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Chapter 3: Planning the Project

By: Cik Siti Khatijah Jamaludin
Project Management
When problems arise during the life of
a project
First to be blamed is
always the planning :(
• Inadequate planning is more the case than the exception
• Careful planning is strongly associated with project success

“Failing to plan is planning to

Beware of “Paralysis by Analysis”
Again…we need to be clear why we are
planning a project…

• The primary function of a project plan is to serve the

Project Manager and his team a detailed map of the
route from project start to finish.
• To facilitate later accomplishment
A formal, approved document used to guide
both project execution and project control.
The primary uses of the project plan are to
document planning assumptions and
decisions, facilitate communication among
stakeholders, and document approved scope,
cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan
may be summarized or detailed - PMBOK
What is the content of a Project Plan?
• Organization’s expected financial benefits that
will accrue
• Strategic reasons for the project
• Sufficient information that will tell the PM:
– What remains to be done
– When a certain task will be completed
– What deliverables the output should include
– What remaining resources needed (and who the
vendors are)
– Etc.
2 types of a complete Project Plan
according to industrial standards:
• PMBOK Project Plan

• PRINCE2 Project Plan

PMBOK Project Plan includes..
• Project Charter
• Project Plan Elements: Multiple elements
concerning the planning, execution and
control of the project.
• Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• RACI Matrix a.k.a. Linear Responsibility Chart
• Few other planning elements which also
serves special purposes.
Project Charter
• An abridge version of the full project plan
containing summaries of the budget and
schedule details.
• Major project stakeholders must sign off the
project charter
– Project sponsor
– Client/user
– Project Manager
– Program Manager (if necessary)
• Once agreed (signed), the charter (and the full project
plan) cannot be altered by any signer without acceptance
by others  PM will probably be overpowered 
Project Charter
• Project Statement of Work
– Created by the customer or sponsor
– Gives the description of the project scope
– Links the project to the strategic plan
– Think of it as a high level “contract” between the
sponsor and the Project Manager
Project Charter
• Formalize the project with the sponsor
• Sections:
– Project Overview
– Project Approach
– Project Objectives
– Major Deliverables
– Constraints
– Risks and Feasibility
• In one page
– Most people, especially busy people, will not
read more.
Project Charter
• What goes into your Project Charter?
– Title
– Description
– Who is the Project Manager? What is their authority?
– What is the business need?
– What is the justification?
– What are the assigned resources?
– Who are the stakeholders?
– What are the known stakeholder requirements?
– What are the deliverables?
– What are the constraints?
– What are the assumptions?
Project Charter Example: Web Site
www-cad Project Overview
This project is to create a new web site for the CAD group faculty. The current website at www-
cad.eecs has a very old look, it needs an update so that we can attract new students.

Project Approach
The project is a fairly small website based partly on a preexisting site, so we will use a classic
waterfall approach with milestones. The project team will consist of the following people. I’ve
estimated the maximum amount of time we can get from each person over the life of the project.
Kurt Keutzer (2 hrs week for 6 weeks) Ken Lutz (2 hrs/week for 6 weeks)
Brad Krebs (10 hrs/week for 6 weeks) Christopher Brooks (10 hrs/week for 6 weeks)
Allen Hopkins (5 hrs/week for 6 weeks) Carol Sitea (1 hr/week for 6 weeks)
The project sponsor is Professor Keutzer. Professor Keutzer is on sabbatical this semester, but we
hope to get feedback from him on a continuing basis.

Project Objectives
• Update the look and feel of the website to a modern standard
• Provide access to student and faculty pages
• Provide access to active projects
• Provide access to summaries, downloads and key papers of inactive projects. The old pages
of inactive projects should be archived.
One page! • Provide a simple static listing of seminars. A more complex calendar and a search engine are
deferred due to schedule constraints.

Major Deliverables
• A schedule along with time estimates.
• A prioritized list of features.
• An example of the main page so we can review look and feel.
• An archive of the old website
• The final website.

Professor Keutzer would like to see the web site completed by mid-March: that is when students
start looking at graduate schools. Developers might not have much time to work on this project.
The project requires timely feedback from the faculty.

Risk and Feasibility

The primary risk is that the project takes too long to complete and we miss the mid-March oppor-
tunity. Another risk is that we complete the project too quickly and quality suffers. A third risk is
that there are only so many resources available. By fast tracking, we can handle some of the
tasks in parallel and avoid these risks. The project is definitely feasible if we roll out the website
in stages.
Knowledge Project Management Process Groups
Areas Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Closing
Develop Project Develop Project Management Direct & Manage Monitor & Control Project Close Project or
Integration Charter Plan Project Execution Work Phase
Perform Integrated
Change Control
Collect Requirements Verify Scope
Scope Define Scope Control Scope
Create WBS
Define Activities Control Schedule
Time Sequence Activities
Estimate Activity Resources
Estimate Activity Durations
Develop Schedule
Estimate Cost Control Costs
Cost Determine Budget
Plan Quality Perform Quality Perform Quality Control
Quality Assurance
Develop HR Plan Acquire Project Manage Project Team
HR Team
Develop Project
Identify Stakeholders Plan Communications Distribute Manage Stakeholder
Communications Information Expectations
Report Performance

Plan Risk Management Monitor & Control Risks

Risk Identify Risks
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
Perform Quantitative Risk
Plan Risk Responses

