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DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL

UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
Gedung D Kampus Sekaran Gunung Pati Semarang Kode Pos 50229 Telp (024) 8508112

Materi : Kesetimbangan Kimia


Kelas/Semester : XI IPA/1
Alokasi waktu : 120 menit
Jumlah Soal : 30 Soal Uraian
Petunjuk Umum
1. Tulislah terlebih dahulu nama, nomor absen, kelas dan waktu pelaksanaan pada kolom identitas.
2. Kerjakan pada kolom jawaban yang telah disediakan.
3. Tidak diperkenankan menggunakan kalkulator.
4. Bacalah soal dengan teliti sebelum mengerjakan.
5. Kerjakan terlebih dahulu soal yang dianggap mudah.
6. Berdoa terlebih dahulu sebelum mengerjakan soal.
7. Bekerjalah dengan jujur dan percaya diri.

Nama
No Absen
Kelas
Hari/Tanggal

Jawablah soal-soal berikut disertai cara penyelesaiannya.


1. Miko mendapat tugas untuk melakukan investigasi sederhana tentang reaksi
kesetimbangan kimia. Ia menyiapkan dua buah botol dan memasukkan air
panas ke dalam masing-masing botol dengan volume yang sama . Ia
memberi perlakuan yang berbeda seperti gambar di samping. Setelah
membiarkan kedua botol tersebut selama beberapa hari, didapatkan hasil
pengamatan sebagai berikut:
No. Botol Hasil Pengamatan
1 1 Volume air dalam botol sama
2 2 Volume air dalam botol berkurang
a. Apa yang menyebabkan volume kedua botol menjadi berbeda? Jelaskan pendapatmu...
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2. Perhatikan persamaan reaksi kesetimbangan berikut:
6CO2(g) + 6H2 O(g) ⇄ C6 H12 O6(s) + 6O2(g)
1
O3(g) ⇄ O2(g) + 2 O2(g)
HbO2(g) + CO(g) ⇄ HbCO(g) + O2(g)
a. Jelaskan peristiwa yang menyebabkan terjadinya reaksi kesetimbangan tersebut dan
tentukan jenis kesetimbangan yang terjadi....
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3. Minuman bersoda dalam kaleng mengandung karbon dioksida terlarut
dalam keadaan setimbang dengan gas karbon dioksida.
a. Apabila tutup kaleng dibuka, apakah masih terjadi sistem
kesetimbangan...
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4. Disediakan alat dan bahan di laboratorium kimia sebagai berikut: gelas kimia 25 mL, pipet
tetes, corong gelas, pengaduk, neraca analitis, kertas saring, 2 gram kristal PbSO4, 10 mL
larutan KI 1 M, 10 mL larutan K2SO4 1 M dan akuades. Kamu diminta untuk merancang
suatu percobaan untuk menyelidiki reaksi kimia dua arah.
a. Bagaimana langkah-langkah kerja yang harus disusun...
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5. Seorang praktikan akan melakukan percobaan untuk menentukan nilai K suatu reaksi
kesetimbangan. Zat yang digunakan adalah gas PCl3, gas PCl5 dan gas Cl2. Apabila gas
PCl5 adalah hasil reaksi,
a. Bagaimana langkah-langkah percobaan yang harus dilakukan oleh praktikan agar dapat
menentukan nilai K reaksi kesetimbangan tersebut?
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6. Hasil pengukuran konsentrasi zat-zat suatu reaksi saat setimbang pada suhu 25℃ dengan
reaksi kesetimbangan: Ag (aq) + 2 NH3(aq) ⇄ [Ag(NH3 )2 ]+ (aq) adalah
Percobaan Konsentrasi Kesetimbangan
+
[Ag ], M [NH3], M [[Ag(NH3)2]+], M
1 0,001 0,005 0,400
2 0,001 0,001 0,016
3 0,002 0,001 0,032
a. Apakah nilai K ketiga percobaan konstan? Bagaimana nilai K bila suhu reaksi tersebut
dinaikkan...
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7. Jika diketahui nilai tetapan kesetimbangan beberapa reaksi:
2SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇄ 2SO3(g) K = 36
SO2(g) ⇄ S(s) + O2(g) K = 0,5
3
a. Dapatkah nilai tetapan kesetimbangan reaksi berikut: S(𝑠) + 2 O2(g) ⇄ SO3(g)
ditentukan? Buktikan..
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8. Berikut ini adalah data tetapan kesetimbangan beberapa reaksi:

