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MINA ABDULLA REFINERY


OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT

OPERATING MANUAL

  HYDROCRACKER
 

 
UNIT-14
 

   

VOLUME - 1
 

REVISION 03
2013
 
 
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

OPERATING MANUAL

Revision – 03, 2013

This manual is the second revised version of the original operating manual, incorporating
updated information regarding facilities added, data changed and changes in operating
procedures based on many years of operational experience since the last revision in 1997.

The first revision was done in house by

P.V. Chidambaram
Salah H. S. Al-Khaiyat
Shamimul Haq Al-Haq
&
Manuel S. Correos

Information for the following has been provided and/or reviewed by

 Process Engineering division for Process Technology and Design basis.


 Engg. & Services division for Equipment data, drawings and sketches
 Rotating Equipment division for major rotating equipment.
 Instrument Maintenance division for Instrumentation

and co-ordinated by
K. V. Raju

The second revision was carried out in house


by
Matrouk Al-Enizi
Ebrahim Al-Wesais
&
Reviewed by
Salah H. Al-Khaiyat
Supdt., Operations, Area-3

Operating Manual revision work is coordinated and supervised by Operations Training Cell
under

Yousef Al-Saddah
Training Cell, Section Head
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

The third revision was carried out in house

by
Hamad Al-Kandari
Abdulaziz Al-Musalam
Manuel S. Correos
&
Reviewed by
Hani Al-Marzouq
Team Leader, Operations, Area-3

Operating Manual revision work is coordinated and supervised by Operations Training Cell
under

Ibrahim Al-Khulaifi
Training Cell, Section Head
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

INTRODUCTION

Hydrocracker Unit-14 converts the low priced Vacuum Gas Oil to valuable
products such as LPG, Naphtha, ATK and gas oil by a catalytic process under
high pressure and temperature in presence of Hydrogen.

This unit was engineered by erstwhile C.F. Braun & Co., a subsidiary of Santa Fe
International Corporation, for Mina Abdulla Refinery of KNPC.

The unit design was based on process technology licensed by Chevron USA and
was initially commissioned in November, 1988.

The information for the above unit has been provided under the following
ten chapters :
1. PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & DESIGN BASIS

2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION

3. PROCESS VARIABLES AND CONTROLS

4. START-UP PROCEDURE

5. SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE

6. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

7. EQUIPMENT

8. INSTRUMENTATION

9. OTHER INFORMATION

10. DIAGRAMS
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 1 of 9

REVISION HISTORY

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


2.2.1.1 “Atmospheric gas oil (AGO) …” 14-2-01 03 2013
2.2.1.1 “All three pumps are protected…” 14-2-03 03 2013
2.6.8 “NITROGEN SYSTEM (GI)” 14-2-35 03 2013
3.2.1.2 “The feed to the unit is ..” 14-3.2-02 03 2013
3.2.1.3 “Additional local PDI is provided …” 14-3.2-03 03 2013
3.2.1.4 “either to the blowdown …” 14-3.2-03 03 2013
3.2.1.6 “with the downstream line …” 14-3.2-04 03 2013
“flow indication …” under item no. 2
3.2.1.12 14-3.2-07 03 2013
and sub-item a.
“EA-14-101 by P-14-105A/B/C …” under
3.2.1.13 14-3.2-08 03 2013
item no. 1
3.2.1.15 “… 11,990 rpm.” under item no. 1 14-3.2-08 03 2013
“Separation seal gas control” under item
3.2.1.15 no. 3 (previously under “Buffer gas 14-3.2-09 03 2013
make-up H2” deleted)
3.2.2.2 “wherein the downstream line …” 14-3.2-10 03 2013
3.2.2.8 “if in case during normal two stage …” 14-3.2-13 03 2013
“Separation seal gas control” under item
3.2.2.11
no. 3(previously under “Buffer gas make- 14-3.2-14 03 2013
up H2” deleted)
3.2.4.4 “either to the blowdown header …” 14-3.2-20 03 2013
“provided with temperature controller
3.2.4.7 14-3.2-23 03 2013
…” under item no. 2
“TC-369A / TC-369B …” under item no.
3.2.4.7 14-3.2-23 03 2013
2
3.2.4.7 “TC-623 …” under item no. 3 14-3.2-23 03 2013
“by local mounted HIC-
3.2.4.7 210/214/218/222/230/234/302/305…” - 14-3.2-23 03 2013
deleted
“Since the reflux drum temperature …” -
3.2.4.7 14-3.2-23 03 2013
deleted
“Since the reflux drum temperature …” -
3.2.4.7 14-3.2-23 03 2013
deleted
“working independently from each
3.2.6.4 14-3.2-29 03 2013
other…”
3.2.6.4 “PC-195B closes and PC-195A …” 14-3.2-29 03 2013
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 2 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


3.2.7.3 “either blowdown or gas recovery line.” 14-3.2-30 03 2013
DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL BY
3.3 14-3.3-00 03 2013
COMPUTER APPLICATION GROUP
DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL BY
3.4 14-3.4-00 03 2013
ASPEN TECH
“their DGS system and lube oil console
4.1.1.1 14-4-01 03 2013
…” under item no. 5
“headers for process used …” under
4.1.1.2 14-4-02 03 2013
item no. 3
“Carry out reactor system …” under item no.
4.1.1.3 14-4-05 03 2013
1
“Line up and commission …” under item
4.1.1.3 14-4-05 03 2013
no. 3
“Blind buffer gas connections …” item
4.1.2.7 14-4-15 03 2013
no. 2 - deleted
“Buffer gas to C-14-102 …” under item
4.1.3.1 14-4-16 03 2013
no. 2 - deleted
“Remove the blind from buffer gas …”
4.1.3.2 14-4-19 03 2013
under item no. 8 - deleted
“P-14-103 sulfiding pump …” under
4.1.4.1 14-4-26 03 2013
item no. 8
“Meanwhile, bring up system pressure
4.1.4.4 14-4-28 03 2013
…” under item no. 5 - deleted
“Commission buffer gas to compressor
4.1.4.4 14-4-28 03 2013
…” under and item no. 7 - deleted
“At 300 psig reactor system …” under
4.1.4.4 14-4-28 03 2013
item no. 6
“There are two types …”
4.1.4.6 14-4-29 03 2013

4.1.4.6 “Dry phase sulfiding procedure” 14-4-29 03 2013


390oF prior to the introduction of DMDS.
4.1.4.6 14-4-29 03 2013
(425-450oF) - deleted
4.1.4.6 “Once it confirmed that DMDS …” 14-4-29 03 2013
under item no. 1
4.1.4.6 “Liquid phase sulfiding procedure” 14-4-31 03 2013
Carry out reactor system leak test (Carry
4.2.1.2 14-4-45 03 2013
out initial system – deleted)
4.1.6 “DMC…” under item no. 7 14-4-42 03 2013
“After the initial system pressure-
4.2.1.3 up…”(After successfully testing vacuum 14-4-45 03 2013
– deleted)
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 3 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


“Carry out evacuation and Nitrogen
4.2.1.3 14-4-45 03 2013
pressuring steps” – deleted. (Item no. 2)
“Line up and commission the DGS
4.2.1.3 14-4-46 03 2013
…” under item no. 8
“Remove blind from buffer gas line..”
4.2.3 14-4-46 03 2013
under item no. 1 - deleted
4.2.4 “Provide a high pressure …” 14-4-48 03 2013
4.2.9.1 Meanwhile, bring up system pressure 14-4-50 03 2013
“At 300 psig reactor system pressure”
4.2.9.1 14-4-50 03 2013
under revised item no. 7
“With recycle gas circulating normal”
4.2.9.1 14-4-50 03 2013
under previous item no. 8 - deleted
“Commission buffer gas to compressor”
4.2.9.1 14-4-50 03 2013
under item no. 8 – deleted.
“Stop make-up compressor in unit-18”
4.2.9.1 14-4-50 03 2013
under previous item no. 9 – deleted.
“After introducing Hydrogen to” under
4.2.9.1 14-4-50 03 2013
revised item no. 8
4.2.9.3 “NOTE: The following procedures” 14-4-51 03 2013
o
“390 F prior to the introduction”
4.2.9.3 14-4-51 03 2013
under item no. 1
4.2.9.3 “Flow rate of” under item no. 1 14-4-51 03 2013
o
4.2.9.3 “450 F” under item no. 4 & 6 14-4-52 03 2013
4.2.9.3 “70%” under item no. 8 14-4-52 03 2013
4.2.9.3 650oF and 630oF under item no. 9 14-4-52 03 2013
4.2.9.3 “4 hrs.” under item no. 13 14-4-53 03 2013
4.2.9.3 “650oF and 630oF” under item no. 13 14-4-53 03 2013
4.2.9.3 “Liquid phase sulfiding procedure” 14-4-53 03 2013
o
4.2.10.1 “425 F” under item no. 1 14-4-54 03 2013
“Make sure fresh feed” under item no.
4.2.10.3 14-4-54 03 2013
2
“Increase feed rate to 23,000 BPD …”
4.2.10.4 14-4-56 03 2013
under item no. 15
“Monitor the effect of fractionator …”
4.2.10.4 14-4-56 03 2013
under item no. 20 - deleted
4.2.11 “DMC” under item no. 5 14-4-59 03 2013
4.2.11 “DCS/FSC” under item no. 8 14-4-59 03 2013
“Pressure up the system…” bar chart sr
4.3 14-4-60 03 2013
no. 2
4.3 “Carry out vacuum …” bar chart sr. n. 3 14-4-60 03 2013
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 4 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


“Commission recycle gas …” bar chart sr
4.3 14-4-60 03 2013
no. 9
“Heat-up reactor inlet …” bar chart sr no.
4.3 14-4-61 03 2013
15
4.3 “Carry out vacuum …” bar chart sr no. 2 14-4-62 03 2013
“Commission recycle gas …” bar chart sr
4.3 14-4-62 03 2013
no. 5
“Heat-up reactor inlet …” bar chart sr no.
4.3 14-4-62 03 2013
8
“V-14-105 level reduce to minimum.”
5.1.5 14-5-04 03 2013
Under item no. 5
“Keep the compressor DGS …” under
5.1.9 14-5-08
item no. 5
6.2.1 “keep the buffer gas …” under item no. 1 14-6-04 03 2013
6.2.1 “150oF and 600oF “ under item no. 8 14-6-04 03 2013
6.2.1 “1500 psig” under item no. 9 14-6-04 03 2013
6.2.3 “keep the buffer gas …” under item no. 1 14-6-06 03 2013
6.2.3 “1500 psig” under item no. 8 14-6-07 03 2013
6.2.4 “keep the buffer gas …” under item no. 1 14-6-07 03 2013
“on” and the heater will be …” under
6.5.1.3 14-6-14 03 2013
item no. 1
“This will cause V-14-101 surge …”
6.6.1.1 14-6-17 03 2013
under item no. 1 – deleted.
“Recycle gas compressors seal oil system
6.6.1.1 14-6-18 03 2013
…” under previous item no. 8 – deleted.
“Shut off P-14-102 spill-back …” under
6.6.2.1 14-6-21 03 2013
previous item no. 3 – deleted.
“Recycle compressors’ seal…” under
6.6.2.1 14-6-21
previous item no. 6 – deleted.
P-14-112 “level” under item no. 1 –
6.6.2.2 14-6-21 03 2013
deleted.
“steam driven lube oil turbine …” under
6.7.3 14-6-23 03 2013
item no. 1
6.7.5 “will be lost.” Under item no. 1 14-6-24 03 2013
“lube oil coolers …” under effects of
6.7.6 14-6-25 03 2013
article no. 6.7.6
“There are two nitrogen …” under article
6.7.12 14-6-28 03 2013
no. 6.7.12
6.12.30 E-14-132 COLD VGO FEED HEATER 14-6-50 03 2013
6.12.1 AMMONIA INJECTION FAILURE 14-6-51 03 2013
7.1.1 COMPRESSOR TECHNICAL DATA 14-7.1-02 03 2013
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 5 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


7.1.2 “Figure 7.1-7 Machine unit …’ 14-7.1-06 03 2013
7.1.2 “The hydrogen compressed …” 14-7.1-06 03 2013
7.1.2 “Steam turbine” 14-7.1-07 03 2013
7.1.2 “Compressor” 14-7.1-07 03 2013
7.1.2.1 “Figure 7.1-2 Compressor …” 14-7.1-07 03 2013
7.1.2.1 “Figure 7.1-3 Cross-sectional …” 14-7.1-08 03 2013
14-7.1-10 to
7.1.2.8 “ Compressor gland dry seals” 03 2013
14-7.1-18
7.1.3.3 “New project modification …” 14-7.1-19 03 2013
“Prepare lube oil system.” under item no.
7.1.10 14-7.1-47 03 2013
1
“Prepare and commission dry …” under
7.1.10 14-7.1-47 03 2013
item no. 2
7.1.10.1 “Check availability …” under item no. 1 14-7.1-47 03 2013
“For compressor start up …” under item no.
7.1.10.1 14-7.1-47 03 2013
2
7.1.10.2 “Line up nitrogen …” under item no. 2 14-7.1-48 03 2013
7.1.10.2 “ line up dry gas seal …” under item no.8 14-7.1-48 03 2013
7.1.10.2 “Check the availability …” under item no. 9 14-7.1-48 03 2013
“Establish N2 buffer gas …” under item no.
7.1.10.3 1 14-7.1-48 03 2013
7.1.10.3 “Check the oil pressure …” under item no. 6 14-7.1-48 03 2013
7.1.10.3 “Separation buffer gas …” under item no. 6 14-7.1-48 03 2013
7.1.10.5 “Open the turbine steam …” under item no. 6 14-7.1-49 03 2013
7.1.10.6 “Check dry seal system …”under item no. 1 14-7.1-49 03 2013
7.1.10.6 “Dry seal system operating parameter table” 14-7.1-50 03 2013
7.1.10.6 “Increase the speed to …” under item no. 12 14-7.2-50 03 2013
7.1.10.6 “Start introducing make-up…” under item 14-7.2-51 03 2013
no. 15
7.1.10.6 “If the reactor system is …” under item no. 14-7.2-52 03 2013
16
7.1.10.6 “Increase the speed by …” under item no. 17 14-7.2-52 03 2013
7.1.10.6 “Switch HIC-139 …” under item no. 18 14-7.2-52 03 2013
“Note: It is necessary to isolate …” under
7.1.11 14-7.2-52 03 2013
item no. 2
7.1.11 “Reset the compressor …” under item no. 4 14-7.2-53 03 2013
7.1.11 “If the compressor will be …” under item no.
14-7.2-53 03 2013
5
7.1.12.2 “CAUTION: Do not …” under item no. 2 14-7.1-56 03 2013
7.1.12.2 “Purge the compressor …” under item no. 5 14-7.1-56 03 2013
7.1.12.2 “Close 900 psig steam …” under item no. 6 14-7.1-56 03 2013
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 6 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


