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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN PERSETUJUAN ........................................................................... ii

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN ............................................................................. iii

DAFTAR ISI ........................................................................................................ iv

DAFTAR TABEL ............................................................................................... v

DAFTAR GAMBAR ........................................................................................... vi

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ..................................................................................... vii

BAB I PENDAHULUAN .................................................................................... 1

1.1 Latar Belakang ........................................................................................... 1

1.2 Rumusan Masalah ...................................................................................... 4

1.4 Tujuan Penelitian ........................................................................................ 4

1.4.1 Tujuan umum ...................................................................................... 4

1.4.2 Tujuan khusus ..................................................................................... 4

1.5 Manfaat Penelitian ...................................................................................... 5

1.5.1 Manfaat bagi pemerintah .................................................................... 5

1.5.2 Manfaat bagi masyarakat .................................................................... 5

1.5.3 Manfaat bagi peneliti lain ................................................................... 5

1.5.4 Manfaat bagi peneliti .......................................................................... 5

BAB 2 TINJAUAN PUSTAKA .......................................................................... 6

2.1 Anatomi Organ Hidung .............................................................................. 6

2.1.1 Anatomi Hidung Luar ......................................................................... 6

2.1.2 Anatomi Hidung Dalam ...................................................................... 7

2.1.2.1 Cavitas Nasi ........................................................................... 7

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2.1.2.2 Cavitas Nasi ........................................................................... 7

2.1.2.3 Kompleks Osteomeatal .......................................................... 8

2.1.3 Vaskularisasi dan Persyarafan Hidung ............................................... 8

2.2 Anatomi Sinus Paranasal ............................................................................ 9

2.2.1 Sinus Frontalis .................................................................................. 9

2.2.2 Sinus Maxillaris................................................................................ 10

2.2.3 Sinus Sphenoidalis ........................................................................... 10

2.2.4 Sinus Ethmoidalis ............................................................................. 10

2.3 Histologi Hidung dan Sinus Paranasal ....................................................... 12

2.3.1 Rongga Hidung ................................................................................ 12

2.3.2 Sinus Paranasal ................................................................................. 12

2.4 Fisiologi Hidung dan Sinus Paranasal ........................................................ 13

2.5 Definisi Rinosinusitis ................................................................................. 14

2.6 Klasifikasi Rinosinusitis ............................................................................. 14

2.7 Etiologi dan Faktor Resiko Rinosinusitis Kronis ....................................... 15

2.7.1 Rinosinusitis Akut ............................................................................. 15

2.7.1.1 Faktor Khusus ........................................................................ 15

2.7.1.2 Faktor Umum ......................................................................... 16

2.7.2 Rinosinusitis Kronis .......................................................................... 16

2.7.1.1 Morfologi Bakteri Rinosinusitis Kronis ................................. 17

2.7.1.1.1 Staphylococcus ........................................................ 17

2.7.1.1.2 Streptococcus........................................................... 18

2.7.1.1.3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ........................................ 20

2.7.1.1.4 Haemophilus influenzae .......................................... 21

2.7.1.1.1 Moraxella catarrhalis.............................................. 22

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2.8 Patofisiologi Rinosinusitis ......................................................................... 22

2.9 Gejala Rinosinusitis ................................................................................... 23

2.9.1 Rinosinusitis akut .............................................................................. 23

2.9.2 Rinosinusitis kronis ........................................................................... 24

2.10 Diagnosis Rinosinusitis ........................................................................... 24

2.11 Penatalaksanaan Rinosinusitis ................................................................. 25

2.12 Komplikasi Rinosinusitis ........................................................................ 26

2.13 Kerangka Teori ........................................................................................ 27

2.14 Kerangka Konsep .................................................................................... 27

BAB 3 METODOLOGI PENELITIAN ............................................................ 28

3.1 Definisi Operasional ................................................................................... 28

3.2 Jenis Penelitian ........................................................................................... 28

3.3 Waktu dan Tempat Penelitian .................................................................... 29

3.3.1 Waktu penelitian .............................................................................. 29

3.3.2 Tempat penelitian ............................................................................. 30

3.4 Populasi dan Sampel Penelitian ................................................................. 30

3.4.1 Populasi penelitian ........................................................................... 30

3.4.2 Sampel penelitian ............................................................................. 30

3.4.2.1 Kriteria Inklusi ..................................................................... 30

3.4.2.2 Kriteria Eksklusi .................................................................. 30

3.5 Teknik Pengumpulan Data ......................................................................... 31

3.6 Prosedur Penelitian ..................................................................................... 31

3.6.1 Alat dan Bahan ................................................................................. 31

3.6.1.1 Alat....................................................................................... 31

3.6.1.2 Bahan ................................................................................... 31

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3.6.1 Cara Kerja ........................................................................................ 32

3.7 Pengolahan dan Analisis Data .................................................................... 33

3.8 Kerangka Kerja........................................................................................... 34

DAFTAR PUSTAKA .......................................................................................... 35

LAMPIRAN ......................................................................................................... 41

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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 2.1 Faktor Terkait dengan Diagnosis Rinosinusitis Kronis ........................ 25

Tabel 3.1 Definisi Operasional ............................................................................. 28

Tabel 3.2 Waktu Penelitian ................................................................................... 29

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar 2.1 Anatomi rongga hidung .................................................................. 11


Gambar 2.2 Mukosa olfaktorius dan konka superior di rongga hidung .............. 12
Gambar 2.3 Mukosa olfaktorius: rincian daerah transisi .................................... 13
Gambar 2.4 Mukosa olfaktorius dalam hidung ................................................... 13
Gambar 2.5 Makroskopis Staphylococcus pada agar darah ................................ 18
Gambar 2.6 Makroskopis Staphylococcus pada mannitol salt agar ................... 18
Gambar 2.7 Mikroskopis Staphylococcus ........................................................... 18
Gambar 2.8 Streptococcus grup A,B,G dan F ..................................................... 19
Gambar 2.9 Makroskopis Streptococcus ............................................................ 20
Gambar 2.10 Mikroskopis Streptococcus ............................................................. 20
Gambar 2.11 Pseudomonas aeruginosa................................................................ 21
Gambar 2.12 Haemophilus influenzae .................................................................. 22

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