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DC Machines Construction
Questions and Answers
by Manish
4-5 minutes

This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Construction”.

1. Where is field winding mounted in a DC machine?


a) Stator
b) Rotor
c) Absent
d) Anywhere on stator or rotor
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The field winding (concentrated type) is
mounted on salient-poles on the stator and the armature
winding (distributed type) is wound in slots on a cylindrical
rotor. In AC machines field winding is mounted on rotor.

2. What are the materials used for brushes in dc machines?


a) Iron
b) Carbon
c) Aluminum
d) Steel

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View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: On some extent carbon brush can act as a
self-lubricating brush. On moment, polishes the commutator
segments. Damage to the commutators is less when
copper brushes are used on occurrence of sparkover.

3. Function of yoke is to provide the return path for


magnetic flux.
a) True
b) false
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The function of yoke is that it protects the
entire machine from dust and dirt. It also provides
mechanical support for the magnetic poles. It acts as the
return path for the magnetic flux.

4. The angle (electrical) made by brushes with axes of


adjoining filed poles is ______________
a) 450
b) 1800
c) 900
d) 300
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Brushes in a DC machine are normally placed
electrically in the interpolar regions and therefore make an
angle of 900 electrical with the axes of adjoining filed poles.

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5. In a DC machine, rectification process is carried out in


order to get unidirectional output (DC). This rectification
process is carried out by ______________
a) Half wave rectifier
b) Full wave rectifier
c) Mechanical rectification
d) Centre tapped rectifier
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In a DC machine electronic rectification is not
used. Instead they use mechanical rectification with the
help of commutator-brush assembly.

6.Which of the following part is used in construction of DC


machine but not in AC machine?
a) Armature Winding
b) Field winding
c) Commutator
d) Shaft
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Commutator is used in mechanical rectification
process, to convert induced AC to output DC. In AC
machine, we don’t need rectification process.

7. In a DC machine fractional pitch winding is used to


_______________
a) To improve cooling
b) To reduce sparking
c) To reduce copper losses

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d) To increase generated EMF


View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Due to poor performance of brush, poor
undercutting of commutator, incorrect spring pressure
sparking at brush faces happen. To overcome this sparking
fractional pitch winding is used.

8. In normal dc machines operating at full-load conditions,


the most powerful electromagnet is _________
a) Field winding
b) Interpole Winding
c) Interpole and compensating winding together
d) Armature winding
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Electromagnet is more powerful when its MMF
is high. At full-load condition, field winding contains
maximum ampere turns, hence it is most powerful
electromagnet in a DC machine.

9. If a DC motor is connected to AC supply what will happen


then?
a) Not run
b) Burn
c) Run at normal speed
d) Run at extremely low speed
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: If a DC motor is connected to AC supply, an

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alternating current pass through the brushes and


commutator to the armature winding, while it passes
through the commutator it is converted into DC so that the
group of conductors under successive field poles carry
current in same direction. So, the flux per pole will remain
constant and not vary. There will be production of heat due
to flow of eddy current in field winding and the motor will be
burned.

10. The armature of DC motor is laminated to


____________
a) To reduce mass
b) To reduce hysteresis loss
c) To reduce eddy current loss
d) To reduce inductance
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The armature is built up in a cylindrical or drum
shape high grade silicon steel in form of lamination. By
using laminations, the circular path of eddy currents is
terminated. Hence heating and ultimately damage to the
armature can be reduced by lamination.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – DC


Machines.

To practice all areas of DC Machines, here is complete set


of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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DC Machines Applications
Questions and Answers
by Manish
7-8 minutes

This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Applications of DC
Machines”.

1. Why are the DC motors preferred for traction


applications?
a) Torque and speed are inversely proportional to armature
current
b) Torque is proportional to armature current
c) Torque is proportional to square root of armature current
d) The speed is inversely proportional to the torque and the
torque is proportional to square of armature current
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: DC motors are used for traction as, according
to the characteristics of DC motors speed is inversely
proportional to torque and square of armature current as
well, if linear magnetization is concerned. Thus, DC motors
are perfectly suitable for traction.

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2. Which of the following load application normally needs


starting torque more than the rated torque?
a) Blowers
b) Conveyors
c) Air compressors
d) Centrifugal pumps
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Conveyors need high starting torque initially,
and constant torque later. Thus, DC series motor is used in
conveyors as it provides very high starting torque, which is
practically 5 times the rated torque.

3. Which of the following motors can be used to drive the


rotary compressor?
a) DC shunt motor
b) DC series motor
c) Universal motor
d) Synchronous motor
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Rotary compressor generally demand constant
speed operation throughout the load. Sometimes, DC
machines are not able to produce constant speed
throughout the process hence, synchronous machine is
used.

