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A Project on

Bidirectional Visitor Counter


Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
degree
in
Electronics & Communication Engineering

by
Rahul Kumar Verma()
Rajeev Ranjan Singh()
Rajkumar Singh ()
Anoop Kumar ()

H.R. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


th
7 Km Milestone Meerut Road Morta, Ghaziabad(U.P.)

G.B.T.U. LUCKNOW,
June, 2011
BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER

by

Rahul Kumar Verma ()


Rajeev Ranjan Singh ()
Rajkumar Singh ()
Anoop Kumar ()

Guided by
Mr. P. S. Kushwaha

Submitted for partial fulfilment of the requirement


for the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in
Electronics & Communication Engineering

H.R. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


th
7 Km Milestone Meerut Road Morta, Ghaziabad

G.B.T.U. LUCKNOW
June, 2011
Table of Contents
Table of Contents.......................................................................................................................iii
DECLARATION........................................................................................................................v
CERTIFICATE...........................................................................................................................ii
...........................................................................................................................................ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.........................................................................................................iii
ABSTRACT...............................................................................................................................iv
LIST OF FIGURE.......................................................................................................................v
CHAPTER 1...............................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................1
1.1 Block Diagram..............................................................................................................2
1.2 Sensor arrangement at the way..................................................................................2
CHAPTER 2...............................................................................................................................3
SENSORS..............................................................................................................................3
2.1 IR Transmitter.............................................................................................................4
2.2 Photo-transistors............................................................................................................4
2.3 Symbol and typical view of photo-transistor:............................................................5
2.4 Features:........................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER 3...............................................................................................................................5
LOGIC CONTROL CIRCUIT................................................................................................5
3.1 Comparators ..............................................................................................................5
3.2 Pin Diagram of LM324:..............................................................................................7
3.3 General description on LM324...................................................................................7
3.4 Features:......................................................................................................................7
3.5 Typical Applications:..................................................................................................9
CHAPTER 4.............................................................................................................................10
FLIP-FLOP...........................................................................................................................10
4.1 JK Flip-flop:..............................................................................................................10
4.2 Symbol for JK flip-flop:............................................................................................10
4.3 Equation and Truth table...........................................................................................11
4.4 Pin Diagram of Dual JK flip-flop IC 74LS76:...........................................................12
CHAPTER 5.............................................................................................................................14
MICROCONTROLLER AT89C52......................................................................................14
5.1 Features:...................................................................................................................14
5.2 Pin configuration of Microcontroller AT89C52:......................................................15
5.4 Pin Description of Microcontroller AT89C52:.........................................................18
5.6 Interrupts..................................................................................................................21
5.7 Oscillator Characteristics...........................................................................................22
5.8 Programming the Flash.............................................................................................23
5.9 Programming Algorithm:...........................................................................................24
5.10 Data Polling.............................................................................................................25
5.11 Ready/Busy..............................................................................................................25
5.12 Program Verify........................................................................................................25
5.13 Chip Erase................................................................................................................25
5.14 Programming Interface:...........................................................................................25
CHAPTER 6.............................................................................................................................26
DISPLAY..............................................................................................................................26
6.1 Seven segment display..............................................................................................26
CHAPTER 7.............................................................................................................................28
POWER SUPPLY................................................................................................................28
CHAPTER 8.............................................................................................................................29
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM...........................................................................................................29
8.1 Circuit Diagram...........................................................................................................31
CHAPTER 9.............................................................................................................................32
ALGORITHM, FLOWCHART & PROGRAMMING........................................................32
9.1 Algorithm...................................................................................................................32
CHAPTER 10...........................................................................................................................36
PCB DESIGN AND FABRICATION ................................................................................36
10.1 Protel for windows PCB 1.5 capabilities...............................................................36
10.2 PCB fabrication ......................................................................................................37
CHAPTER 11...........................................................................................................................40
RELAY.................................................................................................................................40
11.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................40
11.2 Main Feature..........................................................................................................41
11.3 Application..............................................................................................................41
11.4 Contact Rating.......................................................................................................42
11.5 Performance (at Initial Value)................................................................................42
CHAPTER 12...........................................................................................................................43
ULN2003..............................................................................................................................43
12.1 DESCRIPTION .....................................................................................................43
12.2 Features.................................................................................................................43
12.3 Description.............................................................................................................44
12.4 Diagram...................................................................................................................44
12.5 Pin Configuration....................................................................................................45
12.6 Maximum Rating....................................................................................................45
CHAPTER 13...........................................................................................................................46
CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................46
REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................47
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge
and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor
material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or
diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning except where due
acknowledgement has been made in text.

