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PetroChina/Shell Sichuan Gas Joint Project

Blow-Out Contingency Plan

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 4
1.1. Intended Users ..............................................................................................4
2. GENERAL INFORMATION ................................................................................... 5
2.1. Wells Information...........................................................................................5
2.2. Emergency Priorities .....................................................................................6
2.3. Associated Documentation ............................................................................6
3. INCIDENT CLASSIFICATION ............................................................................... 7
3.1. Incident Level Classifications .........................................................................7
3.2. Definition of an Event.....................................................................................8
3.3. Escalation .....................................................................................................8
3.4. Ramp up to Levels of Response.....................................................................8
3.5. Blow-out Scenarios........................................................................................8
4. ORGANISATION................................................................................................... 9
4.1. Chain of Command........................................................................................9
4.1.1. SEC AND PIC AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY ..................................................................... 9
4.1.2. INITIAL BLOW-OUT RESPONSE ORGANIZATION ............................................................. 10
5. GUIDELINES AND GOALS ................................................................................. 14
5.1. Guidelines for Major Tasks- Class C ............................................................ 14
5.1.1. CLASS C PHASE 1 – ALARM & COORDINATION ............................................................ 14
5.1.2. CLASS C PHASE 2 – ASSESSMENT & PLANNING .......................................................... 14
5.1.3. CLASS C PHASE 3 – CONTAINMENT ........................................................................... 14
5.1.4. PHASE 4 – REINSTATEMENT & RECOVERY ................................................................... 15
5.2. Planning and Support Team......................................................................... 15
6. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ...................................................................... 16
6.1. Site Emergency Controller- SEC ................................................................. 16
6.2. Person In Charge – PIC .............................................................................. 17
6.3. In-Field Emergency Coordinator – IF-EC ..................................................... 18
6.4. Task Force Commander - TFC .................................................................... 19
6.5. Head of Well Delivery (China) ..................................................................... 19
6.6. Operations Well Engineer - WE ................................................................... 19
6.7. Fushun / JQ Asset Team Manager ............................................................. 19
6.8. Senior HSSE Adviser .................................................................................. 19
6.9. External Affairs - CX ................................................................................... 20
6.10. Medical Advisor .......................................................................................... 20
6.11. Logistics Coordinator – LC.......................................................................... 20
6.12. Supply Chain Management - SCM .............................................................. 21
6.13. Human Resources Manager - HR ............................................................... 21
6.14. Well Control Specialist - WCS & In-Field Well Control Specialist - IWCS..... 21
6.15. Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor Project / Rig Manager ........... 21
7. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................... 23
9. WELL CONTROL SERVICES AGREEMENTS .................................................... 25
9.1. SIEP Regional Well Control & Auxiliary Services Framework Agreements .... 25

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Figure 1: Well Control Incident and Response Classification .................................................................. 7

Figure 2: Chain of Command and Responsibility .................................................................................... 9
Figure 3: Drilling Rig Location Exclusion Zones after Blow-Out............................................................... 9
Figure 4: Blow-Out Task Force Organisation for Class C...................................................................... 11
Figure 5: Class C, Phase 1 & Phase 2 Roles and Responsibilities ....................................................... 12

Table 1: Ramp up to ‘Levels of Response’ ............................................................................................ 7

Table 2: Primary and Secondary Roles of SEC and PIC...................................................................... 13

Appendix I Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................27

Appendix II Recommended Blow-Out Data Acquisition ........................................................................28
Appendix III Tasks and Requirements Checklists .................................................................................31
Appendix IV Blow-out Equipment Requirements ...................................................................................33
Appendix V Call Out Procedures..........................................................................................................42
Appendix VI Guidelines to Hot Zone Establishment...............................................................................43
Appendix VII Guidelines to Igniting the Well ...........................................................................................47
Appendix VIIIGuidelines to Fire Fighting (FiFi) .......................................................................................50
Appendix IX Guidelines to Surface Intervention, Fire Fighting and Capping Strategy by Blow-Out
Appendix X Heat Radiation Hazards ....................................................................................................58
Appendix XI Noise Hazards ................................................................................................................ 600
Appendix XII Hazards from Explosive Atmospheres ...............................................................................61

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The primary goal of this document is to provide a working methodology to safely and effectively manage,
respond to, and recover from an uncontrolled well incident in the Sichuan Gas Project.

In line with the Company’s objective of having in place an effective emergency response process this
Blow-Out Contingency Plan (BOCP) is issued to supplement the current SCEPCo Emergency Response
documents, viz. the SCEPCo Emergency Response Procedure - SCEPCo 200207008132, the Sichuan
Wells Emergency Response Plan SCEPCo 201009280798, and the SCEPCo Country Crisis Management

This plan is based on a generic plan for drilling, workover, well maintenance and production operations
and is a guide to ensure that an organized response, with outside company assistance as required, to any
blow-out is brought swiftly and efficiently into action. It will provide a guideline for procedures and
communication to minimize primary well control escalation.
 Its outline priorities in descending order are to safeguard:
 human life
 the environment
 the assets if well control is lost
In more specific terms this means that we have to:
 Professionally control the safety of those directly involved with the well control operations
and ensure that control efforts are efficiently and effectively conducted.
 Commence with actions to minimize the impact on the environment and community.
 Commence with actions that will minimize damage to the rig, surface facilities and location.
 Form a Blow-Out Task Force to efficiently and effectively respond to bring the well(s) under
 Document planning steps to evaluate the most appropriate method for controlling the well.
 Ensure that all taking part in the emergency are fully aware of and familiar with the tasks
they have been assigned and are adequately trained to accomplish their respective
 Address logistics and Blow-Out Control problems peculiar to China.

Supplements to this document will be issued if required to cover operations with special requirements
such as high-pressure wells and/or H2S risks.

It is not envisaged that SCEPCo / P&T personnel have the expertise in handling blow-outs. Every
situation will be unique and remedial actions must be tailored to suit the particular situation. This
procedure provides guidance to ensure an effective initial response can be made. The objective is to
make efficient use of the resources immediately available to the Company to contain the situation, deal
with pollution and prevent danger to people and the surrounding land and facilities.

1.1. Intended Users

Principal users of this plan will be supervisory personnel in the field (i.e. Snr. Drilling Supervisor, Well
Services (Completion) Supervisors, In-Field Superintendents, Well Services Team Leaders and the Field
Manager), in the local field bases and in the Chengdu/Beijing offices. The SCEPCo Duty and HSE
Managers must also be aware of this guideline.

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2.1. Wells Information

The Sichuan fields are tight with low permeable formations. Most of the wells will thus be drilled utilising
some form of Under-Balance or Managed Pressure Drilling.

H2S will not be expected in both JQ and Zitong fields. In Fushun field, no H2S is expected at the target
reservior section although low level of H2S can be expected at the intermediate section.

Details on Wells information can be obtained from the ODP team for each projects. Various other wells
informations are also available from the Wells Delivery Plan, End of W ells reports and Drilling programme
(also from the Reservior Engineers).

2.2. Emergency Priorities

In the event of an emergency occurring, the priorities listed in decreasing importance are:

1. Protect life and prevent injury.

2. Prevent damage to environment.
3. Protect the Company/Third Party assets.
4. Maintain the Company image and reputation.
5. Resume normal operations as soon as possible.

The first priority “Protect life and prevent injury” is the prime consideration for the Drilling Supervisor
during the initial period of a well control emergency. All operational decisions taken during an emergency
therefore should take into account the above priorities.

2.3. Associated Documentation

This contingency plan makes reference to the following:

1. SCEPCo Emergency Response Procedure - SCEPCo 200207008132

2. Sichuan Wells Emergency Response Plan - SCEPCo 201009280798
3. SCEPCo Country Crisis Management Manual.
4. EP 2002-1500 Pressure Control Manual for Work-over and Drilling Operations

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3.1. Incident Level Classifications
A three (3) tier response will be adopted and activated based on the severity of the incident, the
operational circumstances, potential for escalation, and the potential risk/consequence impact on HSE
and company operations per Figure 1 below. This response is intended to be a ramp up of personnel and
equipment as well conditions merit. The levels 1, 2 and 3 will correlate to Class A, B and C as referenced
in the SCEPCo Emergency Response Procedure - SCEPCo 200207008132 and the Sichuan Wells
Emergency Response Plan SCEPCo 201009280798. The central idea behind having a Class A and B is
to react in such a way that a Class C (e.g. catastrophic blow-out) does not occur, and whereby Class B is
forced back to Class A and ultimately Class A is reduced to normal operations. Should a Class C (e.g.
catastrophic blow-out) occur the organization is already in place or has been given a ‘heads-up’ notice. In
this way the overall response will be rapid and effective.

escalation escalation
Well control situation Initially complicated or Uncontrolled blow-out.
where Standard escalated well control The well can no longer
Operating Procedures situation where SOP be controlled with the
(SOP) exist for does not exist for existing crew,
recovery to normal recovery to normal procedures and
operations operation equipment



Figure 1: Well Control Incident and Response Classification

A full description of the organisation, roles and responsibilities for each position will be detailed in Chapter 4.


Senior Drilling Supervisor* – Site Emergency Controller(SEC) X X X
Contractor Rig Manager – Person In Charge (PIC) X X X

In-Field Superintendent – In Field Deputy Emergency Coordinator (IF-DEC) X X X

Field Manager –Act as IF-EC in Case Of a Class C Event X X X

Well Delivery Manager - Task Force Commander (TFC) X X X

Regional Operations Team X X X

FS / JQ / ZT Asset Team X X
HSE Advisor X X
Medical Advisor X X X
External Affairs X
Human Resources X X
Chengdu Emergency Cordination Team (Chengdu-ECT) X X
Crisis Management Team – Regional / P&T / SIEP X X
* For Workovers, the Snr. Well Services Supervisor will take the role of SEC. For other activities, see Chapter 6, Roles & Responsibilities

Table 1: Ramp up to ‘Levels of Response’

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3.2. Definition of an Event

A blow-out is defined as an uncontrolled release of formation fluids and/or gases from the well either to
the surface or to the subsurface (i.e. underground blow-out) that cannot be stopped or controlled by the
action of the personnel or equipment on hand. The consequences of a blow-out may include death or
injury to personnel, damage to adjacent wells and/or plant equipment and harm the local environment
(spills, noise, precipitation of sand, heat radiation and toxic well substances).

3.3. Escalation
As general rule, major well control events begin as minor incidents and over time escalate to serious
problems. In some cases the series of actions taken by the crews and management have worsened the
event and were directly responsible for escalation. In most cases a day or two will pass for a minor well
control event to escalate to blow-out conditions. For this reason it is extremely important that the response
to any and all well control situations be suited to the problem at hand. The time typically required for
escalation allows for the levels of response to be put into place.

3.4. Ramp up to Levels of Response

As the event unfolds the response must be matched to the level of the incident, as defined above. Ramp
up of personnel and resources, such as firefighting equipment and well control experts will be done
accordingly. The ramp up will be initially in the form of notices to personnel, either to become directly
involved as a member of the response team or a ‘heads up’ call meant to confirm availability and
readiness (see details of personnel affected in Chapter 6, Roles & Responsibilities). These heads up calls
are to be made to those who are affected by the incident both directly and indirectly.

3.5. Blow-out Scenarios

A blow-out may occur during drilling, completion, workover, production or well maintenance activities. The
surface blow-out can manifest itself as a minor leak or a large flow from a major failure of the wellhead
system. The severity of the event will dictate whether it shall be treated as a class B or C event and the
response organization will be suited to the relevant severity. A blow-out can be the cause of significant
pollution and airborne contaminates. These are major hazards to health as well as the environment, which
complicate the scenario. Not only will the management of such an event be extremely challenging, the
effects on the local community could be monumental.

 Surface Blow-out
One of the greatest hazards during uncontrolled outflows is the presence of H 2S, which is very toxic and
life threatening, even at very small concentrations. Typically, a 1 kilometer initial exclusion zone (no go
zone) will be declared and remains in effect until air quality measurements can qualify that it can be

 Subsurface (or Internal) Blow-out

Internal blow-outs appear less dramatic as they may be contained down hole with no flow of formation
fluids/gases at surface. Even though the well may be brought under control without gas escaping to
surface, there is considerable risk to the affected formations. This can lead to super-charged formation,
which may lead to increased hazards for future drilling operations. There is the risk of polluting aquifers,
severely affecting the local population. There will also be financial implications of lost reserves.

The situation can also develop into a more serious blow-out at surface should the blow-out crater to
surface. Should the well crater, the footing for the drilling unit may be undermined. Additionally, surface
intervention, such as capping alternatives, is lost in the ‘cratering’ scenario and a relief well may be the
only alternative to bringing the well under control.

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4.1. Chain of Command

A brief description of the first line ‘chain of command’:
 Emergency Response Commander (ERC):
- Will have overall responsibility for the entire event.
 Emergency Coordination Team Leader (ECT Leader):
- Will lead the Emergency Coordination Team (ECT).
- Will be appointed by the ERC (and may be the Duty Manager)
 Blow-Out Task Force (BOTF):
- Will be headed by the Blow-Out ‘Task Force Commander (TFC).
- TFC will be a member of the ECT.
- Will liaise with the In-Field Emergency Coordinator (IF-EC)
 In-Field Emergency Coordinator (IF-EC):
- Will be responsible for the local management and supervision of the event
- Will report to the TFC
 Site Emergency Controller(SEC):
- Will report to the IF-EC and manages the location activities.
- Will be fully accountable for safety issues.

A coordinated project management effort will be used to design and implement the control efforts. Figure
2 below outlines the chain of command for the well control response.


