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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apm

and Fault Tolerant Control in bottle-ﬁlling plant modeled

using Hybrid Petri nets

K. Renganathan, Vidhyacharan Bhaskar ⇑

Electronics and Communication Engineering, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, Tamilnadu, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, an approach to achieve fault diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control in a typical

Received 12 February 2012 bottle-ﬁlling plant using event based techniques is discussed. For this purpose, the plant is

Received in revised form 9 June 2012 modeled using Hybrid Petri nets which enable study and analysis with regard to the work-

Accepted 6 July 2012

ing of the plant. Once effective modeling is done based on two different case studies con-

Available online 7 September 2012

sidered, new algorithms are proposed to achieve fault diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control

on the models developed. Finally, performance measures with regard to the models pro-

Keywords:

posed are evaluated to check the correctness of the models developed. Both analytical

Hybrid Petri nets

Fault diagnosis

and numerical results are obtained which are highly useful to understand plant behavior.

Fault Tolerant Control Ó 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Performance evaluation

Event based techniques

Qualitative analysis

1. Introduction

Modern technological systems rely on sophisticated control systems to meet improved performance and safety require-

ments. A conventional feedback control design for a complex system may result in an unsatisfactory performance, or even

instability, in the event of malfunctions in actuators, sensors or other system components. To overcome such weaknesses,

new approaches to control system design have been developed in order to tolerate component malfunctions while maintain-

ing desirable stability and performance properties. This is particularly important for safety–critical systems, such as aircrafts,

spacecrafts, nuclear power plants, and chemical plants processing hazardous materials. In such systems, the consequences of

a minor fault in a system component can be catastrophic. Therefore, the demand on reliability, safety and fault tolerance is

generally high. It is necessary to design control systems which are capable of tolerating potential faults in these systems in

order to improve reliability and availability while providing a desirable performance. These types of control systems are of-

ten known as Fault-Tolerant Control Systems (FTCS). More precisely, FTCS are control systems which possess the ability to

accommodate component failures automatically. They are capable of maintaining overall system stability and acceptable

performance in the event of such failures. In other words, closed-loop control systems which can tolerate component mal-

functions, while maintaining desirable performance and stability properties are said to be a FTCS.

Over the last three decades, the growing demand for safety, reliability, maintainability, and survivability in technical sys-

tems has drawn signiﬁcant research in Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD). Such efforts have led to the development of

many FDD techniques, for example, survey papers discussed by Dash and Venkatasubramanian [1], Dochain et al. [2], Frank

⇑ Corresponding author.

E-mail address: meetvidhyacharan@yahoo.com (V. Bhaskar).

0307-904X/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2012.07.059

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4843

et al. [3], Isermann et al. [4], Zhong et al. [5], and books by Chiang et al. [6], Gustafsson [7], Isermann [8], Patton et al. [9],

Simani et al. [10], Vachtsevanos et al. [11] and Witczak [12]. In Literature, Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) or Fault Detec-

tion and Identiﬁcation (again, FDI) [13] are often used. In FTCS designs, fault identiﬁcation is important; therefore FDI is

mainly used in this paper to highlight the requirement of fault identiﬁcation.

As is well-known, an FDI scheme has three tasks: (1) fault detection indicates that something is wrong in the system, i.e.,

the occurrence of a fault and the time of fault occurrence; (2) fault isolation determines the location and type of the fault

(which component has failed); and (3) fault identiﬁcation determines the magnitude (size) of the fault. Fault isolation

and identiﬁcation are usually referred to as fault diagnosis in Literature by Isermann in [14]. Based on the above classiﬁca-

tion, FDI often represents functions including both fault detection and identiﬁcation, or simply called fault diagnosis.

The existing FDI approaches can be generally classiﬁed into two categories: (1) model-based and (2) data-based (model-

free) schemes; these two schemes can further be classiﬁed as quantitative and qualitative approaches. Essentially, a quan-

titative model-based FDI scheme utilizes a mathematical model (often known as analytical redundancy) to carry out FDI in

real-time. Four most commonly used techniques are based on (1) state estimation; (2) parameter estimation; (3) parity

space; and (4) combination of the ﬁrst three. Based on the classiﬁcation by Venkatasubramanian et al. in [15], a reﬁned clas-

siﬁcation of the existing FDI approaches are provided. Since most control techniques are model-based, fault tolerant control-

lers need to be designed based on the mathematical model of the system being analyzed, particularly the post-fault model of

the system.