Signature: Signature:
Name: Rahul Kumar Verma Name: Rajeev Ranjan Singh
Roll No.: Roll No.:
Date: Date:

Signature: Signature:
Name: Rajkumar Singh Name: Anoop Kumar
Roll No.: Roll No.:
Date: Date:
CERTIFICATE

Certified that Rahul Kumar Verma, Rajeev Ranjan Singh, Rajkumar Singh, Anoop Kumar has
carried out the research work presented in this project entitled “Bidirectional Visitor
Counter” for the award of Bachelor of Technology from Gautam Buddh Technical University,
Lucknow under my supervision. The project embodies result of original work and studies
carried out by Student himself and the contents of the project do not form the basis for the
award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.

Prof. Sukhbir Singh Mr.Bhaskar Gupta


H.O.D. SUPERVISOR
Lecturer
Department Of Electronics & Department of Electronics&
Communication Engineering Communication Engineering
H.R.Institute Of Technology H.R.Institute Of Technology

P.S. Kushwaha

(Project Guide) External Examiner

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All praise to almighty God, who provided us this opportunity to work under our beloved &
respected teachers for making us able to complete the present study successfully.
It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of B. Tech project under taken
during B.TECH final year.
I owe special debt of gratitude to our respected teacher “Prof. Sukhbir Singh (HOD of ECE
department), H.R. Institute of Technology Ghaziabad for his constant support & guidance
throughout the course of my work.
His sincerity, throughout & preservance have been a constant source of inspiration for me.I
am thankful to my project guide “Mr. P.S. Kushwaha” for his invaluable guidance
constructive suggestions, practical help through securitization and affectionate attitude
throughout the period of project enabled us to face this challenge.
I am also thankful to every one whom I could not mention here but who directly or indirectly
supported me to face this challenge.
Lastly but not the least my warmest thanks goes to my parents who helped me by their
constructive views during some time or other in life.

Signature: Signature:
Name: Rahul Kumar Verma Name: Rajeev Ranjan Singh
Roll No.: Roll No.:
Date: Date:

Signature: Signature:
Name: Rajkumar Singh Name: Anoop Kumar
Roll No.: Roll No.:
Date: Date:

iii
ABSTRACT

Microcontroller/Microprocessor is the most versatile device in the world. It’s once a creature
of science fiction is today a reality. In real sense it is a device which allows human beings to
implement their intelligence in machines.
Visitor counting is simply a measurement of the visitor traffic entering and exiting offices,
malls, sports venues, etc. Counting the visitors helps to maximize the efficiency and
effectiveness of employees, floor area and sales potential of an organization.
Visitor counting is not limited to the entry/exit point of a company but has a wide range of
applications that provide information to management on the volume and flow of people
throughout a location.
A primary method for counting the visitors involves hiring human auditors to stand and
manually tally the number of visitors who pass by a certain location. But human-based data
collection comes at great expense. Here is a low-cost microcontroller based visitor counter
that can be used to know the number of persons at a place. All the components required are
readily available in the market and the circuit is easy to build.
The final result of this project is a thorough design for an autonomous visitor counter
including a detailed test plan for the use by subsequent design teams.

iv
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1.0.1 Schematic View.....................................................................................................1
Figure1.0.2 Block Diagram.........................................................................................................2
Figure1.0.3 Sensor arrangement.................................................................................................3
Figure 3. 0.4 Input/Output references.........................................................................................6
Figure 3.5 Pin Diagram of LM324..............................................................................................7
Figure 3.6 Typical Application...................................................................................................9
Figure 4.7 JK flip flop symbol..................................................................................................10
Figure 4.8 Logic Symbol..........................................................................................................11
Figure 4.9 State Table...............................................................................................................12
Figure 4.10 IC 74LS76..............................................................................................................12
Figure 4.11Logic Diagram........................................................................................................13
Figure 5.12 Pin Diagram of AT89C52......................................................................................15
Figure 5.13 Architecture ..........................................................................................................17
Figure 5.14P1.0,P1.1 function..................................................................................................18
Figure 5.15 P3.0-P3.8 Fnction .................................................................................................19
Figure 5.16 Interrupt Enable (IE) Register...............................................................................21
Figure 5.17 Interrupt Switching................................................................................................22
Figure 5.18 Interrupt Source.....................................................................................................22
Figure 5.19 Oscillator connection.............................................................................................23
Figure 5.0.20 Programming mode............................................................................................24
Figure 6.21 A Typical 7-segment display component, with decimal point..............................26
Figure 6.22 The individual segment of a seven-segment display.............................................26
Figure 7.23 Power Supply.........................................................................................................28
Figure 8.24Schematic Diagram of Bidirectional Visitor Counter............................................31
Figure 11.25 Internal architecture of relay...............................................................................40
Figure 11.26 Relay....................................................................................................................41
Figure 12.27 ULN Device Driver.............................................................................................43
Figure 12.28 Drivers.................................................................................................................45
Figure 12.29 ULN pin configuration........................................................................................45