Head of SCEPCo Country Crisis Management Team - CCMT (Beijing)

Emergency Coordination Team – ECT
SCEPCo, Chengdu – Incl. Head of Wells

Blow-Out Task Force Commander – TFC

Well Delivery Manager – WDM

Planning & Support Team

JQ / FS / ZT Supervises design & planning
SCEPCo of capping operations or relief
Logistics In-Field Emergency Coordinator – IF-EC wells
Field Manager / In-Field Superintendent or Field Local
Coordinator Support
Field Office Manager

Person In Charge -PIC Rig/Well Location Specialist
Site Emergency Controller - SEC
Contractor Senior Spvsr Support
Senior Drilling Supervisor or Senior
(Location Rig Mngr) Well Services Supervisor

External Well Control Specialist

Level A & B Response Level C Response

Figure 2: Chain of Command and Responsibility

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4.1.1. SEC and PIC Areas of Responsibility

In the first moments of an emergency two key positions are responsible for the initial response:
SCEPCO’s Snr. Drilling Supervisor (DSV) will be the designated Site Emergency Controller (SEC) and the
Contractor’s Snr Supervisor (Location Rig Manager) will be the designated Person In Charge (PIC).

In Workover Operations and non-rig related activities, the SEC will be the Snr. Well Services Supervisor.
In stimulation/pumping (or equivalent) operations, the Snr. Supervisor on location will act as the SEC.
In Well Clean-up or Well Test Operations, the SEC will be the Snr. Well Services Supervisor, unless these
activities take place on a drilling location with the rig present. During any such simultaneous operation, the
Snr. Drilling Supervisor takes precedence and will be designated as overall SEC.

The PIC will be the Contractor’s Senior Rig Manager during all of the above operations.

The SEC will be responsible for the overall incident and his duties are to implement SCEPCo Well Control
and/or Emergency Response Procedures. If he cannot perform this duty the next in line by seniority will
assume this duty.
The drilling rig or work unit and its staff must at all times be under the command of a Person In Charge
(PIC) appointed by the rig’s or work units Operator/Owner. For the purpose of this document the term PIC
will be used. The PIC’s authority is absolute in regard to the drilling rig while it is manned and remains so
until the rig is evacuated. The PIC will consult with the SEC in all matters. Once the rig is evacuated, the
SEC will consult with the PIC concerning actions to be taken on the drilling rig. The evacuation takes
place in accordance to agreed exclusion zones, an example of which is shown in Figure 3 below.

 Incident Area commanded by Site

Emergency Controller (SEC). This is
the Snr. Drilling Supervisor until
relieved or re-assigned by SCEPCo.

 The initial Exclusion zone is 1 km

radius around the well head and 5 km
downwind of gas release (defined by a
Gas Cloud Exclusion Zone: envelope 45 degrees wide along the
5 km downwind of gas release prevailing wind direction). This situation
within 45 deg envelope is dynamic and will change with
Prevailing Wind Direction is NW
weather conditions.

 Production area (adjacent facilities,

Initial Exclusion Zone: 1 km radius

etc.) shall be under the direction of

relevant parties as described in any
SIMOPS documentation.

 The rig and/or other Service Contractor

(Wireline, CT, etc.) involved in the
operation shall be commanded by a
Person In-Charge (PIC). The PIC shall
bear the ultimate responsibility for all
personnel in his charge and the safety
of his assets. In summary, the SEC
has overall incident responsibility.


Figure 3: Drilling Rig Location Exclusion Zones after Blow-Out

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While the safety of personnel will always remain the ‘prime’ concern of the PIC and SEC, the interests of
the environment and that of SCEPCo assets will be directed by the Site Emergency Controller (SEC). It is
therefore that we recognise a division of responsibilities between the PIC and the SEC. The SEC will take
command to direct the ‘overall response’. As the SEC is solely responsible for SCEPCo’s assets and
property he will need to work in close liaison with the PIC to achieve these goals.

The Primary and Secondary roles of the PIC and SEC are depicted in Table 2 on page 15. More details
on the SEC and PIC roles and responsibilities are included in Section 6.

4.1.2. Initial Blow-out Response Organization

The initial blow-out task force organization will be set up as per SCEPCo Emergency Response
Procedure - SCEPCo 200207008132, the Sichuan Wells Emergency Response Plan SCEPCo
201009280798 and this document. The Regional / P&T operations team will act as a support team during
this period.

The organisation will be ramped up to the Blow-out Task Force Organization, as shown in Figure 4, to
cover the activities during Class C.

Roles and responsibilities during Class C Phase 1 (initial) and 2 (planning) are shown in Figure 5.

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Team - CCMT
PetroChina/Shell Sichuan Gas Joint Project
Sichuan Blow-Out Contingency Plan
JMC - PetroChina Emergency Coordination Team – ECT Wells General Manager (Beijing)
Emergency Duty Manager, Scepco, Chengdu



Well Control Task Force Commander - TFC SUPPORT
Well Delivery Manager WDM

Planning & Support Team

Design & planning of capping operations or relief wells

In-Field Emergency Coordinator – IF-EC

Field Manager or In-Field Superintendent

JQ / FS In-Field Support Team

Relief Well Well Capping
Planning & Planning &
CSR - Site Emergency Controller- Workover or Support Support
Contractor Facilities SEC Rigless-OSC WE, SCM, IT WE, SCM, IT
Manager Senior Drilling Supervisor Snr. WS Spvsr
Contractor HSSE
Person In On-Site Advisor
Emergency Charge -PIC
Coordinator CX
External Affairs

Transport Well Control

Coordinator HR Specialists
Human Rescources


Figure 4: Blow-Out Task Force Organisation for Class C
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SHELL Regional SCEPCo Blow-Out Specialist P&T/SIEP Drilling Contractor PetroChina

PetroChina/Shell Sichuan Gas Joint Project

Sichuan Blow-Out Contingency Plan

Use Standard Operational

Procedures with normal staffing

Heads up notice to key

Heads up Notice to key
Class Class3Cresponders
B CLASS C, PHASE 1: On -Scene Response on Rig and at Field Office
ALERT CLASS C, PHASE 1: On - Scene Response Rig & Yulin
Tasks and Responsibilities of OSC: -
FIRST - Safety of Personnel - Evacuate + Perform Search & Rescue
Class SECOND – Protection of Environment - Perform medical treatment
C THIRD – Minimise Asset damage - Initiate Medivac as required

Notify In Field
- Rig Superintendent /Field Manager In
-FieldRig Superintendent assumes
Superintendent or Fieldrole
assumes role of IF-EC
and declare Emergency of IEC (In - Field Emergency Coordinator)
(In-Field Emergency Coordinator)
- Enforce Exclusion Zone
- Establish Zonal Policy (hot, warm, cold)
- Evaluate and re - assess situation
- Provide detailed assessment ‘ Incident ’

Notify WDTL and DM

CLASS C, PHASE 1: Office Response Beijing & Miri
CLASS C, PHASE 1: Office Response in Chengdu & Beijing
DM notifies ECT Country Crisis Management Team activated

ECT activated WDTL assumes role of TFC (Task Force Commander)

Blow - Out Task Force activated

Tasks and Responsibilities of IEC: - Tasks and Responsibilities of TFC: -

- Establish status of installation & site - Make initial evaluation Develop and execute Initial Action Plan, e.g.
- Brief/confirm with OSC on actions - Assign WE staff as appropriate - Setting up command post
- Coordinate local logistics & support - Inform SIEP and Well Control Specialists - Request for support in Logistics and SCM
- Inform and discuss situation w/ TFC - Communicate with ECT and IEC - Contain impact of blow - out with available means and ALARP

CLASS C, PHASE 2: Planning Blow -Out Task Force

Ramp up to appropriate - Collect Data - Prepare Response Plan
‘ BLOW - OUT TASK FORCE ’ - Make on - site assessments - Initiate mob. of equipment - Complete Equipment mobilisation
with Well Control Specialists - Prepare site for BOTF - Present and discuss Plan - Endorse Plan

Figure 5: Class C, Phase 1 & Phase 2 Roles and Responsibilities

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1 Declare the emergency to all that are immediately affected and in danger S P

2 Make notifications to IF-EC & WTL / Chengdu ER Duty Manager P S

3 Coordinate local response resources P S

Ensure personnel safety (Personnel accounted for, find missing persons,

4 S P
medical treatments, etc.)

5 Establish essential crew roster P S

6 Evacuate or down man per ERP S P

7 Arrange Medivac as needed P S

8 Establish Location Command Post (LCP) – Until mobile CP arrives. P S

9 Set up on-scene command activities, hold briefings with essential personnel P S

10 Begin log/record of activities, firewatch, flights, etc. P S

11 Evaluate situation and report same P S

12 Establish Exclusion Zone P S

13 Establish Hot, Warm and Cold zones P S

14 Set Access, Egress and Escape routes for all activities P S

15 Lead on-site team and monitor emergency P S

P = Primary
S = Secondary

Table 2: Primary and Secondary Roles of SEC and PIC

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5.1. Guidelines for Major Tasks- Class C

In contending with Class C incident, the response can be organized into four phases:

Phase 1: Alarm & Coordination

Phase 2: Assessment & Planning
Phase 3: Containment
Phase 4: Reinstatement

The Emergency Coordination Team will be considered to include those members of the SCEPCo
Emergency Coordination Team based in Chengdu as well as the Well Delivery Manager. The ECT will
also consist of members of the Blow-Out Task Force, some members of which can be located outside

5.1.1. Class C Phase 1 – Alarm & Coordination

This period covers the first few hours of the situation. The primary objective here is to safeguard human
life and take the initial steps to minimize the effects of the blow-out on environment and assets. This is the
phase of the emergency which can “make or break” the company image and reputation. Also, the proper
chain of actions must be activated, in line with the SCEPCo Emergency Response Procedures.

This phase will commence when the alarm is raised. After taking the appropriate steps to safeguard life,
the following procedure will be adhered to:

 The Senior Drilling/Well Services Supervisor initiates the emergency call to the In-Field
Superintendent (who is on 24 hour call).
 The In-field Superintendent will notify the Field Manager (FM)
 The Field Manager will notify Chengdu Emergency Coordination Team Duty Manager (ECT).
 The Field Manager will notify Well Delivery Manager (WDM) in Chengdu.
 The In-Field Superintendent will act as the In-Field Emergency Coordinator (IF-EC). In case of
escalation to Class C then the Field Manager may assume the role of IF-EC.
 The WDM will act as the Blow-Out Task Force Commander (TFC)

5.1.2. Class C Phase 2 – Assessment & Planning

This period covers preparatory work that needs to be carried out for ultimately controlling a blow-out and
killing of the well. The organisation for this phase is shown in Figure 4.

 The WDM will be part of the Chengdu ECT (which in turn reports to the SCEPCo Country Crisis
Management Team). If required, the support team in the Region will report in directly to the TFC.
 The Task Force will have the responsibility for coordinating and initiating all activities towards
controlling the blow-out including mobilization of the necessary equipment, personnel and blow-
out control specialists from outside resources.
 Public Relations as well as good contract management and efficient financial approvals will be of
utmost importance and representatives from the relevant disciplines will also form part of the

In this phase the aim is that the blow-out should be contained in the best manner possible to minimise
harm to people, environment as well as Company, Contractor and/or third party property. Phase 2 ends
once all activities have been planned, preparatory work is completed and conditions are ready for
commencement of Phase 3, which is the actual control of the well. Also at this time all necessary
expertise and specialist equipment required is mobilized.

5.1.3. Class C Phase 3 – Containment

During this phase, the blowing well is controlled either by capping or will be killed using a relief well. The
methods for controlling the blowing well will be determined by the Blow-Out Task Force with the
assistance of experts from well control and fire fighting companies during Phase 2.

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5.1.4. Phase 4 – Reinstatement & Recovery

Once the well is fully secured, the Task Force will stand down at the discretion of the TFC and the ECT.
However, the site will have to be restored and pollution cleaned up. Normal operations will re-commence
on the well once all hazards and pollution have been removed and a forward plan is in place for future
operations on the well.

5.2. Planning and Support Team

Careful planning and operational procedures will yield benefits in the field. The task at hand will be to
develop a plan for bringing the well under control in a safe and efficient manner. Each task undertaken
should be done with a proper risk analysis and no actions should be taken that put personnel, equipment
and the environment under undue risks. Thus the goals for the planning and support team are:

 Equipment used must be of high quality and must be verified that it is fit for purposes, e.g.
capping BOP-stack should have all new sealing elements, and must be stump tested.
 Additional safety factors must be incorporated for all equipment that is being utilised, e.g. if a
crane is needed it should be one that is ‘over capacity’ rather than ‘match’ exactly to the lift.
 Equipment should be designed for the worst-case scenario. In addition, also plan for changes or
 Reaction time is generally more important than cost. The high cost of procuring essential
equipment and shipping by air is usually more than compensated for by an advanced completion
 Reasonable redundancy must be built into the overall design and schedule.
 The setting up of an On-Site Equipment Register (OSER) and a cost control system. This will
ensure that all equipment data is recorded and will be required during any future insurance

The local support team will arrange and provide for personnel, engineering, equipment and services that
are available upon request. The in-field lay down area shall be the main focus for support in the blow-out
by providing a holding area for emergency equipment that will be shipped in by truck. The equipment will
then be shipped to the location under the jurisdiction of the IF-EC and in consultation with the Well Control

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Checklists for tasks and actions required in the immediate, short term and long term after a blow-out
occurs can be found in Appendix III: Tasks and Requirements Checklists. A summary of Call-Out
Procedures can be found in Appendix V.