4. Which DC motor is used with flywheel for intermittent


light and heavy loads?
a) Series motor

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b) Shunt motor
c) Cumulatively compounded motor
d) Differentially compounded motor
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Cumulative compound DC motor is used with
flywheel carrying peaks and so to smooth out the load on
the motor as well as to reduce peaks on power system.
Without flywheel the motor construction will be much larger.

5. Separately excited DC generators are still used in


_________________
a) Thermal power plants
b) Ward Leonard speed control system
c) Hydro power plant
d) In all fields
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Separately excited DC generators are still
used in wide output voltage control like in Ward Leonard
speed control. In all power plants today, generally AC
generators are used due to low cost and less maintenance
required.

6. In world today, around 25% of the motors are


manufactured are DC motors.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a

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Explanation: For a dc machine, of course, the main


attraction lies in its flexibility, versatility and ease of control.
This explains why in spite of its rather heavy initial
investment it still retains its charm in strong competitive
industrial applications.

7. Maximum torque in a DC machine is limited by


______________
a) Commutation
b) Heating
c) Losses other than heating
d) Stability
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: While for all other motors maximum torque is
restricted to certain value as various losses in other motors
lead to heating of the core materials. In DC machines for
maximum torque commutation time will obviously decrease
and beyond some point commutation process can’t be
fastened.

8. Which of the following motor can replace DC series


motor?
a) DC shunt motor
b) Cumulative compound motor
c) Wound-rotor induction motor
d) Synchronous motor
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: DE series motor’s closest rival is the wound-

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rotor induction motor with a rotor resistance control. But


ultimately the availability and economics of a dc power is
the deciding factor rather than the motor characteristic.

9. Which motor has almost replaced DC shunt motor from


its applications?
a) Wound-rotor induction motor
b) Differential compound motor
c) Air motor
d) Squirrel caged induction motor
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Owing to the relative simplicity, cheapness and
ruggedness of the squirrel cage induction motor, the shunt
motor is less preferred for constant-speed drives except at
low speeds. At high or medium speed applications we use
induction motor, mostly squirrel caged.

10. DC shunt motor is still used instead of synchronous


motor in _____________
a) High speed applications
b) Low speed applications
c) Medium and high-speed applications
d) Everywhere
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: At low speeds, DC shunt motors are
comparable with synchronous motors. The outstanding
feature of a DC shunt motor however is its superb wide
range flexible speed control above and below the base

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speed using solid-state controlled rectifiers.

11. Which type motors are preferred for lathes?


a) DC shunt motors
b) Squirrel Cage induction motor
c) Synchronous motor
d) DC Shunt Motors or Squirrel cage induction motor
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Lathes machines requires uniform torque
which is provided with squirrel cage induction or DC shunt
motors. Hence, they are preferred for lathes. DC shunt
motor and induction motor of squirrel cage type follow same
shunt characteristics.

12. When an electric train is moving down a hill, the DC


motor will operate as ____________
a) DC series motor
b) DC series generator
c) DC shunt motor
d) DC shunt generator
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Normally in electric traction purposes DC
series motors are employed. At above condition the back
emf is greater than supply voltage hence, it will operate as
series generator which will provide energy back to the
supply.

13. Nowadays, DC motor is widely used only in


____________

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a) Pumping sets
b) Air compressors
c) Electric traction
d) Machine shops
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: DC machine is used in tractions, because its
characteristics suit perfectly with application. Also, its
smooth braking capacity and ability to transfer from one
mode to other is very good.

14. Which motor is preferred in highly explosive


atmosphere?
a) Air motor
b) Shunt motor
c) Series motor
d) Battery operated motor
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A pneumatic motor (Air motor) is a motor
which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air.
Air motors generally convert the compressed air energy to
mechanical work through either linear or rotary motion, and
are preferred in highly explosive atmosphere.

15. For which of the following operations a DC motor is


preferred over an AC motor?
a) Low speed operation
b) High speed operation
c) Variable speed operation

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d) Fixed speed operation


View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Due to the various speed control techniques
available and with the help of electrical brakes various
speed levels can be obtained in DC motor. While in AC
motor for same purpose we require frequency change
which requires another complex circuitry.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – DC


Machines.

To practice all areas of DC Machines, here is complete set


of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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Brushes & Commutator Assembly


- DC Machines Questions and
Answers
by Manish
6-7 minutes

This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Brushes and Commutator
Assembly – 1”.

