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Energy
Energy Procedia
Procedia 00
00 (2017)
(2017) 000–000
000–000

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Energy
EnergyProcedia 142
Procedia 00(2017)
(2017)1793–1798
000–000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2017, 21-24 August 2017, Cardiff, UK

A fault-tolerant control method of balancing valves for condenser


The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling
fouling in water-cooled chillers
Assessing the Howard feasibility
Cheung, Kui of using the heatWang*
Shan, Shengwei demand-outdoor
temperature
Department
Department of
function
of Building
Building Services
for aThelong-term
Services Engineering,
Engineering, The Hong
Hong Kong
district
Kong Polytechnic
Polytechnic University,
heat
University, Hung
demand
Hung Hom,
Hom, Kowloon,
Kowloon, Hong
forecast
Hong Kong
Kong

I. Andrića,b,c*, A. Pinaa, P. Ferrãoa, J. Fournierb., B. Lacarrièrec, O. Le Correc


a
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Abstract
Abstract
b
Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
c
Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France
This
This paper
paper proposes
proposes aa fault
fault tolerant
tolerant control
control method
method for for condenser
condenser fouling
fouling inin water-cooled
water-cooled chillers.
chillers. Condenser
Condenser fouling
fouling isis one
one ofof the
the
common
common faults
faults in
in water-cooled chillers that
water-cooled chillers that degrade
degrade its its energy
energy efficiency.
efficiency. Studies
Studies were
were conducted
conducted to to develop
develop fault
fault detection
detection andand
diagnostics
diagnostics (FDD)
(FDD) algorithms
algorithms to to address
address this
this issue.
issue. However,
However, the the current
current FDD
FDD techniques
techniques areare too
too expensive
expensive forfor some
some faults
faults that
that
Abstract
are
are not
not very
very significant
significant such
such as as condenser
condenser fouling,
fouling, andand aa cheaper
cheaper alternative
alternative may
may bebe needed
needed to to remove
remove the the fault
fault impact.
impact. This
This study
study
addresses
addresses this
this issue
issue byby proposing
proposing aa control
control method
method without
without FDD
FDD algorithms
algorithms to to reduce
reduce the
the impact
impact ofof condenser
condenser fouling
fouling inin water-
water-
District heatingItnetworks
cooled are opening
commonly of addressed in the literature
the as one of the mostloop
effective solutions for decreasing the
cooled chillers.
chillers. It controls
controls the the opening of the balancing
the balancing valve
valve in the
in condensing
condensing water
water loop toto adapt
adapt the chiller
the chiller plant for
plant for the
the
greenhouse
effectively gas emissions
smaller condenser. from the building
Verification of sector.
the These
control systems
method is require high
conducted by investments
a model of which
a real are returned
chiller plant through
and the heat
comparison
effectively smaller condenser. Verification of the control method is conducted by a model of a real chiller plant and comparison
sales.
with theDue to the
ordinary changedcase
operation climate
is made
madeconditions
under two twoand building
different renovation
months twopolicies,
and two heat demand
fouling levels.
levels. in the
The results
results show future could
that the
the decrease,
method can
with the ordinary operation case is under different months and fouling The show that method can
prolonging
help the the
the chiller investment
chiller plant
plant to
to reducereturn
reduce the period.
the impact
impact ofof condenser
condenser fouling
fouling by by reducing
reducing its
its electricity
electricity consumption
consumption by by 2.0%
2.0% under
under normal
normal
help
The main
situation scope
and of this
reducing thepaper
impact is to
of assess
foulingthebyfeasibility
0.2 to
to 0.4%.
0.4%.of However,
using the heat demand
the result
result – outdoor
is not
not temperature
very significant,
significant, andfunction for heat
more studies
studies withdemand
other
situation and reducing the impact of fouling by 0.2 However, the is very and more with other
forecast.
control Theare
inputs district
needed offor
Alvalade,
more locatedcontrol
effective in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
methods.
control inputs are needed for more effective control methods.
©buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
© 2017
2017 The
The Authors.
Authors. Published
Published by by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.
Ltd.
© 2017 The
renovation
Peer-review Authors.
scenarios
under Published
were
responsibility by
developed
of Elsevier
the Ltd. committee
(shallow,
scientific intermediate,the deep). To estimate Conference
the error, obtained heatEnergy.
demand values were
Peer-review
Peer-review under
under responsibility
responsibility of the scientific
of the scientific committee of
committee of the 9th International
9th International Conference on
International Conference Applied
on Applied
Applied Energy.
Energy.
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model,of the 9th
previously developed and validatedon by the authors.
The results
Keywords:
Keywords: Fault
showed
Fault tolerantthat
tolerant
when
control;
control;
only Pump;
Chiller;
Chiller;
weather
Pump; change
Fouling;
Fouling;
is considered,
Energy
Energy
theDetection
retrofit; Fault
retrofit; Fault margin of
Detection anderror
and
could be acceptable for some applications
Diagnostics
Diagnostics
(the error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
scenarios, the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).
1.The
1.
value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
Introduction
Introduction
decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and
renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the
Technologies
Technologies related
related to
to fault detection
faultsuggested and
and diagnostics
detectioncould diagnostics (FDD) of building equipment are being investigated in
in recent
coupled scenarios). The values be used to (FDD)
modify of thebuilding
functionequipment
parameters are for being investigated
the scenarios considered,recent
and
years
years to
to increase
increase the
the energy
energy efficiency
efficiency of
of buildings.
buildings. Building
Building equipment
equipment fault
fault is one
is one major
major reason
reason why buildings
why buildings do do
improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
** Corresponding
Corresponding author.
Cooling. author. Tel.: +852-2766-5858; fax:
Tel.: +852-2766-5858; fax: +852-2765-7198.
+852-2765-7198.
E-mail address:
E-mail address: shengwei.wang@polyu.edu.hk
shengwei.wang@polyu.edu.hk
Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change
1876-6102 ©
1876-6102 © 2017
2017 The
The Authors.
Authors. Published
Published by
by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.
Ltd.
Peer-review
Peer-review under
under responsibility
responsibility of
of the
the scientific
scientific committee
committee of
of the
the 9th
9th International
International Conference
Conference on
on Applied
Applied Energy.
Energy.

