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10/14/2017 GV 219 d Bombenrichtgerät

I. Introduction

IV. Operation

- Bombenrichtgerät . Fl. 52375-1-

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I. Introduction :

In order to be able to throw successfully from a plane bomber to a target, some values must be known whose consideration in a target device indicates the correct time for triggering the
bombs. Similar to a shooter, in order to hit a moving target, his weapon must be held at a certain angle in the direction of the flight, the bomb must be dropped before the plane has flown
over the target.
Therefore, in order to be able to carry out the bombing against fixed or moving targets, knowledge of the lead angle is necessary ( Fig. 1 ).

Fig.1

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In order to achieve the greatest possible security, the bombs of the various weights are designed in their outer shape in such a way that they all exhibit the fall curve. In these experiments
and findings, the 50 kg bomb was chosen as the starting type. The "cylinder bombs" represent in their form a compromise between the aerodynamic favorable drop shape and the
question of accommodating as large a bubble as possible.

1 SC 50 3 SC 250 5 SD 1000 7 SD 1400 9 SC 2000

2 PD 500 4 SC 500 6 SC 1000 8 SC 1800 10 SC 2500

At the moment the bomb leaves the plane, it has its own speed. It is now halted by the draft; vertically, it receives a fall acceleration due to the attraction force of the earth. By this action,
the fall curve is a parabola ( throw line ).

The falling speed is the same for all bombs of the Luftwaffe in this form ( 1939-40 ), except the fire bombs. This simplifies the whole bomb dropping considerably. When dropping, we
now have to consider 2 different throwing angles, the lead angle and the return angle.

- The forward angle (Phi) is the angle formed by the line of sight between the aircraft and the target at the moment of dropping and the vertical to the ground.

It is dependent on the dropping height and / or falling time and the speed above ground. The discharge height can be read off at the altimeter; only the difference in altitude between
location and destination as well as the barometric changes (air pressure) caused by the changeable weather conditions must be considered. The fall time can be taken from the fall curves.

- The speed over ground is the speed of the aircraft in relation to a point on the earth.

- on the contrary: aircraft = speed of the own minus wind speed:

- in the case of backwind: aircraft = own speed plus wind speed.

Rho is the angle formed by the line of sight between the aircraft and the target at the moment of the impact of the bomb and the vertical of the earth.

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It is dependent on the launch altitude, the aircraft speed, the type of bomb and its suspension, whether horizontal or vertical. The discharge height is read off at the altimeter, the aircraft's
own speed at the speedometer (static pressure gauge). Working with bomb targets is only useful if - during throwing, HEIGHT and COURSE do not change!

Bomb type and suspension for the respective intended use are only the given experience values into question.

For modern optical devices, a determination of the basic speed is also possible without overflying a specific measuring path .

The following statements can be made about the size of the retraction path. If we look at two identical bombs, the bomb, which falls out of a higher altitude, is exposed to the air
resistance, and the bomb is relatively far behind , which was thrown out of the fast-flying aircraft, as the air resistance increases with the speed. If, however, the velocity and the height
are the same, two different bombs will be braked with the one which, as a result of their external form, offer more resistance to the air. Further, it could be mentioned that the type of
suspension of the bombs in the airplane is also influenced by the return.

All previous considerations were for bomb throwing. However, if there is wind, the bomber's path relative to the aircraft is not affected if the wind is directed directly from the front or
from the rear against the aircraft. In this case, only the speed of the aircraft above the ground is changed by the wind speed, ie, the speed of the aircraft over ground vg is equal to the sum
self-speed ve of the aircraft and wind speed vw. The bomb of the bomb is therefore only dependent on the velocity in the air, and not on the velocity over ground Vg. It remains
unchanged in this case.

If there is a side wind, the plane and the bomb are driven out of their orbit. The aircraft does not move above the ground in the direction of its longitudinal axis, but it pushes at an angle
to this, the side-pivot angle a. The speed of the aircraft over ground vg can be represented as the result of the eigenspeedve ve and the wind speed vw in the triangle depicted in Fig . The
jerk of the bomb does not take place in the direction of the flight, but in the direction of the aircraft axis, since, as already mentioned, it depends only on the direction and speed of the
aircraft in the air. The bomb thus hits a point on the earth not in Z 'but in Z.

In modern fully automatic bombing, however, the target can be felled in any direction to the wind since the lateral wind is automatically turned off by a special device with sufficient
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accuracy.
Some of the most common bombshell targets at the beginning of the war in Germany were the simple mechanical Goerz visor GV. 219!

Here the GV 219 "e" with three visor wires and angled visor frame!

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II. General information

The Bombenrichtgeräte or Goerz Visiere are so far known to us in the following remarks. These are the series GV 219 "b", "c", "d", "e", "g" and the "Z II" !

The series GV 219 "c" "e" and "Z II" had three visor wires in the visor frame which is also angled!

In principle, all GV 219 visors have the same basic values as the abeso bomber gauge in their operation! The scale plates could be changed to the different types of aircraft depending on
the speed. Only on the GV 219 Z II is the stopwatch attached directly to the visor.

The Bomberrichtgerät "GV 219" is a simple mechanical Bombenziel device from the company Goerz, which using the stopwatch as well as the measurement of the flight speed over
ground, the lead angle and thus the time for the bomb dropping. Thus also the determination of the lead angle for the bomb dropping.