HNO2(aq) + H2 O(l) ⇄ NO2(aq) + H3 O+ (aq) K = 4 × 10-4
+ −
NH3(aq) + H2 O(l) ⇄ NH4(aq) + OH(aq) K = 2 × 10-5
2H2 O(l) ⇄ H3 O+ (aq) + OH(aq)

K = 10-14
a. Berapa besar nilai K untuk reaksi : HNO2(aq) + NH3(aq) ⇄ NO− 2(aq) + NH4(aq)
+

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9. Salah satu penyebab batu ginjal dalam tubuh adalah terjadinya


pengendapan garam kalsium oksalat (CaC2O4) yang menyumbat saluran
kemih secara perlahan dalam waktu lama sehingga terbentuk kristal batu.
Ion Ca2+ dapat berasal dari dalam tubuh manusia dan dari kandungan
makanan yang dikonsumsi. Sedangkan ion C2O42- berasal dari konsumsi
makanan yang mengandung banyak ion C2O42-.
a. Bagaimana cara menghindari terjadinya pembentukan kristal batu pada ginjal? Jelaskan
dengan konsep pergeseran arah kesetimbangan...
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10. Asam nitrat (HNO3) digunakan dalam pembuatan pupuk, industri zat warna, bahan peledak
dan lain-lain. Asam nitrat dibuat dengan cara mereaksikan gas NO2 dan air. Gas NO2 yang
direaksikan berasal dari oksidasi gas NO. Persamaan reaksi yang terjadi:
2NO(g) + O2(g) ⇄ 2NO2(g) ∆H = −114 kJ
a. Agar gas NO2 yang dihasilkan optimum, langkah-langkah apa sajakah yang harus
dilakukan...
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11. Seorang praktikan mereaksikan gas H2 dan gas I2 dalam wadah tertutup menghasilkan
produk gas HI. Pada keadaan setimbang, tekanan dalam sistem sebesar 1 atm. Kemudian
ia ingin memperbanyak gas HI yang terbentuk dengan mencoba menambahkan tekanan
menjadi 2 kali lebih besar dari tekanan semula.
a. Apakah penambahan tekanan yang dicoba oleh praktikan dapat memperbanyak gas HI...
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12. Terumbu karang merupakan salah satu keindahan dasar laut indonesia
yang mempesona. Pembentukan terumbu karang tidak terlepas dari
fenomena kimia yang berkaitan dengan kesetimbangan kimia.
Terumbu karang merupakan kumpulan koral (CaCO3) yang terbentuk
dari hasil reaksi ion Ca2+ dan CO2 di laut. Perubahan suhu dan kadar
CO2 di udara dapat menyebabkan koral larut kembali dan punah.
a. Jika kadar/konsentrasi CO2 di udara terus meningkat, apakah kelangsungan hidup koral
akan terganggu? Jelaskan keterkaitannya dengan konsep pergeseran arah
kesetimbangan...
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13. Seorang praktikan sedang melakukan percobaan untuk membuktikan perlakuan yang dapat
mempengaruhi pergeseran arah kesetimbangan suatu reaksi. Ia mencampurkan larutan A
dengan larutan B ke dalam gelas kimia hingga mencapai kesetimbangan. Persamaan reaksi
yang terjadi yaitu, A(aq) + B(aq) ⇄ C(s) + D(aq) .
a. Tentukan arah kesetimbangan bergeser, jika :
(1) Praktikan menambahkan larutan A ke dalam gelas.