The objective of quantitative methods [16] is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses

pertaining to the particular phenomenon. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research, because it pro-

vides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relation-

ships. Here, the work is based on qualitative methods [17]. Qualitative approach aims to gather an in-depth

understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Qualitative methods, thus investigate why

and how of decision making, not just what, where, and when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are enough, rather than

large samples as in the case of quantitative methods.

The real-time application considered for study in this paper is the bottle-ﬁlling plant (BFP). The main purpose to consider

BFP for study in this paper is because of the fact that any BFP resembles Hybrid Dynamic Systems (HDSs) [18]. As discussed

earlier in [19], HDSs are one that exhibits both continuous and discrete dynamic behavior, i.e., a system that can both ﬂow

(described by a differential equation to explain the state changes that occur in the system) and jump (described by a differ-

ence equation or control graph to explain the control variables that operates the system). Often, the term HDSs is used, to

distinguish over hybrid systems, such as those that combine neural nets and fuzzy logic, electrical and mechanical drivelines.

HDSs have the beneﬁt of encompassing a larger class of systems within its structure, allowing more ﬂexibility in modeling

dynamic phenomena.

In general, the state of a hybrid system is deﬁned by the values of the continuous variables and a discrete control mode.

The state changes either continuously according to a ﬂow condition, or discretely according to a control graph. Continuous

ﬂow is permitted as long as the so-called invariants hold; a property which does not vary when the continuous transitions of

the Hybrid Petri net structure are ﬁred. Hence, invariants enable certain properties of the reachable markings and ﬁrable

transitions to be characterized, irrespective of the evolution of markings. Similarly, discrete transitions can occur as soon

as the given jump conditions are satisﬁed. Discrete transition may be associated with events. HDSs thus can be used to eval-

uate the functioning of a plant more effectively. Hence, for the above reasons, modeling and analysis of a BFP using Hybrid

Petri nets is obtained to achieve Fault Diagnosis and Identiﬁcation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC).

The paper is divided into the following sections: Section 2 discusses the details with respect to the operations and var-

ious processes of the bottle-ﬁlling plant considered for study. Section 3 covers the modeling and analysis with respect to

the bottle-ﬁlling plant. Section 4 presents the details of the proposed algorithm to achieve fault diagnosis and fault toler-

ance control in the models developed. The details of the results obtained and the evaluation procedures for model vali-

dation and checking are discussed in Section 5. Conclusions and future scope with regard to the paper are discussed in

Section 6.

2. Process description

BFP [20] considered here as shown in Fig. 1 includes both continuous processes and discrete processes.

Discrete processes: The discrete processes are those which involve a jump of control from one part to another of a

system. A bottle-ﬁlling system consists of various discrete processes, the systematic movement (one-by-one) of

bottles, the detection of sensor, opening and closing of valves for ﬁlling, counting of bottles, collection and packag-

ing of bottles.

Continuous processes: The continuous process is the ﬁlling of the bottle from the reservoir. Although the ﬂow of

liquid from the reservoir to the bottle is not continuous, it is considered to be so through ‘‘Fluidiﬁcation’’.

Through ﬂuidiﬁcation, the modeling of the bottle-ﬁlling system as a Hybrid Petri net model becomes easier.

Due to these reasons, bottle-ﬁlling systems are considered to be HDSs. The various parts of the BFP which have

been taken into consideration are: (1) Switch, (2) Conveyor system, (3) IR sensor, and (4) Reservoir tanks.

4844 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Conveyor system: A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials

from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving transportation of heavy or

bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and efﬁcient transportation for a wide variety of materials which

make them very popular in material handling and packaging industries. Many kinds of conveyer systems are avail-

able, and are used according to the various needs of different industries. Here, a normal conveyor system is consid-

ered to transport bottles in the packaging industry. The conveyor system is controlled through a conveyor motor,

and the control of the motor helps moving the conveyor belt. Bottles are placed over the conveyor at regular inter-

vals and according to bottle-ﬁlling, the conveyor automatically moves to bring the next bottle into position once a

bottle gets ﬁlled.

IR sensor: Infra-red (IR) sensors are generally used for object detection and not for distance measurement. The basic

idea is to send infra-red light through IR-LEDs, which is then reﬂected by any object in front of the sensor. In the

system shown in Fig. 1, IR sensor is considered to sense the presence of a bottle in the conveyor system before bot-

tle-ﬁlling takes place.