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy.
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.565
1794 Howard Cheung et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 1793–1798
2 Cheung et al./ Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

not operate as efficiently as designed. Typical building faults include undercharged chillers, fouled heat exchangers,
poorly calibrated sensors, etc. [1]. FDD algorithms, which are mainly developed based on data-mining and rule-based
techniques, help technicians to discover and remove these faults effectively and assist control algorithms to adjust the
building controls to reduce the impact of the faults automatically [2, 3]. However, these algorithms are not
economically viable to be used for some faults which impact is not very significant such as water-side condenser
fouling [4, 5, 6]. This paper addresses this issue by proposing a fault-tolerant control algorithm that is tolerant to the
impact of condenser fouling in water-cooled chillers without any FDD algorithms nor collection of model
identification data that are typically required by FDD algorithms.

Nomenclature

ΔP pressure drop [kPa]


ε heat exchanger effectiveness [dimensionless]
F fouling level [dimensionless]
m mass flow rate [kg/s]
T temperature [°C]
U heat transfer coefficient [W/m2-K]

Subscript
cond condenser
des design condition
in inlet
out outlet
r refrigerant
w water

2. Review of Condensing Water Loop and Condenser Fouling in Water-cooled Chillers

Condensing water loop in water-cooled chillers dissipates heat from the condenser of a chiller as shown in Fig. 1.

Airflow CT outlet
airflow
Water flow

Refrigerant Cooling Extra cold


flow tower (CT) water

CT inlet
Condensing airflow
water pump Balancing valve

Refrigerant to Refrigerant
chiller expansion Chiller from chiller
valve Condenser compressor

Fig. 1.Schematic of the condensing water loop of a water-cooled chiller.


Howard Cheung et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 1793–1798 1795
Cheung et al./ Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3

Water is circulated in the loop by a pump to dissipate heat to the surroundings through the cooling tower. The
opening of the balancing valve is tuned during the test and commissioning (T&C) process for a rated water flow rate
in the loop and will be fixed after the T&C process. Upon fouling, dirt and contaminants accumulate at the condenser,
reduce the effective size of the condenser and increase the chiller power consumption [7, 8].
To model the effect of condenser fouling, the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient across the condenser
should be changed according to the condenser fouling level as in Equations (1) and (2) [7].

