills to participate in fighting crimes committed via computer
Thesis of Doctorate - 78 -

or computer networks and identify their types and security


indications and apply the technical procedures for security of
software's and networks and admin procedures to use
information. This type of crimes is committed by different
categories but the most dangerous of that is the organized
crimes which are committed by the computer for stealing banks
and commercial firms including the theft of credit card numbers
and the pin numbers and spread them on the internet. This
category uses the computer to manage its illegal activities such
as drugs and money wash. Although the categories are different
but their means are similar in many aspects. Therefore, the
security organizations need a lot of work to develop their
abilities to deal with computer crimes so that the investigator
will be able to deal with the electronic tools of hardware and
software.

The electronic terrorism became a horrible thing in the world


which is subject to terrorism attacks through internet. Terrorists
attack from anywhere in the world. These risks increase by days
because technology only is not able to protect people from the
electronic terrorism operations which caused significant
damages to people, organizations and countries. These efforts
are not enough to face this dangerous weapon.
Thesis of Doctorate - 79 -

E-terrorism becomes a danger for all world and its danger is


due to its easy use and severe effects. It can be used from home,
office, coffee shop and hotel room.

Factors to reserve the society from the e-terrorism:


Dr. Abdurrahman concluded factors to protect society from the e-terrorism:

First: the transactions related to IT as other fields of life shall be subject to


jurisdiction laws of the Quran and sunnah. In view of such laws, the
respective agencies shall put the specific regulations for laws and
obligations of other parties. The juristic and security institutions shall
implement such laws and regulations and resolve the disputes.
Second: one of the most means used in e-terrorism is using the e-mail to
make contacts and exchange information. There are many terrorism
operations occurred recently, the e-mail was one of the means for
exchange of information between those who performed these
operations.
Three: penetration of the e-commerce is assault on the privacy of others and
their information. Allah forbid spying and the Sharia kept the human
personal right and considered aggression on other rights as Haram.
Legally it is forbidden to attach internet site and that is considered
damage and shall be subject to penalty.
Fourth: Terrorists design and construct internet sites to spread their ideas and
call for their principles and teach the methods to assist them implement
Thesis of Doctorate - 80 -

their terrorist act. Sites are created to teach explosions manufacturing


and how to penetrate sites and e-mail and how to enter barred sites and
spread viruses.
Fifth: Bar the bad sites which calls for corruption including those call for
terrorism and aggression on others.
Six: Although it is important to apply the provisions and rules to control the
e-transactions which become a means of e-terrorism, the efforts are still
in the initial stages. The resolutions and bylaws do not cover all new
matters in IT activities. There is no security sections and specialized
courts and information products for many society categories.
Seven: Security organizations need a lot of work to develop their capabilities
to deal with computer crimes and protect from them. Procedures shall
be developed to discover crime and provide the evidence for the
jurisdiction parties. Also, awareness shall be spread about the computer
crimes and the penalties for that. New security organizations shall be
created to investigate computer crimes and coordinate with other
countries for protection against these crimes.
Eight: the Kingdom exert extensive efforts to fight e-terrorism and issued
several regulations and bylaws, instructions and resolutions to face the
electronic aggression and terrorism. In addition, training courses were
conducted regarding the subject of computer crimes by participation of
international specialists.
Ninth: At the worldwide level and to go along with the tremendous
development in IT, regulations are issued to control electronic
Thesis of Doctorate - 81 -

transaction. These transactions included penalties for violators of e-


transactions and fight the terrorism fighting.

Research Ten: (Intellectual Security)


The intellectual security for the society is one of the main terrorism fighting
means. It is a major requirement for each nation and necessary for its
stability.
Islam has been interested to prevent aggression on the Muslim society
doctrine and any attempt to change that or violate the intellectual security
and divert the thought specially among the youth. The intellectual security
is disturbed when there is no reference for Fatwa in matters related to the
society and its relation with others including the relation with non-Muslims.
The society needs to understand the balance, moderation and the spread of
that among its members, young or old in this environment where the satellite
audio and video broadcasting and the internet flood with all their advantages
and disadvantages which provide various sources of receiving information,
not limited in school, mosque, family and society organizations. This flood
carried many bad things including the bad behavior and morals which made
the moderate current lose many of its supporters to become more liberate or
more extremists.