6.1. Site Emergency Controller- SEC

Throughout the period, from when the blow-out occurs to the eventual containment of the well and
subsequent clean-up, the SEC will be the primary on-site supervisor and contact point. His responsibities:
 Rig Evacuation – carry out evacuation with close communication with PIC
 Inform & help evacuate local population – to nominate a suitable delegate to undertake the
task of alerting any local populace in the immediate vicinity and evacuate them if necessary.
 Contact adjacent operations and production facilities - to prevent escalation, adjacent wells,
flow-lines and facilities may have to be shut down.
 Contact the Emergency Response Organisation - inform the In-Field Drilling Superintendent
 Establish Zonal Policy on Site - determine a zoning policy dividing the entire area into “hot”,
“warm” & “ cold” zones. He will establish signposts and designate which personnel are permitted
in each zone.
 Provide Detailed Assessment of Incident - provide the IF-EC with as much pertinent
information as is available to him. This will include the following information:
- Type of Blow-Out, i.e. Oil, Water, Gas, H2S, internal, external, etc.
- Condition of Blow-Out, ie. on fire or not, height, footprint and direction of flow.
- Estimated Flow Rate.
- Summary of events leading up to the incident, actual cause if known, possible causes if
not known.
- Personnel status, i.e. injured, missing, Medivac requirements.
- Whether or not rig site is approachable. General damage assessment.
- Condition and integrity of wellhead / conductor pipe.
- Wellhead Accessibility.
- Details of Zones and Boundaries already established.
- Details of breach if blow-out has breached the well equipment in any way.
- Condition & details of local Water Supply.
- Impact of the blow-out on:
 Air quality (release of H2S to the air, SO2, etc.), Gas Emission Levels, Heat
Radiation Levels.
 Civil population.
 Pollution of local environment (size, rates of release, local water supply etc.).
 Local traffic / infrastructure.
- Meteorological data: Wind, visibility, temperature, precipitation, ambient conditions, and
weather forecast.
- Digital pictures from fixed reference point and with fixed magnification.
- Status of notifications e.g. SIMOPS, Local Community.
- Immediate Equipment requirements: e.g. exclusion zone perimeter fencing.
- Potential for escalation, if known.
- Any other important information
A more comprehensive, Blow-Out Data List is contained in Appendix II: Recommended
Blow-Out Data Acquisition.
 Secure Exclusion Zone & Prepare Site for BOC Specialist Services - establish an exclusion
zone before the Blow-Out Control Specialists arrive on location, the SEC and initiates, where
possible, the three main requirements for aiding the Blow-Out Control Specialists:
- Clear immediate area around rig (full Risk Assessments to be done).
- Provide free access to site with large set-down area.
- Prepare large water pits for fire-fighting purposes.

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Appendices VIII & IX provide further detailed guidelines on firefighting and capping wells.
Note these are for reference and all actions will be planned, discussed and agreed with the
TFC and in consultation with the Blow-Out Intervention & Control Specialists.
 Ignite Well - dependent on the existing nature of the blow-out there may be an immediate
requirement for the SEC to ignite the well should the well not already be on fire, due to intolerable
risk for personnel and the local community. Setting the well on fire should only be carried out as a
last resort and only if human life is threatened, catastrophic pollution issues or there is a risk of an
explosion. Disadvantages of setting well on fire include:
- Capping operations become more difficult.
- Alternative pollutants are caused (i.e. SO2 replaces H2S)
Details of the well ignition process are given in Appendix VII.
 Manage the on-going Situation - continue to monitor conditions and implement steps as agreed
with the IF-EC, TFC and ECT. He will also communicate any significant changes in the situation
as soon as possible after they occur.

6.2. Person In Charge – PIC

The PIC (usually Contractor’s Location Rig Manager) will remain in charge of the drilling rig and its
personnel in the event there is a blow-out. He has ultimate responsibility for the safety, health and welfare
of all personnel working at and in the near vicinity of the drilling rig. His authority is absolute while it is
manned and remains so until the rig is evacuated.
 Evacuate Rig or Location - will liaise with the SEC in evacuating the rig
 Apply Containment Measures - ensure that all hot work is suspended. Following a risk
assessment and depending on the initial severity of the blow-out, he might be able to set up a
temporary water supply system to enable cooling of wellhead, BOPs and other equipment.
 Communicate - will inform the Rig Project manager or equivalent of the situation. He will
communicate through the drilling contractors own emergency response mechanism. The PIC will
consult with the SEC in all matters.
 Liaise - brief local fire teams and any other local emergency services upon their arrival. He will
request additional support as required, again after consultation with the SEC.

6.3. In-Field Emergency Coordinator – IF-EC

The IF-EC will coordinate all activities in the field. He will be the single point of contact for the SEC. The
IF-EC will lead the in-field support team in coordinating the local level response. He will act as the single
point of contact for the TFC and will consult with him on the required level of response. The IF-EC will also
provide a technical advisory role and will aid the TFC in advising the ECT on operational strategy to
control emergency. He will :

 Consult with the TFC on the severity of the emergency and request the commitment of resources
required for the appropriate level of response. Thereafter, update and keep TFC informed at all
stages of the initial and follow-up response.
 Establish status of the affected installation/site. Confirm and pass on to TFC the complete
detailed assessment of the situation provided by the SEC. Brief and confirm emergency
responsibility and actions with the On-Scene Commander.
 Advise EC via the TFC on classifying the emergency. Co-ordinate and approve incident report to
 Manage logistics and supply operation to and from the rig location. This might require various
step-out procedures (e.g. for night transport operations) as situation dictates.
 Coordinate the In-Field Well Control Specialist(s) (IWCS) efforts. Insure that the three main
requirements for aiding the IWCS are initiated as soon as possible. i.e.
o Clear immediate area around rig.
o Provide free access to site with large set-down area.
o Prepare large water pits for fire-fighting purposes (this might prove difficult under severe
weather and frost conditions).
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 Set up media and relative response centers in JQ/Fushun/Zitong area as required. It is expected
that a local, mobile communication center will be required. He will organize the set up of the
mobile communication center.
 Initiate call out of technical support team via TFC. Request via TFC the call-out of further wells
expertise and resources as may be required.
 Ensure an accurate record of events is maintained and pass appropriate information to TFC for
further dissemination as required.

6.4. Task Force Commander - TFC

The Project Well Delivery Manager will, in consultation with the General Manager of Well Delivery (China),
form the Blow-out Task Force and assume the position of Task Force Commander.

 The TFC will have the responsibility of coordinating the planning and initiating all activities
connected with containing the blow-out.
 TFC will commit resources to setting up a command post and logistical base near the location.
This base may be used to work off and observe at the scene of the blow-out.
 The TFC will ensure that additional logistics personnel are made available in the field to help track
the large amount of equipment that will be required.
 TFC will begin mobilization of necessary equipment and personnel, both from inside and outside
China. He will ensure that efforts are coordinated in a cost-effective manner, safely, quickly and
with as little damage to the environment, assets and company’s reputation as possible. Where
needed he will obtain SCM support to put appropriate contracts in place.
 The TFC will set up support teams to work on the planning and execution of the capping/kill
operations. The teams first task will be to build a clear picture of the situation and determine the
preferred method to regain control of the well. The TFC will work closely with the Blow-Out
Intervention Specialist and provide assistance as needed.
 The TFC will be responsible for mobilizing well control specialists.
 The TFC will, (through the General Manager Well Delivery), contact drilling departments in other
Operating Companies to ask for specific assistance as required.
 The TFC may also request help from SIEP or P&T, and other consultants to help with:
o Providing 24 hours coverage in the office.
o Planning relief wells.
o Supervision of the drilling of any relief wells.
o Planning Well Capping and subsequent operations.
 The TFC will be responsible for obtaining the use of a second drilling unit should the need for a
relief well be identified in the planning phase. The TFC will coordinate the planning and drilling of
relief wells and mobilization of all materials and equipment needed for those wells.
 The TFC will ensure that all safety precautions and procedures are addressed as part of
operations planning and that environmental damage is taken into consideration in the plan. He will
implement cost control procedures by monitoring expenditure and checking invoices for work
carried out. He is to achieve an efficient and cost-effective blow-out intervention operation.
 The TFC will report to the ECT and to General Manager of Well Delivery (China)
 During containment operations, the TFC will be responsible for ensuring that all technical
preparations and safety precautions have been implemented as planned.
 The TFC will authorize the start of the capping/killing operation once satisfied that the above
conditions are met.
 Once the well has been contained, the TFC will ensure that the site is restored and all pollution
has been cleaned up or cleared off the site.
 The TFC will liaise with the ECT and the Asset Team to decide whether to abandon, complete or
suspend the well.

6.5. General Manager Well Delivery (China)

The General Manager of Well Delivery (China) will ensure that the TFC has access to all resources
required to fulfil his duties. He will monitor the situation closely and receive regular updates from the TFC.
He will contact the Wells Manager (Region), SIEP, P&T and other OU support and will communicate with
them on the behalf of the TFC if required.

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He will consult with the ECT and the TFC on incident classification. If the incident is classified as a Class
C then he will contact the relevant members of the Regional Crisis Management Team who will liaise with
the SCEPCo Crisis Management Team.

The General Manager of Well Delivery (China) will be responsible for conducting an investigation into the
cause of the blow-out. He will assign an audit team which will focus on the cause of the blow-out, what
the impact was, how the situation was managed, if the emergency procedures worked and whether the
general response capability of SCEPCo/P&T/SIEP was adequate. The report will cover technical, safety,
environmental and cost aspects and should contain recommendations and conclusions on the above.

If the origin of the blow-out stems from activities involving well services (rigless, workover, well test etc.),
the Well Services Manager will play an active supporting role both in response to the event as well as in
the investigation.

6.6. Operations Well Engineer - WE

The Operations WE will support the TFC as required. He will help to coordinate the planning and support
team in Chengdu, providing information to all relevant parties. He/they may be assigned to a particular
team such as the planning a relief well or he/they may liaise with other Well Engineers assigned to those
specific roles.

6.7. Fushun / JQ / Zitong - Asset Team Manager

The relevant Asset Team Manager will in general take an advisory role in the Emergency Coordination
Team. He or she will liaise with TFC and supply information via the Asset Team such as expected
reservoir characteristics, geological information and faults present in the area. The Asset Team will
provide all available data such as seismic, offset wells and any logs from the original well. He or she will
also advise on situations that will affect the asset such as reserves depletion, future production
requirements and other business issues. He or she will ensure that all resources within the Asset Team
are made available and SIMOPS emergency procedures are conducted as required.

6.8. Senior HSSE Adviser

It is the responsibility of the In-Country HSSE to advise the ECT on all health, safety, security and
environmental issues. Blow-out conditions are extremely hazardous and he will advise on such HSSE
issues as exposure limits, protective equipment, and in general ensure that all safety precautions are
taken during operations. He will advise on the requirements of notifications, including relevant local
Government departments. He will be in charge of monitoring and advising on the safety and health
hazards for people working on the project.

HSSE is also responsible for advice on safety related equipment prior and during the intervention of the

HSSE will assist the rig site team to reduce impact on the environment during the blow-out control
operations. He will also arrange to have an independent survey conducted to assess the impact on the
local environment and will assist TFC with the clean-up program to reinstate the environment - as much
as practically possible - to its original condition.

HSSE will arrange for extra PCs with Shell GID system with adapter capable of connecting to Company
cars. It is also recommended to have 2 sets of 3G wireless net work devices, one for wells control
company work usage and one for the OSC in case of the Blow-out and the team needs to communicate
away from the worksite.

To enable HSSE to perform all of the above tasks efficiently and timely, he might wants to call on and
provide additional manpower as required.

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6.9. External Affairs - CX
During a blowout, good public relations will play an important role in reducing the effects on corporate and
local SCEPCo and Group image. CX is to set up a media briefing room in Chengdu and from there
conduct press conferences when required. Guidelines have been laid down in the Crisis Response Plan.

CX shall assign an representative at the Chengdu media briefing room as well as in the Field Operations
Office to deal with local interests and media and will instruct all personnel outside SCEPCo to refer any
media enquiries to the CX representative.

CX will also arrange for photographs and video to be taken of the blowout and subsequent operations
being conducted until completion of the job. The release of this to the media shall be approved by the
Crisis Management Team.

It will be CX’s task to keep in close contact with government officials and local authorities to inform them
of the situation, whether evacuation is necessary, any danger to health and any areas that should not be
entered. CX will also help in contacting and enlisting the help of such government departments as may be

6.10. Medical Advisor

The Shell China Medical Advisor will take an advisory role on medical related matters in the operations.
He will provide advise to the rig medic on health care for workers on the rig and ensure that medical
supplies are available to handle burns and exhaustion. The Medical Advisor will liaise with the local
hospitals and if necessary help them to obtain medical supplies. The Medical Advisor will also advise the
hospital medical staff on SCEPCo and Group procedures and/or requirements. Further details on medical
emergency procedures can be found in the Sichuan Emergency Response Procedure - SCEPCo

It is important that the Medical Adviser through close cooperation with IF-EC is able to warn workers in the
field of the dangers as they develop and provide help when needed. The Medical Advisor will advise the
IF-EC on the dangers of working in a poisonous gas atmosphere, in areas with high noise levels or near
strong heat radiation.

Details of the Hazards that can be expected are given in the following appendices:

- Appendix X: Heat Radiation Hazards

- Appendix XI: Noise Hazards
- Appendix XII: Hazards from Explosive Atmospheres

6.11. Logistics Coordinator – LC

The SCEPCo Logistics Coordinator will coordinate all logistical support required for the well control
operations. If so requested by the Well Control Specialists, he will coordinate special requirements
required by the capping team such as machine shop services and the fabrication of special tools for
capping and firefighting. Special firewater systems may have to be constructed on a fast track. Civil
engineering support will be required as well.
Water requirements may be in the region of 3 – 15 m /min (850 - 4000gpm) on a continuous supply basis
(for 3 to 4 hours per day) and may require a total volume of 3,500 – 5,700 m 3 in a 8 hour period. Low
pressure high volume pumping system will have to be constructed on a fast track basis to support the
project. If these volumes are not achievable from existing water supply wells, extra wells or connecting
pipe-work to existing infrastructure may be required.
The Logistics Coordinator will arrange support for fast travel between Chengdu, the Field Laydown Area,
and the blowout location and to transport urgent equipment. Additional accommodation near base is
required for the increased numbers of personnel needed to fast track the intervention equipment.