(2) Praktikan menambahkan larutan B ke dalam gelas.
(3) Praktikan mengencerkan campuran larutan dengan cara menambahkan air.
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14. Pembuatan amonia (NH3) menerapkan asas Le Chatelier. Amonia diproduksi dengan
1 3
mereaksikan gas N2 dan gas H2 (2 N2(g) + 2 H2(g) ⇄ NH3(g) ). Reaksi yang terjadi bersifat
eksoterm. Seorang konsultan perusahaan industri amonia memberi solusi untuk
perusahaannya dalam produksi amonia yang dilakukan lebih optimum dan efisien, antara
lain : 1. Tekanan rendah
2. Suhu reaksi dinaikkan
3. Pengurangan konsentrasi NH3 dengan cara mengambil produk yang terbentuk
a. Apakah masing-masing solusi diatas sudah tepat? Jelaskan alasannya...
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15. Gas N2O4 merupakan gas tak berwarna yang dapat terdisosiasi menjadi gas NO2 berwarna
coklat. Saat mencapai kesetimbangan, reaksi yang dihasilkan berupa gas berwarna kuning.
Jika diketahui persamaan reaksi kesetimbangan N2 O4(g) ⇄ 2NO2(g) ∆H = +58,1 kJ,
a. Tentukan perubahan warna yang akan terjadi dan berikan alasannya jika:
(1) Suhu dinaikkan (2) Suhu diturunkan
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16. Pada pembelajaran kimia, Pak Hendi mendemonstrasikan percobaan larutan dalam
keadaan setimbang. Beliau melarutkan 0,74 gram padatan Ca(OH)2 ke dalam 200 mL
akuades. Jika terjadi kesetimbangan reaksi : Ca(OH)2(s) ⇄ Ca2+(aq) + 2OH− (aq) dan
terdapat 0,08 mol ion OH- saat setimbang,
a. Hitunglah nilai Kc reaksi kesetimbangan yang terjadi... (Ar Ca = 40, O = 16, H = 1)
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17. Seorang praktikan memasukkan 2 mol gas H2 dan 2 mol gas Cl2 dalam wadah tertutup
berukuran 500 mL. Kemudian ia memanaskan reaksi pada suhu 1000°C hingga tercapai
kesetimbangan. Persamaan reaksi kesetimbangan yang terjadi: H2(g) + Cl2(g) ⇄ 2HCl(g)
dengan nilai Kc sebesar 16.
a. Berapakah konsentrasi awal gas HCl dan konsentrasi masing-masing zat saat terbentuk
kesetimbangan...
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18. Persamaan reaksi kesetimbangan berikut X (g) + 2Y(g) ⇄ XY2(g) memiliki nilai Kc sebesar
0,25. Pada suatu wadah tertutup bervolume 5 L dihasilkan 1 mol gas XY2 dalam keadaan
setimbang campuran gas X dan gas Y. Jika diketahui mol mula-mula gas Y adalah 4 mol,
a. Tentukan mol mula-mula gas X...
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19. Pak Rio menunjukkan beker glass berisi 1 L campuran larutan dalam keadaan setimbang
kepada siswa-siswi kelas XI IPA. Menurutnya, larutan tersebut memiliki 3 mol ion Fe3+, 2
mol ion SCN- dan 3 mol ion Fe(SCN)2+. Kemudian Pak Rio menambahkan 3 mol ion SCN-
ke dalam larutan, jika persamaan reaksi yang terjadi: Fe3+ −
(aq) + SCN(aq) ⇄ Fe(SCN) (aq)
2+