Reservoir tanks: The reservoir tanks are used to give a constant supply of liquid to the ﬁlling system. There are res-

ervoir systems with level monitoring and automatic reﬁlling. The reservoir system considered here ﬁlls itself auto-

matically when the amount of liquid drained becomes large.

Here, in this paper, two different prototypes of BFP have been modeled and analysed. The ﬁrst one is a multiple BFP, and

the second one is ratio ﬁlling BFP. The details of modeling and analysis of both are explained separately in the following

subsections.

The Petri net model for multiple BFP consists of a Hybrid Petri net structure [21], which has ﬁve discrete places and three

continuous places as shown in Fig. 2a. The three continuous places signify reservoir and ﬁlling nozzles, and the two contin-

uous transitions with maximal speed signify the valves. The discrete places signify the logic with which the system should

work. The movement of token in discrete places resembles the ﬂow of logic in the system. Place, P1, is analogous to the main

switch of the bottle-ﬁlling system. The conveyor motor is denoted by a discrete place, P2. The motor has bottles present on

the top of it, and rotates with the capacity load. Place, P3, is analogous to the IR sensor; the IR sensor is used to ﬁnd whether

the bottle is in position or not. Places, P6 and P7, form a loop for continuous bottle-ﬁlling. Places, P16 and P17, acts as bottle

count and the place, P14, act as a packing unit, where every two bottles are packed together. A token in each of the places

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4845

Fig. 2a. Equivalent Hybrid Petri net model developed for the process shown in Fig. 1.

means that the corresponding condition becomes true. The equivalent Petri net model is shown in Fig. 2a. Table 1 shows

corresponding places and their corresponding logic with respect to the developed model.

The algorithm is explained as follows:

Main switch is ON, i.e., there is presence of a token, and the conveyor motor starts to run and the bottles present on top

of them appear at the ﬁlling position in both the parallel modules.

Bottle is detected when IR sensor senses the presence of a bottle and then subsequently, the conveyor motor stops.

Filling system is initiated and the valves of the 30 l as well as 40 l capacities are opened, which means liquid ﬂows from

the reservoir to the bottles.

Delay is provided for the operation of bottle-ﬁlling completely.

Bottle count is updated for both the systems as soon as the 30 l and 40 l bottles are ﬁlled.

When bottle gets ﬁlled, it arrives at the collection unit where two bottles gets collected, and ﬁnally appears at pack-

aging unit, i.e., when two tokens are collected in place, the bottles are sent to a carton for packaging.

By the time 40 l bottle is ﬁlled twice, the 30 l bottle will be ﬁlled approximately 3 times, and hence the reservoir is

reﬁlled as soon as the two tokens are present in the bottle collection place.

Fig. 2b shows the response of the bottle-ﬁlling with respect to time, i.e., the response of the places, P4 and P5. The graphs

as shown in Fig. 2b indicate bottle-ﬁlling as well as bottle counts that are tracked at every instant of time.

Apart from the previous model as discussed in Section 3.1, a ratio based BFP is designed, modeled and analyzed through a

Hybrid Petri net structure and explained in detail in this section. Here, the Petri net model consists of four continuous places

and nine discrete places as shown in Fig. 2c.

4846 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Table 1

Places and transitions with their corresponding logic.

P1, P11 The system is switched ‘‘ON’’

P2, P10 The conveyor motor starts to run

P3, P9 The IR sensor senses the bottle

P6, P7, P12, P13 Bottle-ﬁlling start; valve open; delay

P16, P17 Bottle counter

P14 Bottle collection and packing

P15 Reservoir tank reﬁll

P5 Reservoir tank

P4 30 l capacity bottle-ﬁlling

P8 40 l capacity bottle-ﬁlling

T1, T2, T3 Start/stop condition for motor, IR sensor and discrete control logic for bottle-ﬁlling

T4, T6 Discrete transitions for controlling operation of T5

T13, T14 Discrete transitions for controlling operation of T7

T8, T12 Checking conditions for 30 l and 40 l bottle counters

T5 Valve for 30 l bottle-ﬁlling

T7 Valve for 40 l bottle-ﬁlling

T15 Packing unit activation

T16 Reﬁll for reservoir

Place, P1, indicates the ‘‘start/stop’’ switch. Place, P2, indicates the conveyor motor, Place, P3, is analogous to an IR sensor;

Places, P5 and P6, form a loop for continuous bottle-ﬁlling. This controls the opening and closing of valves, and thus controls

the ratio of the liquid that gets ﬁlled in the bottle. Continuous places, P4 and P9, are analogous to the reservoir of different

liquids that need to be mixed in a ratio. Places, P8 and P10, are analogous to bottle-ﬁlling that get ﬁlled according to the ratio

designed. A token in each of the places means that the corresponding condition is true. The continuous transitions ﬁred at a

maximal speed signify the valves of the ﬁlling system.

