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Chapter 9

Ray Optics and


Optical Instruments
Important Results
1. According to laws of reflection, angle of incidence ∠ i is equal to
angle of reflection ∠r.
sin i Velocity of light in vacuum
2. Snell’s law shows that, =µ =
sin r Velocity of light in medium
µ
3. Refractive index of medium a w.r.t. medium b is given by aµ b = b
µα
1
4. a
µb = b
µa
5. a
µ b × bµ c× cµ a = 1
Real depth
6. µ=
Apparent depth
t [sin (i − r )]
7. Lateral shift =
cos r
 1 
8. Normal shift = t 1 − a 
 µn
1
9. Critical angle sin iC =
µ
10. The necessary conditions for total internal reflection are
(i) refraction takes place from denser medium to rarer medium.
(ii) the angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle
for the pair of media in contact.
1 1 1
11. Mirror formula, = +
f v u
12. For refraction through spherical surfaces
(i) When refraction occurs from rarer to denser medium.
µ1 µ µ − µ1
+ 2 = 2
−u v R
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(ii) When refraction occurs from denser to rarer medium


µ µ µ − µ2
− 2 + 1 = 1
u v R
1 1 1
13. The Lens formula, − =
v u f
14. Lens makes formula for both convex and concave lenses
1 1 1
= (µ − 1)  − 
f  R1 R2 
1 1 1
15. For combination of lenses = + + ...
f f1 f2
1 100
16. Power of lens P = = dioptre
f (m) f (cm)
For a converging lens or convex lens P is positive and for a
diverging lens or concave lens P is negative.
17. For combination of lenses, the power is given by
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...
18. For a fusion of angle A of refractive index µ is given by
 A + δ m
sin  
 2 
µ=
A
sin
2
19. In refraction through a prism
(i) A + δ = i1 + i2 (ii) r1 + r2 = A
(iii) When δ = δ m ⇒ i1 = i2 and r1 = r2
20. Magnifying power of simple microscope,
d
m =1+
f
where, d is least distant of distinct vision.
21. Magnifying power of a compound microscope
L d
m= 1 +  where, L = length of the tube
fo  fe 
22. Magnifying power of an astronomical telescope
f
(i) In normal adjustment m = − o
fe
(ii) When image formed atleast distance of distinct vision
f  f 
m = − o 1 + e 
fe  d
where, d is the least distance of distinct vision.
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 215

23. (i) Length of astronomical telescope tube for normal adjustment is


given by
L = fo + fe
(ii) Length of terrestrial telescope is given by
L = fo + 4f + fe
where, f is the focal length of the erecting lens.
24. Resolving power of telescope is given by
d
RP =
1.22 λ
25. Angular limit of resolution of a telescope is given by
1.22 λ
dθ =
d

Exercises
Question 1. A small candle, 2.5 cm in size is placed at 27 cm in front of
a concave mirror of radius of curvature 36 cm. At what distance from the
mirror should a screen be placed in order to obtain a sharp image?
Describe the nature and size of the image. If the candle is moved closer to
the mirror, how would the screen have to be moved?
Solution Given, radius of curvature of concave mirror, R = − 36 m
(For concave mirror radius of curvature is taken as negative)
R 36
∴ Focal length f = = = − 18 cm
2 2
Distance of object u = − 27 cm
(Object distance is always taken as negative)
Height of object O = 2.5 cm P
C F
Use the mirror formula 36 cm
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + ⇒ − = −
f v u 18 v 27
1 1 1 −3 + 2 1
=− + = =−
v 18 27 54 54
Distance of screen from mirror v = − 54 cm
Let the size of image be I. By using the formula of magnification for
mirror
v I
m= − =
u O
− (−54) I
=
− 27 2.5
I = − 5 cm
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The negative sign shows that the image is formed in front of the mirror
and it is inverted. Thus, the screen should be placed at a distance 54 cm
and the size of image is 5 cm, real, inverted and magnified in nature.
If we move the object near to the mirror (as u → f, v → ∞) the screen
should be moved away from mirror. As the distance of object is less than
focal length, (u < f) no screen is required, because the image formed is
virtual.
Question 2. A 4.5 cm needle is placed 12 cm away from a convex
mirror of focal length 15 cm. Give the location of the image and the
magnification. Describe what happens as the needle is moved farther
from the mirror?
Solution Given, focal length of convex mirror
f = + 15 cm (Focal length of convex mirror is taken
as positive)
Distance of object u = − 12 cm
F C
Size of object O = 4.5 cm
Using the mirror formula,
1 1 1
= +
f v u
1 1 1 1 1 1 4+5 9
= − ⇒ = + = =
15 v 12 v 15 12 60 60
Distance of image from the mirror v = 6.7 cm
The positive sign shows that the image is formed behind the mirror.
Using the formula of magnification,
v I
m= − =
u O
− 6.7 I
=
−12 4.5
Size of image I = 2.5 cm
As I is positive, so image is erect and virtual.
Magnification m is given by
I 2.5 25 5
m= = = =
O 4.5 45 9
As the needle moves away from the mirror, the image also moves away
from the mirror (as u → ∞, v → f) and the size of image goes on
decreasing.
Question 3. A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5 cm. The
apparent depth of a needle lying at the bottom of the tank is measured by
a microscope to be 9.4 cm. What is the refractive index of water? If water
is replaced by a liquid of refractive index 1.63 up to the same height, by
what distance would the microscope have to be moved to focus on the
needle again?
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 217

Solution Case I When tank is filled with water


Given, the apparent depth = 9.4 cm
Height of water t = 12.5 cm
So, real depth = 12.5 cm
Refractive index of water
Real depth 12.5
µw = = = 1.33
Apparent depth 9.4
Case II When tank is filled with the liquid
Refractive index of liquid µ = 1.63,
Real depth
Again µ =
Apparent depth
12.5
∴ 1.63 =
Apparent depth
12.5
Apparent depth = = 7.67 cm
1.63
∴The microscope is shifted by = 9.4 – 7.67 = 1.73 cm
Question 4. Figs. (a) and (b) show refraction of a ray in air incident at
60° with the normal to a glass-air and water-air interface, respectively.
Predict the angle of refraction in glass when the angle of incidence in
water is 45º with the normal to a water-glass interface [Fig. (c)].