Before the actual destination is reached, the sighting operation of the straightening device is initiated by means of a "speed measurement" of the aircraft. The time required to fly the
ground length thus set is stopped and set on the device. This setting gives the correct lead angle. At the same time, the longitudinal and transverse lobes have to be inserted.

The device was installed either on the right outside panel or above a floor hatch of the observer's room. In this case, the field of view must be free from the solder line at least 70 ° ahead.
This also applied for up to + 20 ° lateral drift of the machine!

In the air stream, the device was allowed to be driven at an altitude of more than 200 km / h only in an emergency.

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Drawing of the GV 219 "c" with three visor lines in the visor frame

III. main parts

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The GV 219 essentially consists of a base plate, on which the viewing beam is rotatably mounted and is clamped after the longitudinal bubble has been inserted. The sighting slit is
attached to the upper end of the wearer; at the lower end of the visor frame with the crosshairs and the grain bead. This system can be adjusted horizontally using the longitudinal bubble.

Seven different scale plates, corresponding to an average speed of the aircraft of 180, 210, 240, 270, 310, 350 and 390 km / h, can be inserted as required on Viesierschlitten itself.

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Base plate with 3 suspension slots

sight carrier
clamping lever
carrier
Rotary axis with wing screw
Target mark
crosshairs
Scale for setting the side tipping
Visible slides with locking lever
Longitudinal and transverse lobes
night lighting

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IV. Operation
After the bomber has targeted a target and has adjusted his visor, the aircraft is no longer allowed to change its altitude and speed, but the target must be fired at the same altitude and
speed.

The sight is adjusted by first setting the height above the target or auxiliary target to the middle slit of the scale by releasing the locking lever and shifting the sighting slit. The
longitudinal and transverse lobes are then inserted and the carrier is secured by tightening the clamping lever. The pointer of the Visierkimme is adjusted to the cross-bible.

Before the approach to a bomb destination, the speed must be measured above the ground. For this purpose, an auxiliary target is selected and the sighting slider is adjusted to the height
of the machine. Thereafter, the stopwatch is triggered when the target enters the sighting line provided by the sight and grain. The visor slider is then pushed as far as the front stop.

If the route has now been straight-lined, ie the auxiliary target has entered the visor line the second time, the time required for this is stopped.

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The specified number of seconds is now set on the scale plate, and the dashed line of the row ejection scale is used as the setting line on the setting frame. The row ejection scale
indicates the row template as% of the height. In the case of a single stroke, the specially marked "0" -string of the series-casting groove is used as the adjusting strip.

In the case of a row drop, the 1st bomb is to be knocked around the row throwing template V, before the target, nevertheless the goal itself is abandoned. This is achieved by shifting the
visor slide back by the row-thrown shed reduced in proportion to the height. That is, a distance which is given by the ratio of row ejection template V (in m) divided by ejection height h
(in mm) and thus indicates the line projection template in% of the airports.

Description GV 219 "b" pdf. File size 3 MB

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An example:

For a throw from 2000 (20 hm) a stop time of 22.5 sec. measured. A series of 9 (nine) bombs with a 30 m
strike distance are to be thrown, so that the center of the target - "the point of collapse" - coincides with
the center of the bomb row. The first bomb of the series mus is thus about the row throwing template V
equal 120 m before the goal.

Therefore, the dash 6% of the row ejection scale (12 cm divided by 20 mm) must be used as an adjusting
strip, and this dash 6% to the stop time of 22.5 sec. be made.

Here, in the example of GV 219 "e"

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The device must be protected from damage, as well as from permanent nails. Furthermore, it must always be kept in clean condition and free from dust and dirt. The contact strips must
be clean, but they must not be greased. The stopwatches can be compared from time to time at various temperatures (0 ° C and -30 ° C) with a faultless clock.

The GV 219 must be adjusted when installed in the machine. At the same time, the machine has to be jacked up and put into the balance. An adjustment rod is then set up in an extension
of the longitudinal axis of the aircraft at a distance of 100 m. With this bar parallel, the loading port of the GV 219 must be positioned.

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GV 219 "d" Side view with the mounting plate - longitudinal adjustment!

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VI. Technical specifications

Manufacturer: Goerz
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Workspace:

1000 m altitude between 60 km / h and 350 km /

h
4000 m altitude between 110 km / h and 730 km /
h
6000 m height between 140 km / h and 900 km /
h

weights:

1 instrument Fl. 52375-1 approx. 2 kg

1 transport box with accessories Fl.
approx. 4.5 kg
52375

Aircraft types:

GV 219 is used, among other things, in the following types of aircraft: Fockwulf Fw 58 , Focke Wulf 189 , Junkers Ju 52 etc.

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Fitting in the Focke Wulf Fw 189 GV 219 d in the flight direction in the Fw 189

images

Mechanical bomber straightener Goerz Visier GV 219 d

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"Bombing doctrine"

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series

GV 219 "d" ( GV = Goerz Visor )

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Mechanical bomber straightener Goerz Visier GV 219 e

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With three visor wires in the visor frame

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Mechanical bomb straightener Goerz Visier GV 219 g

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GV 219 "g" in the transport box

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mechanical bomber straightener Goerz Visier GV 219 Z II

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GV 219 "Z II" with attached stopwatch

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The stopwatch to the GV 219 "Z II"

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Discharge drawing to GV 219 "Z II"

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Description GV 219 "Z II" in English language

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Spare part list of the Fw 189 Fw 189 "UHU" (Picture: Revell) Bombing at work Fw 58

...... back to the beginning

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