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The Prediction of Volume Loss

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The Prediction of Volume Loss

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- Material Selection
- Shear Reinforcement of Column
- Property Spectrum of Engineering Materials
- SoilE8&9
- Simulasi New Kopling
- Soil Mechanics
- Void Ratio and Void Ratio and Shear StrengthShear Strength of Two Compacted Crushed Stones-1966
- ME C312
- Stress Analysis Report - Problema 3 A
- Road Tunnel Manual-piarc
- Mechanics.of.Granular.materials
- Design of Initial Support
- James
- 12L205_R2
- Binder 1
- Onwualu_SoilTillage1998
- Geotechnics Bro En
- Pressure Vessels St Nds Changes
- Basal Instability
- Cable Bolts

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where LF was defined as the ratio of the working stability number over

the stability number at collapse (N, ), ie

uriIe ossa ue This paper proposes an expression relating LF and the short term volume

loss (VL) in overconsolidated clay, which may be used for design purposes.

Prerlous work

",o",unne inc~ in The volume loss observed during tunnelling in clay may be separated

into the following components (Attewell and Farmer, 1974, Cording and

Hansmire, 1975 and Attewell et al, 1986):

overconso is a",ec 1. Ground lost at the face due to movements in an axial direction (face

intrusion or face "take")

2. Radial movements around the shield due to an overcut or the use of a

bead on the shield, or due to "diving", "pitching", "yawing" or

3. Radial movements due to temporary loss of support at the rear of the

shield or tunnelling machine during lining construction (only where no

"tailskin" is used);

4. Closure of the ungrouted annulus around the newly completed ring

(non-expanded type of linings)

5. Closure of the grouted annular gap due to "bleeding" and curing of

ant s",a)ii

the grout, insufficient grout or loss of grout

6. Time dependent and consolidation effects in the ground

~~ 7. Subsequent permanent distortion of the lining

nues )er

In this note the short term volume loss (V„), is considered to comprise

items 1 to 5 above, in a two dimensional sense. Long term consolidation

volume loss has not been considered.

When estimating a value of volume loss it is difficult to separate the

SR Macklin, Brown 8 Root Services Consulting, Leatherhead radial ground displacement components and axial movements. Attewell

et al (1986) provide guidance on estimating the magnitude of the various

components of volume loss as listed above, however this requires a

detailed knowledge of the construction methodology and ground

A re-assessment of the volume loss —stability number relationship for a response prior to commencement of the project.

single tunnel in overconsolidated clay has been carried out. New case A number of authors have attempted to empirically relate stability

history data have been added to the plot of volume loss versus load factor number (N) directly to V„such as Clough and Schmidt (1981), Mitchell

originally proposed by Mair et al (1981), and this has been presented in (1983) and Attewell et al (1986). Expressions suggested by these workers

semi-log space to improve resolution at load factors below 0.5, the range are summarised in table 1.

commonly encountered for tunnels in overconsolidated clay. Despite Based on a series of centrifuge tests of model tunnels taken to failure,

some scatter in the plot due to uncertainties associated with P/D ratio Mair et al (1981)produced a plot of V„versus LF for C/D ratios of 3.11,

and the shear strength in the mass, good linearity of the data is evident 1.67 and 1.5, and P/D ratios = (ie plane strain tests). The geometric

enabling a rational prediction of the potential volume loss to be made variables C/D and P/D are illustrated in Figure 1.

within an upper and lower bound. This work suggests that the geometry These data demonstrated that a relationship between volume loss, the

of the tunnel heading and stability ratio at the tunnel horizon appear to geometry of the tunnel heading and the stability number existed within

be dominant factors in determining short term (undrained) volume loss. an upper and lower bound for C/D between 3.11 and 1.5. This plot is

reproduced in Figure 2, with additional data from Atkinson and Potts

lahoductlon (1977). It can be seen that for C/D = 0.77 (Atkinson & Potts, 1977) the data

Traditional design procedures for the assessment of the risk of damage poin ts fall outside the bounds established by Mair et al (1981). This

due to tunnelling induced settlement involve the calculation of a

appe ars to suggest that the relationship between LF and V„ illustrated

"greenfield" settlement trough. Such calculations would assume a by M air et al (1981) does not hold for C/D ratios below approximately 1

normal probability curve to describe the shape of the settlement trough whe reP/D =