Both systems are modeled through Constant Continuous Petri Net (CCPN) [22] which ﬁre at a constant maximal speed

throughout the process. In the ratio BFP, designing of the speed for ﬁring of continuous transitions is of utmost importance

as it decides the ratio of liquid to be mixed. In the considered model, the maximal speed is set in such a way that a ratio of 1:2

is obtained, i.e., for one unit of one liquid, two units of another liquid should be mixed together. The Petri net model of the

ratio based BFP is shown in Fig. 2c. Table 2 shows corresponding places and transitions and logic they signify.

The algorithm is explained as follows:

Main switch is ON, i.e., there is the presence of a token and the conveyor motor starts to run, and the bottles present on

top of them appear at the ﬁlling position.

Bottle is detected when IR sensor senses the presence of a bottle, and then the conveyor motor stops.

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4847

Filling system is initiated and the valves of liquid A and liquid B are opened, which means the liquids A and B ﬂow from

the reservoir to ﬁlling places according to the ﬁring rates of the continuous transition which determine the ratio of the

liquid mixture.

Delay is given for the purpose of maintaining proper ratio during mixing of two liquids.

Once the required ratio is obtained, i.e., for one part of liquid A, two parts of liquid B are to be added, the bottle is sent

to a collecting unit.

In that unit, when two tokens are collected in a place, the bottles are sent to a carton for packaging.

Fig. 2d shows the response of liquid A ﬁlling with respect to time, i.e., the response of the place, P8.

The response of the ﬁlling at place, P10, is shown in Fig. 2e. Here, place P10 refers to the ﬁlling of liquid B.

Fig. 2f shows another graph that displays the number of bottles ﬁlled with respect to time. The distinct peak at a partic-

ular time instant refers to the fact that a bottle is being ﬁlled at that time instant.

The proposed FDI and FTC incorporate fault diagnosis, fault tolerance along with fault isolation. As detailed earlier in the

system description, i.e. in Section 3, ﬁrstly, the faults are diagnosed and identiﬁed in the system. Once the faults are iden-

tiﬁed, it is checked whether the faults are tolerant. If they are tolerant, then the system runs normally. When the fault is

intolerable, then the redundant path is chosen and the process carries on without the system being halted. This is called fault

isolation. The block diagram shown in Fig. 3a illustrates the proposed FDI and FTC scheme.

Optimized system model: The optimized system model refers to the model that is designed mathematically as well as

through Petri nets according to the requirements fulﬁlling the ideal conditions.

Diagnoser model: The diagnoser model is one that is designed keeping in mind the various probable faults that might

occur in the system due to many factors such as prolonged running, friction, level violation, etc.

4848 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Table 2

Places and transitions with their corresponding logic for model shown in Fig. 4.

P1 The system is switched ‘‘ON’’

P2 The conveyor motor starts to run

P3 The IR sensor senses the bottle

P5, P6 Bottle-ﬁlling start; valve open; delay

P7, P11 Mixing of liquids

P12 Bottle-ﬁlling

P13 Bottle is collected and sent to packaging

P4, P9 Reservoir tanks of two different liquids

P8 Liquid A

P10 Liquid B

T1, T2, T3 Start/stop condition for motor, IR sensor and discrete control logic for bottle-ﬁlling

T4, T5 Discrete transitions for controlling operation of T6 and T8

T6, T8 Ratio adjustment

T7, T9, T10 Checking conditions for ratio controller operation

T10 Mixing of two liquids inside bottle

T11, T12 Packing unit activated

Fig. 2f. Number of bottles ﬁlled with respect to time at place, P12.

Fault diagnosis: Once the ideal model and faulty models are designed, the next process is comparison of the ideal

model with the faulty model, and ﬁnding out reason for the faults to have occurred. The various faults are taken care

by applying the fault tolerance algorithm procedures.

Fault tolerance: Fault tolerance is one of the important steps as it checks the extent of the fault, and prevents the sys-

tem from stalling due to minor faults, and through the algorithm, a threshold is set for the faults and minor faults that

do not cross the threshold do not affect the smooth functioning of the system. Only when the fault crosses the thresh-

old, further steps are taken.