Preventive methods to protect the intellectual security:


Thesis of Doctorate - 82 -

1. Show that Islam is moderate and balanced and establish loyalty of


youth to this moderate religion and make them proud of that to stay on
that method and do not support extremism and liberation.
2. Know diverted ideas and protect the youth against that by teaching the
youth about these ideas and their mistakes before they get impacted of
that diverted thoughts.
3. Give the full opportunity for dialogue inside the society and rectify
any diversion by the evidence and convince otherwise bad ideas will
spread and be adopted to disturb the society security.
4. Pay attention to schools, mosques, home to avoid isolation between
fathers and their sons and the teachers and their student and between
the mosque speakers and the audience. In the blast terrorist incidents
we found that some who committed such acts have been isolated from
their families for long time.
5. Doa (ask Allah) This has significant effect in the intellectual security
and it has been neglected by many people.

Remedial Means to protect the intellectual security:

1. Ask the person who committed the mistake to return and find the right
path for calm discussion without accusation of intentions because they
may be right.
2. Avoid the un-useful methods that take a lot of effort and time which
may be take a lot of effort and time but its results are limited.
Thesis of Doctorate - 83 -

3. Should control them and prevent them form violating the intellectual
security of the society even if that leads to force them not to mix with
others to avoid their wickedness. .
4. Avoid sitting with the bearers of deviated thoughts who want to sink
the ship of society.
5. It is necessary to differentiate between the deviated thoughts which do
not result in action and the violation of security of the society. Any
one who commits a destructive acts shall be subject to penalty.

Historical overview of the explosions in Saudi Arabia:

A series of terrorism operations occurred in the Kingdom and killed several


innocent people. These operations can be summarized as follows:
1. Explosion in Makkah in 1409H
2. Explosion of car in Olaya quarter in Riyadh city in 1416H.
3. Four explosions of cars in three compounds in Riyadh 1424H.
4. Explosion of car in the old Public Security building in Washem in Riyadh
in 1425H.
This is in addition to several partial explosions in which killed some
innocent persons and policemen in various areas in the Kingdom. By the
help of Allah, several mined vehicles and weapons, grenades and small arms
have been controlled. In 1424, 1425H, 22 terrorism operations occurred in
Thesis of Doctorate - 84 -

the Kingdom resulted in killing 90 persons, 507 injuries and billions of


Riyals of losses. Security forces were able to kill 92 criminal and injured 17
of them and stopped implementation of 52 operations.
In 1400 the Kingdom witnessed armed assault on the Holy mosque in
Makka, led by Juhaiman Al-Otaibi, claiming that Al-Mahdi has appeared.
They committed the worst crime by frightening people in the Holy mosque.
The country was able to capture them and execute the legal penalties.

The Kingdom's effort in fighting terrorism

The Kingdom is part of the world and it doesn't accept terrorism and tries to
eliminate this phenomena to protect its society from the risks of terrorism. It
is important area on the world map and it was subject to some terrorism
operations. It is the source of Islam and such it will be subject to terrorism
which frightens the secured people, kill innocent, destroy vital installations
and country properties. The Kingdom played a major role in fighting
terrorism as part of its Islamic responsibility. The Quran and Sunnah
stipulated provisions to fight terrorism as mentioned before.

The basic system of the government stipulated that (the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia is an Arab Islamic state with full superiority. Religion is Islam and
the statue is the Quran and Sunnah).
Thesis of Doctorate - 85 -

Therefore, the Kingdom stand towards the terrorism is the same like the
Islamic stand based on sunnah and Quran.

Endorsement of Terrorism Penalty and Implementation: A strong


penalty against terrorism has been approved as per the fatwa from the Senior
Committee of Scientists as per Fatwa No. 148 for the year 1409 issued at
Taif when they confirmed that Islam considers terrorism as aggression and
corruption in the land because it is fighting against Allah, prophet and
human beings. This fatwa has been actually implemented in cases of Al-
Haram incident in 1400H and Olaya explosion in 1416 and other cases of
aggression against security of society and its people.