Air
Glass 35° ?°
60° Glass

Air
60° Water 47° 45° Water

(a) (b) (c)


Solution Given, from Fig. (a)
Angle of incidence i = 60°
Angle of refraction r = 35°
sin 60° 0.8660
Refractive index of glass w.r.t. air, aµ g = = = 1.51 …(i)
sin 35° 0.5736
From Fig. (b)
Angle of incidence i = 60°, angle of refraction r = 47°
Refractive index of water w.r.t. to air
sin 60° 0.8660
a
µw = = = 1.18 …(ii)
sin 47° 0.7314
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From Fig. (c)


Angle of incidence i = 45°, let r be the angle of refraction
Refractive index of glass w.r.t. to water
sin 45°
w
µg = …(iii)
sin r
a
µg
As, we know that w
µg = a
µw
Putting the value of w µ g in Eq. (iii), we get
a
µg0.7071
=
µw
a
sin r
1.51 0.7071
=
1.32 sin r
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
1.32 × 0.7071
sin r = = 0.6181
1.51
r = 38.2°
Question 5. A small bulb is placed at the bottom of a tank containing
water to a depth of 80 cm. What is the area of the surface of water through
which light from the bulb can emerge out? Refractive index of water is
1.33. (Consider the bulb to be a point source.)
Use relation between critical angle and refractive index. When light is
incident at an angle of incidence equal to the critical angle, the angle of
refraction is 90° and light will pass through the interface of the two media.
Solution Let the bulb is placed at point O
AB = AC = r
If the light falls at an angle of incidence equal to critical angle ic, then
only a circular area is formed because if angle of incidence is less than
the critical angle it will refract into air and when angle of incidence is
greater than critical angle then it will be reflected back in water)
The source of light is 80 cm below the surface of
water i. e. AO = 80 cm, µ w = 1.33
C A B
Using the formula for critical angle,
1
sin ic =
µw ic ic
ic ic
1
sin ic = = 0.75
1.33
ic = 48.6° O
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 219

AB
In ∆OAB tan ic =
AO
r
or tan ic =
l
r = l tan ic = 80 tan 48.6
r = 80 × 1.1345 =90.7 cm
Area of circular surface of water, through which light will emerge
A = πr 2
A = 3.14 × (90.7)2 = 25865.36 cm2
A = 2.58 m2

Question 6. A prism is made of glass of unknown refractive index. A


parallel beam of light is incident on a face of the prism. The angle of
minimum deviation is measured to be 40°. What is the refractive index of
the material of the prism? The refracting angle of the prism is 60°. If the
prism is placed in water (refractive index 1.33), predict the new angle of
minimum deviation of a parallel beam of light.
Solution Given, angle of minimum deviation δ m = 40°
The refracting angle of the prism A = 60°
Refractive index of glass w.r.t. air
 A + δ m  60° + 40°
sin   sin  
 2   2  sin 50°
a
µg = = =
sin
A sin 30° sin 30°
2
0.766
a
µg = = 1.532
0.5
When prism is placed in water
The refractive index of water w.r.t. air
a
µ w = 1.33
Refractive index of glass with respect to water
 A + δ′m 
sin  
 2 
w
µg =
A
sin
2
(where the new angle of deviation is δ′m )
 A + δ′m 
sin  
a
µg  2 
∴ =
a
µw sin 30°
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 A + δ′m  1. 532 × sin 30°


sin   =
 2  1.33
 A + δ′m  0.5 × 1.532
or sin   = = 0.5759
 2  1.33
 A + δ′m 
or sin   = sin 35° 10′
 2 
δ′m = 2 (30° 10′) − 60° = 70° 20′ − 60°
δ′m = 10° 20′
Thus, the new angle of minimun deviation is 10° 20′.
Question 7. Double-convex lenses are to be manufactured from a glass
of refractive index 1.55, with both faces of the same radius of curvature.
What is the radius of curvature required if the focal length is to be 20 cm?
Solution Given, the refractive index of glass with respect to air
a
µ g = 1.55
(Qboth faces have same redius of curvature)
For double convex lenses R1 = R, R2 = − R
(For double convex lens, one redius is taken positive and
other negative) R1 R2
Focal length of lens, f = + 20 cm
Using the Lens maker’s formula
1 a 1 1
= ( µ g − 1)  − 
f  R1 R2 
1  1 1
= (1.55 − 1)  + 
20  R R
1 2
= 0.55 ×
20 R
R = 0.55 × 2 × 20 =22 cm
Thus, the required radius of curvature is 22 cm.
Question 8. A beam of light converges at a point P. Now a lens is
placed in the path of the convergent beam 12 cm from P. At what point
does the beam converge if the lens is (a) a convex lens of focal length 20
cm, and (b) a concave lens of focal length 16 cm?
Solution Here, the point P is on the right side of
lens acts as vertical object.
12 cm
(a) Given, distance of object from the lens
u = 12 cm P
Focal length of convex lens f = + 20 cm
O
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 221

1 1 1
Using Lens formula, − =
v u f
1 1 1
− =
v 12 20
1 1 1 3+5 8
= + = =
v 20 12 60 60
v= 7.5 cm
Thus, the beam converges on the right side of lens at a distance of
7.5 cm.
(b) Distance of object from the lens u = 12 cm
Focal length of concave lens f = − 16 cm
Using Lens formula,
P
1 1 1 12 cm
− =
v u f
1 1 1
− =−
v 12 16
1 1 1 4 −3
⇒ = − =
v 12 16 48
v = 48 cm
Thus, the beam converges on the right side of lens at a distance of
48 cm.
Question 9. An object of size 3.0 cm is placed 14 cm in front of a
concave lens of focal length 21 cm. Describe the image produced by the
lens. What happens if the object is moved further away from the lens?
Solution Size of object, O = 3 cm
Focal length of lens f = − 21 cm
f
(QFocal length of convex lens is taken as
negative.) 14 cm
Distance of object from the concave lens
u = − 14 cm 21 cm
(QFocal lenth of concave lens is taken as negative)
Using Lens formula,
1 1 1
− =
v u f
1 1 1
+ =−
v 14 12
1 1 1 −2 −3 5
⇒ =− − = =−
v 21 14 42 42
v = − 8.4 cm
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Using the formula of magnification


v I
m= − = where, I = height of image
u O
(− 8.4) I
=
− 14 3
I = 1.8 cm
I is positive, therefore the image formed is virtual and erect at a distance
of 8.4 cm from the lens on the same side of object and height of image is
1.8 cm.
If the object moves further away from the lens, the image moves towards
the lens (never beyond focus). The size of image decreases gradually.
Question 10. What is the focal length of a convex lens of focal length
30 cm in contact with a concave lens of focal length 20 cm? Is the system
a converging or a diverging lens? Ignore thickness of the lenses.
Solution Given, focal length of convex lens f1 = 30 cm,
Focal lengh of concave lens f2 = − 20 cm
Using the formula of combination of lenses
1 1 1 1 1 2 −3 1
= + = − = =−
f f1 f2 30 20 60 60
f = − 60 cm
Since, the focal length of combination is negative in nature. So the
combination behaves like a diverging lens i. e. as a concave lens.
Question 11. A compound microscope consists of an objective lens of
focal length 2.0 cm and an eye-piece of focal length 6.25 cm separated by a
distance of 15 cm. How far from the objective should an object be placed
in order to obtain the final image at (a) the least distance of distinct vision
(25 cm), and (b) at infinity? What is the magnifying power of the
microscope in each case?
Solution Given, focal length of objective lens, fo = 2 cm
Focal length of eye-piece fe = 6.25 cm
Distance between both lenses v = 15 cm
(a) Distance of final image from eye-piece
v e = − 25 cm
Using the Lens formula for eye-piece
1 1 1
− =
v e u e fe
1 1 1
= −
ue ve fe
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 223

