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Torsion of a curve

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other notions of torsion, see Torsion.
In the elementary differential geometry of curves in three dimensions, the torsion of
a curve measures how sharply it is twisting out of the plane of curvature. Taken together,
the curvature and the torsion of a space curve are analogous to the curvature of a plane curve. For
example, they are coefficients in the system of differential equations for the Frenet frame given by
the Frenet–Serret formulas.


• 1Definition
• 2Properties
• 3Alternative description
• 4Notes
• 5References


Animation of the torsion and the corresponding rotation of the binormal vector

Let C be a space curve parametrized by arc length and with the unit tangent vector t. If

the curvature of C at a certain point is not zero then the principal normal vector and
the binormal vector at that point are the unit vectors

where the prime denotes the derivative of the vector with respect to the parameter .

The torsion measures the speed of rotation of the binormal vector at the given point. It is
found from the equation
which means

Remark: The derivative of the binormal vector is perpendicular to both the binormal and
the tangent, hence it has to be proportional to the principal normal vector. The negative
sign is simply a matter of convention: it is a by-product of the historical development of
the subject.
The radius of torsion, often denoted by σ, is defined as

Geometric relevance: The torsion measures the turnaround of the binormal

vector. The larger the torsion is, the faster the binormal vector rotates around the
axis given by the tangent vector (see graphical illustrations). In the animated figure
the rotation of the binormal vector is clearly visible at the peaks of the torsion

• A plane curve with non-vanishing curvature has zero torsion at all points.
Conversely, if the torsion of a regular curve with non-vanishing curvature is
identically zero, then this curve belongs to a fixed plane.
• The curvature and the torsion of a helix are constant. Conversely, any space
curve whose curvature and torsion are both constant and non-zero is a helix.
The torsion is positive for a right-handed[1] helix and is negative for a left-handed

Alternative description[edit]
Let r = r(t) be the parametric equation of a space curve. Assume that this is a
regular parametrization and that the curvature of the curve does not vanish.
Analytically, r(t) is a three times differentiable function of t with values in R3 and the

are linearly independent.

Then the torsion can be computed from the following formula:

Here the primes denote the derivatives with respect to t and the cross
denotes the cross product. For r = (x, y, z), the formula in components is