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4849

Fig. 3a. Block diagram of Fault Diagnosis and Identiﬁcation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC).

START

current condition incidence matrix of the

system and check for error

ideal marking – IDEAL

obtained marking working

condition

No

System is Faulty

Check whether in the fault in the system is

within the tolerant limit.

minimization

problem within the

L. q ≤ b is satisfied

tolerable

limit

No

and hence isolate the faulty part of the

system.

STOP

The controllability concept adopted to provide FTC in this paper is based on constraint information and transformation of

constraints based on fault data available. The constraints are categorized into many types, but the inequality constraint,

and more speciﬁcally, the constraint pertaining to the minimization problem is considered. In this paper, the constraints con-

taining marking vector elements only as discussed in [23] is considered.

4850 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

For these types of constraints, it is assumed that the system considered should satisfy the relation:

X

r

m0i 6 k; ð1Þ

i¼1

where m0i is the marking comprising tokens in input places and k is an integer.

This means that the sum of the tokens in the faulty places identiﬁed using FDI should never exceed integer, k. This type of

constraint in inequality form can be made to become equality by introducing a slack variable, m0c , so that (1) becomes

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4851

Fig. 6. Evolution graph for multiple BFP Petri net structure shown in Fig. 2.

X

r

m0i þ m0c ¼ k; ð2Þ

i¼1

It should be noted here that the constant, k, in (1) and (2) plays the important role in deﬁning the tolerant limit for the

controller that should be taken into account when the Petri net is initially marked. The condition to be satisﬁed for fault tol-

erance of BFP is given as

L q 6 b; ð3Þ

where L represents a nc n integer matrix, b represents nc 1 integer vector, nc is the number of constraints, and q is the

marking vector of the Petri net.

Based on the condition above, the ideal condition for constraint matrix L and the marking vector q are estimated and gi-

ven as

0 1

30

1 0 0 B C 30

@ 60 A 6 : ð4Þ

0 0 1 40

140

4852 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Fig. 6. (continued)

It can be observed that if this condition is satisﬁed, the system is within the tolerable limit and runs normally. (The tol-

erable limit is that the product (L q) should be within 30 l and 40 l, respectively, and if it exceeds the value, then the bottle

overﬂows, and the ﬁlling process is isolated).

The developed fault tolerance algorithm to achieve the condition as given by (4) is shown in Fig. 3b. Once fault tolerant

algorithm is developed, and the tolerance level of the fault is checked according to the degree of tolerance, the system de-

cides whether to tolerate the fault or isolate it from the main process for repair.

As discussed in the earlier section, if the fault is not within tolerance limits, fault isolation is carried out. This process in-

volves designing a redundant path for the process to take in case of a conﬂict in the system. The design of the redundant path

has been done using a software called HPSIM [24] and this allows the faulty part to be isolated from the main system and the

rest of the process carries out as normal. The main advantage is that even though there is a fault, the system does not come to

a halt, but continues working. The design of the redundant path is shown by considering an example as shown in Fig. 4.

As observed in Fig. 4, there is a redundant path that is present for each ﬂow control so that if any of the paths fails, then an

alternative path is taken and the system does not halt.

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4853

Fig. 6. (continued)

Here in this paper, C programming has been used as a front end interface to identify the current system status. A program

has been developed which compares the ideal condition markings and the obtained markings of the bottle-ﬁlling system.

This program compares these two markings of the system, and it identiﬁes the working condition of the system, and indi-

cates the user whether the bottle is ﬁlled correctly, or any fault is detected in the system. The erroneous system response is

the vital analyzing tool from which the occurrence of a fault is detected.

The faults that could possibly occur are:

Errors due to the improper functioning of the IR sensor, and

Fault occurrence due to improper ﬁlling valve operation (transition fault).

From Fig. 5, it can be observed that:

Bottle overﬂow occurs as the marking cross 30, and is maintained within the threshold, i.e., 30 markings (litres).

It is clear that when there is a fault in the system, the bottle ﬁlls up haphazardly.

4854 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Fig. 6. (continued)

Apart from graphical analysis, in this paper, mathematical analysis is also done and results are presented. As discussed

P4 P5 P8

earlier in Section 4, the ideal marking for the BFP process considered is given as , where capacity of

ð30 160 40Þ

bottle-A is 30 units, capacity of bottle-B is 40 units, P4 is the place analogous to bottle-ﬁlling in bottle-A, and P5 is analogous

to bottle-ﬁlling in bottle-B. Now, the condition for bottle overﬂow is given as

P4 P5 P8

Faulty marking ¼ ; ð5Þ

ð32 160 40Þ

where marking P4 indicates bottle overﬂow.

