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‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻢ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺪﻭﺭ‬

‫ﭼﮑﻴﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺟﻮﺵﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺩﺭﺳﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۴۰۴۳‬ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻠﺰ‬
‫ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺩ ﺗﻨﮕﺴﺘﻨﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺵﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺯﻣﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‪ -‬ﺩﻣﺎ )‪ (T-fs‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۴۰۴۳‬ﻭ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﻫﻴﭻﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ‪ T-fs‬ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،۶۰۶۱‬ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‪-‬ﺩﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬

‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻫﻪ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺩﺭﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻱ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎ ﺟﻮﺵ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬
‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ‪ 6xxx ،2xxx‬ﻭ ‪ 7xxx‬ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬
‫ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ )‪١ (PMZ‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ )‪٢ (FZ‬ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ..‬ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﮐﺴﺮ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺷﻮﺩ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻁ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻧﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﮑﻞ ﻭ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻧﮓ ﻧﺰﻥ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺁﺳﺘﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﮑﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻫﻪ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻄﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻬﺎﺭ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﻨﺶ ﮐﺸﺸﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﮑﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺬﺍﺏ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‬
‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ]‪ .[1‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎﹰ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭﺕ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻳﻮﺗﮑﺘﻴﮏ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ‬
‫ﺳﻮﻟﻴﺪﻭﺱ )ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻧﺤﻼﻝ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ( ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ .‬ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺯ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺥ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﺍﻧﮓ‪ ،٣‬ﭘﺎﻥ‪ ٤‬ﻭ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﻞ‪ ٥‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺟﻮﺵ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪Partially melted Zone‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪Fusion Zone‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪Y.M. Zhang‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪C. Pan‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪A.T. Male‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ]‪ .[2‬ﻣﺘﺰﮔﺮ‪ ١‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ Al-Mg‬ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ‪٢ GTAW‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ Al-Si‬ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪ]‪ .[3‬ﮔﻴﺘﻮﺱ‪ ٣‬ﻭ ﺍﺳﮑﺎﺕ‪ ٤‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻱ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۸۲‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻨﺪ]‪ .[4‬ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﺳﻮﻟﻴﺪﻭﺱ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﺳﻮﻟﻴﺪﻭﺱ ﻓﻠﺰ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﺍﺕ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ‬
‫‪[5]٥‬‬
‫ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪pandat‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺷﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﺳﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۴۰۴۳‬ﻭ ‪۵۳۵۶‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ۱‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺯﻣﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺪﻭﺭ )‪٦ (CPT‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ‪.‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﮐﻠﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺁﺯﻣﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪-۱‬ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -۲‬ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -۳‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺟﻬﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪G.E. Metzger‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪Gas Tungsten Arc Welding‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪N.F. Gittos‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪M.H. Scott‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪Pandat‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪Circular Patch Test‬‬
‫ﺷﻤﺎﻱ ﮐﻠﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۱‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ ۱۰۰× ۱۰۰ × ۴ mm‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
‫‪ ۵‬ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪ ۸ mm‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ‪ ۴‬ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻮﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﺶ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ‬
‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۱‬ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﮏ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺯﻧﮓ ﻧﺰﻥ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺴﻲ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺴﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪ ۱۵۲×۱۵۲×۱۵ mm‬ﻭ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺴﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ‪ ، ۱۵۲×۱۵۲ mm‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪ ۱۵ mm‬ﻭ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ‪ ۷۳ mm‬ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺴﻲ ﻭ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺴﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺯﻧﮓ ﻧﺰﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ‪۲۰۳×۲۰۳×۲۵ mm‬‬
‫ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻞ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻋﻤﻼﹼ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺧﻲ ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳﺮﻱ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻱ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻗﻼﻭﻳﺰ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﺤﮑﻢ‬
‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺑﮑﺲ ‪ ،10 rpm‬ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ) ﭼﺮﺥ ﺩﻧﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻳﻢ ﻭ‬
‫‪ (...‬ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﻮﺳﻲ ﺗﻨﮕﺴﺘﻦ‪-‬ﮔﺎﺯ )‪ (GTAW‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ۲‬ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ‪ %۴۸‬ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭ ﻓﻠﻮﺋﻮﺭﻳﮏ )‪ (HF‬ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺷﺪ‪.‬ﺳﭙﺲ ﻋﮑﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﺳﮑﻮﭘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﭘﻮﻟﻴﺶ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬
‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻫﺮ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ‪ ۱‬ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫) راﺑﻄﻪ ‪( 1‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻭ ﺑﺤﺚ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ۳‬ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻠﻲ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺻﻮﻻ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﺰﻡ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ]‪ .[1‬ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ )ﺗﺮﮎ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ( ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ )ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ( ﺭﺥ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﻨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ]‪ .[6,1‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺑﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺯﻭﺩ ﺫﻭﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺬﺍﺏ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻧﺪﺭﻳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ]‪.[7,1‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۲‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﺳﮑﻮﭘﻲ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۳‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﺳﮑﻮﭘﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۴۰۴۳‬ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭﮐﻪ ﺩﺭﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۴‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪۴۰۴۳‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‪،‬ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﻣﺬﮐﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﭘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺕ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۴‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ‪ %۴۰‬ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ۳‬ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ‪ %۴۰‬ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ‪Al – 0.42Si – :‬‬
‫‪ . 3.36Mg‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ ﻗﻄﺮﺍﺗﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﮑﻞ ‪ ۵‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﺳﮑﻮﭘﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ ۶‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ) ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ (۶۰۶۱‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ )ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ( ۲‬ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ‬
‫ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ) ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ۶۰‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ( %۹۰‬ﮐﺴﺮ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﻋﮑﺲ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ‪%۴۰‬‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ‪ ۴‬ﻭ ‪۵‬‬
‫ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺣﻮﺿﭽﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻠﺰﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۴۰۴۳‬ﻭ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﺩﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬

‫‪ -۱‬ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -۲‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۴۰۴۳‬ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻲ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﮐﻪ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -۳‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﻲ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ‪ %۴۰‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﮎ‬%۶۰ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬
.‫ ﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬%۴۰ ‫ﺫﻭﺑﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

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Sons.
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Aluminum alloy weldments using a Double-Sided Arc Welding Process,
Metallurgical and Materials Transaction, 2000, Volume 31A.
3. Metzger, G. E. Some mechanical properties of welds in 6061 aluminum alloy sheet,
Welding Journal, 2003, 457-s to 469-s.
4. Gittos, N. F., and Scott, M. H. Heat affected zone cracking of Al-Mg-Si alloys.
Welding Journal, 1983 95-s to 103-s.
5. Pandat – Phase diagram calculation software package for multicomponent systems,
CompuTherm LLC, Madison, Wis., 53719, 2001.
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based on temperature vs. fraction solid. Welding Journal, 2006, 9-s to 18-s.
7. Haung, C., and Kou, S. Liquation cracking in full penetration Al-Mg-Si welds.
Welding Journal, 2004, 111-s to 122-s.

‫ ﺍﺷﮑﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬

‫ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻭ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻭﺯﻧﻲ‬-۱‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬

Mg Si Cu Mn Zn Ti Cr Fe

6061 0.91 0.68 0.23 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.19 0.44

4043 0.05 5.20 0.30 0.05 0.10 0.20 ---- 0.80

5356 5.00 0.25 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.40

‫ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ‬-۲‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎري‬ ‫زاوﯾﻪ ﻣﺸﻌﻞ از ﺧﻂ ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺸﻌﻞ‬ ‫وﻟﺘﺎژ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬
‫‪1.7 rpm‬‬ ‫‪30°‬‬ ‫‪2.5 mm‬‬ ‫‪14 V‬‬ ‫‪130 A‬‬ ‫‪-----‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪1.7 rpm‬‬ ‫‪30°‬‬ ‫‪3.7 mm‬‬ ‫‪14 V‬‬ ‫‪140 A‬‬ ‫‪4043‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1.7 rpm‬‬ ‫‪30°‬‬ ‫‪3.7 mm‬‬ ‫‪14 V‬‬ ‫‪135 A‬‬ ‫‪5356‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ - ۳‬ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺣﻮﺿﭽﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺰاج )‪(%‬‬ ‫‪Mg‬‬ ‫‪Si‬‬ ‫‪Cu‬‬ ‫‪Mn‬‬ ‫‪Zn‬‬