1 1 −1 − 4 − 5
= − = =
− 25 6.25 25 25
u e = − 5 cm
O E
B vo ve
C1 C2
Fo A'
A uo
B' Fe
A''
x
2 cm
B''
10 cm 5 cm 25 cm
15 cm
As the distance between objective and eye-piece (v o + u e ) = 15 cm
L = vo + ue
Distance of image formed by object lens
v o = L −|u e| = 15 − 5 = 10 cm
Using the lens equation for objective lens
1 1 1
− =
v o u o fo
1 1 1 1 1 1−5 4
= − = − = =−
u o v o fo 10 2 10 10
u o = − 2.5 cm
So, the object should be 2.5 cm in front of convex lens.
Magnifying power of compound microscope
v  d  10  25 
m = o 1 +  = 1 +  (Qd = 25 cm)
uo  fe  2.5  6.25
m = 20
(b) The final image will be formed at infinity only if the image formed
by the objective is in the focal plane of the eye-piece i. e., at
principal focus of the eye-piece.
Thus, here v e = − ∞, u e = fe = 6.25 cm
Image distance of objective lens
v o = L − fe = − 15 − 6.25 =8.75 cm
Using Lens formula,
1 1 1
− =
v o u o fo
1 1 1 1 1 2 – 8 . 75
= − = − =
u o v o fo 8.75 2 17.5
17.5
uo = − = − 2.59 cm
6.75
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O E

Fo Fe
uo

2 cm ∞

8.75 cm
6.25 cm
15 cm
Magnifying power of the microscope
v  d  8.75  25 
m = o 1 +  = 1 + 
uo  fe  2.59  6.25
m = 13.51
Question 12. A person with a normal near point (25 cm) using a
compound microscope with objective of focal length 8.0 mm and an
eye-piece of focal length 2.5 cm can bring an object placed at 9.0 mm from
the objective in sharp focus. What is the separation between the two
lenses? Calculate the magnifying power of the microscope.
Solution Given, focal length of objective fo = 8 mm = 0.8 cm
Focal length of eye-piece fe = 2.5 cm
Distance of object from objective − u o = − 9 mm = – 0.9 cm
Distance of image from eye-piece
v e = − d = − 25 cm
Using Lens equation for eye-piece
1 1 1
− =
v e u e fe
1 1 1 1 1 − 1 − 10 11
or = − =− − = =−
u e v e fe 25 2.5 25 25
u e = − 2.27 cm
Using Lens equation for objective
1 1 1
− =
v o u o fo
1 1 1 1 1 0.9 − 0.8 0.1
or = + = − − =
v o fo u o 0.8 0.9 0.72 0.72
Distance of image for objective lens
v o = 7.2 cm
Separation between two lenses
L = |u e | + | v o | = 2.27 + 7.2
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 225

L = 9.47 cm
Magnifying power of compound microscope
v  d  7.2  25 
m = o 1 +  = 1 + 
uo  fe  0.9  2.5
m = 88
Question 13. A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length
144 cm and an eye-piece of focal length 6.0 cm. What is the magnifying
power of the telescope? What is the separation between the objective and
the eye-piece?
Solution Given, focal length of objective lens fo = 144 cm
Focal length of eye-piece fe = 6 cm
Magnifying power of the telescope in normal adjustment

(i. e., when the final image is formed at ∞)


f 144
m= − o = − = − 24
fe 6
∴ Separation between lenses L = fo + fe = 144 + 6 = 150 cm
Question 14. (a) A giant refracting telescope at an observatory has an
objective lens of focal length 15 m. If an eye-piece of focal length 1.0
cm is used, what is the angular magnification of the telescope?
(b) If this telescope is used to view the moon, what is the diameter of
the image of the moon formed by the objective lens? The diameter
of the moon is 3.48 × 10 6 m, and the radius of lunar orbit is
3. 8 × 10 8 m.
Solution Given, focal length of objective lens, fo = 15 m
Focal length of eye-piece fe = 1 cm = 0.01 m
(a) Angular magnification by the telescope
f 15
m= o = = 1500
fe 0.01
Let d be the diameter of the image of the moon formed by the objective
lens.
d d
∴ Angle subtended by the image = =
fo 15
(b) Diameter of object do = 3.48 × 106 m
Radius of orbit r = 3.8 × 108 m
The angle subtended by the diameter of the moon
Diameter of moon 3.48 × 106
= =
Radius of lunar orbit 3.8 × 108
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The angle subtended by the image is equal to the angle subtended


by the object.
di 3.48 × 106
∴ =
15 3.8 × 108
3.48 × 15 × 10− 2
or di = = 13.73 × 10− 2 m
3.8
or di = 13.73 cm
Thus, the diameter of the image of moon is 13.73 cm.
Question 15. Use the mirror equation to deduce that
(a) an object placed between f and 2f of a concave mirror produces a
real image beyond 2f.
(b) a convex mirror always produces a virtual image independent of
the location of the object.
(c) the virtual image produced by a convex mirror is always diminished
in size and is located between the focus and the pole.
(d) an object placed between the pole and focus of a concave mirror
produces a virtual and enlarged image.
[Note: This exercise helps you deduce algebraically properties of
images that one obtains from explicit ray diagrams.]
1 1 1
Solution (a) The mirror equation formula + =
v u f
For concave mirror f < 0, as object always placed on the left side of mirror,
so u < 0. According to question, f < u < 2f
(Object lies between f and 2f)
1 1 1 1 1 1
> > or − <− <−
2f u f 2f u f
1
Add on both sides, we get
f
1 1 1 1
− < − <0 …(i)
f 2f f u
1 1 1
From Lens formula, − = , so from Eq. (i), we get
f u v
1 1 1
− <
f 2f v
1 1
< or v > 2f
2f v
As, f is negative, 2 f is also negative and hence v will be also
negative. So, the image formed is real and image lies beyond 2f.
(b) For convex mirror f is always positive f > 0. As object always placed
on left side of mirror u < 0.
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 227