2
 m 
Pcond  Pcond,des   (1)
 mdes (1  F ) 

U cond  U cond,des 1  F  (2)

3. New Fault Tolerant Control Method

The proposed control method aims at adjusting the condenser water flow rate to minimize the increase of power
consumption of the chiller plant due to condenser fouling. Condenser fouling reduces the effective size of a condenser,
and the condensing water pump provides too much flow to the chiller. An adjustment of the flow can shift the operating
point to a new optimum where the total power consumption of the chiller plant (e.g. the chiller, the condensing water
pump and the cooling tower) becomes smaller than the original scenario. In this study, a control method which changes
the water flow rate by maintaining the condenser heat exchanger effectiveness at its design value is proposed. During
the chiller plant operation, the heat exchanger effectiveness can be calculated according to Equation (3) [9].

Tw,cond,out  Tw,cond,in
 cond  (3)
Tr ,cond,in  Tw,cond,in

To maintain the heat exchanger effectiveness at its design value, the opening of the balancing valve in Fig. 1 is
controlled to change the water flow rate across the condenser. A proportional-integral (PI) controller would calculate
εcond by the measured condenser temperature and change the valve opening to maintain εcond at its design condition.
Since the control method does not contain any FDD algorithms, the method will be used at all times regardless of the
fouling level in the condenser. Hence the success of the algorithm depends on the following two criteria:

 if the algorithm maintains the energy efficiency of the chiller plant during the normal operation;
 if the algorithm reduces the impact of condenser fouling under faulty conditions.

To examine if the method matches these criteria, the algorithm is tested in a scenario modeled by a building
simulation software. Its effects on the chiller plant performance under various fouling levels are simulated and are
compared with a reference case which the opening of the balancing valve is fixed at its design value. If the energy use
of the building cases with the method is lower than that of the reference case, the method would be considered to be
effective at tolerating condenser fouling in water-cooled chillers.

4. Test Scenario

The test scenario was conducted by modeling of a part of a chiller plant in a 490m tall building [10]. The model
consists of a 7,230kW chiller, a 202kW single-speed condensing water pump, a 500mm balancing valve and two
variable-speed cooling towers with a total rated fan power at 250kW. Its specification is listed in Table 1.
1796 Howard Cheung et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 1793–1798
4 Cheung et al./ Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

Table 1. Specification of the equipment in the chiller plant.


Chiller Balancing valve Pump Cooling tower
Cooling capacity 7230kW Diameter 500mm Rated speed 50Hz Motor power 250kW per tower
Rated power 1346kW Range of valve 0.15 to Rated pressure 408kPa Rated heat 5234kW
consumption opening 0.34 difference rejection rate
Refrigerant R134a Range of pressure 1.7 to Rated power 202kW Minimum water 125L/s
drop 364kPa consumption flow rate
Rated condenser 410.6L/s Rated pressure drop 40kPa
mass flow rate
Rated condenser 108kPa Valve opening at 0.34
pressure drop design

The range of valve opening is limited so that the flow rate will not be too large to burn the motor current or too
small for unreliable operation [11].
The information is used to create the model of chiller plant which consists of two parts: the pressure drop model
and the thermal model.
The pressure drop determines the water mass flow rate in loop based on the pressure drop models of the pump, the
balancing valve, the condenser and the rest of the condensing water loop. The pressure drop model of the pump is
created based on a quadratic equation of the pressure with water mass flow rate from its specification data, and the
pressure drop models of the other components are created based on basic pipe flow models and the relationship
between pipe flow and their opening area [12].
The thermal model uses the water mass flow rate, the ambient condition and the cooling load of the chiller to
determine the total power consumption of the chiller plant. The chiller model is a semi-empirical chiller model which
models the physics of both the water and the refrigerant flow [13], the pump model comes from the Type 743 model
in building simulation software TRNSYS 16 [14] and the cooling tower model is a simplified heat exchanger
effectiveness model [15]. Both the pressure drop model and the thermal model are adjusted by Equation (1) and (2)
for the impact of condenser fouling to the chiller plant performance.
To compare the fault tolerant control algorithm and the normal operation which the balancing valve opening is
fixed, a parametric study is conducted by simulating the monthly performance of the building under the conditions in
Table 2.