v
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This project titled “Microcontroller based Bidirectional Visitor counter” is designed and
presented in order to count the visitors of an auditorium, hall, offices, malls, sports venue, etc.
The system counts both the entering and exiting visitor of the auditorium or hall or other
place, where it is placed. Depending upon the interrupt from the sensors, the system identifies
the entry and exit of the visitor. On the successful implementation of the system, it displays
the number of visitor present in the auditorium or hall. This system can be economically
implemented in all the places where the visitors have to be counted and controlled. Since
counting the visitors helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, floor
area and sales potential of an organization, etc.

Figure 1.0.1 Schematic View


1.1 Block Diagram

Logic Micro-
Sensors Control Display
controller
Circuit
AT89C52

Power
Supply +5V

Figure1.0.2 Block Diagram

1.2 Sensor arrangement at the way


Figure1.0.3 Sensor arrangement

Enter

IR TX1 RX1

IR TX2 RX2

Exit

CHAPTER 2
SENSORS

The block shows the sensor arrangement at the entrance cum exit passage. Here a pair of IR
transmitter – receiver is used as sensor. Photo transistors are used as IR receiver, since it has
sensitivity to receive IR rays.
2.1 IR Transmitter

Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible
light, but shorter than that of microwaves. The name means "below red" (from the Latin infra,
"below"), red being the color of visible light with the longest wavelength. Infrared radiation
has wavelengths between about 750 nm and 1 mm, spanning five orders of magnitude. A
longer wavelength means it has a lower frequency than red, hence "below". Objects generally
emit infrared radiation across a spectrum of wavelengths, but only a specific region of the
spectrum is of interest because sensors are usually designed only to collect radiation within a
specific bandwidth.
Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared
radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam. The receiver uses a silicon
photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. It responds only to the
rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, and filters out slowly changing infrared
radiation from ambient light. IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other
devices in adjoining rooms.

2.2 Photo-transistors

Phototransistors are examples of photodiode-amplifier combinations integrated within a single


silicon ship. These combinations are put together in order to overcome the major fault of
photodiodes: unity gain. Many applications demand a greater output signal from photodiode
can
always be amplified through use of an external op-amp or other circuitry, this approach is
often not as practical or as cost effective as the use of phototransistors.
The phototransistor can be viewed as a photodiode whose output photocurrent is fed into the
base of a conventional small signal transistor. While not required for operation of the device
as a photo detector, a base connection is often provided allowing the designer the option of
using base current to bias the transistor. The typical gain of a phototransistor can range from
100 to over 1500.
2.3 Symbol and typical view of photo-transistor:

Figure2.1
Figure2.2

2.4 Features:
• Low-cost visible and near-IR photo detector.
• Available with gains from 100 to over 1500.
• Moderately fast response times.
• Available in a wide range of packages including epoxy-coated, transfer-molded, cast,
hermetic, and in chip form.
• Usable with almost any visible or near-infrared light source such as IREDs; neon;
fluorescent, incandescent bulbs; lasers; flame sources; sunlight; etc.
• Same general electrical characteristics as familiar signal transistors.

CHAPTER 3
LOGIC CONTROL CIRCUIT

Here the logic control circuit consists of two circuits, a op-amp comparator and a flip-flop
circuit.

3.1 Comparators
A comparator is a device which compares two voltages or currents and switches its output to
indicate which is larger. A standard op-amp operating without negative feedback is used as a
comparator. When the non-inverting input (V+) is at a higher voltage than the inverting input
(V-), the high gain of the op-amp causes it to output the most positive voltage it can. When
the non-inverting input (V+) drops below the inverting input (V-), the op-amp outputs the
most negative voltage it can. Since the output voltage is limited by the supply voltage. Here
the operational amplifier LM 324 is used as comparator.

Inputs Output

->+ Negative

+>- Floating

Figure 3. 0.4 Input/Output references


3.2 Pin Diagram of LM324:

Figure 3.5 Pin Diagram of LM324

3.3 General description on LM324

The LM324 consists of four independent high-gain,internally frequency-compensated


operational amplifiers designed specially to operate from a single power supply over a
wide range of voltages.
In linear mode, the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage
can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply voltage.
The unity gain crossover frequency and the input bias current are temperature-compensated.