7.1.13 “Governor opening …” under item no. 1 14-7.1-57 03 2013
7.1.13 “Dry gas seal …” under item no. 1 14-7.1-57 03 2013
7.1.13 “Seal and buffer gas …” under item no. 2 14-7.1-57 03 2013
7.1.13 “Automatic cut-in …” under item no. 3 14-7.1-57 03 2013
14-7.1-66 to
7.1.14 “Dry gas seal system” 03 2013
14-7.1 67
7.2.2 “after the recent internal …” 14-7.2-01 03 2013
14-7.2-02 to
7.2.2.2 “INTERNAL DESIGN OBJECTIVES” 03 2013
14-7.2-04
14-7.1-05 to
7.2.2.3 “INTERNAL FLOW DESCRIPTION” 03 2013
14-7.1-09
14-7.1-11 to
“NEW CATALYST PROFILE” 03 2013
14-7.1-12
7.4.9 “And for vibration, axial …” 14-7.4-29 03 2013
7.4.10.1 “Since the unit have …” 14-7.4-30 03 2013
7.4.10.2 “Check and ensure …” under item no. 2 14-7.4-31 03 2013
7.4.10.4 “line up must be …” 14-7.4-32 03 2013
7.10.1 “C-14-101-CL1 and …” 14-7.10.01 03 2013
7.10.1 “lube oil system …” 14-7.10.01 03 2013
“serial no. 4,6,37,38” – deleted under
7.11 MOTOR WITH BACK-UP EMERGENCY 14-7.11-04 03 2013
POWER
“PSV-573,574, 588, 589, 670, 671, 674, 675,
7.12.1 686, 687” – deleted under RELIEF VALVE 14-7.12-01 03 2013
SUMMARY
8.1.1.2 “This is carried out …” under item no. 6 14-8.1-04 03 2013
“R: Solenoid operated valve MOV : Motor
8.1.1.4 14-8.1-05 03 2013
operated valve” - deleted
14-8.1-17 to
8.1.5 C-14-101/102 new interlock diagram 03 2013
14-8.1-20
“INTERLOCK AND PROTECTION LOGIC
14-8.1-21 to
8.1.5.1 FOR COMPRESSORS C-14-101 & C-14- 03 2013
102 14-8.1-24
8.1.14 “FSC” 14-8.1-48 03 2013
“AUTO START SEQUENCES for PSL-
8.1.16 14-8.1-52 03 2013
592/231/243 - deleted
“AUTO START SEQUENCES for TSHL-
8.1.16 14-8.1-53 03 2013
753/781/793/801 – deleted.
“PSH-923/924/925/926” added to item no.
8.2.2 14-8.2-02 03 2013
8.2.2
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 7 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


“PDSL-520, PSLL-521/522/ 523, PSHL-524,
PSLL-528/529/530, PSL-531, PSLL-
8.2.2 14-8.2-02 03 2013
541/542/543” deleted under pressure
switches
“PSHL-545, PSL-549, PSLL-550/551/
552, PSH-568/572, PSL-577, PSH-
8.2.2 14-8.2-03 03 2013
583/587, PSL-592” deleted under
pressure switches table
“PSH-963, 964, 965, 966” added to
8.2.2 14-8.2-03 03 2013
pressure switches table
8.2.3 “PDSL-520/538, PDISH-580/595” deleted 14-8.2-05 03 2013
“LSH-353/358/357” added to Level Switches
8.2.4 14-8.2-06 03 2013
table
“LSH-231, LSL-231, LSLL-233/234/235”
8.2.4 14-8.2-06 03 2013
deleted under Level Switched table.
“LSH-239, LSL-243, LSL-243, LSLL-
8.2.4 245/246/247, LSH-249/251, LSL-259/263” – 14-8.2-07 03 2013
deleted under Level Switches table
“TSH-746/747, TSHH-746/747” – deleted
8.2.5 14-8.2-10 03 2013
under Temperature Switches table
“TSH-774/775, TSHH-774/775, TSH-789,
TSL-790, TSHL-793/801, TS-797/803, TSL-
8.2.5 14-8.2-11 03 2013
798/804” – deleted under Temperature
Switches table
“LV-231/243/237/238/249/251” – deleted
8.3.2 14-8.3-02 03 2013
under Level Control Valves
“PCV-931/971, PV-875A/875B” added to
8.3.3 14-8.3-03 03 2013
Pressure Control Valves table
“PV-525/526/540” – deleted under Pressure
8.3.3 14-8.3-03 03 2013
Control Valves
PV-546/579/594” – deleted under Pressure
8.3.3 14-8.3-04 03 2013
Control Valves
“TV-796/788” – deleted under Temperature
8.3.5 14-8.3-06 03 2013
Control Valves table
“LIC-231/243” – deleted under Field
8.4 14-8.4-01 03 2013
Mounted Controllers table
“FT-111/125” added under Flow
8.6.1 14-8.6-01 03 2013
Transmitters table
“FT-727/728/731/732” added under Flow
8.6.1 14-8.6-02 03 2013
Transmitters
“FT-747/748/751/752” added under flow
8.6.1 14-8.6-03 03 2013
Transmitters table
“FT-234” added under Flow Transmitters
8.6.1 14-8.6-04 03 2013
table
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Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 8 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


“PDT-520/538” – deleted under Pressure
8.6.2 14-8.6-06 03 2013
Transmitters table
“PT-528/529/530, PDT-910, PT-911/913/
914/915/916/917, PDT-919, PT-920/921
/922/931/933/934/935/936/937/550/551/5
8.6.2 14-8.6-06 03 2013
52, PDT-950, PT-951/953/954/ 955/956/
957, PDT-959” – added under Pressure
Transmitters table
“PT-960/961/962/971/973/974/975/976/
8.6.2 977” – added under Pressure Transmitters 14-8.6-06 03 2013
table
“LT-353” – added under Temperature
8.6.3 14-8.6-09 03 2013
Transmitters table
“LT-231/237/239/243/244/251” – deleted
8.6.4 14-8.6-09 03 2013
under Level Transmitters table
“PG-544/569/571/575/576/578/582/584
8.7.1 /586/590/591/593” – deleted under Pressure 14-8.7-08 03 2013
Gauges & Indicator table
“TG-680” – deleted under Temperature
8.7.2 14-8.7-12 03 2013
Gauges table
“TG-768/769/791/792/799/800” –
8.7.2 14-8.7-12 03 2013
deleted under Temperature Gauges table
8.11 “Hydrocracker unit LCR …” 14-8.11-01 03 2013
8.11 “occupied by Instrument …” 14-8.11-01 03 2013
“1. Honeywell FSC system (ESD)”
8.11 14-8.11-01 03 2013
“2. DCS system (HPM)”
8.11.1 “FSC (Honeywell) ESD SYSTEM” 14-8.11-02 03 2013
14-8.11-02
8.11.2 “DCS (HPM) INTRODUCTION” to 14-8.11- 03 2013
03
“DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM
8.11.3 14-8.11-04 03 2013
(DCS)” - page changed
“TDC HPM HONEYWELL SYSTEM
8.11.4 14-8.11-04 03 2013
ARCHITECTURE” – page changed
14-8.11-04
“HUMAN INTERFACE” – page
8.11.4.1 to 14-8.11- 03 2013
changed
04
“MASS DATA STORAGE AND
8.11.4.2 14-8.11-05 03 2013
ANALYSIS”– page changed
“ EXTENSIVE ADVANCED
8.11.4.3 14-8.11-06 03 2013
CONTROL” – page changed
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 9 of 9

Chapter Revision Description Page No. Rev. No. & Year


“INTERFACES TO PROCESS
8.11.4.4 14-8.11-06 03 2013
NETWORKS” – page changed
8.11.4.5 “REDUNDANCY” – page changed 14-8.11-06 03 2013
8.11.4.6 “MAINTAINABILITY” – page changed 14-8.11-06 03 2013
“SALIENT FEATURES” – page
8.11.4.7 14-8.11-07 03 2013
changed
14-8.11-07
“MANIPULATING CONTROL
8.11.5 to 14-8.11- 03 2013
STRATEGIES” – pages changed
11
14-8.11-15
“HALON FIRE EXTINGUISHING
8.11.8 to 14-8.11- 03 2013
SYSTEM” – page changed
17
14-8.11-17
“POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM” – page
8.11.9 to 14-8.11- 03 2013
changed
19
“TDC-2000 PROCESS
8.11.10.1 14-8.11-09 03 2013
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM” - deleted
14-9.1-10 to
9.1.7 “AQUEOUS AMMONIA” 03 2013
14-9.1-12
9.2 “Since the commissioning …” 14-9.2-01 03 2013
14-9.2-01 to
9.2.1 “UOP CATALYST” 03 2013
14-9.2-08
9.2.2 “CHEVRON CATALYST” 14-9.2-09 03 2013
9.3.1.3 “Note: During catalyst regeneration …” 14-9.3-02 03 2013
9.3.2.1 “10 ppm” 14-9.3-15 03 2013
9.3.2.3 “Use demineralize water for …” 14-9.3-16 03 2013
9.3.3.1 “in this case soda ash …” 14-9.3-17 03 2013
14-9.3-26 to
9.3.4 “In Hydrocracker, equipment …” 03 2013
14-9.3-27
9.3.4 “Once blinding is completed …” 14-9.3-29 03 2013
“First stage reactor UOP catalyst loading
9.3.5.5 14-9.3-39 03 2013
profile”
“Second stage reactor UOP catalyst
9.3.5.5 14-9.3-40 03 2013
loading profile”
9.4.4.2 “10 ppm” under item no. 3 14-9.4-07 03 2013
9.5.3.1 “P-14-116A/B” under item no. 4 14-9.5-07 03 2013
9.5.3.1 “C-14-101 L.O. console” 14-9.5-07 03 2013
9.5.3.1 “C-14-102 L.O. console” 14-9.5-07 03 2013
A total of 29 new items of modification
14-9.7-15 to
9.7.1 projects were implemented and were 03 2013
14-9.7-16
added to the modification summary list
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision – 03 2013

HYDROCRACKER UNIT-14

Distribution of Controlled Copies

HYDROCRACKER Unit-14

Operating Manual Revision – 03

Copy No. To Be Issued To


Master Copy Team Leader, Operations, Area-3
1 Operations Manager
2 Team Leader, Engineering & Services (Central Filing)
3 Team Leader, Process Engineering
4 Team Leader, Instrument Maintenance
5 Section Head, Operations, Area-3
6 Operations Controller
7 Control Room Operator
8 Field Operator ( Operator Shelter )
9 Training Cell ( Library )

Kuwait National Petroleum Company ISO 9001:2008 Certified


MAB-OPQSF-05-8013
Rev.No.02 Date:17/04/2011
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-0-01

Page 1 of 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOL-I
PAGE NO

1.0. PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & DESIGN BASIS............................. 14-1-01 to 14-1-21

1.1 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY..........................................…………........... 14-1-01

1.2 PROCESS DESIGN BASIS.............................................................….... 14-1-08

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION ...........................................................…. 14-2-01 to 14-2-45

2.1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS ..............................................…........ 14-2-01

2.2 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS FLOW ........................................…..... 14-2-01

2.3 OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY .......................................................... 14-2-15

2.4 PRODUCT SUMMARY AND DESTINATION .................................. 14-2-21

2.5 TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS ……………………………... 14-2-25

2.6 UTILITY SYSTEMS ………………………………………………….. 14-2-27

2.7 CONSUMPTION/PRODUCTION OF UTILITIES DESIGN BASIS … 14-2-37

3.0 PROCESS VARIABLES AND CONTROLS ................................................. 14-3.0-01

3.1 IMPORTANT PROCESS VARIABLES .............................. 14-3.1-01 to 14-3.1-42

3.2 NORMAL PROCESS CONTROLS ………………………. 14-3.2-01 to 14-3.2-37

3.3 DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL BY COMPUTER APPLICATION GROUP …..


……………………………………………………………... 14-3.3-01 to 14-3.3-57

3.4 DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL BY ASPEN TECH …… 14-3.4-01 to 14-3.4-17

3.5 PROCESS CALCULATION STRATEGIES ……………… 14-3.5-01 to 14-3.5-18

4.0 START-UP PROCEDURE ………………………………………… 14-4-01 to 14-4-62

4.1 START-UP FIRST STAGE …………………………………….………. 14-4-01

4.2 START-UP SECOND REACTOR SYSTEM ………………………….. 14-4-44

4.3 START-UP BAR CHART AFTER A TURNAROUND ………………. 14-4-60


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE NO

5.0 SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE .............................................................. 14-5-01 to 14-5-21

5.1 TURNAROUND SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE ....................................... 14-5-01

5.2 SHUT DOWN FOR CATALYST REGENERATION …………………. 14-5-11

5.3 SHUTDOWN OF ONLY SECOND STAGE …………………………… 14-5-12

5.4 SHUTDOWN OF ONLY FIRST STAGE ………………………………. 14-5-14

5.5 SHORT PERIOD SHUTDOWN ………………………………………… 14-5-17

5.6 IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS …………………………. 14-5-18

5.7 SHUTDOWN BAR CHART FOR TURNAROUND …………………… 14-5-19

6.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .......................................................... 14-6-01 to 14-6-54

6.1 GENERAL .....................................................................................…...... 14-6-01

6.2 RECYCLE COMPRESSOR FAILURE ……………………………..…. 14-6-03

6.3 LOSS OF MAKE-UP HYDROGEN …………………………………… 14-6-08

6.4 FEED FAILURE ……………………………………………………….. 14-6-10

6.5 POWER FAILURE …………………………………………………….. 14-6-13

6.6 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE ………………………………………… 14-6-17

6.7 UTILITIES FAILURE ………………………………………………….. 14-6-23

6.8 REACTOR TEMPERATURE RUNAWAY…………………………….. 14-6-31

6.9 EQUIPMENT RUPTURE OR FIRE IN THE HIGH PRESSURE


SECTION ……………………………………………………………….. 14-6-32

6.10 HEATER TUBE FAILURE …………………………………………….. 14-6-33

6.11 PUMP FAILURE ………………………………………………………… 14-6-35

6.12 EXCHANGER FAILURE ……………………………………………….. 14-6-44

6.13 AMMONIA INJECTION FAILURE …………………………………….. 14-6-51


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Page 3 of 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOL-II
PAGE NO