The In-Field Logistics Coordinator will set up a comprehensive equipment usage and tracking system. It is
expected that due to the large amount and extensive range of equipment that will be required, the
situation may quickly become un-manageable, unless further personnel are made available to track the
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extra equipment. The TFC will arrange additional personnel as required. The On-Site Equipment Register
(OSER) will be maintained daily and a copy forwarded to the TFC.

6.12. Supply Chain Management - SCM

Supply Chain Management will provide the TFC with contractual support to procure specialist equipment,
personnel and services to plan and execute the well control capping operations.

During a blow-out crisis, access to large funds may be necessary. Insurance Companies will have to be
contacted as soon as possible. Money or guarantees may be required up front to mobilize equipment,
materials and personnel. SCM has to ensure that funds are available and that guarantees can be made
and authorized at the appropriate levels. It is important that most of the framework for this be in place prior
to the need for the services. Refer to Section 9 for existing agreements.

6.13. Human Resources Manager - HR

HR will provide administrative assistance and support during the blowout, particularly in the event of
SCEPCo having to mobilize personnel from abroad requiring entry visas and work permits at short notice.
Also there is a key role on organizing accommodation, transport, permit handling etc. for these specialists.

HR will contact dependants and next of kin in the event of casualties/injured personnel to inform about
their health and whereabouts.

HR will assign staff to assist and advise the team in administrative matters, possibly on a 24-hour basis.
HR will also ensure that locations servicing communications are adequately staffed to handle the
emergency on a ‘24-hours-a-day’ basis

An HR representative will be based in-field to help perform these HR tasks at a local level.

6.14. Well Control Specialist - WCS & In-Field Well Control Specialist - IWCS
The WCS is essentially office based and responsible for advising SCEPCo ECT on well killing
requirements and action plans for controlling the blowout. The WCS provides both practical and
managerial assistance and will help SCEPCo in the mobilization of the necessary field personnel. The
WCS will also assist in the mobilization and transportation of equipment not available locally and
organize/coordinate this in conjunction with other members of the team. The WCS will carry out the
necessary computer simulations for killing the well and provide specific information to the field specialists
on fire fighting, heat protection, clearing the well site, capping procedure, killing procedure, drilling of relief
wells. This will be done in a Blowout Intervention Plan approved by the TFC.

The IWCS main role on the rig site will be to advise the SEC on technical and procedural requirements
and be in charge of the blowout site activity. The IWCS will report to the office based WCS as well as the
SEC. Their specific duties are to clear the well site, provide fire fighting and carry out capping and/or
killing operations to secure the well.

Examples of Well Control Specialist guidelines for the following can be found in the Appendices:

- Appendix IV: Guidelines to Equipment Requirement

- Appendix VI: Guidelines to Hot Zone Establishment
- Appendix VII: Guidelines to Igniting the Well
- Appendix VIII: Guidelines to Fire Fighting (FiFi)
- Appendix VIX: Guidelines to Surface Intervention, Fire Fighting and Capping Strategy by
Blow-Out Specialists

6.15. Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor Project / Rig Manager

The Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor Project/Rig Manager will report directly to the IF-EC or
the TFC dependent on their location. The Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor will initiate the
Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor’s Emergency Procedures as detailed in the Drilling,
Workover or Well Services Contractor HSSE-MS. Any conflict between the Drilling, Workover or Well

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Services Contractor’s procedures and SCEPCo, SIEP or P&T’s procedures will be dealt with as per
relevant Bridging Documents.

The Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor Project/Rig Manager will be in direct contact with the
PIC and the Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor Emergency Coordinator. Drilling, Workover or
Well Services Contractor Management and their respective supervisory staff are expected to provide an
advisory role to the TFC in Chengdu, the IF-EC, and the SEC at the well location.

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In the event of any well blowout or loss of control, SIEP and P&T are to be informed and advised. The
General Manager of Well Delivery should initiate this communication as appropriate through the line.
Contact can be established by calling Security in The Hague (+31-70-3776666). Once called the
appropriate staff-on-duty will be advised.

External Affairs (CX) is responsible for informing the Government and Authorities. The JMC
representatives will be informed and advised by the ECT.

A final Blow-Out Investigation report will be prepared by the TFC.

Daily reports from the rig site will be distributed to the relevant members of the Blow-Out Task Force and
the ECT as directed by the TFC. Additional status reports will be made as the situation dictates.

Further details can be found in the SCEPCo Emergency Response Procedure - SCEPCo 201009280798.

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After standing down from the emergency, any remaining pollutants must be recovered and steps taken to
ensure that the contaminated area is cleaned and returned to its original state if possible.

Following any blowout an assessment is required to establish the impact on the environment. It is
recommended that this activity be performed (or at the minimum verified) by a specialist third party
consultant. The assessment can be assisted at an early stage by taking photographs of the spill (if any) at
regular intervals.

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9.1. SIEP Regional Well Control & Auxiliary Services Framework Agreements
Shell International E&P have entered into framework agreements with the international well control
companies. The purpose of these agreements is to make adequate provisions, covering the whole Shell
Group, for effective handling of well control emergencies. Under these framework agreements, conditions
were negotiated and agreed ahead of any well control event, thereby circumventing the usual hasty
decisions that an OU would normally be subjected to under an emergency situation.

The SIEP Global framework Agreement (GFA) is with Boots & Coots IWC, Wild Well Control Inc and
ALERT Disaster Controls (Asia) Pte.Ltd. Activities covered by the framework agreement include:
 Implementation of Well Control Management Systems (WCMS).
 Training and Drills.
 Technology, Risk and Incident Response Management.
 Field operations which consist of:
o Project management, logistics and general contracting for special services
o Design and supervision of well intersections
o Design and supervision of hydraulic well kills.

The scope of services covered by these framework agreement includes, but is not limited to:
 Emergency Response Services involving all activities necessary to establish control over a
blowing well.
 Well Control Management Services involving the integration of the well control contractor into the
Company’s (OU’s) Task Force for effective and harmonized levels of communication and control.
 Routine Engineering Services and contingency planning.
 Training of company’s personnel.
 Developing well intervention methods.
 Modeling the reservoir including inflow performance and kill rate requirements.
 Civil / logistics involving platform inspection, design and repairs.
 Fire-fighting, including well capping, snubbing, freezing, hot tapping and valve drilling.
 Relief well planning and drilling.
 Pumping services.
 Environmental clean-up services.

Emergency Contacts:



NAME CELL HOME Position Email Address
John Garner (713) 410-4421 (936) 321-2034 Manager, Well Control Engineering
Jim LaGrone (713) 202-0910 (281) 298-2075 Manager, Well Control Operations
John Reese (713) 410-0785 (281) 558-7109 Senior Well Control Engineer
Bud Curtis (713) 410-8944 (713) 410-8944 Senior Well Control Specialist
Danny Clayton (713) 410-5575 (281) 356-2135 Senior Well Control Specialist
Mike Gilstrap (713) 410-8470 (281) 570-6794 Senior Well Control Specialist

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B. Wild Well Control, Inc.

Bill Mahler, Executive VP & General Manager

Wild Well Control, Inc. •
281.784.4700 phone • 281.784.4750 fax


Michael E. Allcorn - Managing Director

Global Emergency Response and Integrated Risk Management Solutions
Box No. 5008, Block B, #01-00, Loyang Offshore Supply Base, Loyang Crescent, Singapore 508988
T: +(65) 6545 5088 (24 Hours); F: +(65) 6545 3033; M: +(65) 9666 2412
E: ; E: ; W:

D. Others:

CP rep. Ogienko, Boris SIEP-PTW/CP, Contract Advisor, office phone - +31704473995

SIEP EPT-WCT:Wells Capability Team (Focal Point -Jos Rommertz, SIEP EPT-WS

Op De Weegh, Marco SEPCO-PTW/U/W

Link for all GFAs and contacts:

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Appendix I Abbreviations

The following list provides explanations for commonly used abbreviations in this report:

API American Petroleum Institute

BOCP Blow-Out Contingency Plan
BOTF Blow-Out Task Force
CCMT Country Crisis Management Team
dB deciBell
DM Duty Manager
DS or DSV Drilling Supervisor
EC Emergency Controller
ECT Emergency Coordination Team
ECTL Emergency Coordination Team Leader
EP Exploration and Production
ERP Emergency Response Plan
HAZID Hazard Identification
HAZOP Hazard identification and Opportunities
HEMP Hazards and Effects Management Process
HSSE Health, Safety, Security & Environment
IF-EC In-Field Emergency Coordinator
IFS In-Field Drilling Supervisor
IFLC In-Field Logistics Coordinator
IWCS In-field Well Control Specialist
LC Logistics Coordinator
LEL Lower Explosion Level
JMC Joint Management Committee (of Shell and PetroChina)
MediVac Medical Evacuation
MHSE Management of Health Safety and Environment
ODP Operation Development Plan
ORP Oil Spill Response Plan
OSC On-Scene Commander
OSER On-Site Equipment Register
PC PetroChina
PIC Person-In-Charge
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PTW Permit To Work
P&T Production & Technology
RAM Risk Assessment Matrix
RP Recommended Procedure
SCBA Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
SCEPCO Shell China Exploration and Production Company
SEC Site Emergency Controller
SCM Supply Chain Management
SDS or SDSV Senior Drilling Supervisor
SERT Site Emergency Response Team
SIEP Shell International Exploration and Production
SIMOPS Simultaneous Operations
SWW Shell Wide Web
TFC Task Force Commander
TPO Trial Production Operations
WCS Well Control Specialist
WDM Well Delivery Manager
WE Well Engineer(ing)
WDP Wells Delivery Plan
WWC Wild Well Control

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Appendix II Recommended Blow-Out Data Acquisition

Initial Site Characterization Data Sheet - Generic

Well Name / No: Business Unit:
Report Date: Time: Date Event Began: Time:
Well Location:
Contact to Wellsite / Incident Comander: /
Description of event:

INCIDENT CLASSIFICATION: Emergency Major emergency Crisis

SICP = SIDPP = Mud wt = Est kick vol =
Max anticipated pressures:
Potential for underground flow:

WELL DATA Est. BHP = Type of Well: Onshore Offshore Inland Water
H2S: None >10 ppm >100 ppm unkwn Type of Location: Remote Populated
Last OD Depth Weight Grade Environmentally Sensitive Area
Casing Type of Facility: Rig Only Jackup Semi
Other Shared Production
Casings Open hole size Depth
Drill pipe size Depth


Max flow potential: MMSCF/D BO/D BW/D other
Well on fire: Yes No Flow is abrasive? No Moderate High Unkown
Point of surface flow: Work string / DP Casing Tubing BOPE Other

Pollution: None Minor Serious Actions being taken to contain pollution:

ACTION PLANS Is surface equipment capable of being shut in: Yes No

Surface equipment rating:
Restrictions to access of wellhead equipment: Yes No Describe:

Damage to surface equipment/facility:

Breathing equipment is: Available Accessible Type: Cascade Evacuation only

Evacuation status: Not presently required In progress Complete
Personnel acounted for? Yes No Describe:
Injuries / Describe:

Weather Conditions:
Actions underway at this time:

Regulatory Agencies contacted: None

Agency: Person contacted Date Time
Agency: Person contacted Date Time
REV 00 Aug 94

Filed by (Print): Signature: Date:

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To ensure that all relevant data about the blow-out is gathered and conveyed to the ECT the following
data must be supplied as soon as possible after the blow-out occurs and be updated as events happen.

Installation/rig damage SEC

List of personnel on site. Also details of people dead/injured/missing, SEC, PIC
including details of injury, jobs, names and addresses. Movement and
accommodation of same.
Which well(s) are out of control. SEC
Nearby facilities that are in danger. SEC
Potential for escalation of the event. SEC
Description of blowing fluid, including estimated volume and pressure. SEC
Size of flame or plume.
Are there any poisonous gases present? Concentrations? SEC
Blow-out fluid exit path, (vertical, through choke line, pressure on tubing SEC
hanger/annulus etc.)
Area affected by blowing fluid and gases. LEL readings? SEC
Heat Radiation estimates. SEC
Condition of well components. SEC
Predicted possible continued structural damage. SEC
Accessibility to wellheads. SEC
Debris to be removed to gain access to the wellhead or leak. SEC
Is erosion a problem and might it change the circumstances. SEC
Blowout status (stable or improving / worsening). SEC
Potential for cratering, blowout branching. SEC
Potential for gas plume SEC
Weather conditions and forecasts. SEC, IF-EC
Water source for firefighting SEC, IF-EC
Pollution and oil spill summary, potential for pool fires? SEC
Availability of support equipment (construction, local firefighting, survey IF-EC, TFC
equipment etc.)
Location and availability of relief well drilling units TFC
Availability of mud chemicals and weighting materials. IF-EC
Insurance requirements (notify underwriters, accounting, event TFC
Special safety considerations HSSE, IF-EC,
Installation drawings and pictures, topography. IF-EC, WE
Well slot references WE, SEC, IF-EC
Well location and directional drilling coordinate system (latitude, longitude WE, SEC, IF-EC
and uncertainty)
Azimuth reference system used (i.e. UTM, true North, local grid, grid WE, SEC, IF-EC
convergence, declination, etc.)
Depth reference system and units. WE, SEC, IF-EC
Relevant wellbore surveys, to include: well name/number, date of survey, WE, SEC, IF-EC
surface tie-in-coordinates, survey interval, survey type, survey company,
surveyors name, grid conversion, magnetic declination conversion,
running gear configuration, magnetic spacing, BHA used, borehole
temperature, tool face data and any other information that might help

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QA/QC the survey data. (Uncertainty models, calibration data, running
procedures, surveyor’s notes, overlapped surveys etc.)
Site plan and adjacent topography. WE, SEC, IF-EC
Relevant equipment drawings and details IF-EC, SEC
Geological stratigraphic cross section UIA-T-ADC
Formation strength, formation pressures, overburden, temperature UIA-T-ADC, WE
Drilling and production records prior to the emergency TFC, UIA-T-
Reservoir and reservoir fluid properties (permeability, productivity index, UIA-T-ADC
static reservoir pressure and temperature, GOR, reservoir extensions,
minimum flowing BHP, molecular composition of blowing fluids, specific
gravities at specified temperatures and pressures)
Structure maps UIA-T-ADC
Production test reports with PVT data UIA-T-ADC
Formation evaluation reports. UIA-T-ADC, WE

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Appendix III Tasks and Requirements Checklists

The ECT must apply itself methodically to the emergency and produce an organized response with the
minimal delay and maximum reliability. To achieve this, additional checklists containing details specific to
a blowout emergency are included in the following pages. These checklists are supplement to those
contained in the Emergency Response Procedures Manual and are intended to guide the ECT and
support teams through the initial stages, Phase 1 of the emergency.