3.4 Features:
• Internally frequency-compensated for unity gain
• Large DC voltage gain: 100 dB
• Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature-compensated)
• Wide power supply range Single supply:
3VDC to 30VDC or dual supplies: +/-1.5VDC to +/-15VDC.
• Very low supply
current drain:
essentially
independent of
supply voltage
(1mW/op amp at
+5 VDC )
• Low input biasing
current: 45nADC
(temperature-
compensated)
• Low input offset
voltage: 2 mVDC
and offset current:
5nADC
• Differential input
voltage range
equal to the power
supply voltage
• Large output
voltage: 0VDC to
VCC – 1.5 VDC
swing
3.5 Typical Applications:

Figure 3.6 Typical Application


CHAPTER 4

FLIP-FLOP
A flip-flop is a kind of bistable multivibrator, an electronic circuit which has two stable states
and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. Today, the term flip-flop has come to
generally denote non-transparent (clocked or edge-triggered) devices, while the simpler
transparent ones are often referred to as latches. A flip-flop is controlled by (usually) one or
two control signals and/or a gate or clock signal. The output often includes the complement as
well as the normal output. As flip-flops are implemented electronically, they require power
and ground connections.

4.1 JK Flip-flop:
The JK flip-flop augments the behavior of the SR flip-flop by interpreting the S = R = 1
condition as a "flip" or toggle command. Specifically, the combination J = 1, K = 0 is a
command to set the flip-flop; the combination J = 0, K = 1 is a command to reset the flip-flop;
and the combination J = K = 1 is a command to toggle the flip-flop, i.e., change its output to
the logical complement of its current value. Setting J = K = 0 does NOT result in a D flip-
flop, but rather, will hold the current state. To synthesize a D flip-flop, simply set K equal to
the complement of J. The JK flip-flop is therefore a universal flip-flop, because it can be
configured to work as an SR flip-flop, a D flip-flop or a T flip-flop.

4.2 Symbol for JK flip-flop:

Figure 4.7 JK flip flop symbol


A circuit symbol for a JK flip-flop, where > is the clock input, J and K are data inputs, Q is
the stored data output, and Q' is the inverse of Q.

Figure 4.8 Logic Symbol

4.3 Equation and Truth table

The characteristic equation of the JK flip-flop is:

And the corresponding truth table is:


J K Qnext Comments

0 0 Hold State

0 1 0 Reset

1 0 1 Set

1 1 Toggle
Figure 4.9 State Table

4.4 Pin Diagram of Dual JK flip-flop IC 74LS76:

Figure 4.10 IC 74LS76


Figure 4.11Logic Diagram
CHAPTER 5
MICROCONTROLLER AT89C52

The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8Kbytes


of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is
manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible
with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash
allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile
memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-
effective solution to many embedded control applications.

5.1 Features:

• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products


• 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
• Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
5.2 Pin configuration of Microcontroller AT89C52:

Figure 5.12 Pin Diagram of AT89C52


5.3 Block Diagram of Atmel 89C52 Microcontroller
Figure 5.13 Architecture
5.4 Pin Description of Microcontroller AT89C52:

Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight
TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance
inputs.
Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during
accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes
during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1:
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input
(P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as
shown in the following table.

Figure 5.14P1.0,P1.1 function


Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2:
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-
order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to
external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2
uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that
use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function
Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during
Flash programming and verification.

Port 3:

Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of
various special features of the AT89C51, as shown in the following table. Port 3 also receives
some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

Figure 5.15 P3.0-P3.8 Fnction


RST
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets
the device.
ALE/PROG

Address Latch Enable is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during
accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash
programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one
ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation
can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only
during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the
ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

PSEN:
Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C52 is
executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle,
except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.

EA/VPP:
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch
code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note,
however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should
be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt
programming enable voltage
(VPP) during Flash programming when 12-volt programming is selected.

XTAL1:
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2:
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
5.5 Data Memory
The AT89C52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel
address space to the Special Function Registers. That means the upper 128 bytes have the
same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space. When an
instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address mode used in the
instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR
space. Instructions that use direct addressing access SFR space.

5.6 Interrupts
The AT89C52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1),
three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2), and the serial port interrupt. These interrupts are all
shown in Figure below. Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or
disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global
disable bit, EA, which disables all interrupts at once. Note that Table shows that bit position
IE.6 is unimplemented.

Figure 5.16 Interrupt Enable (IE) Register


In the AT89C51, bit position IE.5 is also unimplemented. Timer 2 interrupt is generated by
the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON. Neither of these flags is cleared by
hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine may have to
determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt, and that bit will have to
be cleared in software. The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the
cycle in which the timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next
cycle. However, the Timer 2 flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which
the timer overflows.