(Peck, 1969). Critical to such calculations is the assessment of volume P revious work by Kimura and Mair (1979)provided a series of curves

loss (V„), which is the ratio of the volume of the surface settlement rela ting N„ to P/D and C/D, and is reproduced in Figure 3. Data from

trough per metre run (V„m'/m) to the excavated face area (A, m'), actu al case histories where collapse has occurred has been added, which

usually expressed as a percentage. 1I1 g eneral confirms the original work and extends the values of

The selection of an appropriate value of the volume loss parameter in N„ for

C/D ratios <1(P/D = 0 only). O'Reilly (1988) proposed that by using this

overconsolidated clay is commonly based on engineering judgement and plot , the load factor for a site could be determined and a prediction of

experience from previous projects in similar ground using similar volu me loss obtained from Mair et al's (1981)plot (Figure 2). Also shown

techniques. O'Reilly and New (1982) list a number of case histories (their in Figure 3 is O'Reilly's proposed extension of the relationships for

Table 1) which can be used as a basis for assigning a suitable value of VL. vari ous P/D ratios greater than C/D = 3. Kimura and Mair (1979)originally

They state that, for tunnelling with or without a shield

in stiff fissured London Clay, V„ranges between Expression Comments

0.5%—3% with values normally falling between 1%—2%. V„=m*exp(N-1)

Alternatively Clough and Schmidt (1981), Mitchell

(1983) and Attewell et al (1986) have provided direct V„=

¹I),

(for

m*N

and

(forN<1)

Equations calculated assuming

E„/S„=500-1500, with m = 0.002-0.006.

Data points plotted in their Figure 8.24 show

correlations between V„and stability number (N) a wide scatter, for both overconsolidated

where the stability number is defined (after Broms and and normally consolidated clays

Bennermark, 1967)as: Mitchell (1983) VL = (SQ/EU)* An E„/S„ratio of between 200-700 is

exp(N/2) generally used and for "poor workmanship"

N = (a, —oT)/S„

V„should be increased by a factor of 3

o, is the total vertical stress at tunnel axis level, oT is

Attewell, Yeates Vc = 1.33*N-1.4 Applicable for 1.5<N<4. An alternative

and Selby (1986) plot after Leach (1985)gives a design

the internal support pressure (compressed air for

example) and S„is the undrained shear strength of the range of V„versus N within which 75%

clay. O'Reilly (1988) correlated volume loss against load of cases maybe expected to lie

factor (LF) for a number of London Clay case histories Table1: Expressions for empirical rela5onshlp of stability number to short term volume loss.

PAPER

from other sites. This plot is shown in Figure 4, and the field data are

o', = Internal support pressure

summarised in Table 2.

Top of clay P = Length of unsupported tunnel

i = Total length of shield plus tail

L

P/D ratio

When calculating individual site data the P/D ratio was generally based

on the dimensions of the shield or TBM where a bead has been employed

annulus

(Kimura and Mair, 1981) and it was considered that this would give a

ungrouted

P man reasonable estimate of P/D at load factors less than 0.5. However as

M

L Grout Attewell and Farmer (1974) noted, due to the time dependency of the clay

P min movements, the clay may close in on the shield carcass prior to reaching

the tail, reducing the P/D ratio. In this case P/D will be some value less

Gap caused '- lfi ~ than that determined from the shield dimensions (P

DD

in Figure 1),

Similarly where the "stand-up" time is high (particularly at low load

by bead

Overcutting ~ L

factors) and the grouting cycle lags behind the advancement of the

shield P/D maybe higher(P „in Figure 1).

~

bead

Where a tunnel was advanced without a shield, P/D was derived from

Tunnelface the estimated overdig ahead of the completed crown section of the lining.

overdig

I C/D ratio

Shield and tail

Ring constructed

within tail

~ Lining rings ~ The depth of cover (C) was in all cases taken as the thickness of clay

above the tunnel crown. This approach is consistent with that taken by

Atkinson and Pot ts (1977).