1 1 1
From Lens formula, = − as f > 0, and u < 0
v f u
1
The value of > 0, or v > 0 or v is always positive. The image formed
v
is virtual. It does not depends on the location of object.
(c) For convex mirror f > 0, u < 0
1 1 1 1 1
From Lens formula, = − so > or v < f
v f u v f
Thus, image always located between pole and focus of the mirror, as
v <|u|. So the image is always diminished in size.
(d) For concave mirror f < 0.
As object is placed between pole and focus.
∴ f <u <0
1 1
∴ − >0
f u
1 1 1
From Lens formula, − = >0⇒v>0
f u v
It means that v is positive, image formed on right and virtual.
1 1
<
v u
v >|u| so image is enlarged.
Question 16. A small pin fixed on a table top is viewed from above from
a distance of 50 cm. By what distance would the pin appear to be raised if
it is viewed from the same point through a 15 cm thick glass slab held
parallel to the table? Refractive index of glass = 1.5. Does the answer
depend on the location of the slab?
Solution Given, thickness of glass slab (real depth) = 15 cm
Refractive index of glass aµ g with respect to air = 1.5
Real depth 15
Using the formula a
µg = = a
Apparent depth µg
Apparent depth of pin y = 15 /1.5 = 10 cm
Distance by which the pin appears to be raised
= Real depth – Apparent depth = 15 − 10 = 5 cm
The answer does not depend on the location of the slab.
Alternate Method
Given thickness of glass slab t = 15 cm
Refractive index of glass µ = 1.5
The normal shift in the position of the pin
 1  2 1
d = t 1 −  = 15 1 −  = 15 × = 5 cm
 µ  3 3
The pin appears raised by 5 cm.
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Question 17. (a) Figure shows a cross-section of a ‘light pipe’ made of a


glass fibre of refractive index 1.68. The outer covering of the pipe is made
of a material of refractive index 1.44. What is the range of the angles of the
incident rays with the axis of the pipe for which total reflections inside the
pipe take place, as shown in the figure.

i i
r
i

(b) What is the answer if there is no outer covering of the pipe?


The working of an optical fibre is based on the phenomena of total
internal reflection. Therefore use condition for total internal reflection.
Solution
(a) Given, refractive index of the glass fibre with respect to air
µ2 = aµ g = 1.68
Refractive index of the outer coating material with respect to air
µ1 = aµ outer = 1.44
Let the critical angle be ic.
µ2 1
µ= =
µ1 sin ic
µ1 1.44
sin ic = = = 0.8571
µ2 1.68
ic = 59°
The total internal reflection will take place when the angle of
incidence i will be greater than the critical angle ic
i.e., i > 59° or when angle of refraction, r < rmax
where rmax = 90° − ic = 90° − 59° = 31°
sin imax
So, a
µg = = 1.68
sin rmax
or sin imax = 1.68 sin 31° = 1.68 × 0.5156
imax = sin −1(0.8662) = 60°
Thus, all the rays which are incident in the range 0 < i < 60°, will
suffer total internal reflection in the pipe (but i ≠ 0).
(b) If there is no outer covering of the pipe then reflection inside the
pipe shall take place from the glass to air
µ 1
sin i′c = 1 = = 0.5952 [Qµ1 = 1 and µ2 = 1.68]
µ2 1.68
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 229

Critical angle i′c = 36.5°


sin 90°
Now, i = 90°, we have r = 36.5°, r = 1.68 =
sin r
So, i′ = 90 − 36.5 =53.5°
Here, i′ is greater than the critical angle. Thus all the rays incident
at an angles in the range zero to 90° will suffer total internal
reflection.
Question 18. Answer the following questions :
(a) You have learnt that plane and convex mirrors produce virtual
images of objects. Can they produce real images under some
circumstances? Explain.
(b) A virtual image, we always say, cannot be caught on a screen. Yet
when we ‘see’ a virtual image, we are obviously bringing it on to the
‘screen’ (i.e., the retina) of our eye. Is there a contradiction?
(c) A diver under water, looks obliquely at a fisherman standing on the
bank of a lake. Would the fisherman look taller or shorter to the
diver than what he actually is?
(d) Does the apparent depth of a tank of water change if viewed
obliquely? If so, does the apparent depth increase or decrease?
(e) The refractive index of diamond is much greater than that of
ordinary glass. Is this fact of some use to a diamond cutter?
Solution
(a) Yes, plane and convex mirrors produces the real image if the rays
incident on the plane or convex mirror are converging to a point
behind the mirror. Because they are reflected to a point on a screen
in front of the mirror. In other words, a plane or convex mirror can
produce a real image of the object is virtual.
(b) No, there is no contradiction because virtual image formed by the
spherical mirror acts as virtual object for eye lens. Our eye lens is
convergent and it forms a real image of virtual object on retina.
(c) As the fisherman in air, the rays of light
travels from rarer to denser medium, they Fisher
bends towards the normal. So, the man
fisherman appears taller.
(d) Yes, the apparent depth decreases,
further, when water tank is viewed
obliquely as compared to the depth when Diver
seen near normally.
(e) Refractive index of diamond µ diamond > Refractive index of glass µ glass
1
Refractive index µ=
sin ic
where, ic is the critical angle.
As, the refractive index of diamond is more than the refractive index
of water, so the value of critical angle for glass is more than
diamond. A diamond cutter, cuts the diamond at large range of
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angle of incidence to ensure that light entering in the diamond


suffers multiple total external reflections. This gives the sparkling to
diamond.
Question 19. The image of a small electric bulb fixed on the wall of a
room is to be obtained on the opposite wall 3 m away by means of a large
convex lens. What is the maximum possible focal length of the lens
required for the purpose?
Solution Suppose the object is placed at u metre in front of the lens and
the distance of image from the lens is (3 − u) m
i.e., v = (3 − u) m
From Lens formula,
1 1 1
− =
v u f
1 1 1
− =
(3 − u) − u f
1 1 1
or + =
(3 − u) u f
u + 3 −u 1
or =
u (3 − u) f
3f = 3u − u2
u2 − 3u + 3f = 0
− (−3) ± 9 − 4 × (3 f)
Now, u=
2
+ 3 ± 9 − 2f
u=
2
Condition for image to be formed real on the screen.
9 − 12 f ≥ 0
or 9 ≥ 12f or f ≤ 0.75 m
Thus, the maximum possible focal length of the lens required for this
purpose is 0.75 m.
Question 20. A screen is placed 90 cm from an object. The image of the
object on the screen is formed by a convex lens at two different locations
separated by 20 cm. Determine the focal length of the lens.
Solution Given, distance between screen and object a = 90 cm
Distance between two locations of the lens d = 20 cm
Using the displacement formula
a2 − d2 (90)2 − (20)2 7700
f= = = = 21.4 cm
4a 4 × 90 360
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 231