Figure 5.17 Interrupt Switching

Figure 5.18 Interrupt Source

5.7 Oscillator Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can
be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure below. Either a quartz
crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source,
XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven. There are no requirements on the
duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is
through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time
specifications must be observed.
Figure 5.19 Oscillator connection

5.8 Programming the Flash

The AT89C52 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the erased state
(that is, contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The programming interface accepts
either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage (VCC) program enable signal. The Low-
voltage programming mode provides a convenient way to program the AT89C52 inside the
user’s system, while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional
third party Flash or EPROM programmers. The AT89C52 is shipped with either the high-
voltage or low-voltage programming mode enabled. The respective top-side marking and
device signature codes are listed in the following table.
Figure 5.0.20 Programming mode

The AT89C52 code memory array is programmed byte-by-byte in either programming mode.
To program any nonblank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory, the entire memory must be
erased using the Chip Erase Mode.

5.9 Programming Algorithm:

Before programming the AT89C52, the address, data and control signals should be set up
according to the Flash programming mode. To program the AT89C52, take the following
steps.
1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines.
2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines.
3. Activate the correct combination of control signals.
4. Raise EA/VPP to 12V for the high-voltage programming mode.
5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. The byte-write
cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 1.5 ms. Repeat steps 1 through 5,
changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object file is reached.
5.10 Data Polling

The AT89C52 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. During a write cycle,
an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written data on
PO.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is valid on all outputs, and the next
cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated.

5.11 Ready/Busy
The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal.
P3.4 is pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.4 is pulled
high again when programming is done to indicate READY.

5.12 Program Verify


If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the programmed code data can be read
back via the address and data lines for verification. The lock bits cannot be verified directly.
Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled.

5.13 Chip Erase


The entire Flash array is erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals
and by holding ALE/PROG low for 10 ms. The code array is written with all 1s. The chip
erase operation must be executed before the code memory can be reprogrammed.

5.14 Programming Interface:


Every code byte in the Flash array can be written, and the entire array can be erased, by using
the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is self timed and
once initiated, will automatically time itself to completion.
CHAPTER 6
DISPLAY
The circuit comprises three seven segment displays to represent the number of visitors
present.

6.1 Seven segment display

Figure 6.21 A Typical 7-segment display component, with decimal point

A seven segment display, as its name indicates, is composed of seven elements. Individually
on or off, they can be combined to produce simplified representations of the Hindu-Arabic
numerals. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique, or italic, arrangement, which
aids readability.

Figure 6.22 The individual segment of a seven-segment display


In a simple LED package, each LED is typically connected with one terminal to its own pin
on the outside of the package and the other LED terminal connected in common with all other
LEDs in the device and brought out to a shared pin. This shared pin will then make up all of
the cathodes (negative terminals) OR all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the LEDs in the
device; and so will be either a "Common Cathode" or "Common Anode" device depending
how it is constructed. Hence a 7 segment plus DP package will only require nine pins to be
present and connected.
CHAPTER 7

POWER SUPPLY

Figure 7.23 Power Supply

The entire circuit is powered up by a power supply circuit, which is shown above. The circuit
comprises following components,
1. Step-down transformer of 9V/500mA
2. Bridge rectifier
3. A Positive 5 V regulator IC
4. Filter capacitors.
The AC supply of 220V is step-downed to 9V by the step-down transformer. And the 9v is
now given to bridge rectifier to convert the AC source to DC source. The bridge rectifier
consists of four diodes, which two of them comprises forward bias and other two of them
reverse bias during the positive half cycle of AC voltage. And vice versa during the negative
half cycle of the AC source. After rectification, the 9v DC is given to regulator IC 7805. The
positive voltage regulator IC 7805, provides a constant 5v DC to the load. Since the output
may be pulsated DC, the filters circuit filters the AC components present in the output to
provide a pure DC.
CHAPTER 8
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
The circuit shows the microcontroller based bidirectional visitor counter, wherein the
transmitter and the receiver form the IR detection circuit. Control logic is built around
transistors, operational amplifier LM324 (IC1) and flip-flop (IC2).

The IR transmitter-receiver setup at the entrance-cum-exit of the passage is shown at the


block diagram. Two similar sections detect interruption of the IR beam and generate clock
pulse for the microcontroller. The microcontroller controls counting and displays the number
of persons present inside the hall. When nobody is passing through the entry/exit point, the
IR beam continuously falls on phototransistor T1. Phototransistor T1 conducts and the high
voltage as its emitter drives transistor T3 into saturation, which makes pin 3 of comparator N1
low and finally output pin 1 of comparator N1 is high.

