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Analysis

Heat Transfer

Analysis

2011 Alex Grishin 1

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

location to another and between bodies. This transfer is driven by

differences in temperature (a temperature gradient) and goes from

locations of high temperature to those with low temperature.

and strains in bodies due to their coefficient of thermal expansion,

α (sometimes abbreviated CTE in engineering literature)

the temperature gradient and the thermal resistance of the

material(s) involved

1. Conduction

2. Convection

3. Radiation

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 2

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Conduction

volume per unit time can be stated (in SI units of Joules per cu.

meter per second, or simply Watts per cu. meter):

∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂T

x

k + k + z

k = ρ C −λ (1)

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂t

y p

where:

ki = thermal conduction in direction i (Watts/m/ 0C )

ρ = physical mass (kg)

λ = volumetric heat generation (W/m3 )

C p = specific heat capacity (J/kg/ 0C )

T = temperature (0C )

*see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthotropic_material

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 3

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Conduction

through material (usually solid bodies)

molecular (or electronic) vibration.

dimension, we have:

∂ 2T

kx = 0

∂x 2 (2)

∂T

kx = −q

∂x

unit area. SI units are W/m2)

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 4

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Conduction

length of material conducting heat along that length is linear

and proportional to the heat flow, q

2011 Alex Grishin 5

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Convection

observable (and measurable) motion of fluids

•As fluid moves, it carries heat with it. In engineering applications, this

phenomenon can be characterized by:

q = heat flow per unit area (W/m 2 )

q = h (Ts − T∞ ) (3) where

Ts = surface temperature (0C )

T∞ = fluid temperature far from surface (0C )

T∞

Ts qo

qi

2011 Alex Grishin 6

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Radiation

thermal motion of charged particles in matter

neutral medium (space or air) will exchange heat through this

mechanism according to:

F1− 2 = view factor (dimensionless)

σ =Stefan Boltzmann constant (W/m 2 / 0 K 4 )

are used to solve these problems (beyond the scope of this course)

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 7

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

•In this course, we will only deal with steady-state thermal analyses

with heat sources, conduction, and convection. Element formulations

for such phenomena are straightforward and have direct analogies

with static structural problems. To see this, let’s start with the case of

bar/truss and a conduction in 1 dimension

∂σ xx (5)

+ bx = 0

∂x

•If no body load is present, then:

∂σ xx (6)

=0

∂x

•Then we use the isotropic constitutive law (Chapter 4 again)

for a unilateral stress:

∂u

E =σx (7)

∂x

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 8

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

primary variable (displacement)

∂ 2u (8)

E 2 = 0 Units: Force/length2

∂x

•We can do the same thing with the conductivity equation (1).

Assuming steady state conduction with no volumetric heat

generation in x-direction only, equation (1) becomes:

∂ 2T

k x 2 = 0 Units: Energy/time*Temperature/length3 (9)

∂x

2011 Alex Grishin 9

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

•We saw in chapter 2 that we can integrate equation (8) twice and

apply boundary conditions to solve it.

EA 1 −1 u1 F1

= (10)

L −1 1 u2 F2

•Equation (9) has the same form, so we should expect to be able to

create an analogous 1D (thermal link) element

dimension (the sign comes from the necessary direction of heat flow

from hot to cold over an increasing distance):

dT

k = −q (11)

dx

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 10

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

similar to (10). This is a thermal link element:

kA 1 −1 T1 Q1

=

L −1 1 T2 Q2

(12)

(3) as:

1 −1 Ts Q1 (13)

hA =

−1 1 T∞ Q2

body at Ts to a common ground node at T∞. Here the area A

is area over which the convection elements acts

2011 Alex Grishin 11

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

•Equations (12) and (13) demonstrate that the thermal link elements in

a steady-state thermal analysis are analogous to structural spring

elements. Thus the heat flow, Q is the analog of the structural force F

and T is the analog of the structural displacement. These analogies

lead directly to the notion of thermal resistance, R:

Structural Displacement Force

stiffness

Thermal

resistance Temperature Heat flow

2011 Alex Grishin 12

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

•Without going through the details, we will simply mention that the

equations (1) and (3) can be combined to yield the governing

equations for a system experiencing both conduction and convection.

