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Resume Materi TOEFL

#Structure and Written Expression

Subject-Verb
Perhatikan tanda koma dan konektor
Tidak mungkin SVV atau SSV

Comma
Tidak ada koma- Subject berada di paling depan
1 koma- Subject berada di belakang tanda koma tsb
2 koma/lebih- Subject berada di paling depan atau setelah salah satu tanda koma
Penyimpangan :
Kalimat majemuk setara e.g : I don’t want to go, and neither does Tom.
Kalimat dg rincian detail e.g : The epidermis, the outer layer of skin, contains pigments,
pores and ducts.
Kalimat dengan perluasan pada kt benda tertentu e.g : The mastoid is located at side of
the skull, (which) just behind the ear.

Appositives (additional information)


Bersifat keterangan, tidak bias diwakili oleh verb
Bisa berbentuk kata, frasa atau klausa
E.g : Suharto, the ex president of Indonesia, celebrate his birthday yesterday.

Adjective Clause
Fungsi : menerangkan kata benda
Umumnya didahului kata2 who, which, that, whose, of which, dll atau when, where, dll
e.g : The blond girl who just came in is Sarah.

Adverbial Clause
Fungsi : menerangkan kata selain kata benda
Umumnya merupakan anak kalimat yang posisinya bisa di depan/belakang induk
Perhatikan koma yang biasa menyekat induk dan anak kalimat
Jenis adverbial clause :
Time : E.g When I saw you, you lived in Bogor.
Place : Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but blackened ruins.
Condition :If you treat her kindly, she will do anything for you.
Concession : Although I enjoyed myself, I was glad to come home.
Purpose : I left early so that I can catch the train
Reason : I lent him the money because he needed it

Noun Clause
Fungsi : mewakili kata benda
Biasanya terletak dalam kalimat majemuk yang salah satu potongannya disembunyikan

Reduced Clause
Klausa bunting : kehilangan unsure S-V nya (disusutkan)
e.g : Althought (the exam was) not really difficult, the exam took a lot of time.

Proses Reduksi Adjective clause :


1. Hilangkan konektor, subject dan to be anak kalimat tsb
2. Jika dalam anak kalimat tidak ada to be hilangkan konektor/subject dan ubah verb
dalam bentuk ing (aktif) atau past participle (pasif)
3. Pereduksian hanya dapat dilakukan jika konektor/subject langsung diikuti verb
4. Jika adjective clause dibatasi tanda koma, maka klausa terduksi dapat dipindah ke
bagian depan kalimat
Proses reduksi adverb clause :
1. Hilangkan subject dan to be anak kalimat tsb
2. Jika dalam anak kalimat tidak ada to be hilangkan subject dan ubah verb dalam
bentuk ing (aktif) atau past participle (pasif)

#Error Identification

Gramatical Agreement
Tunggal vs jamak
Man vs men
Woman vs women
Foot vs feet
Tooth vs teeth
Goose vs geese
Mouse vs mice

Child vs children
Ox vs oxen

Analysis vs analyses
Axis vs axes
Crisis vs crises
Diagnosis vs diagnoses
Hypothesis vs hypotheses
Thesis vs theses
Synthesis vs syntheses

Bacterium vs bacteria
Curriculum vs curricula
Datum vs data
Phenomenon vs phenomena
Criterion vs criteria

Alumnus vs alumni
Bacillus vs bacilli
Cactus vs cacti
Fungus vs fungi
Stimulus vs stimuli
Nucleus vs nuclei