Immediate - ‘Time Zero’ - Checklist Action by Reference

1. Communicate Emergency to ER organisation SEC
2. Compile initial assessment as per SEC responsibilities. SEC
3. Establish list of personnel at location and any personnel dead, PIC, SEC
injured or missing.
4. Nominate emergency evacuation reception station and advise all IF-EC
5. Transport emergency medical team to reception station. IF-EC, TFC
6. Evacuate non-essential personnel or all personnel to reception PIC, SEC
7. Evacuate nearby communities / facilities if in danger. PIC, SEC
8. Compile further assessment as per SEC responsibilities SEC
9. Ensure that any adjacent wells are shut-in and protected if SEC
necessary and any affected pipelines are isolated and
depressurized as per SIMOPS procedures.
10. Formulate short-term plan. IF-EC, TFC
11. Are additional personnel required at the blow out location? IF-EC, TFC,
Consider mobilising SCEPCo staff from Beijing office and/or HR
mobilizing off duty personnel.
12. Brief CX of position so that government departments can be ECT, TFC
informed of progress as necessary.

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Time + 2 Hour Checklist Action by Reference

1. Contact blow-out specialist assistance. TFC
2. Mobilise additional safety and fire fighting capability to the IF-EC, TFC,
location. LC
3. Mobilise personnel and appropriate equipment to deal with IF-EC, TFC,
pollution control. HSSE, HR, LC
4. LLocate and mobilise well kill equipment and fluids. IF-EC, TFC,
5. Establish possible methods of combating the emergency. IF-EC, TFC,
6. Bullhead kill adjacent wells if required or possible. TFC, IF-EC,
7. Can other rigs in the area offer assistance? IF-EC, TFC
8. Set up exclusion, no go zones. SEC, IF-EC,
9. Complete assessment of situation and prepare a list of required TFC, IF-EC,
well information and technical documents. SEC, WE
10. Set up pollution containment controls if available and conditions TFC, IF-EC,
permit. HSE
11. Establish Hot, Warm and Cold Zones and enforce. SEC, IF-EC
12. Start fire watch and ignite well if required. SEC, IF-EC
13. Prepare media release. EA, ECT
14. Ensure a relief roster for the Emergency Coordination Team is ECT, DM
15. Inform Government. EA, ECT, DM
16. Set up pollution containment controls if available and conditions SEC, HSE
17. Mobilise assistance if required from other Shell OU’s and or TFC, Well
Operators in the area. Manager

Further Action Checklist Action by Reference

1. If required obtain approval to drill a relief well(s). IF-EC, HSE,
2. Advise parties to stand down when no longer required or on IF-EC, TFC
completion of task.
3. View the blow-out location to determine extent of damage to rig TFC, HSE, EA,
and environment. ECT Members

4. Determine availability and location of potential rig to drill a relief TFC, WE, IF-
well EC
5. Determine the availability of vehicles for support of a fire fighting TFC, IF-EC,
and capping operation LC

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Appendix IV Blow-out Equipment Requirements

The following is an example of Blow-out Equipment recommended as a ‘minimum and immediate

requirement’ by the Company Boots & Coots IWC Inc.

Main Requirements:

 A large as possible ‘Tracked Hoe’ with hydraulic hammer attachment to break up cellar
 2 x D8 (or compatible) bulldozers (or larger capacity if available). One with and one without a winch
 Large Front End Loader w/ bucket & forks
 Two rig travelling blocks to help in skidding the rig
 60 M ton Crane
 Ample (unlimited) water supply for fire fighting pumps. If supply source is not in the vicinity of blow-
out, mobilise 8 to 10 x 500 bbl frac tanks for water transport and storage
 Two fire fighting Pumps
 Hoses and connections to install fire pumps on frac tanks
 Transportation and housing for well control crew
 Athey Wagon(s)
 Dedicated welding area and welder(s) with welding and cutting equipment inclusive off welding rods
o Corrugated iron sheets to cover dozers and Cranes if need (heat shielding)
o Plating material to be used in construction various thicknesses
 2 x Halliburton (or compatible) High Pressure pumps

Supplementary Requirements in detail:

 Command Trailers with Communications

 Site Doctor with Clinic, Ambulance and Supplies
 Fabrication materials for heat shielding and debris clearance (from DC)
 50 to 200 sheets - 2' x 8' galvanized corrugated tin (10 gauge preferred)
 30 joints 2-3/8” tubing
 8 rolls of galvanized bailing wire to tie up tin to tubing frames
 Full sized sheets of A36 steel plate in various wall thickness ¼”(8 sheets), ½” (8 sheets), 1” (6
sheets), 3” (4 sheets), 4” (2 sheets)
 Expanded metal grating (15 sheets / 500 ft2)
 20 sets of long high strength 1” and 2” studs and nuts
 12” wide A-36 H-beam (8 lengths)
 Used 4-1/2” or 5” drill pipe (20 jts),
 12” line pipe (light weight)
 13-3/8” casing (1 jt) and 20” conductor
 750 ft - 2" x 2" x 1/4" L shaped angle iron
 500 ft - 3" x 3" x 1/4" L shaped angle iron
 500 feet - 1/2” softlay cable (6x36) with 50 bolt on type clamps
 500 feet - 3/4” softlay cable (6x36) with 50 bolt on type 50 clamps
 500 feet - 1” softlay cable (6x36) with 50 bolt on type 50 clamps
 500 feet - 1-1/8” softlay cable (6x36) with 50 bolt on type clamps
 250 ft - 1/2" round cold rolled bar

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Fire Fighting Equipment:

The major well control vendors have an inventory of specialized tools and equipment ready for immediate
mobilization 24 hours a day. The following is a partial listing including a brief description.:

 Fire pumps - Driven by diesel engines with centrifugal high volume low pressure firewater pump.
(Example: Detroit Diesel 8V-91, 540 HP turbo charged engine with centrifugal pump delivering 4 to
5,000 GPM @ 200 psi.) Each pump should be truck-mounted
 Suction manifolds, suction and discharge hoses
 Fire manifold for installation at the well-site. The main components of such manifolds are:
o 1 ea., 10" x 20' steel fire monitor manifold w/4 ea. 4" flanged outlets
o 1 ea. 10" flanged inlet
o 4 ea. 4" butterfly valves
o 4 ea. 4" Fig. 100 hammer unions
o 3 ea., 10" x 21' flanged supply line sections
o 1 ea., 10" x 16' flanged supply line section
o 1 ea., 10" x 6” 90o flanged elbow
o 4 ea., 6" x 4' steel pipe extensions w/90 o ells for use with suction hoses
 4 ea., 1000 GPM water cannons
 Fire monitors - 2,000 to 6,000 GPM
 Casing clamps - For use in various capping procedures
 Venturi tube - To consolidate and raise the flow and/or ignition point
 Portable toolhouse - Containing complete set of hand tools from 1/4" end wrench to 48" pipe wrench
for maintenance and repair.
 Complete set of hammer wrenches and brass hammers
 Portable Lathe Type Cutters - Used for making circumferential cuts on casing strings
 Explosives - All necessary equipment for demolition. A fully-licensed explosives expert will be
 Nomex Protective Clothing - For use by personnel working in proximity to the combustible flow or fire
 Communications - Hand held radios for use by personnel on location
 Foam/Dispersant Application - For fire extinguishing or protection

Fabrication personnel and equipment:

A minimum of two certified welders will be needed for various fabrication projects. Each should be fully
supplied with necessary equipment such as welding machines, cutting torches, grinders, chipping
hammers, wire brushes, etc. An adequate supply of safety equipment ordinarily used during fabrication
projects such as goggles and face shields will be required.


A roustabout crew will be needed for various tasks such as fabrication and rig-up of pumps and lines. A
crew consisting of one supervisor and five roustabouts should be contracted.

Air Compressors

Two 255 CFM, 125 PSI air compressor each with 300 ft of 2" 200 PSI WP hose and spare end
connections. These will be required to supply air for starting pumps and operating other pneumatic tools
later in the project. Available through local specialty rental companies or may be available through local
agreements. Complete with hoses to reach 150 feet.

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Light Towers
Self-contained diesel powered light towers should be ordered to facilitate fabrication projects which may
extend into the night. Available from specialty rental companies. Sufficient lighting capability may remain
at the rig-site.

Abrasive Cutters
Ultra-high pressure (30,000 + psi) cutters which use abrasive material such as frac sand, slag or crushed
garnet. Used for debris, wellhead and casing cutting in explosive atmospheres. Available from Halliburton
(Duncan, OK) or BJ Services

Lathe Cutters
Portable lathe type die cutters may be required for circumferential cuts on casing strings.

Explosives may be necessary for debris removal and possibly for extinguishing the fire. NOTE: Since
Abrasive Jet Cutters have been introduced explosives have been rarely used, therefore this is mentioned
as CONTINGENCY ONLY (not anticipated for use in capping).

Trash Pumps
Portable air operated diaphragm type pumps may be needed for various fluid transfer tasks on the
structure. Small pumps such as Wilden 3" are preferred since they provide the necessary mobility. These
are available from speciality rental tool companies.

Pneumatic Winches
Large pneumatic winches, or "air tuggers", may be needed for capping and/or debris removal. These are
available through speciality rental companies.

Pneumatic Tools
Impact wrenches, drills, grinders, pneumatic hacksaws along with hoses, sockets, bits and various other
accessory pIF-ECes. These are available from most oilfield supply outlets.

Hydraulic Tools
Torque wrenches, nut splitters and portable power jacks. These are available from pressure testing
companies and specialty rental companies.

Surface Equipment
BOPs, chokes/manifolds, closing units, chicksan lines etc. Available from oilfield rental tool companies.

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Equipment Sources

The following equipment is available in the region under existing contracts:

Pollution Control Equipment

As per agreement between Drilling Contractor and any available local services.

HSSE (Environment) can help to mobilise more equipment if required. Also refer to the
“Oil Spill Response Plan”.
Well Kill Equipment

See below for equipment lists from the local supplier which is CCDC Drilling &
Production Engineering Technology Research Institute of CNPC. Additional
equipment can also be pursue from other sources.

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Oil /Gas Well Blowout Wrecking and Firefighting Services

I. Equipment for Wrecking and Firefighting Service

Item Description Remarks Main Parameters

(I)Protecting and Monitoring Instruments

1 Infrared remote sensing Surface temperature range of the object: -30°~

thermometer 1200;200~1800°
Noise monitoring Max measuring range: 50~160dB; Frequency:
device 20~12500HZ

3 Breathing apparatus + Conventional

4 Long tube breathing Four 70L gas bottles, supporting simultaneous 6
apparatus operator for continuous 6 hour operation
Alpha breathing Monitor the residual volume of the air in the gas
5 apparatus and network bottle on time for safety of breathing apparatus
system user
6 Anti-high-temperature Support to stay in the environment of the
fireproof suit temperature up to 1093℃ for a short while
Remote sensing
7 Monitor surrounding environment temperature
8 Thickness meter Measure the wall thickness of the metal

9 H2S detector 0~1000PPM

10 SO2 detector 0~20PPM

11 Cl2 detector 0~10PPM

Hand-held compound Detect H2S, SO2, O2, CO and other flammable

gases detector gases
Detect 0.1 ~ 10,000PPm harmful matters as
Hand-held VOC gas aromatic hydrocarbon, nitro hydrocarbon, long
detector paraffin hydrocarbon, halocarbon, alcohol,
benzene, ketone and ammonia etc.
Simultaneously detect H2S, SO2, O2, CO, VOC
14 Six-way gas detector and other flammable gases in six different
(II)Sheltered Blockage-clearing Firefighting Equipments
Dedicated water pump Pumping rate of single water pump unit up to
unit and manifold 650 m3/hour, with pressure 2.0MPa
Chemical extinguishing
2 Load in 8000L chemicals in one time
Arm length: 19.3m, with multiple functions of
3 PC350-7 remote- wellhead blockage clearing, excavation, crush
controlled excavator and cutting. Working temperature is up to 700℃,
and can be remotely controlled.
Working temperature up to 700℃, remotely
4 Intelligent shelter

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5 Shelter Prevent heat emission and protect water cannon

6 Water cannon Cannon shot : 75m; flow rate: 600 ~ 4500 L/min
Cannon shot: ≥75m; flow rate: 3000 ~ 7500
7 Remote water cannon L/min; remote operation distance with no
obstacle: 100m
LUF 60 water-mist Max flow rate: 400L/min; max flow distance of
cannon atomized water: 60m; direction changeable
Mechanic smoke
9 ventilator with super- Ventilating volume: 100,000m /h
high ventilating volume
Use together with PC350-7 excavator for
10 Hydraulic shearer blockage clear and shear, with cut width
Use together with PC350-7 excavator for
11 Hydraulic crusher blockage clear and crush, with crush capacity

12 Portable knapper Working pressure: 70-90Pa; strokes per minute:

40Hz; striking energy: 18J(joule)
13 Pilot light barrel Max diameter: 1000mm; pilot lateral fire upward