Spread of moderation and fairness: All society institutions, governmental


and national, are establishing the principle of moderation and treatment of
extremism among all society individuals. They use all available means to
spread the moderate culture via mass media so that the message will reach
all society classes.

International Participation

The country participate in all international conferences organized by


institutions interested in fighting terrorism. Furthermore, it also organized
meetings and invited international personalities such as the holding the
international conference for fighting terrorism held in Riyadh with
Thesis of Doctorate - 86 -

participation of 57 countries and organizations. A meeting was also


organized by Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud University about Islam stand
towards terrorism whereat approximately 200 newsmen have participated
from all over the world.

Clarify the Picture for Abroad: The Kingdom spread the real picture of
fighting terrorism through its embassies, centers and institutions all over the
world by conveying the real Islam and the call for it by wisdom as it is the
religion of forgiveness, and brotherhood and it is against violence, terrorism
and extremism.

Security Systems: Established security systems specialized in fighting


terrorism. Some of their responsibilities are to coordinate, cooperate and
exchange information with similar systems at the bilateral, regional and
international levels. They have been provided with the most advanced
technologies, and high level training for their staff considering the
developments of methods and rules to fight terrorism.

Local Level: at the local level the Kingdom proved to the world that it is
serious and hard in facing terrorist operations. The evidence of that is the
success of security forces in overcoming the corruptors who are apart from
the group. The Kingdom recruited all its organizations to protect the society
from their danger and eliminated or captured many of terrorists. It
discovered and prevent some terrorism operations before implementation. It
Thesis of Doctorate - 87 -

captured various types of weapons. The security and religious authorities


convinced some of them to abandon such thought and return to their
societies. Security teams and check points have been established to make the
citizen feel of security.

Intellectual References: The respective agencies in the Kingdom have


succeeded in convincing many Sheikh who affected the members of this
deviated group. They withdraw some of their fatwa which they confirmed
that they were wrong. Some of these sheikhs are Ali Al-Khodair, Nasir Al-
Omar and Ahmad Al-Khaldi. Also some wanted person announced that they
returned from their attitude such as Khalid Al-farraj, Abdulrahman Al-
Roshoud as broadcasted by the Saudi TV and radio and local newspapers
and other local, Arab and international mass media which took care of the
incidents and broadcasted that and supported that step from the Kingdom.

Royal Amnesty: One of the positive initiatives to overcome this local and
internal terrorism phenomena was the decree issued by the Custodian of the
Two Holy Mosques to give the terrorists a grace period of one month to
think and return and hand over themselves. This Amnesty has a big effect on
the Saudi society and it was acceptable. Some have yielded and they were
released from jail and involved in the social life.

Valued Awards: The Ministry of Interior promised to give a valuable


financial award for every one who shows cooperation with the security
Thesis of Doctorate - 88 -

forces and report about any terrorists and contribute in preventing terrorism
operations. This award exceeded SR 7 million in some cases. The society
interacted positively and cooperated with the security forces to fight
terrorism.

Continuous Call: The country followed a unique method in treatment of


some incidents of terrorism conducted by its people. It asked them to turn to
Allah and hand themselves to the security forces. The scientists approved
this step which leads to unite the nation and narrow the gap. This method
was a combination between the security solution and the intellectual
treatment. This was a successful policy at the short and long term.

Care of Policemen: The Kingdom represented by the Ministry of Interior


has exerted complementary efforts to upgrade the morals of the security
forces. Firstly they defend their country and holy places and that will be
awarded by Allah. The also received financial support by increasing their
salaries and give them two months award. Also the injured and the martyrs
families have been compensated for the damages occurred to them and the
society was satisfied by that. These families have received moral support
and assistance in searching for jobs for the sons of martyrs and facilitate
completion of study by giving them priority in scholarships.

Activation of the Arab Ministries of Interior Council resolutions. The


Kingdom contributed actively in several resolutions issued by the Arab
Thesis of Doctorate - 89 -

Ministries of Interior Council aimed to foster the security cooperation


between the Arab countries. Some of the most important:
Arab security strategy
Arab security strategy for fighting terrorism
Arab security strategy for civil protection
Arab information strategy for security awareness and protection from crime.