7.0 EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................... 14-7.1-01

7.1 RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR C-14-101/102 ..................... 14-7.1-01 to 14-7.1-63

7.2 REACTOR R-14-101/102 ……………………………………. 14-7.2-01 to 14-7.2-09

7.3 PROCESS HEATERS ……………………………………….. 14-7.3-01 to 14-7.3-34

7.4 CHARGE PUMPS …………………………………………… 14-7.4-01 to 14-7.4-38

7.5 BREECH-LOCK CLOSURE (BLC) EXCHANGERS ……… 14-7.5-01 to 14-7.5-11

7.6 FEED FILTERS F-14-101A/B/C/D …………………………. 14-7.6-01 to 14-7.6-04

7.7 GAS OIL COALESCER V-14-118 ………………………….. 14-7.7-01 to 14-7.7-03

7.8 INJECTION WATER PUMP………………………………… 14-7.8-01 to 14-7.8-10

7.9 MECHANICAL SEALS …………………………………….. 14-7.9-01 to 14-7.9-06

7.10 OIL CLARIFIERS …………………………………………… 14-7.10-01 to 14-7.10-04

7.11 EMERGENCY GENERATOR ………………………………. 14-7.11-01 to 14-7.11-04

7.12 EQUIPMENT DATA SUMMARY ………………………….. 14-7.12-01 to 14-7.12-26

7.13 MECHANICAL DRAWINGS ………………………………. Page 1 to 39

8.0 INSTRUMENTATION ...................................................................................... 14-8.1-01

8.1 INTERLOCKS ........................................................................... 14-8.1-01 to 14-8.1-53

8.2 ALARMS AND TRIP SETTINGS OF SWITCHES …………… 14-8.2-01 to 14-8.2-29

8.3 CONTROL VALVE SUMMARY ……………………………. 14-8.3-01 to 14-8.3-07

8.4 FIELD MOUNTED CONTROLLERS ……………………….. 14-8.4-01 to 14-8.4-01

8.5 LIST OF PRIMARY INSTRUMENTS ………………………. 14-8-5-01 to 14-8.5-01

8.6 LIST OF TRANSMITTERS ………………………………….. 14-8.6-01 to 14-8.6-10

8.7 LIST OF FIELD MOUNTED GAUGES AND INDICATORS 14-8.7-01 to 14-8.7-17


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE NO

8.8 LIST OF SOLENOID OPERATED VALVES (SOVs) ……… 14-8.8-01 to 14-8.8-01

8.9 ON-STREAM ANALYZERS ……………………………….. 14-8.9-01 to 14-8.9-02

8.10 INSTRUMENT DATA CHANGES ………………………… 14-8.10-01 to 14-8.10-01

8.11 LOCAL CONTROL ROOM (LCR)


CENTRAL CONTROL ROOM (CCR) …………………….. 14-8.11-01 to 14-8.11-21

9.0 OTHER INFORMATION ................................................................................ 14-9.1-01

9.1 CHEMICALS........................................................................... 14-9.1-01 to 14-9.1-10

9.2 CATALYST …………………………………………………. 14-9.2-01 to 14-9.2-06

9.3 SPECIAL PROCEDURES ………………………………….. 14-9.3-01 to 14-9.3-58

9.4 SAFETY HAZARDS ……………………………………….. 14-9.4-01 to 14-9.4-08

9.5 FIRE HAZARDS …………………………………………… 14-9.5-01 to 14-9.5-15

9.6 EFFLUENTS ……………………………………………….. 14-9.6-01 to 14-9.6-11

9.7 SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS ………………………. 14-9.7-01 to 14-9.7-15

10.0 DRAWINGS ………………………………………………………………….. 14.10-01

10.1 FLOW DIAGRAMS ……………………………………… 14-FD-01 to 14-FD-65

10.2 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS …………………………. Page 1 to 19


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Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

1.0 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY &


DESIGN BASIS
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Page 1 of 1

1.0 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN BASIS

1.1 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY ............................................... (14-1-01 to 14-1-07)

1.1.1 PROCESS CHEMISTRY............................................................…………….... 14-1-01

1.1.2 REACTIONS IN A HYDROCRACKER PROCESS......................................... 14-1-01

1.1.3 COMPONENTS IN HYDROCRACKER FEED & PRODUCTS ……………. 14-1-07

1.2 PROCESS DESIGN BASIS ................................................ (14-1-08 to 14-1-21)

1.2.1 PROCESS DEFINITION.........................................……………….........……... 14-1-08

12.2. CAPACITY .............................................................................……............….... 14-1-08

1.2.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS...............................................................…....... 14-1-09

1.2.4 DESULFURIZED VGO FEED...............................................................…....... 14-1-15

1.2.5 MAKE-UP HYDROGEN.................................................................................... 14-1-15

1.2.6 PRODUCTS.........................................................................................……........ 14-1-16

1.2.7 MATERIAL BALANCE..................................................................................... 14-1-20

1.2.8 BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS....................................................................... 14-1-21


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1.1 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY


1.1.1 PROCESS CHEMISTRY

GENERAL

Petroleum products are priced differently on the basis of their use and demand.
Generally, heavier products such as heavy diesel oil and fuel oil are less valuable
compared to gasoline, jet fuels or high speed diesel oils. For this reason, refiners
adopt secondary processes to upgrade by conversion the heavier crude fractions to
lighter products. Thermal cracking, fluid catalytic cracking and hydrocracking are
popular processes to break the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into smaller
hydrocarbon molecules.
1.1.1.2 HYDROCRACKING

Hydrocracking is a catalytic cracking process used to upgrade heavy gas oil fractions
into lighter products such as diesel, kerosene, jet fuel, gasoline, LPG and gases. To
understand the variety of reactions taking place in the hydrocracking process, a
discussion of the relevant sections of petroleum chemistry is helpful. Refer to “Basic
Operator Training Manual”.
1.1.2 REACTIONS IN A HYDROCRACKER PROCESS

The feed is mixed with hydrogen under high temperature and pressure and passed
over a catalyst bed (s) in a reactor. Several reactions take place in the reactor.

Examples of the principal hydrocracking reactions taking place in the reactor are
given below. All of these reactions are exothermic. In general, sulfur and nitrogen
molecules are taken out from the sulfur or nitrogen containing hydrocarbon rings by
saturation and hydrogenation to yield H2S and NH3. Cracking reactions conserve
rings to a great extent. Occasionally, there are more product molecules with rings
than feed molecules.

Product paraffins tend to be branched chains with only minor amounts of normal
paraffins. To a great extent the olefin saturation occurs early in the progress of the
reactions through the reactor.
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Process technology
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1.1.2.1 DESULFURIZATION

The fresh oil feed is desulfurized by hydrogenating sulfur containing compounds to


yield hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide is subsequently removed from the
reactor effluent, leaving only the hydrocarbon in the product. Typical desulfurization
reactions convert thiophenes or thiols to straight-chain or branched paraffins and
hydrogen sulfide. The heat of reaction for desuilfurization is about 60 Btu/SCF of
hydrogen consumed.

R  C  CH R
|| || |
HC CH + 4H2 CH3 - CHCH2 CH3 + H2S
S Catalyst
Thiophene Branched Paraffin

R

R CH  SH + H2 R  CH2  R + H2S
Catalyst
Thiol Straight - chain Paraffin

1.1.2.2 DENITRIFICATION

Nitrogen is removed from the feedstock by hydrogenating nitrogen-containing


compounds to form ammonia. The ammonia is subsequently removed from the
reactor effluent, leaving only the hydrocarbon in the product. Typical isocracking
reactions with nitrogen compounds include hydrogenation of pyridines to form
paraffins and ammonia, quinolines to form aromatics and ammonia and pyrroles to
form paraffins and ammonia. The heat of reaction of the denitrification reaction is
about 67-75 Btu/SCF of hydrogen consumed.
R CH2 NH2 + H2 R CH3 + NH3
Catalyst
Amine Paraffin
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Process technology
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1.1.2.3 OLEFIN SATURATION

Hydrogenation of olefins is one of the most rapid of the reactions taking place in the
reactor. This rapidity is the reason why essentially all olefins are saturated. The heat
of reaction for these reactions is about 140Btu/SCF of hydrogen consumed.
R CH2 CH=CH2 + H2 R CH2 CH2 CH3
Catalyst
Olefin Paraffin
1.1.2.4 AROMATICS SATURATION

Some of the aromatics in the feed are hydrogenated to naphthenes. Aromatic


saturation accounts for a significant portion of both the total hydrogen consumption
and the total heat of reaction. Heats of reaction vary from about 40 Btu/SCF to 80
Btu/SCF of hydrogen consumed, depending on the type of aromatic being saturated.
In general, higher pressures and lower temperatures result in a greater degree of
aromatic saturation.

Catalyst
Aromatics + Hydrogen Naphthenes

1.1.2.5 CATALYST CHEMISTRY

Hydrocracking catalysts are dual functional, which means that they have both acid
cracking sites and metal hydrogenation sites. The hydrogenation sites provide olefin
intermediates and saturate olefin products. They saturate some of the aromatic rings
and prevent the accumulation of coke on the acid sites by hydrogenating coke
precursors. The acid sites provide the carbonium ion intermediates and the
isomerization activity that result in the dominance of isoparaffin products.

More acidic catalysts produce a lighter yield distribution of higher iso-to-normal ratio
products. Higher hydrogenation activity catalysts produce more saturated products
with a heavier yield distribution.
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Process technology
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1.1.2.6 HYDROCRACKING REACTIONS

Hydrocraking of large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules occurs in


nearly all processes carried out in the presence of excess hydrogen. The heat release
from the hydrocraking reactions contributes appreciably to the total heat liberated in
the reactor. Heat of reaction are of the magnitude of 50 Btu/SCF of hydrogen
consumed. Small amounts of naphtha and light hydrocarbons are produced, and
some cracking reactions involving the heavy molecules contribute to a decrease in
product specific gravity. The light hydrocarbon yields are temperature dependent.
Thus the amount of light ends produced increases significantly as the temperatures
are raised to compensate for reduced catalyst activity.

Paraffins are believed to crack by the following mechanism:

 An olefin is formed by dehydrogenation of a paraffin on a metal site.

 The olefin is adsorbed on an acid site to form a carbonium ion.

 The carbonium ion isomerizes to a more stable carbonium ion (tertiary).

 The carbonium ion cracks to an olefin and a smaller ion.

 The cracked olefin is saturated on a metal site to form an isoparaffin.

This helps to account for the low concentration of normal paraffins in hydrocracked
products. Isoparaffins react much faster than normal paraffins because they are more
easily converted to the olefin intermediate.

Naphthenes crack by more complicated reactions than paraffins. A typical


naphthene reaction is the so-called paring reaction in which methyl groups are pared
off from naphthene rings to form isobutane while leaving the ring itself intact. This
complex reaction almost always produces isobutane and a five - or six membered
naphthene ring which contains four less carbon atoms than the reactant molecule.
Other naphthene reactions include simple cleavage of four-carbon or longer side
chains from the ring and, less commonly, ring opening.
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Process technology
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Aromatic reactions are the most complex of all. Alkyl aromatics undergo simple
cleavage of four-carbon or longer side chains, or two alkyl aromatics undergo a
disproportionation reaction to form benzene and an alkyl aromatic with two side
chains. With longer side chains, cyclization occurs to form a product molecule with
two fused rings like tetralin. Aromatics with methyl side groups also undergo the
same kind of paring reaction as naphthenes. Polycyclic aromatics like phenanthrene
undergo two distinctly different kinds of reactions. In one, the central ring saturates
and opens up to yield two single ring naphthenes. In the other, a complex reaction
proceeds as follows:

 Partial saturation, followed by opening of one of the saturated rings to form a


butyl side chain.

 Transfer of the side chain to another reactant molecule (assume phenanthrene).

 Ring closure of the side chain to form a four-ring compound with two
unsaturated central rings.

 Cracking of one of the central rings to give tetralin and a single-ring naphthene.

1.1.2.7 CATALYST SULFIDING REACTIONS

Sulfiding is done to regenerate the strong acid sites on the catalyst which were
neutralized by nickel salts during catalyst manufacture. An unsulfided catalyst has
much lower cracking activity and produces products of low iso-to-normal ratio.

Sulfiding itself proceeds as two reactions.


The cracking of DMDS.

CH3-S-S-CH3 + 3H2 → 2CH4 + 2H2S

Followed by the sulfiding:

2H2S + 3NiO + H2 → Ni3S2 + 3H2O


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Process technology
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1.1.2.8 CATALYST REGENERATION REACTIONS

Catalyst regeneration consists primarily of burning off accumulated coke on the


catalyst during the oxidation phase:

4C1 H1 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2O

As an unwanted side reaction, some of the sulfur (from sulfiding) is also oxidized.

Ni3S2 + 4O2 → NiSO4 + 2NiO + SO2

This yields nickel sulfate, nickel oxide and sulfur dioxide. In the reduction phase, the
nickel sulfate is eliminated to prevent temperature runaway during subsequent
sulfiding:

3NiSO4 + 10H2 → Ni3S2 + SO2 + 10H2O

Since some of the sulfur is retained as nickel suflide, the subsequent sulfiding uses
less DMDS than used for sulfiding of fresh catalyst.

As a side reaction during reduction, metal oxides are converted to metals :

NiO + H2 → Ni + H2O
1.1.2.9 CORROSION

Corrosion is a chemical reaction between certain components of the process stream


and the steel walls of pipes and vessels. The most common reaction involves
hydrogen sulfide attack of iron to produce a crusty scale of pyrophoric iron sulfide.
Normally, this scale adheres to the wall of the pipe and retards further corrosion. But
trace levels of cyanide are known to cause this scale to break away, exposing fresh
metal surface for more corrosion.

Ammonium polysulfide solution is injected into the wash water to convert any
cyanide to thiocyanate, thereby arresting the corrosion.
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Process technology
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1.1.3 COMPONENTS IN HYDROCRACKER FEED & PRODUCTS

The following hydrocarbons are typical of the kinds


present in hydrocracker feed and products.

Boiling point Specific


o
F Gravity

Paraffins

Normal Butane (nC4) 31 0.5844


Isobutane (iC4) 11 0.5631
Normal Decane (nC10) 345 0.7342

Naphthenes

Methyl Cyclopentane (MCP) 161 0.7536


Declain 370 0.872
Isobutylcyclohexane 340 0.7990

Aromatics

Benzene 176 0.8844


Anthracene 644 1.283
Pyrene 739 1.271
Tetralin 405 0.970

Sulfur Compounds

Thiophene 183 1.070


Benzthiophene 630 -

Nitrogen Compounds

Pyrrole 268 0.970


Pyridine 240 -
Quinoline 460 1.095
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Process technology
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1.2 PROCESS DESIGN BASIS

1.2.1 PROCESS DEFINITION

The Hydrocracker is designed to convert vacuum gas oil (VGO) to light naphtha,
heavy naphtha, aviation turbine kerosene (ATK) and diesel. The VGO is recovered
from desulfurized atmospheric resid in a Vacuum unit. As an alternative to
production of ATK, the Hydrocracker is capable of producing illuminating kerosene.
The Hydrocracker has flexibility to produce either maximum naphtha plus jet fuel
(ATK)or maximum diesel, both with recycle of unconverted oil to extinction.
However, facilities are provided for drawing a small portion of the recycle oil as
product, to control the concentration of high molecular weight aromatics in the
recycle oil. This bleed may be used when processing feeds high in polycyclics.

The Hydrocracker consists of two reactor stages, with a common fractionation


system, including an H2S stripper, to separate the products. Each stage is provided
with its own independent feed/effluent heat exchange, feed heaters, product
separators and gas recycle system.

The Hydrocracker is designed for three modes of operation.

1. Two stage.
2. Single stage once through.
3. Single stage recycle.

The Hydrocracker is designed to operate without a recycle gas purge. However, to


provide flexibility, recycle gas purge facilities are provided.

1.2.2 CAPACITY

The Hydrocracker is designed to process 38,000 BPSD of vacuum gas oil from
desulfurized residue of Kuwait crude oil. (However, the unit has operated at higher
throughput upto 42,500 BPD under test run conditions).

The turndown capacity for each reactor stage and the fractionation section is 50% of
design throughput.
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1.2.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1. Onstream factor

The Hydrocracker is designed to achieve an onstream factor of not less than


0.92. The onstream factor is defined as the calendar day capacity divided by the
stream day capacity.

2. Energy conservation

Power recovery turbines are provided on the following streams:

First stage cold high pressure separator liquid.