Now if someone inters the place, first the IR beam from IR TX1 is interrupted and then the IR
beam from IR TX1 is interrupted, phototransistor T1 and transistor T3 cut-off and pin 3 of
comparator N1 goes high. The low output (pin1) of comparator N1 provides negative trigger
pulse to pin 1 of J-K flip-flop IC(A). At this moment, the high input at ‘J’ and ‘K’ pins of flip-
flop IC2(A) toggles its output to low. On the other hand, the low input at ‘J’ and ‘K’ pins of
IC2(B) due to clock pin 1 of IC2(A) and ’J’ input (pin 9) and ‘K’ input (pin 12) of IC2(B) are
connected to pin1 of comparator N1. the negative-going pulse is applied to clock pin 6 of
IC2(B) when the person interrupts the IR beam from IR TX2. There is no change in the
output of IC2(B) flip-flop. This triggers the external interrupt INT0 (pin 12) of
microcontroller AT89C52.

The AT89C52 us an 8-bit microcontroller with 8 kb of flash based program memory, 256
bytes of RAM, 32 input/output lines, three 16 bits timers/counters, on-chip oscillator and
clock circuitry. A 12MHz crystal is used fro providing clock. Ports 0, 1 and 2 are configured
for 7-segment displays. Port-0 pin is externally pulled up with 10-kilo-ohm resistor network
RNW1 because port-0 is an 8-bit, open-drain, bidirectional, input/output (I/O) port. Port-1
and port-2 are 8-bit bidirectional I/O ports with internal pull-ups (no need of external pull-
ups).
Port pins 3.0 and 3.1 are configured to provide the set pulse to J-K flip-flops IC2(A) and
IC2(B), respectively. External interrupts INT0 and INT1 Receive the interrupt the IR beams.
Resistor R9 and capacitor C5 provide power-on-reset pulse to the microcontroller. Switch S1
is used for manual reset.

When the microcontroller is reset, the flip-flops are brought in ‘set’ state through the
microcontroller at software run time by making their ‘set’ pin high for a moment. The value
of the counter increments by ‘1’ when the interrupt service routine for INT0 is executed. The
output of the corresponding J-K flip-flop is set to ‘high’ again by making its ‘set’ input pin
low through the microcontroller is configured as a negative-edge-triggered interrupt sensor.

Similarly, if somebody exits the place, first the IR beam from IR TX2 is interrupted and then
the IR beam from IR TX1. When the beam from IR Tx2 is interrupted, output pin 7 of
comparator N2 goes low. This provides clock pulse to pin 6 of J-K flip-flop IC2(B).

At this moment, the high input at ‘J’ and ‘K’ pins of flip-flop IC2(B) toggles its output to low.
ON the other hand, the low input at ‘J’ and ‘K’ pins of IC2(A) flip-flop. This triggers the
external interrupt INT1 (pin 13) of microcontroller AT89C52. The value of the counter
decrements by ‘1’ when interrupt service routing for INT1 is executed. The output of the
corresponding J-K flip-flop is set to ‘high’ again by making its ‘set’ input pin low through the
microcontroller.
8.1 Circuit Diagram

Figure 8.24Schematic Diagram of Bidirectional Visitor Counter


CHAPTER 9
ALGORITHM, FLOWCHART & PROGRAMMING

9.1 Algorithm

Step 1 : Start the process

Step 2 : Select ports 0, 1, 2 as output ports for displaying the count value in 7-segment
display

Step 3 : Select port 3 also as output port for providing set pulse to flip-flop

Step 4 : When external interrupt INT0 occurred, increment the count by 1.

Step 5 : When external interrupt INT1 occurred, decrement the count by 1.

Step 6 : Continue the process, whenever the interruption occurs.


9.2 Flow chart
START

Select Ports 0, 1, 2 as output


ports for 7-segment display

Select Port 3 as output port


for providing set- pulse to
flip-flop

Ext-
interrupt
occurred!
INT0 or
INT1

Increment the Decrement the


count by 1 count by 1

Send data to display the count in 7-


segment via the ports 0, 1, 2

Figure 9.1 Flow Chart


9.3 Program Coding

The program coding for this bidirectional visitor counter circuit is written in ‘C’ language and
is compiled using C51 Keil compiler.
Program:
#include <AT89x52.h>
int i=0,j,k,l,m,a[ ]=[63,6,91,79,102,109,125,7,127,111];
void enter (void) interrupt 0
{
i++;
if(i>999) i=999;
P3_1=0;
for(m=0;m<=1000;m++);
P3_1=1;
}
void exit (void) interrupt 2
{
i--;
if(i<0) i=0;
P3_0=0;
for(m=0;m<=1000;m++);
P3_0=1;
}
void main()
{
IE = 1333;
TCON = 5;
P3_0=1;
P3_1=1;
i=0;
while(1)
{
j=i%10;
k=i/10;
l=i/100;
k=k-l*10;
P2=a[j];
P0=a[k];
P1=a[l];
}
if (i==0)
{
P3_7=0;
P3_6=0;
}

else if (i>=1 && i<=10)