Signature of Meetings and Covenants: The Kingdom signed several


covenants:
• Signature of Arab Agreement for fighting terrorism for
1998.
• Approval of the Islamic Conference Agreement about
Terrorism.
• The Kingdom also signed eleven international
agreement at the united nations level to fight terrorism.
• Signature of recommendations of all international
conferences, organizations and councils related to
fighting terrorism. Furthermore, it called for
international conference targeting to conclude a
comprehensive international agreement to fight the
terrorism.
Thesis of Doctorate - 90 -

• The Kingdom leads a strong campaign against terrorism


and terrorists through the Arab Ministers of Interior
Council established in 1982.
HRH Prince Naïf Ibn Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, the Minister
of Interior and the Honorable Chairman of the Council
has a leading role to approve policies, plans and several
programs.
• The Kingdom held about fifteen bilateral security
agreements, in which fighting terrorism occupied the
top priority and that confirms the Kingdom's full
cooperation with the international society for protection
against terrorism.
• The Kingdom has endorsed several international
agreements related to fighting terrorism including
agreements:
a. Tokyo agreements for crimes and acts
implemented on the aircraft boards signed on
14/9/1967G.
b. Lahai agreement regarding fighting illegal
capturing of aircrafts signed on 16/12/1970.
c. Montréal Agreement for fighting illegal acts
conducted against civil aviation safety signed on
23/9/1971. etc.
Thesis of Doctorate - 91 -

For more discussion and authentication you may


review the research (Kingdom's Efforts in Fighting
Terrorism).
References -1-

Quran
Maqayees Alogha Dictionary
Lisan Al-Arab
Taj Al- Arous
Jame'e Ahkam Al-Quran
Meanings of Quran
Ahkam Al-Quran
Al-Tafseer Al-Kabeer
Al-Nihayeh fe Ghareeb Al-Hadeeth and Al Athar
International Terrorism for Dr. Mohamed Abdulaziz Shokri
Terrorism Establish A state for Dr. Haitham Al-Kilani
The Arab Agreement for fighting terrorism
Statement of the Islamic Research Complex in Azhar regarding terrorism in
1422
Book: Resolutions of the Islamic Feqeh Complex
Makkah Statement: Islamic World League Magazine.
Security Newspaper (Ministry of Interior) No. 58 P. 34
International Information Magazine . The National Information Center No.
57
Terrorism and Extremism for the view of Society Dr. Abdulrahman
Rashwan
Role of Islamic Education in facing Terrorism Dr. Khalid Al-Thahri
Factors of extremist, terrorism and violence and treatment in view of Quran
and Sunnah.
Al-Bidayah and Al-Nihayah 10/ 581
Yamamah Magazine . No. 1790
Profile of terrorism in the recent time
References -2-

Altafseer Alfareed in the Quran


Tafseer Al-Quran by Al-Ezz
Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Moslem
Al-tafseer Alfareed
Al-Uboodiah for Ibn Taymiah
Role of Mosque Dr. Abdulkarim Ibn Sunaitan AlOmari
The best method in Friday Sermon
Terrorism Magazine , special issue from the Ministry of Islamic Affairs
1424H
AlMostasfa by Al-Ghazali
Almowafaqat by Al-Shatibi
Qualification Programs 21-23 Adnan Al-Qarshees
Quran Tafseer
Penalty Procedures System
Jurisdiction Function in Dealing with Terrorism Dr. Nasser Al-Mohaymed
Islam Nature Dr. Abdulhadi bo Taleb
Arab Family and its Role in Protection from deviation and crime
School role Dr. Abdul aziz Yousuf
Child culture development – Abdul Tawab Yousuf
Security and Planning – Gen. Yahya Al-Alami
AlJazirah Newpaper No. 11810
Informative File for forum issued by Imam University
Al-Sharq Al-Awsat newspaper, No. 8196 , Monday 7/5/2001. P15.
Electronic Terrorism Means
Intellectual Security Dr. Abdulrahman Al-Sudais
Intellectual Security Dr. Adel Al-Sheddi
Amenon Magazine p. 64
References -3-

Article One of the Basic System of the Ruling issued by the Royal Decree
No. A/90 dated 27/8/1412H
Kingdoms Efforts in Fighting Terrorism , prepared by Dr. Saeed Al-Zahrani