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Muscles of the Scapula

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood Supply Action


Trapezius Medial third of Lateral third of Spinal root of Transverse Elevates scapula
superior nuchal posterior accessory cervical artery, (descending part),
line, external clavicle, medial nerve (CN XI) dorsal scapular retracts scapula
occipital acromion, and C3 and C4 artery (transverse part),
protuberance, superior edge of depresses scapula
ligamentum spine of scapula (ascending part); rotates
nuchae, spinous scapula (descending and
processes of C7- ascending parts acting
T12 together)
Latissimus Spinous Floor of Thoracodorsal Thoracodorsal Extends, adducts and
dorsi processes of T7- intertubercular nerve (C6-C7) artery medially rotates arm,
T12, sulcus of draws shoulder
thoracolumbar humerus downwards and
fascia, iliac backward
crest, lower three
to four ribs

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood Supply Action


Levator Posterior Medial border Dorsal scapular Dorsal Elevates scapula
scapulae tubercles of of scapula and cervical scapular medially, inferiorly
transverse above base of (C3-C4) nerves artery, rotates glenoid cavity
processes C1-C4 spine of transverse
scapula cervical artery
Rhomboid Ligamentum Medial border Dorsal scapular Dorsal Retracts and
minor nuchae, spinous of scapula nerve (C4-C5) scapular stabilizes the scapula
processes of C7 above base of artery
and TI spine of
scapula
Rhomboid Spinous Medial border Dorsal scapular Dorsal Retracts and rotates
major processes of T2- of scapula nerve (C4-C5) scapular scapula to depress the
T5 below base of artery glenoid cavity
spine of
scapula

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood Supply Action


Deltoid Lateral third Deltoid Anterior and Posterior Clavicular part-
of anterior tuberosity of posterior circumflex flexes and medially
clavicle, humerus branches of humeral artery, rotates arm;
lateral axillary nerve deltoid branch of acromial part-
acromion, (C5,C6) thoracoacromial abducts arm; spinal
inferior edge artery part-extends and
of spine of laterally rotates
scapula arm
Supraspinatus Supraspinous Superior facet Suprascapular Suprascapular Initiates arm
fossa of of greater nerve (C5,C6) artery abduction, acts
scapula tubercle of with rotator cuff
humerus muscles
Infraspinatus Intraspinous Middle facet Suprascapular Suprascapular Lateral rotation of
fossa of of greater nerve (C5,C6) artery arm (with teres
scapula tubercle of minor)
humerus
Teres minor Upper two Inferior facet Posterior Circumflex Lateral rotation of
thirds of of greater branch of scapular artery arm, adduction
posterior tubercle of axillary nerve
surface of humerus (C5,C6)
lateral border
of scapula
Teres major Posterior Medial lip of Inferior Circumflex Adducts and
surface of intertubercular subscapular scapular artery medially rotates
inferior angle sulcus nerve (C5,C6) arm
of scapula
Subscapularis Subscapular Lesser tubercle Superior and Subscapular Medially rotates
fossa of humerus inferior artery, lateral arm and adducts it;
subscapular thoracic artery helps hold humeral
nerves (C5- head in glenoid
C6) cavity

Muscles Origin Insertion Innervation Blood supply Action


Biceps brachii Long head- Radial Musculocutaneo Muscular Supinates
supraglenoid tubercletuberosity, us nerve branches of forearm
of humerus; Short fascia of (C5,C6) brachial artery Flexes
head-tip of coracoid forearm via forearm
process of scapula bicipital when it is
aponeurosis supinated
Coracobrachia Tip of coracoid Middle third of Musculocutaneo Muscular Flexes and
lis process of scapula medial surface us nerve branches of adducts arm
of humerus (C5,C6,C7) brachial artery
Brachialis Distal half of anterior Coronoid Musculocutaneo Radial Flexes
surface of humerus process and us nerve recurrent forearm
tuberosity of (C5,C6) artery,
ulna muscular
branches of
brachial artery
Triceps Long head- Posterior Radial nerve Branch of Extends
brachii infraglenoid tubercle surface of (C6,C7,C8) profunda forearm,
of scapula; Lateral olecranon brachii artery long head
head -upper half of process of ulna stabilizes
posterior humerus; head of
Medial head -distal abducted
two thirds of medial humerus
and posterior
humerus
Otot antebrachii

