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This chapter is consisted of research findings and discussion. In this chapter,

there are five parts including the results of needs analysis, the course grid, the first

draft of the materials and the results of expert judgment.

A. Research Findings

1. The Results of Needs Analysis

The needs analysis was conducted on (KAPAN U PENELITIAN) at

SMA 5 Yogyakarta (BENER ORA?) in order to collect information related to

the students’ needs by using needs analysis questionnaires. The collected data

was collected to support the materials development. The questionnaire was in the

form of 23 multiple choice questions. There were two types of the questions, the

first one was that the students could only choose one answer while the other one

was that the students could chose more than one answers, even they could also

answered their own opinions. The details of the questionnaire can be found in the


a) Students’ Identities

There were 28 students who answered the questionnaire. The students

were grade 10 at SMA 5 Yogyakarta. The following table presents the

research population in class X at SMA 5 Yogyakarta.

Table 4. 1. The Respondents' Data in the Needs Analysis

number of students sex
male female age range
28 13 15 15-16

Based on the table above, it can be seen that there were 28 students

who answered the questionnaire. The table also shows that the number of

female students is more than the male ones. The table presents that the

students are fifteen to sixteen years old which can be categorized into young


Table 4. 2. Students' Background Language

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
- What language do you use for a. Javanese 26 92.86
your daily communication tools? b. Indonesian 28 100
c. Bangkanese 1 3.57
d. Sundanese 1 3.57
21. Have you ever joined an English a. Yes, I have
course outside the classroom at the
school? b. No, I have not
22. How often you use English while a. Very often
you access your social media? b. Often
c. Sometimes
d. Never
b) Target needs

Target needs deal with the learners’ view about the target situation

(Hutchinson and Waters, 1987). Thus, the following table shows the results

of the target needs analysis during the study.

1) Goal

Table 4. 3. Students' View About Target Goals

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
1. In your opinion, how is c. It is very
the English teaching and interesting
learning process, d. It is interesting
particularly reading, in e. It is not interesting
your classroom? f. It is extremely
2. In your opinion, how e. very important
important reading skill to f. important
study English? g. less important
h. not important

2) Needs

Table 4. 4. Students' View about Target Needs

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
16. In your opinion, what a. beginner
level is your English b. intermediate
reading skill? c. advanced
d. other ….
17. In your opinion, how a. very often
often do you read English b. often
texts? c. sometime
d. never
3) Wants

Table 4. 5. Students' View about Target Wants

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
3. What micro skills that a. I can improve my
you want to improve by vocabulary
learning English, mastery
especially reading? (You b. I can use the
can choose more than one language used in
answers) the texts in my
daily activities
c. I can read texts
d. I can understand
the texts and
answer all
according to the
texts correctly

4) Lacks

Table 4. 6. The Students’ View about Target Lacks

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
18. What is your difficulty in a. understanding the
learning English, meaning of the
especially reading? (you texts
can choose more than one b. drawing a
answers) conclusion of the
c. translating the
d. identifying the
genre of the texts

c) Learning Needs

According to Hutchinson and Waters (1987), learning needs deal with

what the students need to do to achieve the learning goals. Thus, the
following table presents the results of the learning needs found during need

analysis research.

1) Input

Table 4. 7. Students' View about Learning Input

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
7. Is the book that you are a. very interesting
using to learn reading b. interesting
already interesting? c. less interesting
d. not interesting
8. Does the book that you a. It really improves
are using to learn reading my reading skill
already improve your b. It improves my
reading skill? reading skill
c. It does not really
improve my
reading skill
d. It does not improve
my reading skill at
9. Is the book that you are a. very sufficient
using to learn reading b. sufficient
already sufficient your c. less sufficient
reading materials needs? d. not sufficient
10. In your opinion, are a. very necessary
supplementary materials b. necessary
necessary to improve c. less necessary
your reading skill, besides d. not necessary
the books you already
23. What kind of English a. short articles in the
texts that you usually internet
read? b. short stories or
c. articles in
magazines or
d. others ..
2) Topic

Table 4. 8. Students' View about Learning Topic

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
6. In your opinion, what a. topics related with
topics that you like in education
studying English? (you b. topics related with
can choose more than one tourism places
answers) c. topics related with
d. topics related with

3) Materials

Table 4. 9. Students' View about Learning Materials

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
4. What kind of reading a. Dialogue and
texts that you want to monologue
learn reading in English? b. Short story
(you can choose more c. Pictures
than one answers) d. News or
newspaper articles
5. What kind of reading a. reading texts
activities that you like? followed by
(you can choose more answering
than one answers) questions
b. reading followed
by summarizing
the texts
c. reading followed
by practicing
according to the
d. reading followed
by analyzing the
13. What kind of activities a. matching the
that you want to improve words with the
your vocabulary mastery? meanings
b. completing
missing sentences
or paragraphs
c. identifying and
translating new
d. looking for
meanings in the
14. What kind of learning a. Listening to the
activities that you like? teacher’s
b. Discussion
c. Games
d. Practicing
15. How long texts that you a. 100 – 200 words
want to have for reading b. 200 – 300 words
comprehension task? c. 300 – 400 words
d. > 400 words
20. What kind of activities a. Reading aloud
that you want for learning b. Arranging jumbled
English, especially paragraphs
reading? c. Dichotomous
d. Filling blank
e. Other …

4) Procedure

Table 4. 10. Students' View about Learning Procedure

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
11. Is vocabulary discussion a. very necessary
necessary before reading b. necessary
texts? c. less necessary
d. not necessary
12. Is types of genre a. very necessary
explanation necessary to b. necessary
provide to support the c. less necessary
students’ reading d. not necessary

5) Students’ role

Table 4. 11. Students' View about Students' Role

No. Questions Answer options F P (%)
19. If you have some a. Asking the teacher
difficulties while doing b. Asking the teacher
the tasks given by the and friends
teacher, what do you c. Looking for
prefer to do? answer by myself
d. Doing nothing

B. Research Discussion