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Chapter 25.4 Chapter 25.

What is Osmosis? Disposal of nitrogenous wastes


 animals regulate their uptake and loss of fluids  nitrogenous wastes result from the breakdown of
 movement of water across a selectively permeable proteins and nucleic acids
membrane  disposal is through excretion (final homeostatic control
 from lower solute concentration to higher solute of homeostasis)
concentration
Ammonia
Osmoregulation in animals  waste product of most aquatic animals
 homeostatic control  too toxic to be stored in the body
 gain/loss of water and solutes  highly soluble
 diffuses rapidly across cell membranes
Animal cells  formed when amino groups (-NH2) are removed from
 gain of water = swell and burst amino and nucleic acids
 loss of water = shrivel and die  if surrounded by water, ammonia is easily diffused from
the body
There are 2 kinds of animals when it comes to osmoregulation  fishes excrete through the gills
 osmoconformers  planarians (flat worms) excrete across their whole body
 osmoregulators surface

Osmoconformers Land animals


 do not gain nor lose water  ammonia excretion does not work well with them
 solute concentration of their body fluids is equal to that  they must convert ammonia to less toxic compounds like
of seawater urea or uric acid, safely transported, and stored in the
 no challenges when it comes to water balance body
 there are other specific solutes (other than salt found in  released by the urinary system
seawater) that they must actively transport to maintain
homeostasis Adult amphibians
 they only do necessary means to maintain homeostasis  excrete urea
when the situation calls for it  produced in the vertebrae liver by a metabolic cycle that
combines ammonia with carbon dioxide
Osmoregulators  transported to the kidneys by the circulatory system
 solute concentration of their body fluids differ from their  can be stored in a concentrated solution, but must be
environment diluted with water for disposal
 they must actively regulate water movement  some animals can switch between excreting ammonia
and urea, depending on environmental conditions
Fresh water fish
 higher solute concentration inside their body than their Land animals
environment  some excrete uric acid
 it must constantly gain water by osmosis through its  avoid water loss completely
body surface and gills  relatively nontoxic
 but as it gains water, they also lose salt in the process  unlike ammonia and urea, it is insoluble in water
 so it must also actively take in salt (from their food)  thus, water is not used to dilute it
through their gills  excreted as a semisolid paste
 disposal of excess water in the form of urine  more energy is needed to excrete uric acid
 but this loss is balanced by the great savings of body
Seawater fish water
 lower solute concentration inside their body than their
environment Reproduction
 loses water by osmosis across its body surfaces  urea
 but it also gains salt by diffusion and from its food  can diffuse out of a shell-less egg
 balances the water loss by taking in large amounts of  or carried away from an embryo in the mother's blood
seawater, balances solutes inside its body, pump out  uric acid
excess salt through the gills  for shelled eggs (by birds and other reptiles) that are not
permeable to liquids
Evolutionary advantages
 precipitates out of a solution and can remain as a
 insects; tough exoskeletons with waterproof wax, helps harmless solid thats left behind once the animal hatches
conserve water (barrier to movement of water into or out
of the insect's body)
 humans; outer skin made of water-resistant cells,
minimizes surface water loss
 kidney; conserves water
 land animals; maintain water balance by drinking and
eating moist foods, produce water metabolically through
cellular respiration, loss of water through urine and
feces and across the skin