1.The armature in DC machines is always placed on rotor


because _______
a) Otherwise commutation will not be possible
b) Otherwise there will not be any induced emf
c) Otherwise current will not flow
d) Can be placed anywhere
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A DC machine is a heteropolar structure with
stationary poles and the rotating armature. The armature
winding of a DC machine is placed on the rotor to improve
commutation i.e. to convert the alternating voltage
produced in the winding into direct voltage at the brushes.

2. In a DC machine, rectification provided with commutator

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is ___________
a) Half wave rectification
b) Full wave rectification
c) Semi controlled rectification
d) Uncontrolled rectification
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In any electromagnetic machine the voltage
generated is always alternating one as per Faraday’s law.
For a DC machine the output must be unidirectional. This is
carried out by a commutator. Hence, commutator provides
full wave rectification.

3. Commutator performs rectification so that output of the


machine is bi-directional.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Commutator and brush assembly of the DC
machine performs the mechanical rectification process so
induced AC is converted into DC (Unidirectional).
Commutation process provides full wave rectification.

4. Which of the following method is used to connect


commutator segments to armature conductors?
a) Brazing
b) Normal wires
c) Insulation pads
d) Copper lugs

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View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Commutator in connected to the armature
using lugs. Generally, they are made with copper. They are
tightly bolted to the armature in order to prevent the
centrifugal forces from causing the segments to fly away.

5. In D.C. generators, rapid brush ware causes due to


_________
a) Severe sparking
b) Rough commutator surface
c) Imperfect contact
d) Severe sparking, rough commutator surface or imperfect
contact
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Brushes are the parts in a DC machine which
are always in contact with rotating and stationary parts.
Thus, imperfect contact, rough surfaces, sparking all these
may reduce the life of brushes.

6. What are the number of the brushes in the lap winding?


a) Double the number of poles
b) Same as the number of poles
c) Half the number of poles
d) Two
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In a lap winding, the number of parallel paths,
A, is always equal to the number of poles, P, and also to

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the number of brushes. In wave windings, the number of


parallel paths, a, is always two (2), and there may be two or
more brush positions.

7. When Copper brushes are used in DC machine?


a) Where low voltage and high currents are involved
b) Where high voltage and small currents are involved
c) Cannot be determined
d) Where low voltage and low currents are involved
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Due to various limitations, copper brushes are
used in low voltage applications. For various other voltage
ratings, different carbon-graphite proportions are used in
manufacturing of brush materials.

8. In DC generators, current is fed up to the external circuit


from armature through _______
a) Commutator
b) Direct wire
c) Slip rings
d) Cannot be determined
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In any rotary machine current is induced in
Sine wave format, according to Faraday’s law. For DC
machine commutator provides mechanical rectification so
that output is in the unidirectional format.

9. What are the number of the brushes in the wave


winding?

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a) Same or more than the number of poles


b) Same or less than the number of poles
c) Exactly half the number of poles
d) Depends on other parameters
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In wave windings, the number of parallel
paths, A, is always two (2), and there may be two or more
brush positions. When two adjacent commutator bars make
contact with a particular brush, p/2 coils are shorted by the
brush in the wave winding.

10. Which conductors are in point of contact with brushes?


a) Lie under south pole
b) Lie under north pole
c) Lie in inter polar region
d) Are farthest from the poles
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Because of the diamond shape of coils, the
brushes which are physically opposite the pole centres are
electrically connected to coil-sides lying close to the
interpolar region. Thus, electrically the brushes are
displaced 90° elect. From the axes of the main poles.

11. In case of DC machine winding, number of commutator


segments is equal to ______
a) Number of armature coils
b) Number of armature coil sides
c) Number of armature conductors

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d) Number of armature turns


View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Armature current is induced in a DC machine,
which is fed up to the external circuit. Thus, it needs to be
unidirectional. So, for converting bidirectional current to
unidirectional commutators which are equal in number of
armature coils need to be used.

12. How total number of brushes in a commutator are


determined in a given DC machine?
a) Speed of armature
b) Type of winding
c) Voltage
d) Amount of current to be collected
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Brushes are in contact with rotating part and
stationary part. Thus, if more amount of current is to be
carried, it requires more number of brushes. Hence brush
number depends directly on the amount of current that
needs to be collected and fed up in or out.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – DC


Machines.

To practice all areas of DC Machines, here is complete set


of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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DC Machines Interview Questions


and Answers
by Manish
6-8 minutes

This set of DC Machines Interview Questions and Answers


focuses on “Brushes and Commutator Assembly – 2”.