a. Pak Rio memberi tugas untuk,


(1) Menentukan arah pergeseran kesetimbangan setelah penambahan.
(2) Menentukan tetapan kesetimbangan sebelum dan setelah penambahan ion SCN-.
(3) Menentukan konsentrasi setiap zat setelah penambahan ion SCN-.
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20. Diketahui persamaan reaksi kesetimbangan : 2KClO3(g) ⇄ 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) Kc = 3×10-2 .


Suatu wadah tertutup dengan volume 1 L berisi 0,04 mol gas KClO3; 0,03 mol padatan KCl
dan 0,002 mol gas O2.
a. Apakah reaksi dalam wadah mencapai kesetimbangan? Jika tidak, tentukan arah reaksi
berlangsung...
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21. Suatu campuran larutan mencapai kesetimbangan dengan nilai Kc sebesar 10-5. Persamaan
reaksi kesetimbangan pada larutan tersebut yaitu : MgCO3(aq) ⇄ Mg 2+ 2−
(aq) + CO3(aq) . Jika
seorang praktikan mencampurkan larutan Mg2+ 0,2 M, CO32- 1 M dan MgCO3 4× 10-4 M,
a. Apakah akan terjadi kesetimbangan? Jika tidak, tentukan arah reaksi berlangsung...
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22. Diketahui data tekanan parsial pada kesetimbangan
Suhu (K) Tekanan parsial (Pa)
H2SO4(g) H2O(g) SO3(g)
400 4,5 3,2 2,9
493 470 300 270
Jika persamaan reaksi kesetimbangan yang terjadi: H2 SO4(g) ⇄ H2 O(g) + SO3(g)
a. Apakah nilai Kp kedua suhu konstan? Buktikan...
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23. Sisil sedang melakukan percobaan reaksi kesetimbangan. Ia memanaskan 2 mol padatan
Besi (II) Hidrogen dalam wadah tertutup dengan tekanan ruang 1,5 atm. Pada suhu tertentu,
reaksi mencapai kesetimbangan: Fe(HCO3 )2(s) ⇄ FeO(s) + H2 O(g) + 2CO2(g) . Saat
setimbang, diketahui terdapat 2 mol gas CO2.
a. Hitunglah KP reaksi kesetimbangan yang terjadi...
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24. Pada suhu tertentu, gas NOBr dapat terurai menjadi gas NO dan gas Br2. Seorang praktikan
memasukkan gas NOBr dengan tekanan 0,5 atm ke dalam wadah tertutup, setelah
didiamkan dan mencapai kesetimbangan ternyata sebanyak 18% gas NOBr telah terurai.
a. Hitunglah Kp reaksi kesetimbangan yang terjadi...
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25. Seorang praktikan memanaskan gas COCl2 dengan tekanan 1 atm dalam wadah tertutup.
Saat temperatur mencapai 677℃, ternyata terjadi reaksi kesetimbangan. Jika tetapan
kesetimbangan gas reaksi: COCl2(g) ⇄ CO(g) + Cl2 adalah 6,0 (diketahui: √15 = 3,87),
(g)
a. Tentukan derajat disosiasi gas COCl2 dan besar tekanan total saat kesetimbangan...
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26. Pada suhu 500℃, terjadi reaksi kesetimbangan: 2H2(g) + C(s) ⇄ CH4(g) dengan nilai Kp
sebesar 2,69×103. Apabila seorang praktikan memasukkan gas H2 dan gas CH4 dengan
tekanan awal masing-masing 0,2 atm dan 3 atm dalam suatu reaktor berisi C pada suhu
500℃,
a. Tentukan apakah reaksi telah mencapai kesetimbangan? Jika tidak, tentukan arah reaksi
berlangsung...
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27. Perhatikan tabel berikut:
Reaksi kesetimbangan Kp
NH3(g) + H2 S(g) ⇄ NH4 HS(g) 8 × 10−3
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇄ 2NH3(g) 3 × 10−4
a. Berdasarkan data Kp beberapa reaksi diatas, Hitunglah reaksi kesetimbangan berikut:
2H2 S(g) + N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇄ 2NH4 HS(g)
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28. Pada suhu 686℃, terjadi reaksi keserimbangan berikut:
CO2(g) + H2(g) ⇄ CO(g) + H2 O(g)
Jika dalam reaksi tersebut terdapat gas karbon dioksida 0,05 M, gas hidrogen 0,045 M, gas
karbon monoksida 0,05 M dan uap air 0,04 M (R = 0,082 L atm/mol K),
a. Tentukan nilai Kc dan nilai Kp reaksi kesetimbangan...
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29. Klorin trifluorida (CIF3) adalah gas tak berwarna, berbau amis, beracun dan bersifat
korosif. Gas ini digunakan sebagai komponen bahan bakar roket. Pada ruang tertutup dan
suhu tinggi, gas CIF3 akan terurai menjadi CIF dan F2 hingga mencapai kesetimbangan.
Jika 9,8 gram CIF3 dimasukkan ke dalam wadah yang bervolume 2 liter dan suhu 700 K,
maka sebanyak 20% gas CIF3 (Mr = 196) akan terdisosiasi dan menghasilkan
kesetimbangan.
a. Hitung Kc dan Kp reaksi kesetimbangan... (R = 0,082 L atm mol-1 K-1)
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30. Seorang praktikan memasukkan padatan NH4HS dalam labu tertutup bersuhu 25℃ yang
kemudian terurai menjadi gas NH3 dan gas H2S. Pada saat kesetimbangan tercapai, nilai
Kc reaksi sebesar 1,64×10-5. Bila diketahui R = 0,082 L atm mol-1 K-1,
a. Hitung tekanan total gas dalam labu saat reaksi setimbang...
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