(III)Cutting Equipments
Remote hydraulic sand blockage and
1 blasting on-fire cutting cut Pressure: 50MPa, flow rate: 480L/min
device Cut wellhead
Ultra-high-pressure blockage and
2 Max working pressure: 250MPa; flow rate:
hydraulic sand blasting cut
27L/min, rated working pressure: 234MPa
cutting device Cut wellhead
Remote hydraulic sand blockage and Working pressure: 30000Psi; cutting width: 0~
3 blasting cutting device cut
with double nozzles Cut wellhead 760mm; flow rate: 600L/min
4 Plasma cutting Cutting depth of single machine: ≤80mm
machine Cutting depth of parallel operation: ≤140mm
5 Annular mechanic Pipe diameter range: 177~355mm; cutting wall
cutting facing machine thickness: 0~100mm
6 Lance cutting torch Length specifications: 0.8m, 2m, 4m, 6m
Subsea hydraulic break
7 Max hydraulic flow rate: 8gpm(30L/min)
in tool
Multi-functional annular Saw blade diameter: 350mm; cutting depth:
saw 260mm; max saw blade advancing speed: 55m/s
(IV)Lifting Devices
Dedicated remote on- Forced pressurize, install wellhead BOPs
1 fire wellhead lifting and automatically tighten 4 wellhead bolts, all by
installation device remote control
2 Power mast crane Arm length: 19m, used for clearing blockage,
lifting and installing wellhead
3 Fixed pulley slip Used for pressurization when lifting and installing
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Used for pressurization when lifting and installing

4 Fixed slip
(V)Communication and Commanding Devices
Maritime satellite To use while no mobile phone signals, with
telephone communication rate additionally charged
2 Radio For on site communication
monitoring and For panorama supervision, monitoring and
controlling instrument controlling wrecking and firefighting site
3 truck
Satellite channel rental Transmit field audio and video signals as well as
charge other information

(VI)Other Equipments

Freezing each casing and tubing program for

Freezing & temporary
1 blocking emergency + temporary blockup, with max working pressure
Hot-tap equipments 70MPa
Used for snubbing operation, with max jacking
2 30T snubbing unit
resistance 15T and elevating force 30T
Used for snubbing operation, with max jacking
3 60T snubbing unit
resistance 30T and elevating force 60T
Remote hydraulic Max tapping diameter: 50mm; max working
tapping machine pressure: 30MPa

5 Packing unit Expendable

Emergency casing Expendable
head consumption
7 Stripper head Working pressure: 5MPa, 10MPa and 17.5MPa
Dynamic sealing pressure: 10.5MPa; static
8 10.5Mpa rotary BOP
pressure: 21MPa
Dynamic sealing pressure : 7.5MPa; static
9 17.5Mpa rotary BOP
pressure: 35MPa
10 High-pressure hot- Max temperature: 90℃
water cleaning pump
11 Explosion proof tools
Portable illumination Raise automatically about 6m, with power
device capacity 1000w

13 Positive displacement
air compressor
Portable electric
15 VOLVLO power unit Power capacity: 200Kw

16 Hydraulic nut knapper

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II. Wrecking and Firefighting Personnel

1 Wrecking and
firefighting supervisor
2 Engineering professor

3 Senior engineering

4 Senior technician

5 Engineer

6 Technician

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The items listed below must be held in reserve or be quickly obtainable by the SCEPCo HSSE
Department for transport to a blow-out.

Quantity Description Responsible

1 Copy of Blowout contingency plan
2 150m Safety lines with harness
2 Portable continuous explosimeters & charger
2 Draeger pumps or equivalent
50 SO2 tubes, Range 0 – 50 ppm
100 H2S tubes, Range 0 – 100 ppm
20 Walkie Talkies with chargers & spare batt.(intrinsically safe
4 Wind socks
1 Anemometer
25 30 minute self contained breathing apparatus - set
12 Spare air cylinders for above BA
8 8 minute Self contained breathing apparatus (hip packs)
16 Spare cylinders for above
1 Air compressor (electric) & hose to recharge air bottles for BA
5 “No Smoking” signs
5 “Danger – No Entry” signs
20 Blinking lights for safety sign
2 First aid kits
3 Full body burn kits
8 Portable H2S detectors
10 Dry chemical fire extinguishers – 30 lb.
15 Dry chemical fire extinguishers – 5 lb.
20 Ear defenders - pair
1 500m fluorescent tape to mark out danger areas
1 25mm Flare gun for well ignition
25 Meteor-type flares for above
1 Noise meter
50 Safety Helmets
200 Protective gloves - pairs
50 Safety boots
2 Stretchers
75 Sets of Nomex undergarments (hood, top and pant)

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Appendix V Call Out Procedures

The roles and responsibilities of disciplines and departments, both local and regional, are listed in Chapter 6.
What follows in this Appendix is a brief outline of the same but this time only for key staff involved.

Snr. Drilling/Well Services Supervisor as Site Emergency Controller- SEC

 Acts as primary on-site supervisor and contact point
 Reports directly to the IF-EC (initiation of IF-EC Organisation)
 Requests for MediVac as required and in accordance with MediVac procedures
 Alerts local populace and assists in evacuation as required
 Establishes zonal policy and secure exclusion zone.
 If SIMOPS, contacts relevant parties to ensure processes (flowing wells, facilities) will be shut
 Provides detailed assessment of incident and maintains log of events

Drilling, Workover or Well Services Contractor Rig Manager as Person In Charge - PIC
 Takes charge of the rig and acts as contact point for the Drilling, Workover or Well Services
 Evacuates the rig, perform muster and direct search and rescue teams as required
 Liaises with SEC in general and in organising any Medivac in particular
 Moves personnel to safe distance
 Reports directly to Rig / Project Manager (initiation of Drilling, Workover or Well Services
Contractor ER Organisation)
 Applies containment measures (cooling of equipment) in consultation with local emergency

Field Manager or In-Field Superintendent as In-Field Emergency Coordinator - IF-EC

 Coordinates local level response and activities
 Reports and consults directly to/with the TFC. Informs Duty Manager
 Initiates call out for technical and logistic support
 Completes blowout fact sheet and approves incident report
 Coordinates efforts by In-Field Well Control Specialists
 Coordinates media response (mobile communication center)

Well Delivery Manager as Task Force Commander - TFC

 Coordinates the planning and initiates activities aimed at containment of blow-out
 Becomes member of and reports to the ECT
 Consults with GM of Well Delivery and SIEP/P&T Wells Managers.
 Mobilises well control specialists and requests for additional support (SIEP, OU’s) as required
 Coordinates all technical/logistical support required to plan for and execute the capping/killing
operations and any relief well(s) as deemed applicable
 Coordinates all efforts expended to minimise/prevent environmental impact. Ensures that site is

General Manager of Well Delivery (China)

 Ensures that TFC has access to all resources required to fulfil his duties
 Assists in establishing SIEP/P&T support on behalf of the TFC if so required
 Consults with Regional Wells Managers (and Head of Well Services if applicable)
 Consults with TFC and ECT on incident classification
 Conducts investigation into the cause of the blow-out.

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Appendix VI Guidelines to Hot Zone Establishment


Response: Level 3 - Phase 1
Personnel: Initial Site Emergency Controller and essential crew only
Item Action or Consideration
A "SITE SAFETY PLAN" is required before well site work can start. This plan is developed
and implemented by the Site Emergency Controller after initial evacuation of personnel.
The "Hot Zone" boundary must be realistically based on presence or the anticipated
presence of an explosive mixture (LEL levels), rain of hydrocarbons or H 2S and is
principally controlled by wind direction but is influenced by the leak rate and location as well
as the direction of the flow.
On burning blowouts the "Hot Zone" will likely be set on radiant heat limits and smoke
avoidance. Wind direction also has considerable impact in Hot Zone boundaries. Some
fires do not burn clean and product can exist in the presence of a fire, therefore item 2) and
3) must be considered together.
Generally the hot zone will be set by inspection and not from a quantitative analysis. This
will be revised periodically and will be monitored carefully throughout the project and MUST
be investigated whenever any significant changes occur in the flow or weather conditions.
If the "Hot Zone" boundary is set by actual measurements, it MUST be done by two men
with SCBAs. They should approach blowout using LEL meter, H 2S meter, dB meter and
Radiant Heat Meter (if available) and check levels down wind of the well area. Initial
approach should be from an upwind direction.
6. The boundary of the HOT zone is defined as when first indication is seen of either:
• >1/4 LEL level (1% concentration of hydrocarbons in air) at any near surface
elevation (ground level or standing on top of a truck).
• surface pooling or streaming of liquid hydrocarbons, surface gas bubbling or
hydrocarbon and water vapor fogs (restricted visibility and explosive vapor)
• >10 ppm H2S
• >90 dB noise level
• Over 3 Kw/m 2 heat loading or practically the point where exposed skin cannot
sustain exposure without protection for more than a few minutes.
When measuring parameters, approach problem well from any possible access route
(including those located downwind) and repeat this process.
Where possible, set Hot Zone boundaries away from these hard indicators (ex: 1/4 LEL) at
good control points. CONTINUED....

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“Hot Zone” shall be restricted to well control experts or designee of the Site Emergency
Controller and shall be allowed in the zone on a permit only basis and only for a prescribed
and defined task. Buddy system will be maintained at all times and cover of water provided
for each when appropriate.
Manpower with radios from drilling rig crew, safety and production can be used at these
defined "Hot Zone" control points to restrict access into the "Hot Zone". Downwind "Hot
Zone" boundary must be tightly controlled and continuously monitored as variable winds
can quickly change the boundary. Some access routes should be blocked to prevent
accidental entry.
The "Safe Area" or “Cold Zone” location is based on the "measurable" Hot Zone
boundaries, available work areas and access and wind direction.
The safe distance seen in the downwind approach of the "Hot Zone" boundary is then used
as one guideline for setting the "Safe Area". Additionally dispersion modeling can be used
with the measurements taken to help predict downwind conditions if wind is blowing across
blowout out to sea.
The "Safe Area" is not a contour like the "Hot Zone" but is a dedicated staging area for
control efforts for blowout. Access to areas inside the "Hot Zone" must only be from "Safe
Area". Other alternate paths into "Hot Zone" are blocked.
"Safe Area" should be accessible from two directions.
“Safe Area” restricted to essential personnel with proper protective equipment.
16. "Safe Area" should be in area with 0 LEL, <5 ppm H2S, <85 dB sound level and <1.6
Kw/m2 heat loading.
Mark the designated "Hot Zone" and "Safe Area” on the available Emergency Response
Maps for distribution and all procedures.
As the well and wind conditions change, the "Hot Zone" boundaries will shift. The "Safe
Area" could also be moved. An example would be shifting boundaries after well ignition.
The "Warm Zone" is the route between the "Safe Area" and the "Hot Zone". Control
indicators (LEL levels, H2S, radiant heat etc.) are continuously monitored within the "Warm
Zone" at the entrance to the "Hot Zone".
The “Warm Zone” is restricted to essential support personnel only.

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Hot Zone Identification

Evacuate Personnel

Approach well from upwind

side Determine Hot Zone
Develop Site Safety Plan Boundary

Establish If risk is High, Approach

Zones without No
from other access routes

Stop at Hot Zone Boundary
and Measure
Set Hot Zone
(two man team w/ SCBAs,
Boundary away from hard
PPE, LEL meters, radios,
indicators (> 0.25 LEL) or by
rescue team on ready, etc.

> 1/4 LEL at boundary of

Restrict Access to Hot Zone Hot Zone
and All Control Points

* Up wind
Surface pooling of
* 0 LEL reading
hydrocarbons, gases,
* < 10 ppm H2S
Designate Safe Area(s)) bubbling, water vapor, or
* < 85 db Sound level
fogs of products
* 1.6 Kw/M2 heat
* two (2) access ways

Designate Warm Zone or > 10 ppm H2S

Corridor between Hot Zone
and Safe Area

> 85 db Sound

Mark and Distribute Hot and

Safe Zone Area on Response
Map and Documentation > 1.6 Kw/m2 heat

Monitor Conditions two or more access ways

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Response: Level 3 - Phase 1
Initial Site Emergency Controller& key personnel from the site crew
Item Action or Consideration
1. Site Emergency Controller to define "Hot Zone" boundaries and "Safe Area". This
defines "Warm Zone" along access route between the "Hot Zone " and "Safe Area".
2. Stage all activities to the "Hot Zone" out of the "Safe Area" along the designated
and continuously monitored "Warm Zone".
3. Site Emergency Controller to establish access control system at "Safe Area"
4. Site Emergency Controller to maintain control points at all possible access routes
and/or block the access
5. Site Emergency Controller to allow access to "Hot Zone" only along the Warm
Zone" route by strict control.
6. Only experienced firefighters and blowout specialists are allowed within the "Hot
Zone" under strict access coordination with Safety and the On-scene Commander.
7. Rigs may have significant blast hazard inherent in design. Enclosed spaces filled
with explosive vapor may explode if well ignition occurs.
8. "Hot Zone" approach lanes must be set up with fire water coverage to protect men
from fire or unexpected well ignition. Shield safe havens may be needed.
9. Approach lanes to and within "Hot Zone" must be upwind and clearly marked
10. "Hot Zone" approach lanes must be aligned straight away from rig structure corner
to limit potential blast exposure from unexpected ignition. Make use of available
blast cover.
11. Personnel working in "Hot Zone" may will require Decontamination areas at edge of
"Hot Zone" with communications.
12. Personnel must check in and out of Warm areas
13. Access must be tightly controlled if well is not burning. A minimum of exposed
personnel must be maintained as explosive vapor cloud ignition can occur naturally
at any time.
14. Vapor clouds have the capability to throw debris great distances if ignition occurs.
Debris away from the ignition source can be thrown great distances and therefore
present a grave danger to personnel.