Second stage hot high pressure separator liquid.

3. The VGO feedstock is normally coming hot directly from the Vacuum unit.
Alternatively VGO may be fed cold from storage. The Hydrocracker is
designed to operate at full capacity even with all feed coming cold from storage.

4. Each reactor section in the Hydrocracker is designed to operate continuously


throughout the catalyst life.

5. The recycle gas compressors are driven by steam turbines.

6. The reactor charge pumps are driven by hydraulic power recovery turbines
with full size motor helpers.

7. The pressure in the knock-out drum after the cold low pressure separator is 310
psig.
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Process design basis


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8. The main fractionator has flexibility to produce the following products with a
separation between the distilled products as indicated by the specified ASTM
distillation 5 to 95% gaps.

ATK MODE DIESEL MODEL


Full Range Naphtha

TBP Nominal Cut Points, oF C5 to 260 or 330 C5 to 330


ASTM 5-95% gap, minimum
to full range ATK, oF 25 40

Light ATK

TBP nominal cut points, oF 260 or 330 to 380 330 to 450

Heavy ATK

TBP nominal cut point, oF 380 to 550 450 to 550


ASTM 5-95% gap, minimum
of full range ATK to Heavy - 15
Diesel

Heavy Diesel

TBP nominal cut points, oF - 550 to 700

9. The fractionator is designed for a minimum of 20 percent overflash (as percent


of distillate), with not less than 15 pounds of stripping steam per barrel of
recycle oil.

10. Light and heavy ATK product side strippers are reboiled.

11. The overhead naphtha from the main fractionator is debutanized and then sent
to a naphtha splitter to separate into light and heavy naphthas. The debutanizer
(stabilizer) is designed to give 1 wt% maximum C4 in the final light naphtha
product.
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The debutanizer and splitter are designed to be flexible to handle overhead


naphtha with an end point from 260oF to 330oF.

12. The naphtha splitter is designed to produce the following separation between
the light naphtha and the heavy naphtha.

TBP nominal cut point = 180oF

ASTM 5-95% GAP = 25oF minimum

13. The fractionation section of the Hydrocracker is capable of naphtha splitter


bypass operation. In this case, debutanized full range naphtha is sent to tankage
at the same battery limit conditions as heavy naphtha.
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


TWO STAGE ISOCRACKER OPERATION
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


SINGLE STAGE ONCE-THROUGH ISOCRACKER OPERATION
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


SINGLE – STAGE RECYCLE OPERATION
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Process design basis


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1.2.4 DESULFURIZED VGO FEED

Feed basis
for Chevron
Expected guarantees Test method

TBP nominal cut range, oF 680 - 975


Gravity, oAPI 26.8 24.5 min. ASTM D-1298
ASTM distillation, oF
IBP 580
10% 690 735 max.
50% 840
90% 975 975 max.
EP 1060
Aniline point, oF 200 180 min. ASTM D-611
Con carbon, Wt % 0.1 0.4 max. ASTM D-189
Hot Heptane Insoluble, wppm (1) 100 max. Chevron method
Ni + V, wppm - 1 max. -
Nitrogen, Wt % 0.08 0.1 max. ASTM D-3228
Sulfur, Wt% 0.25 0.35 max. ASTM D-1266
Viscosity, cSt @ 210oF 10.5 - ASTM D-445
Polycyclic index (PCI), ppm (1) (2) Chevron method

1. Chevron’s analysis of start-of-run ARDS pilot plant samples provided by


Union gave 84 ppm for Hot Heptane Insolubles and 390 ppm for PCI.

1.2.5 MAKE UP HYDROGEN

The properties of make up hydrogen are as follows.

Hydrogen, vol % 97.0 min.


Methane, vol % 2.75 max.
Nitrogen, vol % 0.25 max.
Carbon monoxide & carbon dioxide, vppm 20 max.
Water
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1.2.6 PRODUCTS

The Hydrocracker is designed to produce products of the following TBP nominal cut
points.

ATK mode Diesel mode Light naphtha


mode

C4 and lighter C4 - C4 - C4 -
Light naphtha C5 - 180oF C5 - 180oF C5 - 180oF
Heavy naphtha 180 - 260oF 180 - 330oF
ATK or Illuminating Kerosene 260 - 550oF -
(1)
Diesel - 330 - 700oF

(1) Illuminating kerosene may be produced instead of ATK. This may affect the cut
points.

1.2.6.1 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

1. Light naphtha
Test Method
Color, min +20 ASTM D-156
C4 wt% max. 1.0
Doctor test Negative ASTM D-484
Octane No, RON, min. 73 ASTM D-2598
RVP @ 100oF max. 10.5 ASTM D-323
Sulfur, wt% max. 0.05 ASTM D-1266

2. Heavy naphtha

ASTM Distillation, oF ASTM D-86


EP max. 347
Color, min. +20 ASTM D-156
Sulfur, wt% max. 0.05 ASTM D-1266
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3. ATK
(Meets DERD 2494 issue 8 and ASTM D-1655 Jet A-1)

Acidity, total mg KOH/g max.0.0123 IP 273


Aniline gravity, product min. 5250 ASTM D-6/1298
Aromatics, vol % max. 22.0 ASTM D-1319
Copper, ppb-wt max. 150 IP 225
Corrosion, copper strip
2h @ 100oC max. No.1 ASTM D-130
Corrosion, silver strip max. No.1 IP 227
Density @ 15oC, kg/1 min. 0.775 ASTM D-1298
max. 0.830
Distillation, oC
20% recovered max. 200
End point max. 300
Residue, vol % max. 1.5
Loss, vol % max. 1.5
Electrical conductivity, min. 50 ASTM D-2624
pS/m max. 300
Existent gum, mg/100 ml max. 7 ASTM D-381
Flash point, Abel, oC min. 38 IP 170
max. 66
Freezing point, oC max. -48 ASTM D-2386
Hydrogen content, wt% min. 13.8 ASTM D-3701
Mercaptan sulfur, wt% max. 0.001 ASTM D-3227
Naphthalenes, wt% max. 3 ASTM D-1840
Olefins, wt% max. 5 ASTM D-1319
Smoke point, mm min. 23 (1) IP 57
Sulfur, wt %
Thermal stability
Filter pressure
Differential, mmHg max. 25 ASTM D-3241
Tube rating, visual less than 3
Viscosity @ -20oC, cSt max. 8.0 ASTM D-445

(1) The value shall be maintained at no less than 25 for the first 180 days from the
day reaction starts. Thereafter, the value shall not fall below 21. The value of
25 is required for illuminating kerosene.
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ATK (Continued)

Water reaction ASTM D-1094


Interface max. 1 b
Separation max. 2
Water separometer index, modified min. 70 ASTM D-2250
Additives, mg/1 min. 17.0
Antioxidant max. 24.0
Antistatic, ASA - 3 max. 1.0

4. Illuminating kerosene

Product rate, BPSD (1)


Color, saybolt min. +25 ASTM D-156
Corrosion, copper strip @ 50oC max. No. 1 ASTM D-130
Distillation, oC ASTM D-86
20% recovered max. 200
End point max. 300
Doctor test Negative ASTM D-484
Flash point, Abel, oC min. 44 IP 170
Mercaptan sulfur, wt% max. 0.01 ASTM D-1323
Smoke point, mm min. 25 (2) IP 57
Specific gravity @ 60/60oF min. 0.775 ASTM D-1298
max. 0.820
Sulfur, wt% max. 0.2 ASTM D-1266

(1) The maximum production rate of illuminating kerosene may be less than
that for ATK.

(2) The value shall be maintained at no less than 25 for the first 180 days
from the day reaction starts. Thereafter, the value shall not fall below 21.
The value of 25 is required for illuminating kerosene.
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5. Diesel

(Meets KNPC specifications for European Gas Oil and High Speed Diesel)

Acid number,
Strong, mg KOH/g max. nil ASTM D-974
Total mg KOH/g max. 0.10
Appearance Clear, except for water haze.
Ash, wt% max. 0.01 ASTM D-482
Calorific value, gross, Btu/lb min. 19000 calc, USB of
Std, No. 97
Carbon residue, Ramsbtm. , on 10% max. 0.10 ASTM D-524
residue, wt%
Cetane index min. 45 ASTM D-976
Cold flow properties oC
Either cloud point max. -9 ASTM D-2500
Pour point or max. -15 ASTM D-97
cloud point max. -2 ASTM D-2500
CFPP max. -12 IP 309
Color, ASTM max. 2.0 ASTM D-1500
Corrosion, copper strip
3 h @ 100oC max. No. 1 ASTM D-130
Diesel index min. 53 IP 21
Distillation, oC ASTM D-86
50% recovered min. 238
max. 300
65% recovered min. 250
85% recovered max. 350
90% recovered max. 357
96% recovered max. 371
End point max. 390
Flash point, PMCC, oC min. 66 ASTM D-93
Sediment, wt% max. 0.01 ASTM D-473
Sediment and water, vol% max. 0.1 ASTM D-1796
Specific gravity @ 60/60oF min. 0.820 ASTM D-1298
max. 0.850
Sulfur, wt% max. 0.30 ASTM D-1551
Viscosity, Kinematic @ 37.8oC, cSt min. 1.8 ASTM D-445
max. 4.5
Water, vol % max. 0.05 ASTM D-95
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1.2.7 MATERIAL BALANCE

The following information is tabulated from the tables supplied in the original
manual by Chevron Research Co.

Yields for different products and different modes of the unit shown below are based
on 680-975oF VGO from ARDS and RCD/UNIBON with sulfur 0.35 wt% and
nitrogen 0.1 wt%.
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1.2.8 BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS

1.2.8.1 FEED STREAMS

Fluid Origin Pressure psig Temperature


o
F

Vacuum gas oil Vacuum unit 110 360


Storage 130 175

Make up hydrogen Hydrogen unit 2650 200 min

1.2.8.2 PRODUCT STREAMS

Fluid Destination Pressure Temperature


o
psig F

Hydrogen off gases H2 recovery, unit 19 300 105


Sour gas Gas handling, unit 18 84 105
C4 and lighter vapor Fuel gas system, unit 33 65 105+
C4 and lighter liquid Gas handling, unit 18 125 105
Light naphtha Tankage 80 105
Heavy naphtha Tankage 60 105
ATK Tankage 85 105
Gas oil Tankage 70 130
Unconverted oil Tankage 55 180
Sour water Sour Water Stripping unit 26 104 150
Spent caustic solution Water Treatment, unit 37 50
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HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


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Page 1 of 2

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION

2.1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS ................................................ 14-2-01 to 14-2-01

2.2 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS FLOW ...................................... 14-2-01 to 14-2-16

2.2.1 FEED SYSTEM ....................................................................................14-2-01

2.2.1.1 SOURCE OF FEED ........................................................................... 14-2-01


2.2.1.2 FEED FILTRATION ......................................................................... 14-2-02
2.2.1.3 FEED SURGE DRUM V-14-101 ...................................................... 14-2-02
2.2.1.4 FEED CHARGE PUMPS .................................................................. 14-2-02
2.2.1.5 AMMONIA INJECTION FACILITIES ............................................ 14-2-03

2.2.2 FEED PRE-HEATING ................................................................................... 14-2-05

2.2.2.1 MAKE UP HYDROGEN.................................................................... 14-2-05


2.2.2.2 REACTOR FEED HEATING SYSTEM ........................................... 14-2-06
2.2.2.3 CHARGE HEATER .......................................................................... 14-2-06

2.2.3 REACTOR SYSTEM ..................................................................................... 14-2-07


2.2.4 REACTOR EFFLUENT COOLING ............................................................... 14-2-08
2.2.5 REACTOR EFFLUENT SEPARATION SYSTEM ......................................... 14-2-09
2.2.6 WATER AND POLYSULFIDE INJECTION .................................................. 14-2-09
2.2.7 COLD LOW PRESSURE SEPARATOR ......................................................... 14-2-10
2.2.8 H2S STRIPPER ............................................................................................... 14-2-11
2.2.9 FRACTIONATOR FEED HEATING ............................................................. 14-2-12
2.2.10 PRODUCTION FRACTIONATION ............................................................... 14-2-12
2.2.11 NAPHTHA STABILIZER AND SPLITTER ................................................... 14-2-15

2.3 OPERATING FLEXIBILITY .................................................... 14-2-17 to 14-2-22

2.3.1 SINGLE STAGE ONCE THROUGH OPERATION (SSOT) ........................... 14-2-17


2.3.2 SINGLE STAGE RECYCLE OPERATION (SSREC) ..................................... 14-2-18
2.3.3 EFFECT ON PRODUCTS ............................................................................... 14-2-18
2.3.4 PRODUCT FLEXIBILITY .............................................................................. 14-2-22

2.4 PRODUCTS SUMMARY AND DESTINATION ........................ 14-2-23 to 14-2-26

2.4.1 SOUR OFF GAS ............................................................................................. 14-2-23


2.4.2 LPG ................................................................................................................. 14-2-24
2.4.3 LIGHT NAPHTHA .......................................................................................... 14-2-24
2.4.4 HEAVY OR FULL RANGE NAPHTHA ......................................................... 14-2-24
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Page 2 of 2

2.4.5 AVIATION TURBINE KEROSENE (ATK) .................................................... 14-2-24


2.4.6 GAS OIL ......................................................................................................... 14-2-25
2.4.7 SOUR WATER ............................................................................................... 14-2-25
2.4.8 UNCONVERTED OIL .................................................................................... 14-2-26
2.4.9 FILTER BACKFLUSH .................................................................................... 14-2-26

2.5 TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS .................................... 14-2-27 to 14-2-28

2.6 UTILITY SYSTEMS ................................................................ 14-2-29 to 14-2-38

2.6.1 STEAM AND CONDENSATE SYSTEMS ..................................................... 14-2-29

2.6.1.1 HIGH PRESSURE STEAM (SH) ....................................................... 14-2-29


2.6.1.2 MEDIUM PRESSURE STEAM (SM) ................................................ 14-2-29
2.6.1.3 INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM (SG) .................................... 14-2-29

2.6.2 COOLING WATER SYSTEMS ...................................................................... 14-2-31

2.6.2.1 SEA WATER SYSTEM (WS, WX) .................................................... 14-2-31


2.6.2.2 CIRCULATING COOLING WATER (WC, WR) ............................... 14-2-31

2.6.3 OTHER WATER SYSTEMS ........................................................................... 14-2-31

2.6.3.1 FIRE WATER .................................................................................... 14-2-32


2.6.3.2 UTILITY WATER (WU) .................................................................... 14-2-32
2.6.3.3 POTABLE WATER (WD) ................................................................. 14-2-32
2.6.3.4 PROCESS WATER (WP) ................................................................... 14-2-32
2.6.3.5 HIGH PRESSURE BOILER FEED WATER (WB) ............................. 14-2-32
2.6.3.6 LOW PRESSURE BOILER FEED WATER (WB) .............................. 14-2-33
2.6.3.7 INTERMITTENT BLOWDOWN (BB) ............................................... 14-2-33
2.6.3.8 CONTINUOUS BLOWDOWN (BB) .................................................. 14-2-33

2.6.4 RELIEF SYSTEM (BD) .................................................................................. 14-2-33


2.6.5 FLUSHING OIL SYSTEM .............................................................................. 14-2-34
2.6.6 FUEL GAS SYSTEM (GF) ............................................................................. 14-2-34
2.6.7 FUEL OIL SYSTEM (OF, OX) ....................................................................... 14-2-34
2.6.8 NITROGEN SYSTEM (GI) ............................................................................. 14-2-35
2.6.9 AIR SYSTEMS ............................................................................................... 14-2-35

2.6.9.1 INSTRUMENT AIR (AI) .................................................................. 14-2-35


2.6.9.2 UTILITY AIR (AP) ........................................................................... 14-2-35

2.6.10 DRAINAGES AND SEWER SYSTEMS......................................................... 14-2-35


2.6.11 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ................................................................................ 14-2-35
2.6.12 UTILITY CONDITIONS ................................................................................ 14-2-37

2.7 CONSUMPTION/PRODUCTION OF UTILITIES - DESIGN BASIS .... 14-2-39 to 14-2-47


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Process description
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2.1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

Process flow diagrams and sectionwise flow diagrams are included in Chapter 10.
These drawings may be used as aids in following the process description.
Start-of-run (SOR) conditions for both modes of operation (aviation turbine
kerosene) ATK and mid-distillate are provided; however, end-of-run (EOR)
conditions are only included for ATK operation. This is because ATK EOR
operation limits the design of most of the equipments. The process description is
very similar for all cases, and any differences will be noted.