{
P3_7=0;
P3_6=1;
}

else if (i>=11)
{
P3_7=1;

P3_6=1;
}

}
}
CHAPTER 10
PCB DESIGN AND FABRICATION
10.1 Protel for windows PCB 1.5 capabilities

Protel for windows PCB is a complete PCB layout environment with many attractive features
for productive design work. You can use Protel for windows PCB as a stand-alone manual
board layout. When combined with the schematics capture package, Protel for windows PCB
becomes the backbone of fully automated, end to end design system that features a high
degree of design automation and integration. However you use Protel for windows PCB, you
will appreciate its helps of use and the high degree of flexibility built into this proven PCB
design system.

PCB generates through hole and design and SND design of up to sixteen signal layers, plus
four mid layer power planes and four mechanical drawing layers. Board size can be as big as
100 inches (or 81 cm) square. Placement accuracy is to 1/1,000,000 inch (.001 mil or .00025
mm). Metric/imperial grid system allows you to work accurately in both measurement system
and the gird can be “toggled” Between metric and imperial modes as you design by pressing
Q.

A PCB design is a series of layers which correspond to the individual “tools” used to create
the board such as the top and bottom signal layers independently and some operations, such as
track placement and layers dependent – you must first select the layers and then place the
track. PCB print/plot options also reflect this requirement for “layered” design.

PCB design differs from other drawing tasks in its requirements for extreme precision.
As a result, PCB is more of a “placing” environment than a freehand “drawing” environment.
Another fundamental difference is connectivity – PCB’s ability to recognize connection
between track segments, tracks and component pads, etc. for example, PCB allows you to
move a component without breaking its track to pad connections. You will be using
connectivity on several levels as you design with PCB.

10.2 PCB fabrication

The proposed PCB has been carefully designed by considering all the aspects such as the
overall circuit functionality, size requirements, electromagnetic interface, etc. once the PCB
pattern is photographed and reproduce on clear plastic sheet. The plastic sheet is placed over
a copper glass epoxy or phenolic board, the assembly is injected to undergo a photochemical
process and the resulting copper coated board consists of printed tracks which interconnect
the components as per the schematic design. The basic material used for making printed
circuit board is copper clad phenolic resin laminate. For general use, fuse boards are single
sided.

The procedure for making PCB is as follows,

 The board has to be cut to the required size and the copper surface has to be cleaned.
 The drawing of the circuit through which conduction takes place is made on the copper
surface using resist inks.
 Then the uncovered copper areas are etched away in chemical bath.
 The resist ink is removed to expose copper conducting areas.
 Degreasing and cleaning the board are necessary to ensure that the areas take solder
readily.
 Layout starts with an experimental design of components position and connections are
required.
 Connections on a PCB should cross and sketching is usually done when components
positions are to be altered. Tracking of the PCB plane has to be made after having
arrived at a suitable layout.
 The copper surface should be cleaned and dried before sketching the circuit in the
board.
 After tracking the pattern on the copper surface, this pattern then painted with resist
marker pen. It is allowed to dry for about 15 minutes.
 The board is then transferred to an etching bath. This consists of a solution of ferric
chloride kept in a plastic tray.
 The board is placed in the path such that the copper surface is kept facing upwards.

 This process is to be continued until all the tracks of copper have disappeared from the
surface.
 After etching, the board is removed and washed under running water to remove traces
of chemicals.
 Finally it is dried with soft cloth. The rest should be done is drilling.
 The points to be considered while drilling are,Drilling should carryout such that the
copper side is upper most. The use of a sharp drill is a must.

 A hard material under the board prevents the points of the drill from tearing up a lump
out of the back of the board, when the drill breaks through.
 To prevent the drill running of its correct position while drilling, the point to be drilled
has to be spotted with the center punch.
 Vertical drill stand is best suited for drilling PCB’s. This should ensure square holes.
Due to small size drill is used breakage rate can be high.
 The original tracking will be helpful for making the components positions on the plan
side of the board, which acts a guide for components assembly.
10.3 PCB Layout for Bidirectional Visitor Counting Circuit:

Figure 10.1 PCB layout


CHAPTER 11
RELAY
11.1 Introduction

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a


switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are
used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled
by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the
signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used
extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

Figure 11.25 Internal architecture of relay

A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is
called acontactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using
a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics
and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or
faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments
still called "protective relays"

Figure 11.26 Relay

11.2 Main Feature

1. 92/8 gold silver alloy on silver palladium contact type is suitable for low level switching
application.
2. Small size and light weight can provide high density P. C. Board mounting .
3. 2.54gmm Terminal Pitch.
4. Low Coil Power Consumption of GS-T Type and high Coil Power Consumption of GS-D
type are available to meet user’s selection.
5. Employment of suitable plastic materials to be applied to high temperature and various
chemical solution.
6. Plastic epoxy resin sealed type for washing procedure.