1. In a DC generator the ripples in the direct emf generated


can be reduced by________
a) Using conductor of annealed copper
b) Using commutator with large number of segments
c) Using carbon brushes of superior quality
d) Using equalizer rings
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Brushes carry current to/from rotating parts
from/to stationary part. Ripples can be avoided if brushes
are maintained. Else, brushes will have some voltage drop
in it and we’ll not get simple repeating part in emf.

2. The drop in the voltage for which of the following types of


brush can be expected to be least?
a) Graphite brushes
b) Carbon brushes

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c) Metal graphite brushes


d) Cannot be determined
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Metal graphite brushes are ideal for a variety
of applications because of their low resistivity. Thus, drop
will be less in metal graphite brushes. Metal graphite
brushes are used on commutators of plating generators
where low voltage and high brush current densities are
encountered.

3. What is the requirement of the good commutation?


a) Brushes should be of proper grade, size and material
b) Brushes should smoothly run in the holders
c) Smooth, concentric commutator properly undercut
d) Brushes should be of proper grade, size, material, run
smoothly in the holders and concentric commutator properly
undercut
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Brushes are in contact with commutator. So,
for good commutation brushes must be of superior quality
so that brushes will give/receive appropriate current to and
from commutator. Also, the contact between brushes and
commutator must be smooth for proper commutation
process.

4. How to avoid grooves in the commutation of DC machine


with the help of brush?
a) Brushes of opposite polarity should track each other

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b) Brushes of same polarity should track each other


c) Brush position has no effect on the commutator grooving
d) Brushes should not track each other
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Brushes are located such that they are
displaced 900 electrically from the axes of main poles. The
two positive and two negative brushes are respectively
connected in parallel for feeding the external circuit.

5. Reason behind the rapid wear of brushes is __________


a) Abrasion from dust
b) Excessive spring pressure
c) Rough commutator bars
d) Abrasion from dust, excessive spring pressure and rough
commutator bars
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Brushes undergo various forces due to their
location in a DC machine, they are in contact with rotating
and stationary part of the machine. Hence, rough contact
between commutator and brushes, inappropriate pressure
on brush to rotating part may affect quality of commutation
process.

6. For both lap and wave windings, what is the number of


commutator bars equal to?
a) Slots
b) Armature conductors
c) Winding elements

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d) Poles
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation:

7. Spacing between the brushes for a 4-pole machine in


terms of commutator segments for 12 conductor segments
is _____
a) 48
b) 3
c) 2
d) 6
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The spacing between adjacent brushes in
terms of the commutator segment is ratio of number of
commutator segments with poles for a given DC machine.
C/P= 12/4= 3.
It may also be noted that C/P need not necessarily be an
integer.

8. Spacing between the brushes for a 4-pole machine in


terms of commutator segments is equal to 6. What will be
the number of armature slots?
a) 48
b) 3
c) 24
d) 6
View Answer

Answer: c

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Explanation: The spacing between adjacent brushes in


terms of the commutator segment which is also equal to
armature slots is ratio of number of commutator segments
with poles for a given DC machine.
C= P*Spacing= 4*6= 24.

9. What is the range of the brush friction coefficients for


medium category?
a) 0.40 and above
b) 0.22 to 0.40
c) 0.11 to 0.22
d) 0.08 to 0.11
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Brush friction is influenced by many variables
including brush temperature, spring force, current,
atmospheric conditions, mechanical conditions, ring or
commutator materials, surface films, speed and other
factors. Brush friction is of medium category when,
coefficient of friction lies in between 0.22 to 0.44.

10. Specific resistance for a brush is given by _________


a) R = (E * W * T) / (I * L)
b) R = (E * W * I) / (T * L)
c) R = (E * W * I) * (T * L)
d) Doesn’t depend on E, W, T, I, L.
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Specific resistance is measured in the length
direction of the brush, since resistance in the direction of

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width or thickness may be considerably different. For, E =


voltage drop over length L, I = amps of current passed
through the sample, W = width of sample, T = thickness on
sample, L = that portion of the length, over which the
voltage drop E is measured, R is calculated by R = (E * W *
T) / (I * L).

11. How many poles to be used in DC machine if brushes


are placed 4 commutator segments apart for 16
commutator segments?
a) 8
b) 12
c) 2
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Number of poles can be found by dividing the
total commutator segments to spacing between brushes.
Hence, number of poles = 16 commutator segments/ 4
commutator spacing= 4 poles.

12. DC generators are disconnected/connected from/to the


busbars only under the floating condition because
____________
a) To avoid sudden loading of the prime mover
b) To avoid burning of all switch contacts
c) To avoid mechanical jerk to the shaft
d) To avoid sudden loading of the prime mover, burning of
all switch contacts and avoid mechanical jerking to the shaft
View Answer

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Answer: d
Explanation: Brushes are the medium between rotating and
non-rotating part of the DC machine. If sudden change in
connections are done, whole machine undergoes change in
all electrical quantities, which may damage machine. Thus,
machines are connected and disconnected only at floating
condition.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – DC


Machines.