25- A minimum value of LF = 0.2 is shown on Figure 4 which reflects the

~ seneviralne (1979) 0/D = 1 5 P/D = inf range of the centrifuge test data used and also defines the approximate

~ Mair et al (1981) 0/D — 1 67 P/D - inf load factor at which ground movements will be essentially elastic. This

assumption is based on the work of Mair and Taylor (1993) where for a

20-

typical (three-dimensional) tunnel heading in an elastic-perfectly plastic

soil, with C/D = 1.Sand N„= 6, elastic behaviour can be expected at N =4/3.

Data from Atkinson and Potts'1977) lg plane strain model tests on

15- overconsolidated kaolin clay have been included for the C/D ratio = 1.2

only. These data lie on the lower curve in Figure 2. It is inferred that at

lower values of C/D (say less than 1) the ground movements may not

10-

conform to those commonly observed for deeper tunnels and the linear

relationship suggested in Figure 4 may not be valid for such cases.

Data from plane strain centrifuge tests carried out and quoted by Mair et

al (1981, 1982) are also included in Figure 4. Mair et al's tests comprised

the gradual deflation of a rubber membrane representing the internal

~ ~ support pressure for an unlined tunnel, thus modelling volume loss due

0

02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 to radial displacements only. These tests cover a wide range of stability

LP

number and associated volume losses, within a carefully controlled

model set-up, where the vagaries of in-situ conditions such as varying

P/D = 2.0 strength with depth, soil structure and anisotropy could be eliminated.

P/D =1.0 Despite limitations in the ability of such tests to replicate actual

P/0 = 0.5 construction effects in situ (Taylor, 1998), it is possible to determine

O'Reilly (1988)

P/D = 0 directly the actual value of stability number at collapse (N„) for that

10

given geometry. As such, by calculating a load factor the effects of the

model geometry are effectively "normalised" and the results of the tests

Mair (1993) can be compared against other case history data.

P/D = 0

6 Values of N„were determined directly from Figure 3 for each case

~' history examined, in order to determine the value of LF.

4 ~ m

y)

Case history data

+P/0 = ~ Vaughan et al(1993) Table 2 summarises 22 case histories (27 individual records) of tunnels

P/D = 5

in stiff overconsolidated clay, 15 of which are London Clay sites. Three

0

case histories from recent work undertaken by Brown 85 Root are also

0 4 5 included. These data were obtained from the Longford Street spur

C/0

tunnel in Central London, the Crown Wharf research site in east London

(Macklin and Field, 1998) and above a utility tunnel beneath Regents

Park. For each site details of the tunnel heading geometry, and shear

suggested that the values for N„may become constant beyond C/D = 3. strength from both 100mm diameter unconsolidated undrained triaxial

O'Reilly (1988) proposed that the shear strength of the clay to be used (UUT) tests and correlations from SPT determinations were known. The

to calculate stability number and load factor should be taken as the mass

(or "bulk" ) shear strength (S„„,)

which accounts for the presence of

values of mass shear strength (S„„,) were based on both UUT test data

and SPT correlations, as the SPT data was considered to be

fissures and bedding plane partings etc in the clay. He proposed a general representative of the fissured strength of the clay (Clayton, 1995).

S„„, design line for London Clay based on a statistical analysis of

Skempton's (1959) correlation for the results of 38mm diameter triaxial

Where this approach to estimating S„„, in London Clay was used, an

tests. The value of S„„,

was to be calculated as an average value

estimate based on the S „, versus depth correlation proposed by

O'Reilly (1988) was also calculated, which was found to be approximately

between tunnel axis and the surface for C/D < 2.8, or as an average value 30% lower in all but one case. As such a range of LF based on these two

within a diameter above and below the tunnel crown for C/D > 2.8. estimates of S„„, are shown on Figure 4. In addition, in some of the

London Clay case histories, it was not stated how the quoted values of

The proposedmethod for theeslmathm of short term volume hss shear strength were determined and whether the values represented

Field monitoring data have been obtained from recent research and mass or intact sample shear strengths. In these cases the quoted value

development work carried out by Brown & Root. In order to check the and the O'Reilly (1988)estimate were used.

validity of the results these data were used to construct a plot of V~ Seven of the cases describe tunnels where no shield or tunnelling

versus LF. To enhance the clarity of the plot at LF<0.5, typical of most machines were used and support was provided by ribs with cast insitu