This combined system may be expressed as:

( R + H ) ⋅ T = Q + Qh (14)

κ = conductivity matrix

where: h = convection coefficient

N = vector of shape functions

R = ∫ BT ⋅ κ ⋅ BdV

∂N

V

∂x 0 0

H = ∫ NT hNdS ∂N

B= 0 0

S ∂y

Q h = ∫ NT hTdS 0 0

∂N

S

∂z

2011 Alex Grishin 13

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

Some Assumptions:

Shells: no through-thickness temperature gradients.

Line bodies: no through thickness variation. Assumes a

constant temperature across the cross-section.

Temperature variation will still be considered along the

line body

created to enable heat transfer between parts of assemblies.

2011 Alex Grishin 14

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

•If parts are initially in contact heat transfer can occur between them.

•If parts are initially out of contact no heat transfer takes place (see

pinball explanation below).

•Summary:

Heat Transfer Between Parts in Contact Region?

Contact Type

Initially Touching Inside Pinball Region Outside Pinball Region

Bonded Yes Yes No

No Separation Yes Yes No

Rough Yes No No

Frictionless Yes No No

Frictional Yes No No

defined and set to a relatively small value to accommodate small gaps in

the model

2011 Alex Grishin 15

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

By default, perfect thermal contact

conductance between parts is assumed,

meaning no temperature drop occurs at the

interface.

Numerous conditions can contribute to less

than perfect contact conductance: ∆T

surface flatness

surface finish

oxides T

entrapped fluids

contact pressure x

surface temperature

use of conductive grease

....

Continued . . .

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 16

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

The amount of heat flow across a contact interface is defined by the

contact heat flux q:

temperature of the corresponding target “node”.

By default, TCC is set to a relatively ‘high’ value based on the largest

material conductivity defined in the model KXX and the diagonal of the

overall geometry bounding box ASMDIAG.

2011 Alex Grishin 17

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

• Heat Flow:

– A heat flow rate can be applied to a vertex, edge, or surface. The load is distributed for

multiple selections.

– Heat flow has units of energy/time.

• Perfectly insulated (heat flow = 0):

– Available to remove surfaces from previously applied boundary conditions.

• Heat Flux:

– Heat flux can be applied to surfaces only (edges in 2D).

– Heat flux has units of energy/time/area.

• Internal Heat Generation:

– An internal heat generation rate can be applied to bodies only.

– Heat generation has units of energy/time/volume.

A positive value for heat load will add energy to the system.

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 18

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

• At least one type of thermal boundary condition must be present to

prevent the thermal equivalent of rigid body motion.

• Given Temperature or Convection load should not be applied on

surfaces that already have another heat load or thermal boundary

condition applied to it.

• Perfect insulation will override thermal boundary conditions.

• Given Temperature:

– Imposes a temperature on vertices, edges, surfaces or bodies

– Temperature is the degree of freedom solved for

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 19

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Steady-State Thermal Analysis in ANSYS

Workbench

• Convection:

– Applied to surfaces only (edges in 2D analyses).

– Convection q is defined by a film coefficient h, the surface area A, and the difference in the surface

temperature Tsurface & ambient temperature Tambient

– The film coefficient h can be constant or temperature dependent

2011 Alex Grishin 20

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Static Structural

Analysis with

Thermal Loads

2011 Alex Grishin 21

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

equation (2) of Chapter 5) always contain a body load term. Thermal

loads may be considered body loads. Body temperatures are

converted to structural body loads via the coefficient of thermal

expansion, α (often referred to in industry by the acronym CTE):

α∆T Thermal strain (15)

α E ∆T Thermal stress (16)

•Thus, (16) would be implemented in equation (2) of Chapter

5 as:

∫ δ εdV = ∫ α E∆Tw + ∫ FwdS

T

σ

V V S

2011 Alex Grishin 22

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

∫ N e

α E ∆TdV e

Ve

element with a temperature other than the reference temperature.