‫‪6061‬‬ ‫‪------‬‬ ‫‪0.91‬‬ ‫‪0.68‬‬ ‫‪0.23‬‬ ‫‪0.07‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬

‫‪6061\4043‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪0.47‬‬ ‫‪2.94‬‬ ‫‪0.26‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.07‬‬

‫‪6061\5356‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪3.36‬‬ ‫‪0.42‬‬ ‫‪0.27‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.08‬‬

‫]‪[7‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ -۴‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ‪6061\5356‬‬

‫اﻣﺘﺰاج)‪(%‬‬ ‫‪Mg‬‬ ‫‪Si‬‬ ‫‪Cu‬‬ ‫‪Mn‬‬ ‫‪Zn‬‬ ‫‪Al‬‬


‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪4.59‬‬ ‫‪0.29‬‬ ‫‪0.11‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.09‬‬ ‫‪Remain‬‬
‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪4.18‬‬ ‫‪0.33‬‬ ‫‪0.12‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.09‬‬ ‫‪Remain‬‬
‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪3.70‬‬ ‫‪0.37‬‬ ‫‪0.13‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.08‬‬ ‫‪Remain‬‬
‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪3.30‬‬ ‫‪0.42‬‬ ‫‪0.15‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.08‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪2.95‬‬ ‫‪0.46‬‬ ‫‪0.16‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.07‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪60‬‬ ‫‪2.54‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪0.17‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.07‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪2.13‬‬ ‫‪0.55‬‬ ‫‪0.19‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪80‬‬ ‫‪1.72‬‬ ‫‪0.59‬‬ ‫‪0.20‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪90‬‬ ‫‪1.31‬‬ ‫‪0.63‬‬ ‫‪0.21‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬

‫]‪[7‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ -۵‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻮﺷﮑﺎﺭﻱ ‪6061\4043‬‬

‫اﻣﺘﺰاج)‪(%‬‬ ‫‪Mg‬‬ ‫‪Si‬‬ ‫‪Cu‬‬ ‫‪Mn‬‬ ‫‪Zn‬‬ ‫‪Al‬‬


‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪0.13‬‬ ‫‪4.74‬‬ ‫‪0.29‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.09‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪0.22‬‬ ‫‪4.29‬‬ ‫‪0.29‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.09‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪3.84‬‬ ‫‪0.28‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.08‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪0.40‬‬ ‫‪3.39‬‬ ‫‪0.27‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪0.08‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪0.48‬‬ ‫‪2.94‬‬ ‫‪0.26‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.07‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪60‬‬ ‫‪0.56‬‬ ‫‪2.48‬‬ ‫‪0.26‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.07‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪0.65‬‬ ‫‪2.03‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪80‬‬ ‫‪0.73‬‬ ‫‪1.54‬‬ ‫‪0.24‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬
‫‪90‬‬ ‫‪0.82‬‬ ‫‪1.13‬‬ ‫‪0.23‬‬ ‫‪0.06‬‬ ‫‪0.05‬‬ ‫‪remain‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ -١‬ﺑﺎﻻ‪ -‬ﻧﻤﺎﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‪ -‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻣﺪﻭﺭ‬
‫]‪[6‬‬
‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ - ۲‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ - ۳‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪۴۰۴۳‬‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ - ۴‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ، 6061\4043‬ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ‪) %۸۰-۴۰‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ(‬
‫]‪[7‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﮎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ - ۵‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪ ۶۰۶۱‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ۵۳۵۶‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻣﺘﺰﺍﺝ ‪%۴۰‬‬

‫]‪[7‬‬
‫ﺷﮑﻞ‪ -۶‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﮐﺴﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﮊ ‪6061\5356‬‬