2.2 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS FLOW

Refer to P & I D 114-KE-1 to 32 and chapter 10 for flow diagrams 14-FD-01 to 65.

2.2.1 FEED SYSTEM

2.2.1.1 SOURCE OF FEED

In normal cases hot VGO at 380oF from unit-13 is supplied to V-14-101 feed surge
drum on level control. The stream temperature is indicated at TI-102 and flow
indicated by FI-102.
Cold V.G.O is available from TK in times of shortage of hot VGO or in cases of
upsets in Vacuum unit. The flow rate is controlled by FC-103 and preheated in steam
heater E-14-132. TC-658 presets the required steam flow. 150 psi steam is used and
condensate returned to I.P. condensate header. Fractionator bottom recycle oil feed
also is used during start-up and shutdown periods and flow rate maintained by
FC-105. The temperature is indicated at TI-338.

Atmospheric gas oil (AGO) at 580 F from CDU unit-11 is also supplied with normal
flow rate of 2,000 BPD (3,000 BPD max.). The flow is controlled by FC-612 from
unit-11. AGO as an additional feed helps to improve the catalyst reaction due to high
sulfur content.

Coker gas oil (CGO) at 450 F from Coker unit-20 is also available as HCR feed with
maximum flow rate of 4,000 BPD. The flow rate is manually controlled by a valve
from unit-20. CGO is added as make-up feed option whenever there is partial or
temporary hot VGO feed shortage from unit-13.

Both AGO and CGO streams elevated temperatures from its source of origin will
eventually reduce to a resultant temperature once is combined with the hot VGO feed
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Process description
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temperature. The HCR feed temperature maximum limitation is based on the feed
pump suction maximum allowable temperature of 420 F.

2.2.1.2 FEED FILTRATION

The above streams of feed join ahead of four feed filter banks F-14-101A/BC/D
designed to filter out particulates. Each filter bank consists of 12 elements. All four
sets operate in parallel and pressure drop across the filters is monitored by PDIC-105.
At a pressure drop of 20 psi, PDIC-105 activates a back flush sequence and one
bank at a time is flushed until the sequence is completed. Fractionator bottoms fluid
normally at 380oF is used for the back flush service and the flushed return fluid is
measured by FI-104. This is sent along with fractionator bottoms bleed stream,
cooled down to 150oF in EA-14-104 and finally run down to tankage; normally to
coker gas oil tanks.

In cases of severe plug gage of filters, any bank can be taken out of service without
affecting the others for maintenance. Flush oil and purge steam connections are
available to each bank.

2.2.1.3 FEED SURGE DRUM V-14-101

Filtered feed oil enters the feed surge drum. The surge drum helps to maintain a
steady feed suction condition and receives the spill back flow from the charge pumps
if any. Vessel pressure is normally maintained at 40 psi with fuel gas blanket by
controller PC-106. Vessel level is maintained by LC-101 by resetting hot VGO
flow controllers 13-FC-161/261 in vacuum unit in normal cases. HS-101 can select
cold VGO FC-103 reset by LC-101. LSH-101 and LSL-101 alerts the operator in
extreme cases. Surge drum temperature is indicated by TI-106 at the vessel outlet
line to the pumps suction.

2.2.1.4 FEED CHARGE PUMPS

Charge pumps P-14-101A/B and P-14-102 are seven stage centrifugal barrel type
pumps. P-101A serves 1st stage and P-102 for second stage. P-101B serves as a
common standby for either stage. P-102 suction line is configured in such a manner
that it can take suction from fractionator bottoms or from surge drum in case second
stage reactor is operating on fresh feed.

MOV-137 at surge drum outlet and MOV-138 at fractionator bottoms line to P-102
suction serves for quick isolation of pumps and are part of the interlock logic
sequence for the pumps. XV-235 and XV-236 at either stage feed manifold serves as
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Process description
Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-2-03

shut-off valves in case of low flow conditions at a preset value of 6460 BPD. This
protects the feed pump and surge drum system against the back flow of gases from
reactor system. Low pressure suction system is protected by PSVs installed at pumps
suction. All three pumps are protected by minimum flow spillback and previously
designed for a single loop back to surge drum. However, after the HAZOP
modification implementation was done, P-14-101A spillback downstream loop was
kept the same, normally going back to the surge drum, while P-14-102 spillback
downstream loop was modified to go back to the suction line upstream of MOV-138,
which is the fractionator bottoms feed line. For P-14-101B spillback downstream
loop, the line was also modified to have an optional routing line-up using block
valves. If P-14-101B is in service for 1st stage, the spillback is line-up to the surge
drum by opening the block valve corresponding for the surge drum, while the block
valve to fractionator bottoms suction line of P-14-102 is closed. If P-14-101B is in
service for 2nd stage, then the spillback downstream loop will be the opposite
condition. The spillback controls are FV-106 for P-14-101A, FV-107 for P-14-101B,
and FV-108 for P-14-102. These controllers will monitor the total flow for the pump
at the suction header.

Charge feed controllers FV-109 for 1st stage and FV-110 for second stage delivers
the feed to the reactor feed pre-heat system. A total of 3 non-return valves in each
manifold protects the pumps against any backflow in addition to FV-235, FV-236
shut off valves.

Feed surge drum V-14-101 has a hold up capacity of 400 barrels which is equivalent
to 15 minutes inventory at design feed rate in case of disturbances in VGO feed
supply.

2.2.1.5 AMMONIA INJECTION FACILITIES

Implementation of ammonia injection was carried out and commissioned for 2nd stage
reactor system. It will be used depending on the product demand pattern. The main
purpose of aqueous ammonia injection to the reactor system is mainly to reduce the
catalyst reaction activity and such reduction has the biggest impact on the strong acid
sites of the catalyst. To achieve the same level of conversion, temperature need be
raised which shifts the selectivity towards ATK at the cost of Naphtha and light ends.
In addition to the yield benefits, it improves hydrogenation in 2nd stage which can
help control PCI and hydrogen consumption will be lower. The concentration of
ammonia of 2nd stage reactor is around 20 ppm, therefore up to 40oF increase in CAT
and 3 vol % increase in ATK yield will be expected with ammonia injection in
commission.
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Normally the ammonia injection to the 2nd stage is continuous and it can be used to
manipulate the product yield pattern based on the market requirements. Typically the
advantage of ammonia injection are more significant on SOR period when the catalyst
is very active.

The equipment for handling aqueous ammonia consists of a storage vessel V-14-131
with a total capacity of 3,800 gallons. As per design, the vessel can be filled up to
maximum 80% level i.e. it can accommodate 3,000 gallons of aqueous ammonia. For
normal loading is preferable to fill up the vessel to 65 – 70% level. From vessel,
ammonia will go to the metering drums of the ammonia injection pumps V-14-129
and V-14-130. These metering drums are provided with level glass having a
measuring scale on it. Dosage is measured by the drop of level in inch per minute.
The three metering pumps P-14-128 with suction line from V-14-129 and P-14-
1029A/B with suction line from V-14-130, are capable to adjust the pumping rate. P-
14-128 is used for injecting ammonia to 1st stage reactor during liquid phase sulfiding
of initial start-up after new catalyst has been loaded. P-14-129A/B are used for dosing
ammonia to 2nd stage reactor during normal operation. The design capacity of the
pumps is 26.4 gpm. Each pump are provided with discharge pulsation dampener to
reduce the vibration due to pump reciprocating motion. The pumps are provided each
with Pressure safety valves installed at the discharge line as safety precaution for over
pressure condition. The ammonia storage vessel pressure is maintained by PC-
875A/B where “A” is for nitrogen supply and “B” is for flare line. Pressure controller
is set at 15 psig.

The recommended concentration of ammonia for 2nd stage recycle gas is 50 – 60 ppm.
To achieve this ammonia concentration, the aqueous ammonia dosage rate should be
calculated based on the following table. Take note that the dosage rate varies with gas
to oil ratio.
RECYCLE GAS HEIGHT LOSS AQUEOUS AMMONIA
AMMONIA - PPM IN 5 MINUTES INJECTION IN GPM
10 0 0
20 0 0
30 5 inches 1.57
40 10 inches 3.14
50 15 inches 4.71
60 20 inches 6.28
70 25 inches 7.85
80 30 inches 9.42
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Process description
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Prior to the start-up of ammonia injection to the 2nd stage, ammonia concentration on
the recycle gas should be checked which is expected around 15 – 20 ppm. The dosage
rate of aqueous ammonia should be adjusted accordingly.
During the initial start-up of the injection, ammonia should be introduced gradually in
steps to aiming the recycle gas concentration in steps at 30, 40, 50 and finally at 60.
Any change in pump flow should be done at least after 8 hours and two dragger /

laboratory results should be carried out. It will be noted that reaction in 2nd stage will
be reduced with ammonia injection and CAT need to be increased accordingly to
maintain product yield pattern. It is therefore important to carried out the ammonia
injection in steps by adjusting the flow of the aqueous ammonia pumps P-14-129A/B
based on the concentration of ammonia in recycle gas. Several samples of recycle gas
for dragger test should be carried out during initial commissioning and later during
every shift after the ammonia injection have been started smoothly and stabilized.

The aqueous ammonia is injected downstream of flow control valves for both stages
FC-109 and FC-110 respectively.

Continuous water injection to 2nd stage system upstream of air fin cooler depends on
the H2S level in the system but it is a recommended practice to maintain the water
injection in service along with ammonia injection operation.

Recently, additional pump were installed in the water injection system i.e. P-14-105C
in parallel with P-14-105A/B. A total of three water injection pumps are now
available in the unit which will be sufficient to serve both stages for continuous water
injection. There will be two pumps in service and one on standby condition. The
water injection line to 2nd stage is provided with a globe valve and downstream line
FT-234 capable of manually controlling and measuring the flow respectively.

2.2.2 FEED PRE-HEATING

2.2.2.1 MAKE-UP HYDROGEN

Hydrogen is consumed to convert the feed into products in the reactors. Since the
reactors operate at high pressure, about 2500 psig, the hydrogen must be compressed
to flow to the reactors. The hydrogen plant (unit 18) has three parallel three stage
make up compressor trains to supply the hydrogen. They are C-18-110A/B & C.
Each parallel train is rated for approximately 60 percent of the design hydrogen
requirement. Therefore, two compressor trains can be operated to supply hydrogen
to the reactor sections while the third is on standby.
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Process description
Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-2-06

This 3 x 60 percent arrangement is also advantageous during a shutdown and


regeneration. One or two trains can supply hydrogen to the single operating reactor
section, while the third train is connected to compress the regeneration gases for the
reactor stage undergoing regeneration.

Operation with make-up hydrogen of other than design composition will change the
hydrogen partial pressure in the Hydrocracker reactors.

Make-up hydrogen is supplied to the first and second stage reactor sections, as
needed, by a pressure controller on the recycle compressor suction line in each
section. These are PC-112A and PC-147A for first and second stages, respectively.
The Hydrogen is preheated in reactor effluent exchanger E-14-105 in the case of first
stage and E-14-110 in second stage and then enters the annulus space of the reactor at
the bottom and moves up and joins the reactor feed at the top inlet.

2.2.2.2 REACTOR FEED HEATING SYSTEM

The oil feed (fresh feed to the first stage and recycle feed to the second stage) is
combined with hydrogen rich recycle gas from the recycle compressor C-14-101
(C-14-102). The combined stream is heated in the reactor feed effluent exchangers
E-14-102A and B (E-14-107A and B).

2.2.2.3 CHARGE HEATER

Further heating to reactor inlet temperature takes place in the feed heater H-14-101
(H-14-102). The reactor feed heater provides the final heat to bring the feed mixture
to reaction temperature. TC-124 (TC-227) controls PC-109 (PC-144) which in turn
controls the fuel gas flow to the heater burners.
TC-110 (TC-213) regulates a bypass around the feed effluent exchangers. This
temperature controller, which controls the furnace inlet temperature, is required to
maintain a temperature rise of 35-50oF across the heater. The temperature rise across
the heater provides the operators the flexibility to quickly reduce the reactor inlet
temperature in an emergency by shutting down the furnace. Having the furnace inlet
temperature controlled by varying the feed effluent exchanger bypass also prevents
fluctuations in the reactor outlet temperature from affecting the reactor inlet
temperature through the feed effluent exchanger.

The furnace is designed to vaporize the feed partially to give a mist flow to the two
phase reactor feed stream.
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2.2.3 REACTOR SYSTEM

Make-up hydrogen from the make-up compressors in the Hydrogen plant (unit 18) is
preheated in the make-up hydrogen/effluent exchanger E-14-105 (E-14-110). From
the exchanger, the heated make-up hydrogen flows up through the reactor R-14-101

(R-14-102), in the annular space between the reactor outside wall (pressure wall) and
the inside bottle (liner). The hydrogen acts as a purge to prevent hydrogen sulfide
from diffusing into the annular space. It also serves to insulate the outside wall from
the heat of the inner bottle and reaction mix. A bypass line with a hand controller
HC-160 (HC-161) is provided for the make-up hydrogen effluent exchanger to
prevent overheating the gas with the very hot (up to 850oF) reactor effluent.

After the make-up hydrogen has passed upwards through the reactor annulus, it
combines with recycle gas and oil feed from the feed heater H-14-101 (H-14-102), in
the top of the reactor. In the reactor, the cracking reactions begin as soon as the feed
contacts the catalyst. The reactor is divided into four catalyst beds. Internals are
provided between each bed to ensure good distribution of vapor and liquid flow over
each bed. Cold quench gas from the recycle compressor C-14-101 (C-14-102), is
added on temperature control between the catalyst beds to limit the temperature rise
and thereby control the reaction rate. The following is a list of the temperature
controllers for each quench gas flow:

Location of bed Temperature controller


above and bed below
First stage Second stage

1 (Top) - 2 TC-134 (TC-235)


2-3 TC-133 (TC-234)
3 - 4 (Bottom) TC-132 (TC-233)
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The reactor effluent separation in the second stage section differs from the first stage
in having both a hot and a cold high pressure separator. The HHPS is provided to
remove high molecular weight PCI aromatics which accumulated in 2nd stage system
from the reactor effluent before cooling in the effluent air cooler EA-14-102. This
prevents possible tube plugging in the air cooler. Apart from this, the liquid
hydrocarbon heat is retained for H2S stripper feed.