This load vector is then added to the global applied load vector

•∆T is thus the difference between the temperature of the body and

the reference temperature at which the CTE was measured.

•It is easy to see that if two bodies with differing CTE’s (calculated at

the same reference temperature) are raised to the same temperature,

they will experience differing thermal-structural loads. If the two

bodies are connected, they may experience stresses due to this

“thermal mismatch”*

http://www.ami.ac.uk/courses/topics/0162_sctm/index.html

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 23

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Single-Phase Structural analysis with thermal

loads in ANSYS Workbench

load to bodies (parts) in Mechanical interface. One can add different

uniform temperatures to different bodies. This is done in the “Static

Structural” branch in the tree outline by selecting “thermal

Condition”

via an imported load object (either through the “External Data” tool

in the toolbox of the project page, or via a linked thermal analysis)

CTE’s) can be set in the Details view of the “Static Structural”

branch

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 24

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Coupled-Field

(Multiphysics)

Problems

2011 Alex Grishin 25

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

•A static structural analysis which incorporates thermal loads via a

temperature distribution obtained from a thermal analysis is one of the

earliest types of coupled-field analysis

in a sequential manner (sometimes referred to as a 2-phase analysis). The

primary assumption behind this approach is that the two fields are weakly

coupled in a single direction (from thermal-to-structural– that is to say

that thermal structural loads are obtained from temperature

distributions, instead of thermal heat flows being obtained from

displacements, stresses, or strains). This makes the thermal-structural

sequence linear

Calculate Calculate

temperature displacements,

distribution stresses, strains

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 26

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

complicated (and general).

Heat

Electricity

Transfer

Solid

Mechanics

Fluid

Magnetism

Mechanics

2011 Alex Grishin 27

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

• Two basic types of multiphysics coupling

– direct

– sequential

– Direct versus Sequential

] most common

– Matrix versus Load Vector

– Direct versus Indirect

– Strongly versus Weakly

– Tightly versus Loosely

– Fully versus Partly

2011 Alex Grishin 28

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

• Direct Method is

– used to simultaneously calculate the DOFs from multiple fields

– only necessary when the individual field responses of the model are dependent

upon each other

• Directly coupled analyses are usually

– nonlinear since equilibrium must satisfied based on multiple criteria

– more costly than comparably sized single-field models, because more DOFs are

active per node

Direct Method:

•

[ [K11] [K12]

[K21] [K22] ] { } ={ }

Subscript 1 represents one physics

[X1]

[X2]

[F1]

[F2]

• Coupled effects are accounted for by the off-diagonal coefficient terms K12 and K21

• Provides for coupled response in solution after one iteration

MAE 323 Lecture 8: Heat Transfer and

2011 Alex Grishin 29

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Sequential Method:

[ [K11] [ 0 ]

[ 0 ] [K22] ] { } ={ } [X1]

[X2]

[F1]

[F2]

• Subscript 1 represents one physics

• Subscript 2 represents the other physics

• Coupled effects are accounted for by the load terms F1 and F2

• At least two iterations, one for each physics, in sequence, are needed

to achieve a converged coupled response

• Separate results files for each physics

– jobname.rst (structural)

– jobname.rth (thermal, electrostatics)

2011 Alex Grishin 30

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Two-Phase Coupled Thermal-Structural

Analysis in Workbench

•In this course, we will only ever deal with sequential weakly

coupled analyses. For thermal/structural analyses, this can be

achieved by:

• Inserting the “Steady-State Thermal” from the Workbench toolbox will set

up a SS Thermal system in the project schematic.

• In Mechanical the “Analysis Settings” can be used to set solution options

for the thermal analysis.

Step 1:

Solve the

Thermal

Analysis

2011 Alex Grishin 31

Multiphysics

Heat Transfer and Multiphysics

Analysis

Performing a Two-Phase Coupled Thermal-Structural

Analysis in Workbench

Step 2:

Solve the

structural

model

2011 Alex Grishin 32

Multiphysics

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