For partial bottle-ﬁlling, the normal and faulty markings are given as

P4 P5 P8

Normal marking ¼ ; ð6Þ

ð10 134 40Þ

and

P4 P5 P8

Faulty marking ¼ ; ð7Þ

ð10 134 36Þ

where marking P8 in (7) indicates partial ﬁlling of bottle-B.

Similarly, for bottle missing, the values of normal marking and faulty markings are given as

P1 P2 P3 P6 P7 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15

Normal marking ¼ ð8Þ

ð0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0Þ

and

P1 P2 P3 P6 P7 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15

Faulty marking ¼ ; ð9Þ

ð0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0Þ

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4855

Fig. 7. Queue length performance index for constant function (a) Place P4 and (b) Place P8.

where marking P3 in (9) represents missing of bottle. The graph shown in Fig. 6 presents the evolution graph [25] with re-

spect to the multiple BFP as shown in Fig. 2a.

As discussed in [26], to check the correctness of the model developed, the model is considered to be a random process and

various distribution functions are ﬁt for continuous transitions and the performance of the model is evaluated. Since, in this

paper the contribution is towards development and analysis of bottle-ﬁlling process, performance measures like queue

length is considered as the major parameter and analysis of queue length with respect to distribution functions, such as con-

stant, uniform, exponential and Weibull functions are done and results are obtained and shown in Figs. 7–10 for the multiple

BFP process as shown in Fig. 2a.

Fig. 7 shows queue length performance measure with respect to constant function for places P4 and P8. Similarly, Figs. 8–

10 show queue length performance measures with respect to places P4 and P8 for uniform, exponential and Weibull distri-

butions, respectively.

4856 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Fig. 8. Queue length performance index for uniform function (a) Place P4 and (b) Place P8.

As observed in Figs. 7 and 8, the nature of distribution in the graphs are constant and uniform for every bottle-ﬁlling in-

stant which depicts normal operations taking place in the bottle-ﬁlling process. Likewise, the graphs shown in Figs. 9 and 10

depict non-uniform and faulty nature during the bottle-ﬁlling operation. Hence, by appropriate selection of the distribution

function in the model, the details regarding normal and faulty behavior in the processes can be analysed. Similarly, numer-

ical results obtained for the distribution functions considered are shown in Table 3.

It can be observed from Table 3 that the queue length values for constant and uniform functions are almost equal in num-

ber as compared to the values obtained with respect to exponential and Weibull functions. Hence, the numerical results ob-

tained are highly useful in understanding the normal and faulty behavior with respect to the operations taking place in a

process.

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4857

Fig. 9. Queue length performance index for exponential function (a) Place P4 and (b) Place P8.

As explained through earlier sections, the main purpose of this paper is to achieve model based Fault Diagnosis and Iden-

tiﬁcation (FDI), and to identify conditions for imparting Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) schemes on a typical bottle-ﬁlling pro-

cess using event based techniques. For this purpose, the considered process is modeled using Hybrid Petri nets under two

case studies such as multiple bottle-ﬁlling process and ratio-ﬁlling bottle-ﬁlling process respectively. Based on the models

developed, procedures to achieve FDI and FTC are devised along with the simulation results.

Once effective modeling is done, the performance of the models developed is evaluated by considering the process as a

random process and values for queue length performance index with respect to different distribution functions are obtained.

The graphical and numerical results obtained are highly useful in complete understanding of the behavior of the process un-

der normal and faulty conditions.

4858 K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859

Fig. 10. Queue length performance index for Weibull function (a) Place P4 and (b) Place P8.

Table 3

Queue length Performance index values for places P4 and P8.

Constant function Uniform function Exponential function Weibull function

1 P4 14.732 14.81 14.15 15.8

2 P8 20.04 19.83 20.47 18.97

Moreover, the results obtained in this paper are highly useful to check the correctness of the systems models developed.

With suitable improvements, various other qualitative based analysis of a Petri net model such as scheduling, reliability

analysis, safety analysis, HAzard and OPerability (HAZOP) analysis, etc. can be performed which form the future scope in re-

gard to the enhancement of this paper.

K. Renganathan, V. Bhaskar / Applied Mathematical Modelling 37 (2013) 4842–4859 4859

References

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