Plan Procurements Conduct Administer Procurements Close

Procurement Procurements Procurements
PMBOK Project Plan includes..
• Project Charter
• Project Plan Elements: Multiple elements
concerning the planning, execution and
control of the project.
• Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• RACI Matrix a.k.a. Linear Responsibility Chart
• Few other planning elements which also
serves special purposes.
Project Plan Elements

• The process of developing the project plan varies

among organizations, but any project plan must contain
the following elements:
– Overview - a short summary of the objectives and scope of
the project
– Objectives - A more detailed statement of the general goals
noted in the overview section
– General Approach - describes both the managerial and
technical approaches to the work
Project Plan Elements

• Contractual Aspects - includes a complete list and description

of all reporting requirements, customer supplied resources,
liaison arrangements, advisory committees, project review and
cancellation procedures, etc.
• Schedules - this section outlines the various schedules and lists
all the milestone events
• Resources - this includes the budget (both capital and expense
requirements) as well as cost monitoring and control procedures
Project Plan Elements
• Personnel - this section lists the expected personnel requirements
of the project including special skills, training needs, and security
• Evaluation Methods - every project should be evaluated against
standards and by methods established at the project’s inception
• Risk Mgmt./Potential Problems
No amount • should include any potential difficulties such as subcontractor
of current default, technical failure, tight deadlines, resource limitations and
planning can the likes.
solve current
• “learn from experience”
issues, but
developing a  list all major and minor disasters that may strike project by
contingency learning from other similar project’s previous experience
plans may • Contingency plan to deal should crisis happens
prevent or •. Risk Analysis, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
soften the
impact of
PMBOK Project Plan includes..
• Project Charter
• Project Plan Elements: Multiple elements
concerning the planning, execution and
control of the project.
• Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• RACI Matrix a.k.a. Linear Responsibility Chart
• Few other planning elements which also
serves special purposes.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• A ‘hierarchical’ planning process
• A systematic procedure
• Most PM refers to WBS as the "foundation“of project
• The WBS represents a logical decomposition of the work to
be performed and focuses on how the product, service, or
result is naturally subdivided. It is an outline of what work
is to be performed.
• Failing to identify all important tasks, is a primary
contributor to a failure of a project to achieve its cost and
time objectives.
• Therefore, a primary purpose for developing a WBS is to
ensure that any task required to produce a deliverable is
not overlooked.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• Defined by PMBOK as:

"A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition

of the work to be executed by the project team to
accomplish the project objectives and create the
required deliverables."


1 Project
2 Category
3 Subcategory
4 Sub-Subcategory
5 Work Package
Other advantages of WBS in project planning

• helps more accurately and specifically define

and organise the scope of the total project.
• to help with assigning responsibilities,
resource allocation, monitoring the project,
and controlling the project.
• allows the PM to double check all the
deliverables' specifics with the stakeholders
and make sure there is nothing missing or
PM must really
Major understand the
tasks/activities WBS: Example 1 project’s
before starting a

WBS: Example 2
 The WBS is an extremely valuable tool to the
project management methodology. It can make or
break a project. It sets the foundation for the rest
of the project planning.
 A solid WBS helps ensure proper project baselines,
estimating, resource use, scheduling, risk analysis,
and procurement.
PMBOK Project Plan includes..
• Project Charter
• Project Plan Elements: Multiple elements
concerning the planning, execution and control of
the project.
• Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
– RACI Matrix a.k.a. Linear Responsibility Chart
• Few other planning elements which also serves
special purposes.
RACI Matrix
• Responsible
• Accountable
• Consult
• Inform

• RACI Matrix helps organize the project team

by clarifying the responsibilities of the project
team members.
RACI Matrix: Simple Example

• Project Engineer is accountable for the task being carried out.

• Field Manager will be responsible for actually doing the work associated with soliciting
•The project’s Contract Administrator and the Compliance Officer/Risk Manager must be
consulted about the solicitation process.
•The PM must be informed before documents are sent to potential vendors.
Source: Mantel et al., 2011
What is the difference between
accountable and responsible???
• The Accountable person is the individual who is
ultimately answerable for the activity or decision. This
includes “yes” or “no” authority and veto power. Only
one Accountable person can be assigned to an action.

• The Responsible person is the individual(s) who

actually complete the task. The Responsible person is
responsible for action/implementation. Responsibility
can be shared. The degree of responsibility is
determined by the individual with the
A whole-brain approach to Project
A whole-brain approach to Project
• Typical project managers & team members 
engineers or business people logical &
analytical left-side brain.
• Many activities associated with project
management can be greatly facilitated through
the use of a more balanced whole - brain
The Mind Map!!!

A visual approach
that closely
mirrors how the
human brain
records and
Advantage of using mind-map in
Project Planning
• helps tap the creative potential of the entire
project team.
• helps increase both the quantity and quality
of ideas generated.
• helps generate enthusiasm, because project
team members tend to find mind mapping
• often gets quieter team members more
involved in the process.

Source: Mantel Jr. et al., 2011

Steps in mind-mapping for Project
• Step 1: Begin mind-mapping with statement of
project ’s objective/goal in the center.
• Step 2 : Create major tasks which branch-off
from the projects goal.

• Step 3: Break major tasks further into more

detailed task.
• Project objective: To improve a part-time evening MBA program
for working professionals (in a graduate business

Source: Mantel Jr. et al., 2011

Sample Mind-Mapping Approach for
Creating a WBS
Resulting WBS in Chart Form
Thank you!!