London Clay tunnelling projects, a semi-log plot was employed. concrete linings. Three of these are from the Heathrow express trial

Additional data points were also added from recently published data tunnel (Bowers et al, 1996) constructed using NATM techniques. These

PAPER

ftoference andlocaffon C/ff rafts P/ff rafts S, Stablllty Load factor tf„% Comments

hPa number(ff) (short tenn)

O'Reilly (1988):Sutton(5) 1.4 0.39 (34.0) 2 (0.32)'.l London Clay S„„, estimated

from O'Reilly's fig 1

O'Reilly (1988):Sutton (7) 2.7 3.3 (37.6) 1.8 (0.53) 2.9 London Clay S„„, estimated from

O'Reilly's fig.l. C/D ratio marginal

-LF selected to give best correlation.

O'Reilly (1988):Kings Cross 2.9 0.17 (99.6) 2.8 (0.33) 0.6 London Clay

O'Reilly's figl

S„„,estimated from

O'Reilly (1988):Regents Park 4.3 0.81 (126.9) 3.1 (0.40) 1.3 London Clay S„„estimated

(high tunnel) from O'Reilly's fig.l

O'Reilly(1988): Regents Park

(low tunnel)

7.7 0.81 (173.4) 3.8 (0.44) 1.4 London Clay S„„,

from O'Reilly's fig.1

estimated

O'Reilly (1988):Green Park 6.6 0.81 (160.5) 3.6 (0.43) 1.4 London Clay S„„, estimated

from O'Reilly's fig.l

Macklin and Field (1998): =1.0 105 2 0.40 2.4 TBM3 with partial face support up

Crown Wharf (100) (2.5) (0.43) to 50kPa, plus tail in London Clay.

S„„based on SPT and UUT values

Bloodworth and Macklin 2.2 0.4 100 2 0.26 0.8 Inclined hand drive in London Clay.

(in prep): Longford St (70) (2.9) (0.37) P = length of 2 rings assumed.

S„„, based on SPT values.

In house unpublished data 8 =1.0 225 2.3 0.30 1.15 Open face TBM'(no tail) in London

—utility tunnel under Regents Park (155) (2.5) (0.46) Clay. S„„, based on SPT values.

et al (1996),

Standing 5.9 1.0 (170) (3.7) 0.52 3.3 London Clay. P/D=I for dimensions of

Green Park the Howden backhoe shield used

(Wallis 1994).

Umney & Heath (1996) 0.67 27(P 3 0.40 1.8 Herrenknecht back hoe shield,

DLR, Bank. (200) (4) (0.46) length (inc. tail) = 4.9m.

Bowers et al(1996), 1.9 0.1 140 3 0.4 1.15 London Clay. P/D = 0.1 assumed for

New and Bowers (1994):

HEX4Type1

NATM. S„,

estimated from

Powell et al (1997).

Bowers et al (1996), 1.9 0.1 140 0.4 1.05 London Clay. P/D = 0.1assumed for

New and Bowers (1994):

HEX Type 2

NATM.

Powell et

S„„,

estimated from

al(1997).

Bowers et al(1996), 1.9 0.1 140 0.4 1.3 London Clay. P/D =0.1assumed for

New and Bowers (1994): NATM. Su mass estimated from

HEX Type 3 Powell et al (1997).

Harris et al (1994) Waterloo 1.3 125 2.6 0.44 London Clay. Hand driven pilot tunnel

beneath Victory arch using SGI lining

Eden and Bozozuk (1969). 5.6 1.5 176 3.1 0.22 1.5 Sensitive Leda Clay. P/D ratio assumed

Ottawa. for "rotary tunnelling machine". Only

3 month surface settlements recorded.

Derivation of S„unknown.