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Appendix VII Guidelines to Igniting the Well

Voluntary Ignition

Evaluate Risks

Personnel Safety Assets

• will fire impose a hazard to • pollution catastrophic? • what is total loss in facilities
personnel? and revenue?
• can it be contained?
• search & rescue completed?
• pollution clean up costs
• will ignition reduce personnel risks? • can it be cleaned up? > asset value + production?
• risk to responders?
• hazard to wildlife? • will fire impact control?
• secondary explosions after
initial ignition? • will event escalate? • will improve/reduce access?
• toxic gas reduced?
• will fire sustain itself? • political implications?
• likelihood of spontaneous
ignition? • long term effects? • insurance coverage?
• will fire reduce risks to

no yes Reduce yes

Proceed with Is ignition Reduce secondary
damage from
intervention efforts justified? explosions hazards

no Reduce inventory (fuels,

• non-essential personnel cleared? pressurized containers,
• responders protected? blowdown, etc.)
• wind conditions proper?
• responders have exit routes?
• contingencies calculated? Protect adjacent
• restriction on marine and aviation? facilities and assets

Ignite flow Prepare site and Vent enclosed

(see procedure check list) personnel for ignition spaces

fare guns
yes no auto ignitors
Ignition Provide auto or
sustained? manual ignition flame thrower
LWA Dec96

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Voluntary Ignition Guidelines and Procedures

The following sections discuss purposeful ignition of a blowout. If significant concentrations of oil, toxic
gas (H2S, SO2, etc.) or pollution are resulting from the blowout, consideration should be given to ignition
of the well. The following is suggested criteria, equipment and procedures for ignition.

Ignition Criteria
Under certain conditions it may be necessary to ignite well flows which do not contain H2S. This is
typically a difficult decision based on safety and environmental factors such as pollution and the
perception that ignition will reduce risks and pollution. This decision can involve legal and insurance
related issues. If significant concentrations of H2S are resulting from the blowout, consideration may have
to be given to ignition of the flow. This is especially important if the well is situated in or near navigable
waterways (inland waters), near populated areas or in extremely sensitive environmental areas.

Note: The SEC in charge will consult with the IF-EC before making the decision to ignite the well.

Ignition can be a very dangerous operation, especially for example, if oil slicks surround the structure or
appreciable oil accumulates on and in the rig. The ignition of any blowout by untrained or under-equipped
personnel should only be attempted if no other means exists to protect the safety of personnel in the
vicinity. Further, proper equipment to do so safely must be available. If it is apparent that the gas being
released may endanger the health and safety of the public or well-site personnel or may cause serious
environmental contamination, the SEC in charge (or personnel designated by the SEC in charge) will
ignite the gas cloud.
In some instances it may be prudent to ignite well flows which do not contain toxic concentrations of
hydrogen sulfide.

The decision to voluntarily ignite a blowout carries with it major implications. The worst being that the
situation becomes worse rather than better. The greatest concern is that ignition will cause severe
structural damage or, in the worst case, will damage adjacent wellheads causing additional blowouts and
fires (multiple wells in an inland water situation). Further, this may cause the well control effort to be
orders of magnitude greater than if a single well was blowing out but not on fire. The decision to
purposefully ignite a blowout can only be done if it is thought that human life can be saved as a result or
major pollution avoided. There will be other considerations that enter into the decision and are outlined

When H2S is emitted from a blowout the decision becomes somewhat less complex due to the eminent
danger to life. What must be considered in the ignition of an H 2S flow is the by-product of the reaction,
SO2. Sulfur dioxide is also a toxic gas that causes irritation of the upper respiratory tract, inflammation of
mucous membranes, dry throat, cough and burning of the eyes with concentrations of 5 ppm to 100 ppm.
High SO2 levels or extended exposure can lead to death by asphyxia, chronic pneumonia or bronchitis,
increased sensitivity to SO2 and possibly cancer. The outcome is that fire does not remove the danger but
it alters the characteristics. The downwind side of the fire still poses a danger in the form of SO 2 and
should be isolated from access by personnel and vessels. In certain situations, where H 2S levels in the
flow are not extreme, the SO 2 released due to burning may be manageable. Ignition in these cases may
be the best alternative where extreme risk to the lives of personnel is at stake. Under most conditions, it is
not advisable to automatically ignite an H2S flow unless lives are in danger.

Once the decision to ignite is made, the decision then turns to the method. Although a remotely operated
ignition system similar to that used to ignite a flare is an alternative, the risk of an unintentional or
premature actuation due to panic makes this method undesirable. In most situations the best alternative
may be the use of a flare gun or other similar device to ignite the flow from the upwind side. This may be
risky due to the limited access caused by the H2S.
To assure proper consideration is given, the matters listed below should be examined:

- Evacuation of all personnel from the area or facility.

- Assure that no one or no equipment is working within a minimum of a two (2) kilometer or 1.2 miles
downwind radius of the site.
- Close valves or other devices which may provide a possible fuel source or migration path for a fire
or flow.

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- Evaluate wind and weather conditions to ascertain whether the situation can change to endanger
personnel either on the well site or at an adjacent installation.
- The nature of the flow, cause, probability of increased severity and assessment of methods to stop
the flow through short term efforts.
- Will conditions permit a safe assessment without putting the evaluation team in undue risk whether
ignition using a flare gun is possible from a safe distance, i.e., strong prevailing winds away from
the firing position, H2S free atmosphere from which to work, available cover from a flashback and
clear access for escape. If this is not possible proceed to next step.
- The range of the flare gun and whether access to the well site within this range is safe and possible
in view of the presence of H2S and heat radiation from the fire after ignition. Proceed if these
conditions can be met.
- Can one clear all personnel, aircraft, vehicles and equipment from within a 2 kilometer (1.2 mile)
radius except for the vehicle required for a firing base.
- Is an approach to the site from upwind side while monitoring H 2S+ levels available.
- Once ignition has taken place no attempt to approach the site should be made until the situation
stabilizes and conditions permit access with reasonable safety and under strict supervision of

A basic decision tree is presented in Figure 1 to aid in the decision making process that must take place
before igniting an H2S flow. An alternate method using a helicopter may be considered. In this case a flare
gun is the recommended method to ignite the flow.

Ignition Equipment
The following equipment will be available and on-site for use by the ignition team personnel:

2 - Flare gun with two dozen flares (one for ignition and one for spare)
2 - 500 ft. fire resistant retrieval rope
1 - Portable Combustible Gas Detector
1 - Portable H2S meter and/or personnel monitors
3 - Adequate number of SCBA's for ignition team members (min. of 3)
1 - Set of communication equipment (two-way radio, etc.)

Specific Ignition Procedures

The SEC or alternate will ensure that wellsite personnel are evacuated to a safe location upwind of the
well. The SEC in charge will then proceed with the following ignition procedures:

1. The SEC and a designated assistant (either rig supervisor or safety consultant), backed up by one or
two designated well site personnel, will comprise the ignition team.
2. The assistant of the team will carry an explosimeter and will continuously monitor the area for
explosive gases.
3. The SEC in charge will carry the flare gun. (flare shells are to be carried in a separate container - not
4. Approach should be from up-wind side. Be exposed to explosive gases when the flare is fired.
5. The ignition team will determine the hazardous area (10% of lower flammable limits) and establish
safe perimeters. Once this is determined, the ignition team should move to the upwind area of the
leak perimeter and fire a flare into the area. If the leak is not ignited on the first attempt, move in 20 to
30 feet parallel to the well and fire again. If trouble is incurred in igniting the gas, attempt to fire a flare
at 40 to 90 degrees to each side of the area where you have been firing. If adequate equipment is not
available or ignition is not possible, the toxic leak perimeter must be established and continued until
the emergency is secured.

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Appendix VIII Guidelines to Fire Fighting (FiFi)

On Scene Firefighting Guideline

Wellhead leak and/or Mobilize Fifi Equipment Foam

Advise Production no
fire occurs (3 pumps with application on rig/oil
4000-8000 gpm) pools?

Shut-in adjacent yes

production Turn on wellbay
deluge system Establish stations
for fifi monitors at
edge of hot zone Mobilize foam and
Blowdown delpoly in field
Man hose station
and wet leak Issue safety plan
for Fifi equipment
Kill wells and/or
initiate SSSV's Protect assets:
• adjacent wellheads
Man* hose/monitor • production facilities
station and wet Deploy equip. and
• rig BOPE systems
Cease pipeline apply firewater#
production and •` main structural members
depressurize • Do Not Extinguish^ the Fire!!!

Monitor situation
closely and act
#Note: Water cannon (concentrated
^Note: If the fire is extinguished an *Note: Once water is directed to the steams) can cause extensive damage
explosion hazard will exist that may affected area lock in monitor and remove from impact and flooding. Therefore one
be more dangerous than the fire personnel. If the danger to putting a man should avoid direct contact to weak
itself. Pollution may be reduced if in the wellbay area for firefighting is high members (windows, walls, etc.) and onto
the well is left on fire. it should not be done. open hatches if possible.
LWA Dec96

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Firefighting and Asset Protection Checklist


Response: Class C - Phase 1
Personnel: Site Emergency Controller / Company Representative
Item Action or Consideration
Initial fire fighting and asset protection should start at the rig and expand to the locally
available Firefighting Units. This list assumes that there is a pressure fed well fire.
Turn on rig sprinkler system and use fire hoses to keep fire away from personnel if
necessary during evacuation (if rig is equipped and feasible).
Establish "Hot Zone" & "Safe Area"
Establish Hot Zone Access & Egress Control
Mobilize fire fighting equipt. ASAP
Mobilize mobile firewater pumps ASAP (three with 4000 to 8000 gpm each are needed)
complete with piping and delivery system.
Firefighting equipment must not wait for blowout specialists for application of water as fire
damage to remaining rig structure, surrounding wells and process equipment must be
quickly limited.
All of the required mobile firefighting equipment (outside of country) may be located in
Europe or the USA and must be mobilized to the site.
Crew should hook up to rig deluge system if possible and activate if rig is on fire.
10.  Spray water to protect adjacent wellhead areas and production equipment.
 Spray water to protect rig equipment.
 Blow down all production lines and displace with nitrogen or water if possible (SIMOPS).
 Confirm that all adjacent wells are shut-in on subsurface safety valve and surface
valves. If possible kill offset wells.
 If possible, dump or pump out all stored combustible fluids on rig or nearby production
facilities (diesel, methanol, glycol). Displace storage vessels with water or nitrogen.
Remove any stored chemicals or pressurized containers. Even fire extinguishers can
blow up if they get too hot.
 Spray water only on those areas that are too hot. Do not extinguish fire.

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Appendix IX Guidelines to Surface Intervention, Fire Fighting and Capping Strategy

by Blow-Out Specialists

Every blowout is unique in nature. Therefore it will not be possible to predict beforehand the exact needs
for the intervention operations from start to finish, however there are similarities between one blowout
operation and another. These similarities lie in the supporting logistics. These supporting requirements
are very similar from one well to another, therefore one can with some degree of confidence predetermine
the majority of the needs before hand. Additionally, one can set forth the general guidelines and
milestones that are taken in a firefighting and capping operation. These are shown in Figure A.1 decision
tree. Here the general logic and major milestones in a capping operation are documented.

The following intervention techniques outlined in the following sections are those that may be employed
after the initial mobilization and set-up of the primary support vessels have been completed. Figure A.2
shows an Example of the ‘Work Break Down Structure’ for the tasks that need to be done for a firefighting
and capping operation. The Well Control Intervention Specialist will prepare this matrix.

Debris Removal

The initial phase of the intervention will involve clearing damaged or unnecessary equipment from the
structure. This is done to provide working room as well as to remove valuable equipment from danger.
The intervention team will attempt to approach the site under the covering water spray from either a tie-in
of the primary firewater ring or from portable fire pumps. Once on scene, the intervention team will assess
the situation and proceed accordingly. A crane is generally used to remove all accessible equipment.

Clearing debris may be difficult if there is extensive structural damage. If the well is on fire, conventional
cutting techniques (oxy/acetylene torches) can be used where possible. If the well is not on fire or when
debris must be cut out from around the burning well itself, ultra-high pressure abrasive jet cutters or
explosives may be used (explosives being the last choice).

Fire Control

To safely deal with a blowout, the intervention team must have the capability to apply large volumes of
water and control this application to a specific point. This should be done to cool the area and allow
wellhead access or to aid in the prevention of ignition while working in proximity to the flow. Portable
monitors will be placed at the point where covering firewater is needed. There are two feasible sources of
firewater. They are from:
- existing firewater ring (provided it is operational or exists on the structure)
- portable firewater pumps (from well control vendor or others)

During the intervention project, usually following debris removal, attempts will be made to place firefighting
monitors (outlets) at points that will be determined by the incident, per Figure A.3. If possible, attempts
may be made to utilize the existing deluge piping in the facility (if it exists). This has been accomplished in
the past and has proven very beneficial to the project. If the existing firewater ring is not energized, an
external tie-in of portable is recommended. This is best accomplished if a vertical riser is in place
beforehand. However, this can be installed by the intervention team if necessary.

Portable firewater monitors (type rated at 1,200 gpm) placed on the structure will provide precise
placement of water for cover and cooling purposes. Portable firewater pumps can be placed on the site
and their suctions charged by the pumps at a lagoon / river / other source of water.

Firewater application is a viable option and has certain advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is
that a fire brigade can be mobilized to the site. However, this places the brigade and the crew closer to
the problem and increases the potential for injury and damage if proper procedures are not employed.
Precise application is required to protect the intervention personnel.

Portable pumps can also be deployed to provide firewater for the intervention efforts. This
equipmentwill have to be flown in from the USA or sourced in the local market. Mobilization and rig up
takes time. While this is underway the situation can worsen (structural damage, wellhead leaks, etc.).

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Well Control is Lost
large flow & fire
Firefighting and Capping • Mobilize vehicles of

Mobilize Mobilize foreign

intervention team sourced equip.