11.3 Application

Telecommunication, domestic appliances, office machine,audio equipment, Remote Control,


etc.
11.4 Contact Rating

Nominal Load (Resistive Load Cosf=1)


Contact Capacity ..................1A at 120VAC.
2A at 24VDC.
Rated Carrying Current........2A.
Max. Allowable Current .......2A.
Max. Allowable Voltage ........AC 120V, DC 24V.
Max. Allowable Power Force.50 VA, 30W.
Min. Switching Load.............DC 1V, 1mA.
Contact Material ....................Ag Alloy.
Contact Form..........................DPDT.

11.5 Performance (at Initial Value)

Contact Resistance................100mΩ
Max.@100mA,6VDC
Operate Time.........................GS-D 6 mSec. Max.
GS-T 8 mSec. Max
Release Time..........................4 mSec. Max.

Dielectric Strength :

Between Coil & Contact........1,000VAC at 50/60 Hz for one minute.


Between Contacts ..................500VAC at 50/60 Hz for one minute.
Surge Resistance .....................1,500V (between coil & contact 1.2x50∝Sec.)
Insulation Resistance ............100 MegaΩ Min. at 500VDC.
CHAPTER 12
ULN2003
12.1 DESCRIPTION

The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. It
consists of seven NPN darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with common-
cathode
clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current rating of a single darlington
pair is 500mA. The darlington pairs may be parrlleled for higher current capability.
Applications include relay drivers, hammer drivers, lampdrivers, display drivers(LED gas
discharge),line drivers, and logic buffers. The ULN2003 has a 2.7kΩ series base resistor for
each darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices.

Figure 12.27 ULN Device Driver

12.2 Features
■ Seven darlingtons per package
■ Output current 500 mA per driver (600 mApeak)
■ Output voltage 50 V
■ Integrated suppression diodes for inductive loads
■ Outputs can be paralleled for higher current
■ TTL/CMOS/PMOS/DTL Compatible inputs
■ Inputs pinned opposite outputs to simplify layout

12.3 Description
The ULN2001, ULN2002, ULN2003 and ULN 2004 are high voltage, high current darlington
arrays each containing seven open collector darlington pairs with common emitters. Each
channel rated at 500 mA and can withstand peak currents of 600 mA. Suppression diodes are
included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinned opposite the outputs to simplify
board layout.
The versions interface to all common logic families:
– ULN2001 (general purpose, DTL, TTL,PMOS, CMOS)
– ULN2002 (14-25V PMOS)
– ULN2003 (5V TTL, CMOS)
– ULN2004 (6-15V CMOS, PMOS)
These versatile devices are useful for driving awide range of loads including solenoids, relays
DC motors, LED displays filament lamps, thermal printheads and high power buffers.The
ULN2001A/2002A/2003A and 2004A are supplied in 16 pin plastic DIP packages with a
copper leadframe to reduce thermal resistance. They are available also in small outline
package (SO-16) as ULN2001D1/2002D1/2003D1/2004D1.

12.4 Diagram
Figure 12.28 Drivers

12.5 Pin Configuration

Figure 12.29 ULN pin configuration

12.6 Maximum Rating


CHAPTER 13
CONCLUSION

Thus the project entitled “Bidirectional Visitor Counter” helps to measure the visitor entering
and exiting a particular passage or way. The circuit counts both entering and exiting visitors
and displays the number of visitors present inside the hall. Visitor counting is not limited to
the entry/exit point of a company but has a wide range of applications that provide
information to management on the volume and flow of people throughout a location. the
visitor helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, floor area and sales
potential of an organization.
The circuit may also be enhanced with a wide counting range of
above three digits by modifying software section of the system. It can also be enhanced for
long and accurate sensing range using a laser torch instead of IR transmission circuit. Thus
the circuit can be used to monitor visitor flow in effective manner, where the visitors have to
counted and controlled.
REFERENCES
 The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems – Mazidi

 Electronics for you.


o www.electronicsforu.com/
 8052.com - The Online 8051/8052 Microcontroller Resource - 8052.com
o www.8052.com

 Op amps and linear integrated circuits by Ramakant A Gayakwad

 Morris Mano-Digital and Computer Logic Design

 Electronic Devices & Circuit Theory Boylestad, Nashelsky

 Wikipedia
o www.wikipedia.org