Sauer and Lama (1973)- 0.8 150 1.85 0.37 1.8 Frankfurt clay-marl. NATM

Baulos 25

Bourke(1957), Lane(1957), 1.5 >0.3 480 1.5 0.23 0.9 Clay-shale and lignite, unit weight

Peck (1969)Garrison Dam assumed 23 kN/m', drill & blast,

test tunnel ribs at 1m c/c and lagging

Shirlaw et al(1988)- 2.1 =0 1.6 0.2 0.27 NATM through Singapore boulder

extensometer 1, Singapore bed clay

Shirlaw et al (1988)- 2.1 =0 250 1.6 0.2 0.48 NATM through Singapore boulder

extensometer 2, Singapore bed clay

Attewell & Farmer (1974) 6.5 0.5 266 2.2 0.28 Hand excavated shield tunnel in

(170) (3.5) (0.38) London Clay.

Temporal and Lawrence 3.6 =1 1.2 0.17 0.5 Oxford Clay. S„t „,>estimated from

(1985), Oxford lower bound of 38mm undrained tests

Simic and Craig (1997) 3.0-4.0 2 1.03-1.37 0.2 0.42 P/D ratio assumed. Average volume

P38 —P59, Lisbon Metro loss and load factor quoted for 6cases

Notes

i. values in brackets based on O'Reilly's proposed 3„, versus depth relationship

of S „based on SPT data from in-house 5atabaseat a nearby site

Z. estimate

3.TBM = tunnel Soring machine.

4. HEX = Heathrow Express trial tunnel

PAPER

of N„at C/D ratios outside this range.

Figaro 4:Field monltorlng data

from otferconsogdated clay sites AcknowledgemelNs

Thanks go to my colleagues at Brown &

Root, in particular Dr Y C Lu, for critical

10

Zg, ~

review of this paper. In addition the

Upper bound design lme w ~ opportunity to publish this work under the

auspices of the R&D budget made available

~ ~

r by Brown & Root is gratefully acknowledged.

ee e~~ Lower bound design hne

~w References

Attewell PB and Farmer IW (1974). Ground

we tz Ce'

deformations resulting from shield tunnelling in

m ~ O'Reigy (1 988) London Clay Can. Geotech.J. 11,pp 380-395.

1f

~ .. ~ a i ~~

~n

Centrduge test data

Crown Wharf

Longlord Street

Attewell PB and Farmer IW (1974). Ground

disturbance caused by shield tunnelling in a stiff

overconsolidated clay Engineering Geology 8, 361-381.

~ Regents Park

Atteweg and Farmer (1974)

Umney and Heath (1996)

Attewell PB, Yeates J and Selby AR (1986). Soil

Movements Induced by Tunnelling and their Effects

~ Eden and Bozozuk[1969) on Pipelines and Structures. Blackie, Glasgow.

~ Simic and Craig (1997) Atkinson JH and Potts DM (1977). Subsidence above

~ Harris et al (1994)

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~~~

Attkinson and Pons 0/0 = 1.2

Garrison Dam tunnel

Bowers et al (1 994)

ASCE, Vol. 103 No. GT4, Proc paper 12872, April 1977,

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~ Garrison Dam Brojns BB and Bennermark H (1967). Stability of clay

0 Shirlaw et al (1988)

at vertical openings. J.Soil Mech. Found. Div. ASCE,

~ Sauer and Lama (1973)

94(SMI), January 1967.

0 Burke HH (1957). Garrison Dam —tunnel test section

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 investigation. ASCE J. of Soil Mech. And Found. Div.,

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LF Bowers KH, Hiller DM and New BM (1996). Ground

movement over three years at the Heathrow Express

Trial TunneL Geotechnical Aspects of Underground

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data points suggest that despite considerable differences in the Taylor). Balkema, pp 647-652.

Clayton CRI (1995). Report 143. The standard penetration test (SPT): Methods and use.

construction method, a good correlation may be obtained with data from CIRIA,London.

the cases constructed using more traditional methods. Clough GW and Schmidt B (1981).The design and performance of excavations and tunnels

The case quoted from Simic and Craig (1997) comprises an average of in soft clay. In: Soft clay engineering, Developments in Geotechn ical Engineering, Elsev ier.

Cording EJ and Hansmire WH (1975).Displacements around soft ground tunnels. Proc. 5th

six individual records covering the measured ground losses due to earth Pan American Conf. Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., ISRMFE, Buenos Aires.

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of 500kPa was quoted. Records of the average

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Geotech.J. 6(17), pp17-32.