Mobilize fifefighting Mobilize Local

equip. sourced equip.
Begin fire watch

Transport eqpt. to Gather equipment

R/U Firefighting &
well-site at Local Supply
Intervention Eqpt.

yes Decision to
clear BOP of all Mobilise moving
equipment. remove rig


Remove rig & eqpt. Remove well debris flow is vertical; make
attempt to extinquish fire

Gain wellhead

fire is
NOT extinquished
Extinguish fire Cut off wellhead

fire IS

Gain wellhead

Wellhead can be
Activate kill operations
salvaged or used to Evaluate wellhead damage
cap the wel (unlikely)

Mobilize kill
Remove damaged Selective casing cuts equipment &
wellhead component to expose inner material
(if req'd). string

Rig up and test kill

Install wellhead and
BOP stack

Install divert lines

Divert well

Commence kill

well is
NOT killed Minimum kill pump Snubbing
Shut-in / bullhead
operations operations

Observe well

Well is killed/controlled

De-mobilize kill
Secure well: cmt, equipment &
packer, plugs, etc. material

Rebuild wellhead De-mobilize kill


Well returned to normal


Figure A.1 Capping Strategy Flowchart

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it L


rt m
it L

mm rty



it L




Co Pa




pt .





it L

n/ F



I nc



it L




































Si t

Tasks Description
1 Initial evaluation X
2 Firewatch and record X
3 Mobilize vessels of opportunity X
4 Mobilize foreign emer. equip. X
5 Mobilize well control experts X
6 Supervise overall activities onsite X
6 RU barges at marine base X
7 RU firefighting equip. on barges X
8 Mob marine spread to location X
9 Mob intervention spread to location
10 Apply protective firewater X
11 Off load deck loads X
12 Install Athey wagon X
13 Install H2S equipment X
14 Remove debris X
15 Install air power ballast pumps X
16 Extinguish fire X
17 Deploy Abrasive Jet Cutter X
18 Make rough casing cut X
19 Make selective casing cuts X
20 Install emergency wellhead X
21 Install wellhead capping equip. X
22 RU diverter, kill and choke lines X
23 RU kill pumping spread X
24 Kill well X
25 Secure well (packer, cmt, etc.) X
a Install firewater equi on barge X
b Install safety equip. on barge X
c Sea trial for intervention spread X
d RU winches for barge removal X
e RU anchor system barge removal X
f Procure air op trash pumps X
g Mobilize kill pump spread X
h Mobilize kill fluid materials X
I Procure Capping Assembly X
j Procure Chokes and valves X
k Procure HP & LP lines X
l Procure Abrasive Jet Cutter System X
m Procure Kill Pump Spread X
n Arrange shipping of materials X
o Procure fabrication materials X
p Make labor contracts X
q Make fabrication contracts X
r Make marine contracts X
s Arrange air transportation X
t Procure saftey equipment X
X Primary Secondary/support

Figure A.2 Example of Work BreakDown Structure

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1 3 1 firewater ring
2 4" nipple 8 round thread

3 flanged 300 psi wp

5 butter fly valve

4 4" fig 100 hammer

union wing half outboard
2 2
5 4" bull plug

6 existing flange
existing system proposed
inplace to be added

Figure A.3 Example of a tie-in to the firewater ring for portable monitors

This pumping equipment and specially designed marine manifolds will be used for the purpose of
applying firewater for prevention of subsequent damage and to cover the intervention efforts.

If location has no firefighting capabilities, these pumps can be used exclusively. If other firefighting
capabilities are available, they can be used in conjunction with the portable pumps.

Oil and condensate accumulations can present a hazard to all working near the blowout. Measures must
be taken to prevent accumulations of flammable liquids. If significant pools develop and become difficult to
contain, additional firefighting equipment should be placed at an advantage to combat fires that may ignite
on the pool. Foam injection and blankets on the water are recommended for these purposes.

Moving Onto Location

Once sufficient working space is made available at the location, operations will be undertaken at the
wellsite. The initial and supporting approaches will generally be determined by wind direction.
Water monitors will be placed at the working area for more precise water application and protection of the
crews and equipment. All operations near the wellhead must be done with a protective and/or cooling
water spray cover. In some instances, portable cranes will be assembled on the site. This will in turn be
used for further debris removal, precise equipment placement and eventually for capping the well. In
previous operations it has been possible to place a large tracked crane (80 ton) near a burning well
provided adequate protection is provided.

Gaining Wellhead Access

With operations established at the wellsite, final debris removal can begin which will allow wellhead
access. This may require more cutting, which can be done by one of the methods previously mentioned. If
the well is on fire, all heated metal debris must be removed before the fire can be extinguished. A Venturi
tube may be placed over the well flow to raise the ignition point and consolidate the flow. This will allow
better access to the wellhead and provide a means to cool the surrounding structural steel components.
Fires which cause major structural damage, sometimes require extensive fabrication projects to re-build a
working platform around the wellhead.

Extinguishing the Fire

Once clear access to the wellhead has been established, efforts will be made to configure the flow into a
single vertical stream (if not so already). Many fires can be extinguished using water alone. Unless
obviously unsuitable, this technique will be attempted first. The Venturi tube may be used in conjunction
with the water application to improve the chances of success. If these attempts fail, explosives may be

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used to extinguish the fire. Unless major structural damage is imminent the fire may be left burning until all
preparations have been made for capping. This is done as a pollution control measure.

Wellhead, Tree And BOPE Removal

With the fire either extinguished or directed through a Venturi tube, closer inspection of the wellhead
equipment can be made. This inspection will determine whether the existing equipment can be used to
attach capping devices or if all or part of it will need to be removed. If nothing can be salvaged, the entire
wellhead and all casing strings can be cut off. More detail can be found in Chapter 6 Capping
Operations in the text “Firefighting and Blowout Control”, by L.W. Abel et al, 1994.

Control Operations

Control operations usually fall into one of two general categories; shut-in or divert. If for some reason the
well cannot be shut-in, it is common practice to divert the well and utilize a snubbing unit to either fish the
tubing/drillpipe or to snub in a kill work string (e.g. place a tubing string on bottom for kill operations).

Depending on the severity of damage, extensive structural repair may be necessary before this type of
work can proceed. If the well is to be diverted, flow lines and choke manifolds can be set in place allowing
safe operations for construction while the well is on diversion.

There are infinite scenarios for kill operations so detail is not possible in this section. Kill operations will fall
into broad categories as follows:
- bullhead after shut in
- dynamic kill through a work string
- circulate out after shut-in

The circumstances of the event will guide the intervention team to the solution that best fits the conditions
at hand. Much work may be needed to be in a position to kill the well. Careful evaluation of the integrity of
the wellhead equipment on the well and the down-hole equipment is essential. It is often the case that
judgment is the only means to guide the kill operation. A general rule for kill operations is that the stresses
induced in the kill should be kept to a minimum if there are any doubts with the pressure control
equipment on or in the well.

The chosen set-down area must allow for the possibility of a considerable amount of auxiliary equipment
such as pumping units, fluid storage & handling equipment, snubbing equipment and others.

Personnel Safety And Medical Services

The highest possible standards must be maintained with regard to personnel safety at all times. The well
control intervention team will constantly strive to insure the safest possible working environment based on
their previous experience with similar situations. However, risks will inevitably be involved with some
operations. The well control team must work with SCEPCo to properly manage and minimize these risks.

Emergency Medical equipment

There should be trained medical personnel on location with equipment to treat trauma. Their expertise
should cover burn treatment in addition to typical oil-field related injuries. Certified EMT. personnel are
available through some oil-field safety companies such as CAMCO, SABER, ISOS, etc.

Medical Services

A medical evacuation ambulance and / or helicopter should be on alert at all times to transport seriously
injured personnel to near-by medical facilities for treatment. This service should be able to provide
advanced life support during transit.

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Effective communication will be maintained as per SCEPCo Emergency Response procedures. A central
dispatching system must be arranged to control the movement of equipment and personnel (existing
system or installed after the incident occurs). This is best handled by a Emergency Control Command
Centre, set up once the incident takes place, where a radio operator continually monitors and dispatches
necessary services in conjunction with the SCEPCo project control procedures and purchasing

An independent communication link should be established between the location and the co-ordinating
SCEPCo office. Voice and data transfer capabilities will be necessary.

On-site communications are vital. Portable radios should be provided with a dedicated frequency to be
used by the personnel at the location.

Machine Shop Services

There may be occasion to construct or repair precision components of various pieces of equipment used
in the well control effort. It is recommended that a full service machine shop be available on a 24 hour
basis during the project.

General Support

There should be a pool of resources that cover labor and transportation as well as procurement and
expediting to support the well control effort. One should not lose sight of the fact that, in the end, all costs
will have to be accounted for and justified. Tracking of material and documentation of purchasing will be
essential tasks that can best be done at the time of procurement rather than after the fact.

Weather Monitoring

A recognized weather reporting/forecasting service should be employed. Daily weather reports should be
made available to the coordinating office and the personnel on location. Prior knowledge of impending
weather changes can be a valuable tool for operational planning and safety.

Personnel Quartering

If adequate facilities are not present near the location, arrangements will have to be made for housing and
feeding of the personnel on location. A 24 hour galley may be necessary as fabrication and repair projects
will likely be on-going around the clock. Laundry services will be needed for personnel staying on location.
It is expected that these needs will be met by contracting additional camp facilities.

Fire Fighting Equipment

A list can be seen in the equipment Appendix III

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Appendix X Heat Radiation Hazards

The intense heat generated by a burning well naturally restricts the operations of equipment and
personnel. The effects of heat radiation depend upon the dosage received, which is a combination of
intensity and exposure time. Radiation intensities are measured in kw/m 2 (1 kw/m2 = 317 btu/hr/ft2). The
effects on humans who are exposed to excessive heat radiation are first pain, followed by blistering
ranging from first degree up to third degree burns and finally death. The effect of increasing intensity of
radiation on humans and equipment is shown in the table below.

0.79 – 1.04 Intensity of solar radiation
Maximum level that personnel can stand for prolonged times with no
1.74 Time to pain threshold = 60 seconds
2.33 Time to pain threshold = 40 seconds
2.90 Time to pain threshold = 30 seconds
Personnel may work for several minutes without shielding but with
appropriate clothing.
Personnel may work for one minute without shielding but with appropriate
Time to pain threshold = 6 seconds. Exposure limited to a few seconds for
escape purposes only.
10 Maximum level with protective equipment
11.67 Time to pain threshold = 4 seconds
15 Damage to equipment
16 Wood spontaneously ignites

Note: Burns result quickly after pain threshold.

API RP 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressurising Systems provides the following information
on tolerable heat radiation exposure to personnel.

6.3 kW/m 2 is the heat intensity level in areas where emergency actions lasting up to 1 minute may be
required by personnel without shielding but with appropriate clothing.
5 kW/m is the heat intensity level in areas where emergency actions lasting several minutes may be
required by personnel without shielding but with appropriate clothing.
1.6 kW/m 2 is the heat intensity level where personnel without protective clothing can be continuously

Computer simulations using the Shell developed model “Blowout Hazard Evaluation” programme were
carried out to predict how heat radiation levels vary with distance from gas and oil/gas wells blowing out
and on fire.

One oil/gas blowout with 28,000 bopd and 22 mmscf/day gas and two gas emission rates of 100
mmscf/day gas and 250 mmscf/day gas were selected, using a wind speed of 1.0 m/sec.

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Sichuan Blow-Out Contingency Plan

Heat Radiation Level Distance from Blowout Well (metres)

Gas Gas
kW/m2 28,000 bopd +
100 mmscf/day 250 mmscf/day
22 mmscf /day
1.6 133 146 100
5 35 48 41
10 12 22 32
Maximum Heat Radiation
15.5 kW/m2 22.1 kW/m2 45.2 kW/m2
Level Expected

The above example should be used only as a guide for contingency planning purposes. If possible a new
analysis with more recent software may yield more accurate results but the numbers above are sufficient
as a planning tool. In actual emergencies, radiation levels will have to be judged according to conditions
prevailing at the time. Beware of changes in wind direction and speed, which could make a previously
safe place to work unsafe.

Light clothing increases permitted exposure levels of radiation energy by up to 10 times that capable of
being withstood by bare skin. Water curtains and sprays offer good protection. Better protection is offered
by placing a reflective shield or solid object between the exposed person and the source, e.g. corrugated
metal sheeting. An aluminized heat protection suit can offer protection up to about 15 kW/m 2.

It should be emphasized that working in high heat radiation zones is extremely dangerous and should only
be attempted by well-trained and experienced people who are physically fit and drug free.

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PetroChina/Shell Sichuan Gas Joint Project

Sichuan Blow-Out Contingency Plan

Appendix XI Noise Hazards

Noise can produce an impairment of hearing, which is known, as noise induced hearing loss, which can
be either temporary or permanent, depending on the type and the amount of exposure. The effect that
noise has on people depends upon the level and duration of exposure. In the case of a blowout, which
last for a limited time, hearing impairment due to noise is likely to be temporary.

It is recommended that the maximum noise level people may be exposed to without protection is 85 dB(A)
for an eight hour working day. No persons should be exposed to steady noise levels above 115dB(A)
irrespective of duration or to impulse noise levels above 135dB(A), with or without hearing protection.

Sleeping accommodation should be sited far enough away from the blowout so that the noise levels inside
the quarters are restricted to 45dB(A) or less.

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PetroChina/Shell Sichuan Gas Joint Project

Sichuan Blow-Out Contingency Plan

Appendix XII Hazards from Explosive Atmospheres

Hydrocarbons form explosive mixtures with air in the range of approximately 4% by volume (lower
explosion limit – LEL) to 15% by volume (higher explosion limit). The examples shown in the following
table were developed using the Shell model “Blowout Hazard Evaluation” programme for inclusion in the
SCEPCo Blowout Contingency Plan.

Gas Flow Wind Speed Distance to Boundary (metres)

mmscf/day m/sec LEL ½ LEL ¼ LEL
22 1 3 3 6
100 1 4 11 30
250 1 5 16 40
22 7 3 7 15
100 7 4 25 47
250 7 12 40 85

No spark or heat producing equipment should be used in atmospheres containing more than 2% by
volume hydrocarbons, i.e. ½ LEL level.

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