Question 21. (a) Determine the ‘effective focal length’ of the


combination of the two lenses in question 10, if they are placed
8.0 cm apart with their principal axes coincident. Does the answer
depend on which side of the combination a beam of parallel light is
incident? Is the notion of effective focal length of this system useful
at all?
(b) An object 1.5 cm in size is placed on the side of the convex lens in
the arrangement (a) above. The distance between the object and
the convex lens is 40 cm. Determine the magnification produced by
the two-lens system, and the size of the image.
Solution (a) Given, f1 = 30 cm the focal length of convex lens.
The focal length of concave lens f2 = − 20 cm, d = 8 cm
Use the formula,
1 1 1 d
= + −
f f1 f2 f1f2
1 1 1 8 20 − 30 + 8
= − − =
f 30 20 30 × (−20) 30 × 20
1 2
=−
f 600
f = − 300 cm
(i) Let us take that the incident beam falls on convex lens and assume
that concave lens is absent.
u1 = ∞, f1 = 30 cm
Using the Lens formula
1 1 1
= −
f1 v1 u1
1 1 1
= −
30 v1 ∞
Position of the image formed by convex lens
v1 = 30 cm
Now, this image acts as an object for concave lens.
Now, distance of object
u2 = + (30 − 8) = 22 cm
f2 = − 20 cm
v1
Using Lens formula
8 cm
1 1 1
= −
f2 v2 u2
1 1 1 1
=− + =−
v2 20 22 220
Distance of final image v2 = − 220 cm.
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Thus, the parallel beam would appear to diverge from a point


220 − 4 = 216 cm from the centre of two lens system.
(ii) Let us take that the parallel beam f1 = + 30 cm f = – 20 cm
first falls on concave lens.
u1 = − ∞, f1 = − 20 cm, v1 = ?
8 cm v=∞
1 1 1
+ =
v1 ∞ − 20 20 cm
v1 = − 20 cm
This acts as an object for convex lens.
u2 = − (20 + 8) = − 28 cm, f2 = 30 cm, v2 = ?
1 1 1
+ =
v2 28 30
1 1 1 14 − 15 1
= − = =−
v2 30 28 420 420
v2 = − 420 cm
The parallel beam appears to diverge from a point 420 – 4 = 416 cm
on the left of the centre of the two lens system. From the above two
cases it concludes that the answer depends on which side of the
lens system the parallel beam is incident. So, the notion of effective
focal length does not seem to be useful here.
(b) Given, size of object O1 = 1.5 cm
Distance from the convex lens u1 = − 40 cm,
1 1 1
For the convex lens, − = f1 = + 30 cm f = – 20 cm
v1 u1 f1
O = +1.5 cm
1 1 1
= +
v1 30 (− 40)
4 −3 1
= = 8 cm
120 120 40 cm
v1 = 120 cm
Magnification produced by convex lens
v 120
m1 = 1 = = −3
u1 − 40
Now, this image acts as an object for concave lens.
∴ For concave lens u2 = 120 − 8 = 112 cm, f2 = − 20 cm
1 1 1 − 112 + 20 − 92
= + = =
v2 − 20 112 112 × 20 112 × 20
− 112 × 20
v2 = cm
92
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 233

Magnification produced by concave lens


v (−112 × 20) 20
m2 = 2 = =
u2 92 × 112 92
Magnification produced by combination
 20 60
m = m1 × m2 = (− 3) ×  −  =
 90 92
m = 0.652
Size of image = m × size of objects
= 0.652 × 1.5 =0.98 cm
Thus, the magnification produced by the two lens system is 0.652
and size of image is 0.98 cm.
Question 22. At what angle should a ray of light be incident on the face
of a prism of refracting angle 60° so that it just suffers total internal
reflection at the other face? The refractive index of the material of the
prism is 1.524.
Solution Angle of prism, A = 60° A

Refractive index of prism µ = 1.524


60°
Let i be the angle of incidence. The
critical angle is ic because it just suffers
total internal refraction, so we use critical i1
r1 ic
angle.
1 1
sin ic = = = 0.6561
µ 1.524
ic = 41°
B C
For a prism r1 + r2 = A here r2 = ic
∴ r1 + ic = A
r1 + 41° = 60°
⇒ r1 = 19°
sin i1
Using the formula, µ=
sin r1
or sin i1 = 1.524 sin 19° = 1.524 × 0.3256
or i1 = sin − 1 (0.4962)
i1 = 29° 75′
Thus, the angle should be 29° 75′.
Question 23. You are given prisms made of crown glass and flint glass
with a wide variety of angles. Suggest a combination of prisms which will
(a) deviate a pencil of white light without much dispersion.
(b) disperse (and displace) a pencil of white light without much
deviation.
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Solution (a) When a beam of white light is incident on a prism, the


emergent beam is dispersed and is deviated from the original path. When
two prisms of different material and angles are combined so as to
produce dispersion without deviation then such a combination is called
direct vision prism. If the two prisms combined produce deviation
without dispersion, then such a combination is called a chromatic prism :
For the deviation without dispersion, the angular dispersion produced by
two prisms should be zero.
i.e., (µ b − µ r ) A + (µ′b − µ′r ) A′ = 0
As (µ′b − µ′r ) for flint glass is more than that for crown glass. So,
A′ < A i.e., the prism of flint glass is suitable with crown glass prism
of larger angle.
(b) For dispersion without deviation,
(µ y − 1) A + (µ′y − 1) A′ = 0
As µ′y for flint glass is more than µ y for crown glass. So, A′ < A, i.e.,
we use a flint glass prism of smaller angle with crown glass prism of
larger angle.
Question 24. For a normal eye, the far point is at infinity and the near
point of distinct vision is about 25 cm in front of the eye. The cornea of the
eye provides a converging power of about 40 D, and the least converging
power of the eye lens behind the cornea is about 20 D. From this rough
data estimate the range of accommodation (i.e., the range of converging
power of the eye lens) of a normal eye.
Solution Given, the power of cornea = 40 D and least converging
power of eye lens = 20 D
To observe the objects at infinity, the eye uses its least converging
power means power is maximum,
i.e., = 40 + 20 = 60 D
The distance between cornea = focal length of eye lens
100 100 5
f= = = cm
P 60 3
To focus objects at the near point on the retina
5
u = − 25 cm, v = cm
3
1 1 1 1×3 1 15 + 1 16
Using Lens formula, = − = + = =
f v u 5 25 25 25
25
⇒ f= cm
16
1 100 × 16
Power of lens = = = 64 D
f 25
∴ Power of eye lens = 64 − 40 = 24 D
Thus, the range of accommodation of the eye lens is 20 D to 24 D.
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 235