The vapor from the HHPS is cooled by heating recycle gas in E-14-109 and then
further cooled in the air cooler EA-14-102. The cold effluent is then separated into
hydrogen rich recycle gas and oil in the cold high pressure separator (CHPS)
V-14-109. The gas feeds the recycle compressor C-14-102, to provide recycle gas
and quench gas to the second stage reactor. Refer to Chapter-7 for detailed
description and operation of recycle gas compressor. Oil is drawn on level control
(LC-123) and is sent to the cold low pressure separator (CLPS) V-14-110.

The liquid from the HHPS drives the second stage power recovery turbine
P-14-102-PT, to provide power for the second stage feed pump and is then flashed
again in the hot low pressure separator (HLPS) V-14-108. Hot low pressure vapor
(at around 415oF and 300 psig) is sent to the CLPS. The hot low pressure oil is
drawn on level control (LC-119) and is sent as hot feed to the H2S stripper T-14-101.

2.2.4 REACTOR EFFLUENT COOLING

The reactor effluent flows from the bottom of the reactor R-14-101 (R-14-102), to the
make-up hydrogen/reactor effluent exchanger E-14-105 (E-14-110). After preheating
the make-up hydrogen, the effluent preheats reactor feed in E-14-102 (E-14-107).

In the first stage reactor section, the effluent is further cooled by generating
intermediate pressure steam in E-14-103 and preheating H2S stripper feed in
E-14-104. At this point, the effluent is cold enough (about 275oF) that wash water
can be injected before the stream enters fin fan coolers EA-14-101. The effluent is
finally cooled to about 140oF in the effluent air cooler EA-14-101, and then flows to
the high pressure separator (HPS) V-14-102.

In the second stage reactor section, the effluent from E-14-107 is cooled by
generating intermediate pressure steam in E-14-108. After leaving E-14-108, the
reactor effluent (at 420oF) flows to the hot high pressure separator (HHPS),
V-14-107.
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2.2.5 REACTOR EFFLUENT SEPARATION SYSTEM

As described above, the reactor effluent in the first stage reactor section is cooled and
then separated in the HPS V-14-102. Sour water leaves the bottom of the separator
on level control (LC-107A/B). This sour water is sent off plot to the sour water
stripping (SWS) unit. The hydrogen rich gas leaves the top of the separator and feeds
the recycle gas compressor C-14-101, to provide both recycle gas and quench gas for
the reactor. Refer to Chapter-7 for detailed description and operation of recycle gas
compressor. Oil is drawn from the side of the separator on level control (LC-104).
This oil drives the first stage power recovery turbine P-14-101-PT, to provide power
for the first stage feed pump. It then flows to the cold low pressure separator (CLPS)
V-14-110.

2.2.6 WATER AND POLYSULFIDE INJECTION

Process condensate from the H2S stripper, fractionator, and naphtha stabilizer flow to
the water injection surge drum V-14-105. This water is injected with P-14-105 into
the first stage reactor effluent just upstream of the effluent air cooler EA-14-101.
The function of this injection water is to remove ammonia and some hydrogen sulfide
from the effluent. To aid in preventing corrosion, polysulfide is injected with
P-14-104 into the effluent along with the injection water. The polysulfide is added
for the following reasons:

1. The polysulfide (free “sulfur”) reacts with cyanide ion (CN- ) to form
thiocyanate ions which are not corrosive. Trace quantities of cyanide ion in the
reactor effluent contribute to corrosion in the air cooler and outlet piping.

2. Polysulfide injection will promote the formation of a harder and more adherent
form of iron sulfide, which will lay down on the metal surfaces and protect the
metal from excessive attack. Without polysulfide injection, the product of the
corrosive reaction between hydrogen sulfide and iron may take the form of a
soft black iron sulfide precipitate on the metal surface. This soft deposit can be
readily swept away by high velocity fluid, exposing fresh metal to further
corrosive attack.

Injection water is normally provided in excess by the process condensate


streams within the Hydrocracker. Excess water is sent to the SWS unit to
control the level in the injection water surge drum (PC-135). If additional
water is required, this is made up by stripped sour water from the SWS unit
(LC-115). Such water should have low contents of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide
and oxygen. This is because oxygen reacts with the polysulfide to form
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polymers which could plug the air cooler. Specifications for injection water are
as follows:

Hydrogen sulfide 1000 ppm max.


Ammonia 1000 ppm max.
Oxygen 15 ppb max.
Chlorides 50 ppm max.
Ca + Mg hardness 3 ppm max.
Nonvolatile residue 2 ppm max.

During normal operation, water is not injected into the second stage because
negligible amounts of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are formed. However,
facilities are available to inject water and polysulfide ahead of the second stage
air cooler, for use if the second stage is operating as a SSOT or SSREC unit.

Piping is also available to inject water upstream of E-14-104. If the heat


transfer performance of E-14-104 has degraded due to deposition of ammonium
chloride or ammonium bisulfide salts, the water can be used to wash the
exchanger. This procedure is not expected to be needed frequently; but if the
heat transfer performance of E-14-104 has decreased, use the water injection
pump to inject 40 gpm of water upstream of E-14-104 for 4 hrs. only. Don’t
inject water upstream of E-14-104 continuously, as this may cause unnecessary
corrosion.

2.2.7 COLD LOW PRESSURE SEPARATOR

The following product streams from the first and second stage reactor sections are
sent to the CLPS, V-14-110:

Oil product from the first stage HPS, V-14-102.

Oil product from the second stage CHPS, V-14-109.

Vapor product from the second stage HLPS, V-14-108.

These streams are flashed in the CLPS. The flashed gases (at about 320 psig) are
cooled to about 105oF in E-14-112 and then sent to the CLPS overhead knockout
drum V-14-111. From V-14-111, the flashed gases are released to the Hydrogen
Recovery unit on pressure control by PC-169. The recovered liquid product (mostly
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C4+) from V-14-111 is combined with the oil drawn from the CLPS, heated by
exchange with first stage effluent in E-14-104 and is fed to the H2S stripper. Any
carried over water from the first stage HPS is drawn off from the bottom of the CLPS
and sent to the SWT unit.

2.2.8 H2S STRIPPER

Reactor section products flow to the H2S stripper T-14-101, from the CLPS V-14-110
and from the HLPS V-14-108. The purpose of the H2S stripper is to remove
hydrogen sulfide and light ends before low pressure distillation. This reduces
downstream metallurgical requirements and eliminates the need to have a compressor
for low pressure gases. The H2S stripper contains two sieve trays above two 20-ft
packed beds. The feed temperature to the H2S stripper is controlled by the amount of
stripper feed from the CLPS which is heated in E-14-104 (controlled by TC-316).

Stripping steam (controlled by FC-140) is supplied to the stripper to remove


hydrogen sulfide and light ends (C4 and lighter) from the combined reaction section
products. The stripped bottoms from T-14-101 are pumped (with P-14-113) to the
fractionator through the fractionator feed heat exchanger train and the fractionator
feed heater H-14-103. In normal operation, two of the three P-14-113 pumps will be
in service and third one will be auto standby.

The H2S stripper overhead vapor is partially condensed in the air cooler EA-14-103
and in the water cooler E-14-113. The temperature of the mixed phase to the reflux
drum V-14-112 is controlled by the fan pitch on the air cooler. The sour gas from the
reflux drum is sent to the gas handling unit in unit 18.

The condensed overhead liquid from the reflux drum V-14-112 is split into two
streams and both are refluxed back to the stripper. One reflux stream enters the
stripper with the feed to the top of the packed bed section. The flow of this “feed
reflux” is set by level control of the reflux drum with LC-133. The second reflux or
“overhead reflux” is sent to the top sieve tray of the column and the flow rate is
controlled by TC-321, which resets FC-141. This split reflux to the stripper helps to
maintain column temperatures in the packed bed section above water dew point and
prevent condensation of steam which would corrode packing material and send
hydrogen sulfide to the fractionator. A water draw off tray is provided at the top of
the column (lower sieve tray) to collect any condensed water during start-up or upset.
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The only disadvantage of sending H2S stripper reflux to the stabilizer is that the C4-
liquid will contain very high concentration of hydrogen sulfide. If this operation will
be for a limited duration, the metallurgy will not be harmed.
2.2.9 FRACTIONATOR FEED HEATING

The stripper bottoms are pumped to the main fractionator T-14-102. The flow rate is
controlled by the bottom level in the H2S stripper by LC-131, which resets the pass
flow controllers of the fractionator feed heater H-14-103. Before reaching the heater,
the fractionator feed is preheated in a heat exchanger train. The exchangers and the
heat sources are as follows:

Heater Heating medium


E-14-114 A-B Heavy ATK
E-14-115 Top pumparound
E-14-116 Bottom pumparound
E-14-117 Fractionator bottoms
E-14-118 A-D Fractionator bottoms
After picking up heat in the exchanger train, the feed is further heated in the
fractionator feed heater H-14-103 (controlled by TC-367) and is fed to the product
fractionator.

The fractionator feed heater on balanced draft uses preheated air. The heater can be
fired with either fuel oil, fuel gas or a combination of fuel oil and fuel gas. See
chapter 7 for details on the heater.
2.2.10 PRODUCT FRACTIONATION

The main fractionator operates much like a Crude unit atmospheric column to
separate products. The fractionator separates unconverted feed from converted
products and recovers these as overhead (naphtha) and sidecuts (light ATK, heavy
ATK and gas oil). The bottoms from the fractionator (the unconverted feed) is sent
to the second stage reactor section.

The Hydrocracker is designed for two modes of operation, namely ATK operation
and mid distillate operation. In addition, recovery of naphtha or ATK can be
maximized by varying the draw of ATK product from the fractionator. The following
process description will be generally accurate for all modes of operation. Where the
operation is significantly different, this will be indicated.
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The fractionator has 50 trays for vapor liquid contacting. Feed to the column enters
the flash zone between trays 7 and 8. In the stripping section ( trays 1 - 7),
superheated steam is supplied to strip recoverable products out of the fractionator
bottoms. The steam rate to the fractionator is controlled by FC-163. The fractionator
bottoms level is not automatically controlled; the bottoms level is maintained, with
sufficient surge volume, by adjusting the reactor operating temperatures and, hence,
the conversion to cracked products.

Fractionator bottoms is used to reboil the heavy ATK stripper in E-14-122 and
preheat the fractionator feed in E-14-117 and E-14-118. An intermittent slip stream
is used as backflush for the fresh feed filter F-14-101.

Pumparounds

Two circulating refluxes (pumparounds) are drawn from the fractionator to control
column fractionation (traffic) and provide heat for reboilers and feed preheat.

The bottom pumparound drawn from tray 17 preheats fractionator feed in E-14-116
and reboils the light ATK stripper in E-14-120. During ATK operation, E-14-116 is
bypassed due to low heat removal duty requirement. To maintain constant heat
removal, a medium pressure (220 psig) steam generator E-14-119 generates steam to
control the return temperature of the bottom pumparound (TC-371). The bottom
pumparound flow rate is controlled by FC-159 and it is returned to the tower at
tray 19.

The top pumparound is drawn from tray 27 and controls column traffic and
fractionation between naphtha and ATK products. The pumparound removes heat
from the column by reboiling the naphtha stabilizer in E-14-128, heating fractionator
feed in E-14-115, and reboiling the naphtha splitter in E-14-130. To maintain
constant heat removal, a trim air cooler EA-14-105, with temperature control
(TC-369) on a bypass is provided before the reflux returns to the fractionator. The
top pumparound flow rate is controlled by FC-160 and it is returned to the tower at
tray 29.
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Top reflux

The fractionator overhead is totally condensed in the air cooler EA-14-106. The
condensed hydrocarbons (naphtha) and water are separated in the reflux drum
V-14-117. The water is sent to the injection water surge drum. The hydrocarbon
liquid is split into two streams:

 Overhead reflux is returned to the column (tray 50) to control the overhead
temperature (TC-374 resets FC-161) which controls the cut point between
light ATK and naphtha.

 The raw naphtha is sent to the naphtha stabilizer/splitter system. The flow rate
is controlled by LC-139 which resets FC-164.

Light ATK product

Light ATK is drawn from tray 38 of the fractionator and flows to the light ATK
stripper T-14-103, on level control (LC-142). The stripper is reboiled in E-14-120
with bottom pumparound. The reboiling can be controlled by FC-165, which
regulates a bypass on the reboiler. The light ATK product is pumped to tankage by
P-14-119 via air cooler EA-14-107 and water cooler E-14-121. The product rate is
set by FC-166.

JP.5 PRODUCT

Normal method of JP5 production is to increase fractionator tower top temperature


until the ATK stream meets the flash point of 145oF. This involves major changes in
the operating parameters of the top section of the tower.

To overcome this, a jumpover line is provided from light ATK product to heavy
naphtha rundown line. Light ATK draw rate is reduced, thus allowing the heavy
end of the light ATK to fall into heavy ATK increasing the yield of heavy ATK.
Draw rate of the two streams are adequately adjusted to meet the heavy ATK flash
point of 145oF. The reduced light ATK stream is diverted to the heavy naphtha
product.
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Heavy ATK product

Heavy ATK is drawn from tray 27, along with the top pumparound. The heavy ATK
flows to the heavy ATK stripper T-14-104, on level control (LC-143). The stripper is
reboiled with fractionator bottoms in E-14-122. Again, the reboiling can be
controlled by regulating a bypass on the reboiler (FC-167). Heavy ATK product
preheats fractionator feed in E-14-114 and preheats boiler feed water in E-14-123.
The heavy ATK is pumped to tankage by P-14-120 via air cooler EA-14-108 and
water cooler EA-14-124. The product rate of heavy ATK is set by FC-168.

Gas oil product

The process flow for the mid distillate mode is essentially the same as for the ATK
mode. However, in the mid distillate mode, the fractionator recovers three sidecuts
instead of two. Gas oil is drawn as a third (bottom) sidecut from tray 17 of the
fractionator and is steam stripped in T-14-105. The gas oil draw is regulated by
LC-144 to maintain the level in the bottom of the stripper. The rate of stripping
steam is controlled by FC-169. The gas oil product generates medium pressure steam
in E-14-125 and is then air cooled in EA-14-109. Free water is removed in a water
coalescer V-14-118. The gas oil product rate is set by FC-170. The TBP cut point
between converted products and recycle feed to the second stage (known as the
recycle cut point or RCP) is increased from 550oF to 700oF during mid distillate
operation. To accomplish this, the fractionator flash zone temperature is raised by
about 100oF and the column pressure lowered by 10 psig. Bottom pumparound heat
removal is double (up to 44 MM Btu/hr) to control column traffic and fractionation
between heavy ATK and gas oil. Much of this additional heat is used to preheat
fractionator feed in E-14-116; the remainder generates medium pressure steam in
E-14-119.