To practice all areas of DC Machines for Interviews, here is


complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and
Answers.

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PMDC Motors - DC Machines


Questions and Answers
by Manish
5-6 minutes

This set of DC Machines Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “PMDC Motors”.

1. In PMDC motors we use magnetic material with


___________
a) Low residual flux
b) Low coercivity
c) High residual flux
d) All magnetic materials
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In market magnetic materials with various
properties are available, but for DC motor application we
need magnetic materials with high residual flux in order to
get high no load voltage. Along with residual flux, coercivity
of material should be high.

2. In PMDC magnetic material is placed instead of


_____________
a) Armature

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b) Rotor
c) Stator
d) Can be placed anywhere
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In PMDC motors we keep magnetic material or
magnetic poles in the place of field winding of original DC
machine. That is we are changing stator windings with two
permanent magnetic poles bounded on casing.

3. PMDC motors are _________________


a) Smaller than corresponding rated field wound motor
b) Larger than corresponding rated field wound motor
c) Almost same size that of corresponding rated field wound
motor
d) Can be smaller or greater than corresponding rated field
wound motor
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: PMDC motors are always of smaller size
compare to field wound motors of same rating. Here, field
winding is replaced by small block of magnet so that power
output remains same. PMDC motors are costly compare to
DC motor of same rating.

4. PMDC motor offers ___________


a) Cumulative compound type characteristic
b) Differential compound type characteristic
c) Series characteristic
d) Shunt characteristic

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View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The stator is made of permanent magnet in
the PMDC motor hence, there is no need for separate field
excitation for stator. So, PMDC acts as a shunt motor with
fixed field. This can be seen from the construction also.

5. Which speed control method is employed in PMDC?


a) Field control method
b) Armature control method
c) Armature Field control method
d) Cannot be determined
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Unlike in DC motors, field is provided by
permanent magnets in PMDC. This implies that field
provided in PMDC motor is permanent and can’t be altered
unless whole construction is modified. Thus, armature
voltage control method is employed here.

6. What is the air gap flux density for PMDC motor?


a) Bg= µ0(tm/lg) Hm
b) Bg= – µ0Hm
c) Bg= – µ0(tm/lg) Hm
d) Bg= – µ0(lg/tm) Hm
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Since, flux crosses the air gap length lg two
times a thickness of permanent magnet two times tm. We
get, 2*lg* Hg + 2*tm Hm = 0 and we know that air gap flux

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density is equal to µ times the magnetic field intensity.

7. Which of the following is most favoured choice for PMDC


motor?
a) Neodymium-iron-boron
b) Iron-nickel
c) Nickel-neodymium
d) Cannot be given
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Obvious choice of PMDC motor is neodymium-
iron-boron which has high coercivity and high retentivity. Its
characteristic is almost a straight line. Hence, neodymium-
iron-boron combination is preferred over the other
materials.

8. Speed-torque characteristic of PMDC motors is


_______________
a) Starting from zero increasing continuously
b) Starting from some positive value and remaining
constant
c) Starting from some positive value and decreasing
exponentially
d) Starting from some positive value and decreasing on
straight line
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The material chosen for PMDC motor is such
that speed torque characteristic of a given motor remains
straight line for wider range of torque, for wider range of

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armature voltage. The straight line is such that it makes


positive intercepts on both axes.

9. PMDC produces high torque on ______________


a) At low speeds
b) Only at maximum speed
c) Torque is constant
d) Cannot say
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: PMDC produces high torque even at very low
speeds. In DC shunt motor torque produced at very low
speeds is lower than the torque produced at the same
speeds in PMDC motor.

10. PMDC gives better speed regulation than DC shunt


motor.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: PMDC motor exhibits better speed regulation
and efficiency than dc shunt motor. The main problem of dc
shunt motor is going to run-away when the field terminals
are opened. But in PMDC there is no run-away problem, so
it gives practical benefit to the industry applications.

11. If higher terminal voltage is applied to PMDC what will


happen?
a) Speed at 0 torque will be reduced
b) Torque at 0 speed will be reduced

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c) Torque at 0 speed will be increased


d) Torque will remain constant
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The straight-line characteristic of PMDC is
such that it produces positive intercepts on both axes. If
terminal voltage is increased both of these intercepts
increases, slope remaining constant. Thus, speed and
torque at initial conditions both will increase.

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