Question 25. Does short-sightedness (myopia) or long-sightedness


(hyper-metropia) imply necessarily that the eye has partially lost its
ability of accommodation? If not, what might cause these defects of
vision?
Solution No, short-sightedness or long-sightedness does not imply that
the eye has partially lost its ability of accommodation. Short-sightedness
(myopia) arises when the eye can see near by objects clearly but distant
objects are not see clearly due to the shift of the farthest point towards
the eye and thus it becomes difficult to see beyond certain limit. This
defect (myopia) is due to the elongation of eye ball and in long
sightedness (hyper-metropia) one cannot see near by objects clearly. This
defect is due to the shortening of eye ball.
Question 26. A myopic person has been using spectacles of power
– 1.0 D for distant vision. During old age he also needs to use separate
reading glass of power + 2.0 D. Explain what may have happened?
Solution Initially power of spectacles = − 1 D, i.e., focal length is
( −100) cm. It means that far point of the person is 100 cm and near point
is normal i.e., 25 cm. Due to the old age the person use + 2D, spectacles
i.e., focal length f = 50 cm.
So, u = − 25 cm
and f = 50 cm
1 1 1
From the Lens formula, = +
50 v 25
1 1 1 1−2 1
⇒ = − = =−
v 50 25 50 50
v = − 50 cm
The near point is a 50 cm.
Question 27. A person looking at a person wearing a shirt with a
pattern comprising vertical and horizontal lines is able to see the vertical
lines more distinctly than the horizontal ones. What is this defect due to?
How is such a defect of vision corrected?
Solution When any person having problem is seeing the vertical and
horizontal axes clearly, he/she is suffering from astigmatism. It arises due
to non-spherical corneia. In this defect, the shape of eye ball is not
perfect spherical. This defect is removed by using cylindrical lenses.
Question 28. A man with normal near point (25 cm) reads a book with
small print using a magnifying glass: a thin convex lens of focal length
5 cm.
(a) What is the closest and the farthest distance at which he should
keep the lens from the page so that he can read the book when
viewing through the magnifying glass?
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(b) What is the maximum and the minimum angular magnification


(magnifying power) possible using the above simple microscope?
Solution Given, near point, u = 25 cm
(a) Focal length f = + 5 cm, v = − 25 cm
It is for the closest distance
Using the Lens formula
1 1 1
= −
f v u
1 1 1
= −
5 − 25 u
1 1 1 −1 − 5 6
⇒ =− − = =−
u 25 5 25 25
u = − 4.2 cm
For the farthest distance, v′ = ∞ and f= 5 cm
1 1 1
= −
f v′ u′
1 1 1
⇒ = −
5 ∞ u′
u′ = − 5 cm
Thus, the closest and the farthest distances are – 4.2 cm and – 5 cm,
respectively.
(b) Maximum angular magnification
d 25
mmax = = =6
u 25
6
Minimum angular magnification is at the farthest distance
d 25
mmin = = =5
u′ 5
Question 29. A card sheet divided into squares each of size 1 mm 2 is
being viewed at a distance of 9 cm through a magnifying glass
(a converging lens of focal length 10 cm) held close to the eye.
(a) What is the magnification produced by the lens? How much is the
area of each square in the virtual image?
(b) What is the angular magnification (magnifying power) of the lens?
(c) Is the magnification in (a) equal to the magnifying power in (b)?
Explain.
Solution (a) Given, focal length of converging lens f = 10 cm,
Distance from lens u = − 9 cm
Size of object = 1 mm
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 237

Using Lens formula


1 1 1
= −
f v u
1 1 1
= +
10 v 9
1 1 1 1
⇒ = − =−
v 10 9 90
or v = − 90 cm
The magnification produced by the lens
v (+ 90)
m= + = − = 10
u −9
v I
m= =
u O
I = O × m = 1 × 10 = 10 mm
Area of each square in virtual image = (10)2 = 100 mm2
Thus, the magnification is 10 and area of each square in the virtual
image is 10 mm2 .
d 25
(b) Angular magnification, m = = = 2.8
u 9
(QLeast distance of distinct vision D = 25 cm)
(c) No, they are equal if v = d (least distance of distinct vision).
Question 30. (a) At what distance should the lens be held from the
figure in question 29 in order to view the squares distinctly with the
maximum possible magnifying power?
(b) What is the magnification in this case?
(c) Is the magnification equal to the magnifying power in this case?
Explain.
Solution (a) Given, v = − 25 cm and f = 10 cm.
For maximum possible magnifying power the image formed at least
distant of distinct vision.
Using Lens formula
1 1 1
= −
f v u
1 1 1
⇒ = −
10 − 25 u
1 1 1 −2 −5 7
= − = =−
u − 25 10 50 50
u = − 7.14 cm
v − 25
(b) Magnification in this case m = = = 3.5
u − 7.14
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d 25
(c) Magnifying power = = = 3.5
u 7.14
Yes the magnification equal to the magnifying power because, the
image formed at least distance of distinct vision.
Question 31. What should be the distance between the object in
question 30 and the magnifying glass if the virtual image of each square in
the figure is to have an area of 6.25 mm 2 . Would you be able to see the
squares distinctly with your eyes very close to the magnifier?
Solution Given, area of image, AI = 6.25 mm2
Area of object, AO = 1 mm2
Focal length of lens, f = 10 cm
AI 6.25
Linear magnification, m = = = 2.5
AO 1
v
Again, magnification, m =
u
or v = m × v = 2.5 × u …(i)
From Lens formula,
1 1 1
= −
f v u
1 1 1
= −
10 2.5 u u
From Eq. (i),
1 1 1 − 2.5
or =  
10 u  2.5 
− 1.5 × 10
or u= = − 6 cm
2.5
or v = 2.5 u = 2.5 (– 6) = − 15 cm
Thus, the virtual image is formed at a distance of 15 cm which is less
than the near point (25 cm) of a normal human eye. So, it cannot be
seen by the eyes distinctly.
Question 32. Answer the following questions :
(a) The angle subtended at the eye by an object is equal to the angle
subtended at the eye by the virtual image produced by a magnifying
glass. In what sense then does a magnifying glass provide angular
magnification?
(b) In viewing through a magnifying glass, one usually positions one’s
eyes very close to the lens. Does angular magnification change if
the eye is moved back?
(c) Magnifying power of a simple microscope is inversely proportional
to the focal length of the lens. What then stops us from using a
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 239

convex lens of smaller and smaller focal length and achieving


greater and greater magnifying power?
(d) Why must both the objective and the eye-piece of a compound
microscope have short focal lengths?
(e) When viewing through a compound microscope, our eyes should be
positioned not on the eye-piece but a short distance away from it for
best viewing. Why? How much should be that short distance
between the eye and eye-piece?
Solution
(a) As the size of image is much bigger than the size of object and,
angular size of image is equal to angular size of object. A
magnifying glass helps to see the objects placed closer than the
least distance of distinct vision (i. e. 25 cm). As closer the object
larger be the angular size.
(b) Yes, the angular magnification changes. As the distance between
eye and magnifying glass is increased, the angular magnification
decreases.
(c) We cannot make the lenses having very small focal length very
easily.
(d) As the angular magnification eye-piece produced by the eye-piece
 25 
of a compound microscope is  + 1 .
 fe 
As fe is small, the angular magnification will be large.
v
Further, magnification of objective lens is . As object lies close to
u
 v
focus of objective lens u ≈ fo . To increase this magnification   ,
 fo 
fo should be smaller.
Thus, fo and fe both are small.
(e) When we place our eyes too much close to the eye-piece of a
compound microscope, we are unable to collect the refracted light
in large amount because the field of view will be reduced. So, the
clarity of image is blurred.
The best position of the eye for viewing through a compound
microscope is at the eye ring attached to the eye-piece.
Question 33. An angular magnification (magnifying power) of 30 X is
desired using an objective of focal length 1.25 cm and an eye-piece of focal
length 5 cm. How will you set up the compound microscope?
Solution Given, focal length of objective, fo = 1.25 cm
Focal length of eye-piece, fe = 5 cm
Least distance of distinct vision, d = 25 cm
Angular magnification of lens, me = 30
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The magnification produced by eye-piece