2.2.11 NAPHTHA STABILIZER AND SPLITTER

The raw naphtha from the overhead of the fractionator is fed to the naphtha stabilizer
T-14-106, to remove butane and lighter material from the product naphtha. New
provision for light naphtha from CDU-11 can also be processed in the naphtha
stabilizer and splitter. The stabilized whole naphtha can then be sent directly to
tankage as product (bypassing the splitter) or can be fed to the naphtha splitter T-14-
107, and split into a light naphtha product (overhead) and a heavy naphtha product
(bottoms).
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Fractionator overhead liquid enters the naphtha stabilizer after being heated with
splitter bottoms (heavy naphtha) in E-14-126. The temperature of this feed is
controlled by the amount of feed bypassing the exchanger, as controlled by TC-415.
The stabilizer reboiler heat input is varied to hold a constant temperature on tray 2 of
the column. This control is by TC-420, which resets FC-171, which controls the
amount of top pumparound flowing through the reboiler E-14-128.

The overhead liquid from the stabilizer is sour LPG. It is split into two streams. The
net product is sent to the Gas Handling unit on reflux drum level control (LC-148),
and the reflux liquid is returned to the column on flow control (FC-172).

Stabilizer bottoms are fed into the naphtha splitter (on stabilizer level control with
LC-146). The splitter is reboiled by top pumparound in E-14-130. The reboiling is
controlled to hold a constant temperature on tray 2 of the column. This is done by
TC-430, which resets FC-252, which controls the amount of top pumparound flowing
through the reboiler E-14-130. Heavy naphtha from the splitter bottom is pumped by
P-14-123 through the stabilizer feed preheat exchanger E-14-126, and further cooled
in EA-14-110 (by air) and in E-14-129 (by water), before going to tankage. The flow
rate is set by level control in the bottom of the splitter (LC-147). Overhead, light
naphtha is condensed in EA-14-111. The cooling is regulated by TC-433 and TC-
434, which adjust the fan pitch in the air cooler. Condensed light naphtha is refluxed
back to the column to maintain the required ASTM gap specification between light
and heavy naphtha (FC-177). Light naphtha product is taken on level control from
the reflux drum V-14-124, with LC-150. The light naphtha is cooled in the water
cooler E-14-131 before being sent to tankage.

If whole naphtha is the desired product, the naphtha splitter can be bypassed
completely. In this case, stabilizer bottoms is pumped with P-14-123 through
E-14-126, EA-14-110, E-14-129 and then to tankage. The flow to the splitter is
blocked in. To avoid large pressure drops in the rundown stream, the whole naphtha
can be partially bypassed around E-14-126 using FC-243.
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2.3 OPERATING FLEXIBILITY

In normal operation, the three sections namely, the first stage reactor section, the
second stage reactor section and the fractionation section fit together to operate as a
two stage hydrocracker. In the first stage, the feed is processed in once through
operation and in the second stage the remaining feed stock is recycled to make
complete processing. The flexibility of the hydrocracker allows it to operate in other
ways.
2.3.1 SINGLE STAGE ONCE THROUGH OPERATION (SSOT)

If one of the reactor section is out of service such as shut down for regeneration, the
remaining reactor section can still be operated as a once through unit. Fresh feed is
partially converted to products and sent to the distillation section. The products are
recovered, and the unconverted oil (fractionator bottoms) is diverted to tank for fuel
oil blending stock. This unconverted fractionator bottoms is very low in Sulfur and
Nitrogen due to high hydrogenation in the reactor.

Though the distillation section must operate at reduced rates (as low as 50 percent
turndown), the operation is essentially the same. The fractionator bottom is routed
through air cooler EA-14-104, on level control (LC-137) to tankage.

The second stage reaction section is hydraulically designed for operation as a single
stage unit feeding 38,000 BPOD of fresh feed. The process flow for SSOT operation
is identical with the following exceptions.

 Fresh feed brought in on normal control to the feed surge drum V-14-101,
(through E-14-101 and F-14-101) is routed to the second stage feed pump
P-14-102. Fresh feed to the second stage (rather than recycle feed) is controlled
by FC-110. The fractionator bottom is not recycled but sent through air cooler
EA-14-104 to tankage.
 A water/polysulfide stream, from P-14-105, is injected into the vapors from
HHPS-V-14-107, ahead of the effluent air cooler EA-14-102, to dissolve and
remove ammonium salts and to minimize corrosion.
 As a result of the water injection, a sour water phase will be drawn from the
bottom of the CHPS, V-14-109. This sour water is sent off plot to the SWS
unit.
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2.3.2 SINGLE STAGE RECYCLE OPERATION (SSREC)

A single reactor section can also be operated as a recycle unit. Unconverted feed
from the reactor is separated from products in the distillation section and recycled
back to the reactor section.

Recycle operation will have a lower throughput than once through operation, but all
the feed is upgraded to products because no unconverted bottoms is produced
(complete processing). Single stage recycle operation is a more severe operation, and
catalyst life will suffer compared to single stage once through operation.

Operation of either reactor section as a SSREC unit is identical to SSOT operation


with the following exceptions:

 Fractionator bottoms is routed back to the feed surge drum V-14-101. The rate
of recycle feed is set by FC-110. By returning the unconverted oil to the feed
surge drum , fresh oil feed is backed out. Fresh oil throughput is reduced
(compared to SSOT operation), but all of the fresh feed is converted to products.

 The fractionator bottoms level can be controlled in different ways, depending on


the desired operation. If no bleed is desired (ie., extinction recycle operation),
per pass conversion (PPC) can be set by setting FC -110. The bottoms level is
maintained by adjusting reactor operating temperature, hence, conversion to hold
level. This manual control of level is similar to the normal two stage operation of
the fractionator. Alternatively, if a bleed is desired, the fractionator level is
automatically controlled with LC-137. The bleed stream is cooled in EA-14-104
and sent off plot. The recycle feed is still set by FC-105.
2.3.3 EFFECT ON PRODUCTS

Operation as a two stage hydrocracker or as a SSREC unit has an effect on product


qualities as well as product yields. Generally the best product qualities (lowest
mercaptans, highest smoke points, and lowest pour points) are produced in the
second stage of the two stage operation. The poorest qualities are from the first stage
(or a SSOT operation). It follows that the combined products from the two stage
operation are between those from each stage. The product qualities of a SSREC also
lie between those of each stage but are somewhat inferior to those from two stage
operation.
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


SINGLE-STAGE ONCE-THROUGH ISOCRACKER OPERATION
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


SINGLE – STAGE RECYCLE OPERATION
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM


TWO STAGE ISOCRACKER OPERATION
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2.3.4 PRODUCT FLEXIBILITY

The primary mode of operation is to produce aviation turbine kerosene (A.T.K.) or


illuminating kerosene (ILL.K). An alternative mode of operation is middle distillate
operation. Where the main product is gas oil or high speed diesel (H.S.D). The
switch from one operation to the other is done by varying the conversion of feed to
products in both the first and second stage reactor section and by making changes in
the operation of the distillation section.

The main fractionator produces three distillate streams, namely light ATK, heavy
ATK and gas oil. ATK and illuminating kerosene products are produced by blending
the light ATK and heavy ATK streams. Diesel product is produced by blending all
three distillate streams.

In ATK operation the naphtha end point may be varied between 250oF and 330oF.

The naphtha may be split in to heavy naphtha and stabilized light naphtha.
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2.4 PRODUCTS SUMMARY AND DESTINATION

The figures shown in these tabulations are yields from the reactors assuming perfect
distillation. Product properties shown are based on design operation of the
distillation section. Actual product yields and properties will depend on the operation
of the distillation section and on how the sidecuts are blended.

The operating mode has an effect on product yields and qualities. When maximizing
the yields of ATK or diesel, more or less naphtha is produced. During maximum
ATK operation, the yield of light naphtha is about 16 bbl/100 bbl of fresh feed; the
light naphtha yield during mid-distillate operation is about 11 bbl/100 bbl of fresh
feed. ATK operation also produces about 40% more light gases (C4-) than mid
distillate operation. The ATK product (250 - 550oF TBP) produced during ATK
mode has a slightly higher smoke point than an equivalent ATK product (250 - 550oF
TBP) produced during mid-distillate operation.

2.4.1 SOUR OFF GAS

Sour gas from the Hydrocracker, consisting of butane and lighter components, comes
from four sources:

1. Offgas from the cold low pressure separator (CLPS) knockout drum. This
stream contains about 60 - 75 mole% hydrogen and 1 mole % hydrogen sulfide.
Its rate is varied to control the CLPS pressure. This product is sent to the
Hydrogen Recovery unit 19.

2. Overhead vapor from the H2S stripper reflux drum. This stream contains about
15 - 20 mole% hydrogen and about 4 mole% hydrogen sulfide. Its rate is varied
to control the pressure in the stripper. This product is sent to the Gas Handling
unit 18.

3. Overhead vapor from the naphtha stabilizer reflux drum. This stream is
normally connected to the fuel gas system, but no flow is expected. If H2S
stripper reflux is being fed to the stabilizer, then this overhead vapor rate is
varied to control the pressure in the stabilizer. In that case, the gas may be sent
to the blowdown system.
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4. Bleed gas from the high pressure separator in the first stage and the cold high
pressure separator in the second stage. Normally there is no flow. These
streams are hydrogen rich (about 85 mole%) and are used if increased hydrogen
purity is required in the recycle gas of either the first or the second stages. The
rate can be set by FC-120 (FC-137), or it can be varied to control the pressure in
the high pressure loop. If a bleed is used, it is sent to the Hydrogen plant (unit
18) or to the Hydrogen Recovery unit 19.

2.4.2 LPG

Sour LPG, liquid consisting of butane and lighter components, comes from the
naphtha stabilizer reflux drum. This stream normally contains about 12 ppm of
hydrogen sulfide but can contain as much as 0.6% when H2S stripper reflux is being
fed to the stabilizer. This stream is sent to the Gas Handling unit 18.

2.4.3 LIGHT NAPHTHA

Light naphtha is produced as the overhead product of the splitter. The nominal TBP
range for light naphtha is C5 - 180oF. A jumpover is provided to mix a small amount
of heavy naphtha into the light naphtha, if necessary to control the vapor pressure
(RVP).

2.4.4 HEAVY OR FULL RANGE NAPHTHA

Heavy naphtha is produced as bottoms from the naphtha splitter. The distillation
section is designed to maximize recovery of either ATK or naphtha. The maximum
naphtha case recovers a 180 - 330oF TBP heavy naphtha cut, while the maximum
ATK case only recovers a narrow-boiling 180 - 250oF TBP heavy naphtha cut. The
heavy naphtha is a prime catalytic reformer feedstock because of its high naphthene
content of about 50%.

2.4.5 AVIATION TURBINE KEROSENE (ATK)

As stated before, the distillation section is designed to recover a maximum amount of


naphtha or ATK. The ATK is recovered in the first two sidecuts of the fractionator.
The product draw is split between these two sidecuts as required to optimize
fractionator performance and overall product quality.
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Light ATK is drawn as a low (95 - 100oF) flash 250 - 380oF TBP product during
maximum ATK operation and as a 330 - 450oF TBP product during maximum mid
distillate operation. The balance of ATK product is drawn as heavy ATK up to a
TBP cut point of 550oF (eg., 380 - 550oF TBP for maximum ATK operation).

The light and heavy ATK streams are blended to produce jet fuel or illuminating
kerosene. Antioxidant and antistatic additives are added as needed to meet product
specifications. The ATK may be sent to the product tank and in case of unit upsets
the off spec ATK product can be routed to diesel blending, to dry slop or to VGO
tanks.

The ATK yield can be maximized by drawing ATK with nominal 250 - 550oF TBP
cut points. The nominal TBP cut points must be changed to 260 - 550oF in order to
meet the more stringent flash point specification.

2.4.6 GAS OIL

During mid-distillate operation, gas oil is drawn as a third sidecut from the
fractionator (550 - 700oF TBP). The gas oil is mixed with the ATK to form European
Gas Oil or High Speed Diesel. The gas oil can go to diesel blending, to dry slop, or
to VGO tanks. The gas oil product properties are indicated in the tabulations at the
end of this section.

2.4.7 SOUR WATER

Sour water comes from several sources in the Hydrocracker:

1. Water that is injected upstream of the first stage air cooler EA-14-101 is sent to
sour water treating from the high pressure separator V-14-102. This water will
contain about 3% ammonia, about 4% hydrogen sulfide and a small
concentration of polysulfide. Any water carried over from the high pressure
separator is sent to sour water treating from the cold low pressure separator.

2. Condensate is drawn from the H2S stripper reflux drum, from the fractionator
reflux drum and from the stabilizer reflux drum. This water will contain trace
quantities of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. About half of the water from
these three sources is normally used as injection water in the first reactor stage;
the excess is sent to sour water treating.
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2.4.8 UNCONVERTED OIL

Unconverted oil may be exported from the Hydrocracker in several situations, as


follows:

1. During single stage once through operation.

2. If the polycyclic index of the feed exceeds 800 ppm.

The unconverted oil is cooled in air cooler EA-14-104 and sent to VGO tank or slop
tank or coker gas oil tank.

2.4.9 FILTER BACKFLUSH

Fractionator bottoms used for backflush of the feed filters F-14-101 is sent to the
coker gas oil tank along with unconverted oil bleed stream cooled in EA-14-104.
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2.5 TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS


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TYPICAL OPERATING CONDITIONS (Cont’d)


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2.6 UTILITY SYSTEMS

Refer to P & I Diagrams 114-KE-51 to 58.

The following paragraphs describe utility systems associated with the Hydrocracker.
Battery limit utility conditions are also listed. For detailed information on any of
these utility systems, refer to the operating manuals for the respective utility units.

2.6.1 STEAM AND CONDENSATE SYSTEMS

The steam and condensate systems include four different steam pressure levels and
one condensate level.

2.6.1.1 HIGH PRESSURE STEAM (SH)

900 psig high pressure steam is imported to the Hydrocracker. The Hydrogen plant,
unit 18 and the Steam Systems Unit, unit 31, produce this high pressure steam. This
steam is used to drive the recycle gas compressor back-pressure turbines. Exhaust
steam at 450 psig is let into the medium pressure steam system.

2.6.1.2 MEDIUM PRESSURE STEAM (SM)

450 psig medium pressure steam produced and superheated in the convection
sections of the reactor feed heaters H-14-101/102 combines with the recycle gas
compressor turbines exhaust 450 psig steam and is exported into the refinery header.
The medium pressure steam users in the Hydrocracker are spare pump turbines
P-14-114B-ST, P-14-115B-ST, P-14-117B-ST and the four soot blowers of
H-14-103. Under normal conditions most of the medium pressure steam is exported
to the refinery’s 450 psig steam system.

2.6.1.3 INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM (SG)

There are three different temperature levels of 150 psig steam in the Hydrocracker.
These are as follows:
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1. 150 psig steam, saturated

This steam is produced in the four steam generators E-14-103, 104, 119 and 125
shown in P & I Diagram 114-KE-28. Part of this steam is superheated in the
convection sections of the reactor and fractionator feed heaters
H-14-101/102/103 and is maintained at 680oF by desuperheater quench
controls. This steam is used as stripping steam to towers, T-14-101/102 and
105.