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood supply Action


Pronator Two heads: medial Midway along Median nerve Anterior ulnar Pronates forearm,
Teres epicondyle of lateral surface of (C6,C7) recurrent assists in flexion
humerus and radius artery
coronoid process of
ulna
Flexor carpi Medial epicondyle Base of second Median nerve Radial artery Flexes and
radialis of humerus metacarpal (C6,C7) abducts hand at
wrist
Palmaris Medial epicondyle Distal half of Median nerve Posterior Flexes hand and
longus of humerus flexor (C7,C8) ulnar tenses palmar
retinaculum and recurrent aponeurosis
palmar artery
aponeurosis
Flexor carpi Humeral head: Pisiform bone, Ulnar nerve Posterior Flexes and
ulnaris medial epicondyle hook of hamate, (C7,C8 and ulnar adducts hand at
of humerus; base of fifth T1) recurrent wrist
Ulnar head: metacarpal artery
olecranon and
posterior border of
ulna
Flexor Humeroulnar head: Bodies of Median nerve Ulnar and Flexes middle and
digitorum medial epicondyle middle (C8-T1) radial arteries proximal
superficialis and coronoid phalanges of phalanges of
process of ulna medial four medial four
Radial head: digits digits; also flexes
anterior border of hand at wrist
radius

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood supply Action


Deep (profundus)
Flexor Medial and anterior Anterior base Medial part: Anterior Flexes distal
digitorum surface of proximal of distal ulnar nerve interosseous phalanges of
profundus three-quarters of phalanges of (C8-T1); artery and medial four
ulna, and medial four Lateral part: muscular digits; assists in
interosseous digits medial nerve branches of flexion of hand at
membrane (C8-T1) ulnar artery wrist
Flexor Anterior surface of Palmar base Anterior Anterior Flexes phalanges
pollicis radius and of distal interosseous interosseous of thumb
longus interosseous phalanx of branch of artery
membrane thumb median nerve
(C7-8)
Pronator Distal fourth of Distal fourth Anterior Anterior Pronates forearm
quadratus anterior ulna of anterior interosseous interosseous
radius branch of artery
median nerve
(C7-8)
Posterior antebrachii
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood supply Action
Brachioradiali Proximal two thirds Lateral side of Radial nerve Radial Flexes forearm
s of lateral distal end of (C5-C6) recurrent artery
supracondylar ridge radius
of humerus
Extensor carpi Distal one-third of Dorsal base of Radial nerve Radial artery Extends and
radialis lateral supracondylar second (C6-C7) and radial abducts hand at
longus ridge of humerus metacarpal recurrent artery wrist
Extensor carpi Lateral epicondyle of Dorsal base of Deep branch Radial artery Extends and
radialis brevis humerus (common third of radial nerve and radial abducts hand at
extensor tendon) metacarpal (C7-C8) recurrent artery wrist
Extensor Lateral epicondyle of Extensor Posterior Posterior Extends medial
digitorum humerus (common expansions of interosseous interosseous four digits;
extensor tendon) medial four nerve (C7-C8) artery assists in wrist
digits extension
Extensor Lateral epicondyle of Extensor Posterior Posterior Extends fifth
digiti minimi humerus (common expansion of interosseous interosseous digit
extensor tendon) fifth digit nerve (C7-C8) artery
Extensor carpi Lateral epicondyle of Dorsal base of Posterior Posterior Extends and
ulnaris humerus and fifth interosseous interosseous abducts hand at
posterior border of metacarpal nerve (C7-C8) artery wrist
ulna (common
extensor tendon)
Anconeus Posterior surface of Lateral surface Radial nerve Deep brachial Assists triceps in
lateral epicondyle of of olecranon (C5-7) artery extending elbow;
humerus and posterior abducts ulna
proximal ulna during pronation