d 25
me = 1 + =1 + =6
fe 5
The magnification produced by microscope
m = mo × me
30 = mo × 6
where, mo is the magnification produced by objective lens.
mo = 5
Again, we know that magnification of objective lens
v
mo = o
uo
− vo
5=
uo
or vo = − 5 uo …(i)
Using Lens formula for objective lens,
1 1 1
= −
fo v o u o
1 1 1 6
= − =−
1.25 −5u o u o 5u o
From Eq. (i), we get
6
u o = − × 1.25 = − 1.5 cm
5
v o = − 5u o = − 5 (− 1.5) = 7.5 cm
Thus, the object should placed at a distance of 1.5 cm from the objective
lens to get the desired magnification.
Now, using the Lens formula for eye-piece
1 1 1
= −
fe v e u e
1 1 1
= −
u e v e fe
1 1 6
=− − =− (Q v e = − 25 cm )
25 5 25
u e = − 4.17 cm
The separation between objective and eye-piece
| v o| + |u e| = 4.17 + 7.5
= 11.67 cm
Thus, the microscope is settled as the distance between eye-piece and
objective is 11.67 cm.
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 241

Question 34. A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length


140 cm and an eye-piece of focal length 5.0 cm. What is the magnifying
power of the telescope for viewing distant objects when
(a) the telescope is in normal adjustment (i.e., when the final image is
at infinity)?
(b) the final image is formed at the least distance of distinct vision
(25 cm)?
Solution Given, focal length of objective lens fo = 140 cm and focal
length of eye lens fe = 5 cm
(a) For normal adjustment, the magnification
f 140
m= − o = − = − 28
fe 5
(b) For least distance of distinct vision, the magnification
f  f  140  5
m = o 1 + e  = 1 + 
fe  d 5  25
m = 28 (1 + 0.2) = 33.6
Question 35. (a) For the telescope described in Q. 34 (a), what is the
separation between the objective lens and the eye-piece?
(b) If this telescope is used to view a 100 m tall tower 3 km away, what
is the height of the image of the tower formed by the objective lens?
(c) What is the height of the final image of the tower if it is formed at
25 m?
Solution Given, fo = 140 cm, fe = 5 cm and d = 25 cm
(a) In normal adjustment, the separation between eye-piece and objective
= fo + fe = 140 + 5 = 145 cm
(b) Height of tower, OT = 100 m
Distance of tower, u = 3 km = 3000 m
The angle subtended by the object.
O 100 1
θO = T = = rad …(i)
u 3000 30
The angle subtended by the image.
I I
θI = T = T …(ii)
fo 140
(Q IT = height of image tower)
As θO = θI
1 I
= T
30 140
14
IT = = 4.7 cm
3
Thus, the height of image tower is 4.7 cm.
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(c) Image formed at distance, d = 25 cm, then magnification produced


by eye-piece
d 25
m =1 + =1 + =6
fe 5
Let I be the height of the final image of the tower and size of the
image formed by objective
14 I
O= cm = 4.7 cm or m =
3 O
∴ Height of final image = m × O = 6 × 4.7 = 28.2 cm
Thus, the height of final image of tower is 28.2 cm.
Question 36. A Cassegrain telescope uses two mirrors as shown in
figure. Such a telescope is built with the mirrors 20 mm apart. If the
radius of curvature of the large mirror is 220 mm and the small mirror is
140 mm, where will the final image of an object at infinity be?

Objective
mirror

Secondary
mirror
Eye piece

Solution Given, distance between objective mirror and another mirror


d = 20 mm
Radius of curvature of objective mirror = R1 = 220 mm
220
∴ Focal length of objective mirror, f1 = = 110 mm
2
Radius of curvature of small mirror = R2 = 140 mm
140
∴ Focal length of small mirror, f2 = = 70 mm
2
The image of an object placed at infinity, formed by the objective mirror,
will act as a virtual object for small mirror.
So, the object distance for small mirror u = f1 − d
i.e., u = 110 − 20 = 90 mm
1 1 1
Using mirror formula, + =
v u f2
1 1 1 1 1 9 −7 2
= − = − = =
v f2 u 70 90 630 630
v = 315 mm or v = 31.5 cm
Thus, the final image is formed at 315 mm away from small mirror.
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 243

Question 37. Light incident A


normally on a plane mirror attached
to a galvanometer coil retraces d
backwards as shown in figure. A 2θ
current in the coil produces a S O
deflection of 3.5° of the mirror. What 1.5 m
is the displacement of the reflected M
spot of light on a screen placed 1.5 m
away?
Solution Given, deflection of the mirror, θ = 3.5°
Distance between screen and mirror, x = 1.5 m
As, we know that when mirror turns by angle θ, the relfected ray turned
by 2θ .

∴ 2 θ = 3 × 3.5 = 7° = rad
180
Again, in ∆AOS
AS
tan 2 θ =
sin θ
 7π  AS d
tan   = =
180 1.5 1.5
 7π 
or d = 1.5 tan  
180
7π 7π
For small angle, tan ≈
180 180

d = 1.5 × = 0.18 m
180
Question 38. Figure shows an equiconvex lens
Q P P' Q'
(of refractive index 1.50) in contact with a liquid
layer on top of a plane mirror. A small needle with
its tip on the principal axis is moved along the axis
until its inverted image is found at the position of
the needle. The distance of the needle from the
lens is measured to be 45.0 cm. The liquid is
removed and the experiment is repeated. The new
distance is measured to be 30.0 cm. What is the
refractive index of the liquid?
Solution Given, focal length of double convex lens of glass, f1 = 30 cm.
Focal length of combination of double convex lens and plano concave
liquid lens f = 45 cm
Refractive index of lens, µ g = 1.5
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Let f2 be the focal length of the plano concave lens made of liquid
between the convex lens and plane mirror.
For combination of lenses
1 1 1
+ =
f1 f2 f
1 1 1
+ =
30 f2 45
1 1 1 1
⇒ = − =−
f2 45 30 90
f2 = − 90 cm
We know that radii of curvature of two surfaces of plano-concave lens of
liquid formed between foci convex lens and plane mirror are –R and ∞.
For the convex lens of glass, R1 = R, R2 = − R
Using Lens maker’s formula
1 1 1
= (µ − 1)  − 
f1  R1 R2 
3   1 1
=  − 1  + 
 2   R R
1 1 2
= ×
30 2 R
⇒ R = 30 cm
Again, R1 = − R = − 30 cm, R2 = ∞
Using the Lens maker’s formula
1 1 1
= (µ l − 1)  − 
f2  R1 R2 
1  1 1
− = (µ l − 1)  − 
90  − 30 ∞ 
1 1
= (µ l − 1)
90 30
1 4
µ l = 1 + = = 1.33
3 3
4
Thus, the refractive index of liquid is or 1.33.
3
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 245