Table 2. Variables being changed in the parametric study.


Control method The proposed control method and fixed valve opening
Weather and chiller load January and July from typical weather data in Hong Kong [16] and the
building management system (BMS) data of the building in 2015 [10]
Fouling level 0%, 10% and 20%

5. Results and Discussion

5.1. Comparison of control methods based on the chiller plant performance under normal operation

Simulation results show that the electricity consumption of the chiller plant under the proposed control method is
lower than that of the operation with a fixed valve opening by 2.1% and 2.0% in January and July respectively. To
understand the cause of the reduction, the change of the balancing valve opening on 3 rd July is studied as shown in
Fig. 2.
HowardetCheung
Cheung et al.Procedia
al./ Energy / Energy00
Procedia 142 (2017) 1793–1798
(2017) 000–000 1797
5

a b

Fig. 2. Changes of balancing valve opening on 3rd July without condenser fouling using the proposed control method with (a) chiller load and (b)
total power consumption of the chiller.

Fig. 2 illustrates how the valve opening changes with chiller load due to the proposed control method in Equation
(3). The opening of the valve is smaller than its rated value (0.34) most of the time because the chiller load is much
smaller than its rated cooling capacity (7,230kW). This results in a lower pump power consumption as shown in Fig.
2(b) in most cases and hence a lower total power consumption than the reference case with a fixed valve opening.
Similar results are also found on the other days of the 2-month simulation. This shows that the control method does
not deteriorate the performance of the chiller plant under normal operation.

5.2. Comparison of the control methods based on the chiller plant performance under fouling conditions

The effect of fouling to the performance of the chiller plant under different control methods and fouling levels are
compared in Table 3.

Table 3. Changes of electricity consumption due to fouling for cases using different control methods.
Control methods Month Fouling at 10% Fouling at 20%
Fixed valve opening January 0.24% 0.50%
July 0.73% 1.63%
Proposed control method January 0.22% 0.48%
July 0.51% 1.24%

Table 3 shows that the changes of the electricity consumption due to fouling is reduced by 0.2 to 0.4% when the
proposed control method is used, showing that the proposed control makes the chiller plant more tolerant to the impact
of condenser fouling.
The cause is related to the distribution of power consumption under two different control methods as shown in
Table 4.

Table 4. Distribution of power consumption of different components in the condensing water loop under fouling under the
design condition of the chiller plant.
Equipment Rated condition Fixed valve opening Proposed control method
without fouling with 20% fouling with 20% fouling
Chiller 1839.1 kW 1948.2 kW 1972.2 kW
Pump 202.5 kW 199.8 kW 187.3 kW
Cooling tower 120.2 kW 112.1 kW 82.1 kW
Overall 2161.8 kW 2260.1 kW 2241.6 kW
1798 Howard Cheung et al. / Energy Procedia 142 (2017) 1793–1798
6 Cheung et al./ Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

Table 4 shows the same trend of the component power consumption under both control methods. Upon fouling,
the chiller power consumption increases and the power consumption of pump and cooling tower decreases. However,
the proposed control method lowers the water flow rate further to reach an operating point where the drop of power
consumption of the pump and cooling tower compensates some increase of chiller power consumption. Hence the
total power consumption of the chiller plant is reduced.

6. Conclusions and future work

To conclude, this study proposes a new control method which aims at reducing the impact of condenser fouling
without the use of any FDD algorithms is proposed. A simulation is conducted to examine its effectiveness, and the
results show that the proposed control method reduces the chiller plant power consumption by 2.0% and reduces the
impact of condenser fouling by 0.2 to 0.4%. Although the proposed control method helps the water-cooled chiller
tolerate condenser fouling, the result is not very significant and more work such as the optimal control of the pump
and compressor speed may be needed to make a more effective fault tolerant control.

Acknowledgements

This research is financially supported by the strategic development special project (1-ZVG7) of The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University.

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