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Blood supply Action


Supinator Lateral epicondyle of Lateral, posterior Deep branch Radial Supinates
humerus, supinator crest and anterior of radial nerve
recurrent and forearm
surfaces of (C6-C7) posterior
proximal third of interosseous
radius arteries
Abductor Posterior surface of Base of first Posterior Posterior Abducts and
pollicis ulna, radius, and metacarpal interosseous interosseous extends
longus interosseous membrane nerve (C7-C8) artery thumb
Extensor Posterior surface of Base of proximal Posterior Posterior Extends
pollicis radius and interosseous phalanx of thumb interosseous interosseous proximal
brevis membrane nerve (C7-C8) artery phalanx of
thumb
Extensor Posterior surface of Base of distal Posterior Posterior Extends
pollicis middle third of ulna and phalanx of thumb interosseous interosseous distal
longus interosseous membrane nerve (C7-C8) artery phalanx of
thumb
Extensor Posterior surface of ulna Extensor expansion Posterior Posterior Extends
indicis and interosseous of second digit interosseous interosseous second digit
membrane nerve (C7-C8) artery
Otot Tangan

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action Blood Supply


Abductor Flexor Lateral side of Recurrent Abducts and assists Superficial
pollicis retinaculum, base of branch of in opposition of palmar branch
brevis tubercles of proximal median nerve thumb of radial artery
scaphoid and phalanx of (C8-T1)
trapezium thumb (1st
digit)
Flexor Flexor Lateral side of Recurrent Flexes proximal Superficial
pollicis retinaculum and base of branch of phalanx of thumb palmar branch
brevis trapezium proximal median nerve of radial artery
phalanx of (C8-T1)
thumb
Opponens Flexor Lateral side of Recurrent Draws 1st Superficial
pollicis retinaculum and 1st metacarpal branch of metacarpal forward palmar branch
trapezium median nerve and rotates it of radial artery
(C8-T1) medially
Adductor Oblique head- Medial side of Deep branch Adducts thumb Deep palmar
pollicis bases of second base of of ulnar arch
and third proximal nerve (C8-
metacarpals phalanx of T1)
capitate and thumb
adjacent bones;
Transverse head-
anterior surface of
third metacarpal
Palmaris Palmar Skin of ulnar Superficial Deepens the hollow Superficial
brevis aponeurosis border of palm palmar of the hand palmar arch
branch of
ulnar nerve
(C8)
Abductor Pisiform bone, Medial side of Deep branch Abducts the little Deep palmar
digiti tendon of flexor base of of ulnar finger (fifth digit) branch of ulnar
minimi carpi ulnaris proximal nerve (C8- artery
(hand) phalanx of T1)
little finger
Flexor Flexor Medial side of Deep branch Flexes proximal Deep palmar
digiti retinaculum and base of of ulnar phalanx of the little branch of ulnar
minimi hook of hamate proximal nerve (C8- finger artery
brevis bone phalanx of T1)
(hand) little finger
Opponens Flexor Medial side of Deep branch Draws fifth Deep palmar
digiti retinaculum and fifth of ulnar metacarpal branch of ulnar
minimi hook of hamate metacarpal nerve (C8- anteriorly and artery
bone T1) rotates it to face
thumb
Lumbricals Lateral two Lateral sides of Median Extends digits at Superficial and
1 and 2 tendons of flexor extensor nerve (C8- interphalangeal deep palmar
digitorum expansion of T1) joints and flexes arches
profundus digits 2 and 3 metacarpophalangea
l joints
Lumbricals Medial three Lateral sides of Deep branch Extends digits at Superficial and
3 and 4 tendons of flexor extensor of ulnar interphalangeal deep palmar
digitorum expansion of nerve (C8- joints and flexes arches
profundus digits 4 and 5 T1) metacarpophalangea
l joints
Dorsal Adjacent sides of Base of Deep branch Abducts digits from Deep palmar
interossei two metacarpal proximal of ulnar axial line of hand- arch
bones phalanx and nerve (C8- third digit
extensor T1)
expansion of
digits 2-4
Palmar Palmar surfaces Bases of Deep branch Adducts digits Deep palmar
interossei of metacarpals 2, proximal of ulnar toward axial line of arch
4, and 5 phalanx and nerve (C8- hand-third digit
extensor T1)
expansion of
digits 2, 4, and
5