Kimura T and Mair R J (1981).Centrifugal testing of model tunnels in soft clay. Proc. Xth

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of England Gas Association, January 1985.

below the lower bound for V„, however this might be expected at such Lu YC (1997).Compensation grouting in clay. PhD Thesis, Cambridge University.

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tunnelling, if detailed records are available, might also be assessed at West Ham, London. Proc. International Conference on Urban Ground Engineering,

Hong Kong, November 1998.

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plasticity solutions. Predictive soil mechanics. Thomas Telford, London.

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the majority of the field and laboratory Mair R J, Gunn M J and O'Reilly M P (1981).Ground movements around shallow tunnels in

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lines to estimate volume loss for a given load factor, for C/D ratios in soft clay. Tunnels & Tunnelling, June 1982.

Mair RJ, Taylot RN and Bracegirdle A(1993). Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels

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V„('/.) = 0.23e'a"P'or LF>0.2 Express trial tunnel. Proc. Tunnelling '94. IMM, London.

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London Clay. Proc. Tunnelling '88. IMM, London.

However it is recommended that for design purposes the range of values O'Reilly MP and New BM (1982). Settlements above tunnels in the United Kingdom —their

should be considered. It is encouraging that good agreement has been magnitude and prediction. Proc. Tunnelling '82. IMM, London.

Peck RB (1969). Deep excavations and tunnelling in soft ground. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Soil

achieved with the general guidelines quoted by O'Reilly and New (1982) Mech. And Found. Engng, Mexico, 1969, State-of-the-art volume.

for overconsolidated London Clay. Powell DB, Sigl 0 and Beveridge JP (1997).Heathrow Express —design and performance of

The calculation of an appropriate value of P/D for shield or platform tunnels at Terminal 4. Proc. Tunnelling '97, IMM, London.

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TBM driven tunnels may be subject to approximation. However all Thesis, University of Cambridge.

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the shield or machine would appear to give reasonable results. Singapore 'Boulder Bed'nd in grouted coral sands. In: Culshaw et al (eds), Engineering

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Publication No. 5, pp 93 —103.

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the clay. driven and NATM tunnels. Proc. Conf. Tunnelling '97, IMM, London.

The selection of an appropriate value of would appear to be

another area where a consistent approach is required. It is considered

S„„, Skempton AW (1959).Cast in situ bored piles in London Clay. Geotechnique, 9 (4).

Standing JR, Nyren R J, Longworth TI and Burland JB (1996). The measurement of ground

movements due to tunnelling at two control sites along the Jubilee Line Extension.

that reliance on the SPT test and 100mm diameter triaxial tests would Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground (eds. RJ Mair and RN

provide a reasonable approach and would lead to repeatable estimates of Taylor). Balkema, pp 751-756.

volume loss during the risk assessment stage. Taylor RN(1998). Modelling of tunnel behaviour. Proc. Instn. Civ Engng, 1998, 131,July pp 127—132.

Temporal J and Lawrence GJL (1985). Tunnelling machine performance in the Oxford

This work suggests that geometric properties of the tunnel heading Clay. Proc. Conf. Tunnelling '85, IMM, London

and the insitu stress/undrained strength ratio are equally as important Umney AR and Heath GR (1996). Recorded settlements from the DLR tunnels to Bank.

as workmanship in estimating the volume of short term ground loss Geotechn ical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground (eds. RJ Mair and RN

Taylor). Balkema,pp757-761.

during tunnelling. However the design charts presented by Kimura and Vaughan PR, Kennard RM and Greenwood DA (1983). Squeeze grouting of stiff-fissured

Mair (1979)upon which this method is based covered the limited range of clay after a tunnel collapse. Proc. 8th ECSMFE, Vol i. 171-176.

C/D ratios between about 1 and 3. Additional centrifuge work would be of Wallis S (1994). Jubilee Line Extension. The underground perspective. World Tunnelling

supplement, July 1994.

- Material SelectionDiunggah olehNagaraj Ramachandrappa
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- Property Spectrum of Engineering MaterialsDiunggah olehAriel Mark Pilotin
- SoilE8&9Diunggah olehJoseph Villegas
- Simulasi New KoplingDiunggah olehindra purnama
- Soil MechanicsDiunggah olehHareesh Manchikanti
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