Selected NCERT Exemplar Problems


Question 1. For a glass prims (µ = 3 ) the angle of minimum deviation
is equal to the angle of the prism. Find the angle of prism.
Solution For minimum deviation
Refractive index of the material of prism
 A + δ m
sin    A be the angle of prism
 2 
µ= and δ m be the angle of 
sin A /2 minimum deviation 

Given, angle of deviation δ m = A


sin ( A) 2 sin A /2 cos A /2
µ= =
sin A / 2 sin A /2
µ
or = cos( A /2)
2
or A /2 = cos −1( 3 /2) = 30°
or A = 60°
Question 2. A short object of length L is placed along the principal axis
of a concave mirror away from focus. The object distance is u. If the
mirror has a focal length f . What will be the length of the image? You
may take L << ( u − f ).
Solution Length of object = L
Let O be the mid-point of the object O, u1 and u2 be the distances of both
the ends from pole P

O2 O O1
u1 P

u
u2

i.e., OP = u, O1P = u1, O2 P = u2


(u1 − u2 ) = L = O1O2
L
OO1 = OO2 =
2
L L
∴ u1 = u − and u2 = u +
2 2
Let the image has ends at v1 and v2 and the length of image is
L′ = (v1 − v2 )
Now using the mirror formula
1 1 1 fu
+ = ⇒ v=
u v f u−f
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fu1 f(u − L /2)


So, v1 = =
u1 − f u − f − L /2
fu2 f(u + L /2)
and v2 = =
u2 − f u − f + L /2
f(u − L /2) f(u + L /2)
∴ L′ = (v1 − v2 ) = −
− (u − f − L /2) (u − f + L /2)

f 2 L⋅u
or L′ =
(u − f)2 − L2 /4
L2
As the object is short and kept away from focus, we have << (u − f)2 .
4
L2
So, neglect as compared to (u − f)2
4
f2
∴ L′ = L
(u − f)2

Question 3. A circular disc of radius R is placed co-axially and


horizontally inside an opaque hemispherical bowl of radius a (figure). The
far edge of the disc is just visible when viewed from the edge of the bowl.
The bowl is filled with transparent liquid of refractive index µ and the
near edge of the disc becomes just visible. How far below the top of the
bowl is the disc placed?
α
a O a M
α
α
d
i

A R C R B

Solution Let the disc is placed at distance d from the top. Initially AM
is the direction of incident ray before filling the liquid, as the liquid is
filled the incident ray is BM.
1 sin i sin i
Now = = …(i)
µ sin r sin α
a−R
sin i = and sin α = cos (90 − α )
d + (a − R)2
2

a+ R
sin α =
d + (a + R)2
2
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 247

Putting in Eq. (i), we get


(a − R)2 (a + R)2[µ2 − 1] (a2 − R2 )2[µ2 − 1]
Distance, d = =
(a + R)2 − µ(a − R)2 (a + R)2 − µ(a − R)2
a−R
1 d 2 + (a − R)2
=
µ a+ R
d 2 + (a + R)2

Question 4. A thin convex lens of focal length 25 cm is cut into two


pieces 0.5 cm above the principal axis. The top part is placed at (0, 0) and
an object placed at (– 50 cm, 0), Find the coordinates of the image.
Solution Focal length of convex lens f = 25 cm

.50 cm
O 0.5 (0, 0)
O'
u = – 50 cm
Let there is no cut, the object have been at a height of 0.5 cm from
principal axis OO′.
1 1 1
Using Lens formula − =
v u f
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + =− + =
v f u 50 25 50
v = 50 cm
v −50
Magnification, m = = = −1
u +50
Thus, the image would have been formed at 50 cm from lens and 0.5 cm
below principal axis. Hence, the coordinates of image are (50 cm, – 1 cm).
Question 5. A jar of height h is filled with a d
transparent liquid of refractive index µ (figure). At
the centre of the jar on the bottom surface is a dot.
h
Find the minimum diameter of a disc, such that
when placed on the top surface symmetrically i i
about the centre the dot is invisible.
Solution From Snell’s law,
1
sin i = …(i)
µ
O
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d /2
tan i = [From Eq. (i)]
h
or d = 2h tan i
2h
d=
( µ2 − 1) µ
1
 1 
Qtan i =  i
 µ2 − 1 
2h
or d=
µ2 − 1

Question 6. Show that for a material with refractive index µ ≥ 2 light


incident at any angle shall be guided along a length perpendicular to the
incident face.
Solution Any ray which is entering at an angle of incidence i shall be
guided along AC if the ray makes with the face AC(φ) is greater than the
critical angle
A C

2r
i

B D
1
sin φ ≥
µ
1
cos r ≥
µ
1
or 1 − cos2 r ≤ 1 −
µ2
1
or sin2 r ≤ 1 − 2
µ
We know that
sin i = µ sin r
1 1
∴ sin2 i ≤ 1 − 2
µ 2
µ
or sin2 i ≤ µ2 − 1
The angle (smallest) φ shall be when i = π /2. If that is greater than the
critical angle then all other angles of incidence shall be more than the
critical angle.
NCERT Class XII Physics Solutions 249

If i = π /2
sin2 π /2 ≤ µ2 − 1
or 1 ≤ µ2 − 1
or µ2 ≥ 2
or µ≥ 2

Question 7. An infinitely long y Receiving plate


cylinder of radius R is made of an
unusual exotic material with refractive
index-1 (figure). The cylinder is placed
o θi
between two planes whose normals are R
along the Y-direction. The centre of the θr θr x
cylinder O lies along the Y-axis. A
narrow laser beam is directed along the θ i
Y-direction from the lower plate. The x
laser source is at a horizontal distance x
from the diameter in the Y-direction. Find the range of x such that light
emitted from the lower plane does not reach the upper plane.
Solution The material of refractive index 1, θ r is negative and θ′r is
positive.
Now |θ i| = |θ r| = |θ′r|
For the total deviation of the outcoming ray from the incoming ray is 4 θ i .
Rays shall not reach at receiving plate if
π 3π
≤ 4 θi ≤
2 2
π 3π
≤ θi ≤
8 8
x
From the figure sin θ i =
R
π x 3π
∴ ≤ sin −1 ≤
8 R 8
Rπ R ⋅ 3π
Thus, for ≤x≤ light emitted from the source shall not reach the
8 8
receiving plate.