2. 150 psig steam (420oF)

Exhaust product of turbines P-14-114B-ST/P-14-115B-ST and P-14-117B-ST


using 450 psig drive steam is re-exported to 150 psig refinery header.
However, in normal cases, these turbines do not operate.

3. 150 psig steam, superheated (420oF)

The remaining about 70 percent of the 150 psig saturated steam is superheated
in the fractionator feed heater H-14-103 to 420oF, which is the normal
temperature of (SG) steam. Part of this steam is used for fuel atomization in the
fractionator feed heater and the balance is exported to the refinery header.

4. 60 psig, low pressure steam (SL)

This steam is produced from lube and seal oil pump turbine exhaust in the
recycle gas compressor packages and gland steam extracted from recycle
compressor driver turbines. It is used for the low pressure utility services such
as utility stations and gland seal ejectors of the compressor turbines. The
balance is exported to the refinery header.

5. Intermediate pressure condensate (CG)

The intermediate condensate line receives condensate from steam traps in the
intermediate pressure steam header and lines.
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2.6.2 COOLING WATER SYSTEMS

The cooling water systems includes a once through sea water system and a
circulating fresh water system. Sea water cooling is used wherever possible.
Circulating cooling water is used where sea water is not compatible with the
equipment being cooled, such as compressor and pump auxiliaries.

2.6.2.1 SEA WATER SYSTEM (WS, WX)

Once-through sea water is supplied from the Cooling Water Systems unit 32. The
system consists of two underground sea water supply headers and two return headers.
Two 10 headers (supply & return) serve heat exchangers along the West pipeway
and two 16 headers serve the heat exchangers along the East pipeway. Motor
operated shutoff valves are provided at the battery limit on both sea water supply
headers for emergency shutdown.

2.6.2.2 CIRCULATING COOLING WATER (WC, WR)

The circulating cooling water is supplied from the Cooling Water Systems unit 32.
The system consists of two cooling water supply headers and two return headers.
Both supply and return headers are underground outside of the Hydrocracker unit and
above ground inside the unit. Two 8 headers (supply & return) serve equipment
along the West pipeway and two 6 headers serve equipment along the East pipeway.

2.6.3 OTHER WATER SYSTEMS

The other water supply systems to the Hydrocracker are:

Fire water
Utility water (WU)
Potable water (WD)
Process water (WP)
Boiler feed water (WB)
Boiler blowdown (BB)
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2.6.3.1 FIRE WATER

The Hydrocracker has four fire monitors and four fire hydrants that cover the area.
Internal mains supply ten hose reels spaced along the two pipeways. There are
additional fire hydrants located along the North and West interconnecting pipeways
outside of the Hydrocracker which can be used for fire fighting.

Spray systems are provided for the recycle gas compressor lube and seal oil consoles.
These spray systems are initiated manually and have two sources of supply.

2.6.3.2 UTILITY WATER (WU)

The utility water supply lines are underground outside of the Hydrocracker unit and
aboveground inside the unit. There are two utility water lines, one in each of the two
pipeways. Utility water is provided for quenching decoking steam from the
fractionator feed heater. It is also supplied to all utility stations and to the two pitot
tubes in the sea water headers for instrument flushing.

2.6.3.3 POTABLE WATER (WD)

The potable water line is underground both within and outside the unit. It is provided
for eyewash and safety showers and for drinking fountains.

2.6.3.4 PROCESS WATER (WP)

Process water is supplied from the Sour Water Stripping unit 26. The stripped sour
water is used as back up for the process condensate generated within the
Hydrocracker and during start-up. The water is injected upstream of the reactor
effluent air coolers. In particular, the specification for oxygen content is very strict,
maximum 15 ppb.

2.6.3.5 HIGH PRESSURE BOILER FEED WATER (WB)

High pressure boiler feed water originates at the high pressure pumps in unit 31. It is
used to produce 450 psig steam in the Hydrocracker.
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The high pressure boiler feed water is preheated to 460oF in the convection section of
the reactor feed heaters before it is fed to the steam generation coils in the same
convection sections.

2.6.3.6 LOW PRESSURE BOILER FEED WATER (WB)

Low pressure boiler feed water originates from the low pressure pumps in unit 31. It
is used to produce 150 psig steam in the Hydrocracker.

The low pressure boiler feed water is preheated to 373oF in exchanger E-14-123
before being supplied to the steam generators. This water is also used in the
desuperheaters DS-14-101, 102, 103 and 104 to desuperheat 150 psig steam and
maintain the superheat temperatures.

2.6.3.7 INTERMITTENT BLOWDOWN (BB)

The intermittent boiler blowdown is provided to prevent buildup of mud and scale in
the steam generating equipment. All steam generators in unit 14 are provided with
intermittent blowdown connections to the offplot header.

2.6.3.8 CONTINUOUS BLOWDOWN (BB)

The continuous boiler blowdown is also provided to prevent buildup of mud and
scale in steam producing equipment. All steam generators in unit 14 are provided
with continuous blowdown connections to the offplot header.

2.6.4 RELIEF SYSTEM (BD)

The Hydrocracker has one high pressure and two low pressure relief headers. The
high pressure header is located on the West pipeway and serves all high pressure
equipment reliefs from the first and second stage reactor loops. The two low pressure
relief headers are located one in each pipeway. The East low pressure header serves
basically all low pressure equipment reliefs from the fractionator section. The West
low pressure relief header serves all low pressure equipment located on either side of
the West pipeway. Both high and low pressure headers are swept with refinery fuel
gas to eliminate any possibility of air presence. All these three headers’ battery limit
block valves are provided with lock pins to secure the valve gates in open position.
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2.6.5 FLUSHING OIL SYSTEM

The Hydrocracker is provided with two flushing oil headers in each of the East and
West pipeways. Straight run diesel oil is supplied to the unit as flushing oil from
offplot. In each pipeway, one header provides unfiltered flushing oil. The other
header provides flushing oil filtered to 200 micron. The unfiltered flushing oil is
used for flushing process lines, equipment and the feed filters during a shutdown.
The filtered flushing oil is used either intermittently or continuously depending on
the service, as follows:

Inline flow instruments in high-pour-point hydrocarbon service are flushed


continuously and in cases where the process pressure is higher than the flushing oil
pressure, a lubricator is used to increase the flushing oil pressure. However, this
system is not in use at present and such instruments and impulse lines are
steam-traced instead. All level instruments in hydrocarbon service that trigger
alarms have been provided with flushing oil connections for intermittent testing and
flushing of these instruments.

2.6.6 FUEL GAS SYSTEM (GF)

The Hydrocracker reactor feed heaters H-14-101 and 102 are designed for 100
percent fuel gas firing. The fractionator feed heater H-14-103, is designed for dual
firing of fuel gas and/or fuel oil. The fuel gas is supplied from offplot. From
the unit battery limit the gas goes to the fuel gas knock-out drums V-14-114 and
V-14-115, to remove any condensate formed in the lines. The fuel gas piping from
the knock-out drums to the heaters is steam traced to prevent further condensation.
Fuel gas is also used for blanketting the feed surge drum V-14-101, the fractionator
reflux drum V-14-117, and the naphtha splitter reflux drum V-14-124. Further, fuel
gas is used to maintain a positive flow in the flare headers.

2.6.7 FUEL OIL SYSTEM (OF,OX)

The fractionator feed heater H-14-103, is the only heater in the Hydrocracker which
is capable of firing fuel oil. Fuel oil is supplied to the unit from the offplot refinery
fuel oil header. The ratio of supply to return is approximately 2 to 1. Due to high
viscosity of the fuel oil at ambient temperature, the fuel oil supply and return lines
are steam traced to maintain 200oF supply temperature.
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2.6.8 NITROGEN SYSTEM (GI)

Nitrogen are supplied to the unit from off plot by two nitrogen line headers at
the reactor side and just one nitrogen line header at the fractionator side. Both
nitrogen are supplied from the utilities but each nitrogen headers have its own
purpose in hydrocracker. The 1st nitrogen header which being supplied to both
reactor side and fractionator side are used for process nitrogen blanketing such
as , sulfiding chemical drum V-14-103, the polysulfide drum V-14-104, anti-
oxidant drum PK-14-101V1and C-14-101 / 102 lube oil reservoir. It is also used
extensively for purging and process pipelines during start up and shutdown. The
2nd nitrogen header is used exclusively for recycle gas compressor C-14-101 /
102 dry gas seal system. Furthermore, the 1st nitrogen supply header is used
during regeneration of the reactor catalyst.

2.6.9 AIR SYSTEMS

2.6.9.1 INSTRUMENT AIR (AI)

Instrument air is imported from offplot and is widely distributed to all pneumatic
operators and instrument loops.

2.6.9.2 UTILITY AIR (AP)

Utility air is imported from offplot and is supplied to all the utility stations. It is also
used in regeneration of the reactor catalyst and for decoking of the fractionator feed
heater. for catalyst regeneration, the air is provided by the make-up compressors in
unit 18.

2.6.10 DRAINAGES AND SEWER SYSTEMS

Refer to Chapter-9.

2.6.11 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The electrical power for the Hydrocracker is supplied from substation EE-SS36-
B230. The system consists of two transformers feeding from the refinery 11 KV
header and supplying the 3.3 KV switchgear within the substation. If either of these
transformers is out of service, the remaining transformer is capable of supplying the
total load.
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The 3.3 KV switchgear supplies large motors, above 150HP and also supplies eight
additional transformers which reduce the voltage to 440V. These eight transformers
are arranged in four groups of two each, supplying the 440V motor control centers.
These eight transformers have the same connection configuration as the main supply
transformers. This allows either transformer of a group to be out of service while the
other will maintain the power supply to the motor control centers of that group.

At the 440V level, in addition to the main power supply there is an emergency supply
provided by 3.3 KV generators. This supply is transformed down to 440V using two
additional transformers and is available to two of the motor control centers.

On failure of the main power supply, an automatic transfer switch will connect these
two motor control centers to the emergency power supply. These motor control
centers are the ones that have essential loads. Essential loads are the following:
Skeleton lighting.
All motor operated valves.
One fan on each high pressure air cooler.
BFW circulation pumps.
Lube oil and seal oil pumps.
Control room.
As further backup, the control room is supplied by an uninterruptable power supply.
All power cables to equipment within the unit are installed underground. Lighting of
the Hydrocracker is provided by localized fixtures and floodlights located around the
perimeter. The general lighting and small power system is controlled from panel
boards. the floodlights are controlled from a photocell located in the substation.
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2.6.12 UTILITY CONDITIONS

1. Steam and condensate. Pressures and temperatures at battery limit.


Normal Maximum Minimum
psig oF psig oF psig oF
HP steam (SH) 900 850 910 860 890 840
Medium pressure steam (SM) 450 685 455 700 445 660
Intermediate pressure steam (SG) 145 415 150 440 140 390
Low pressure steam (SL) 55 380 60 405 50 355
HP condensate 180 380 200 390 165 375
Intermediate pressure condensate 93 335 108 345 75 320
Low pressure condensate 35 280 40 290 25 265
H P Boiler feed water 1100 250 1570 300 925 230
L P Boiler feed water 250 250 290 300 220 230

2. Gases
Heating value Normal Maximum Minimum
Btu/Scf psig oF psig oF psig oF

Nitrogen 100 105 100 130 90 100

Instrument air 90 115 100 115 80 100

Plant air 100 115 115 115 80 100

Fuel gas 1360 - 1843 60 130 50 Amb.


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3. Fuel oil and water


Maximum Minimum
psig oF psig oF

Fuel oil 145 200 25 200

Sea water 41 95 10 115

Circulating cooling water 55 93 15 118

Potable water 50 Amb.

Utility water 65 Amb.

Flushing oil 100 160

Process wash water 75 125

Fresh water 120 Amb.


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2.7 CONSUMPTION/PRODUCTION OF UTILITIES - DESIGN BASIS

2.7.1 ATK MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
900 psig superheated
lbs/hr C-14-101-ST 106900 117600
steam Note-1
119300 lbs/hr max OT
C-14-102-ST 99850 109830
operation
22743
TOTAL 206750 227430 206750
0
450 psig superheated
lbs/hr C-14-101-ST 104450 113870
steam
C-14-102-ST 97400 106100
Reactor feed heaters 24807 24807
Steam driven pumps 46763
H-14-103 soot
12000
blower
19801
TOTAL 226657 244777 226657
4
150 psig saturated
lbs/hr E-14-103 36500 36500
steam
E-14-108 53800 53800
E-14-119 14700 14700
E-14-125 - -
H-14-103 84600 84600
H-14-101 11400 11400
H-14-102 9000 9000
TOTAL 105000 105000 105000 105000 Assumed 5% blowdown
(1) During reactor catalyst regeneration, 900 psig steam requirements is 175,000 lbs/hr for C-14-101-ST or C-14-102-ST
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ATK MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
150 psig 680oF superheated
lbs/hr T-14-101 6990 6990 Stripping steam
steam
T-14-105 - -
T-14-102 23780 23780 Stripping steam
H-14-103 10370 10370 Coil 1
H-14-101 11400 11400
H-14-102 9000 9000
Desuper heaters 1690 1690
Contingency 1550 1550
TOTAL 32460 32460 32460 32460
150 PSIG 420oF
lbs/hr H-14-103 74230 74230 Coil 2 @ 457oF
superheated steam
H-14-103 3000 3600 Atomizing steam
Snuffing /Decoking/
H-14-103 - 61,000
emergency stm
C-14-101/102-P1 6680 9952 L.O. pump turbine
EA-14-104A/B - 16850 Note-1
Steam turbine driven
- 46763 Exhaust
pumps
H-14-101/102 - 1200 Snuffing steam
EJ-14-104/109 - 2100 Start-up evacuation
F-14-101A/B/C/D - 2000
DS-14-104 5520 9100
R-14-101/102 outlet - 25640 Flange snuffing
Steam tracing 5000 5000
TOTAL 33376 79750 46374
(1) Flow varies with ambient air temperature (heating coil)
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ATK MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
60 psig superheated
lbs/hr C-14-101/102 25376 31174 LO pump turbine
steam
C-14-101/102-ST 4300 6500 Gland leak off
C-14-101/102-EJ1 1300 1300 Gland seal ejector
20 US in operation @
Utility stations 50,000
2500 lb/hr
Pump seal quench 100 100
TOTAL 1400 29676 37674 28276 36274
I.P. Condensate lbs/hr EA-14-104 - 16850 Heating coil
Steam tracing 5000 5000
V-14-125/126 - 1000 Steam separator
TOTAL 5000 22850 5000 22850
Fuel gas scfm H-14-101 716 881 Main/pilot burner
H-14-102 696 856 Main/pilot burner
H-14-103 - 2104 Main/pilot burner
V-14-101/117/124 - 1500 Pressure control
Relief header 38 48
TOTAL 1474 5389 1474 5389
Fuel oil lbs/hr H-14-103 9600 12000
Recirculation 9600
TOTAL 19200 19200
HP Boiler feed water lbs/hr H-14-101 12813 12813
H-14-102 12500 12500
2531
TOTAL 25313 25313 25313
3
Fuel gas flowrates are based on LHV=1360 BTU/SCF
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ATK MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Norma Norma
Normal Max. Normal Max. l Max. l Max.
L.P. boiler feed water @
lbs/hr E-14-123A/B 110300 110300 Note-1
250oF
Steam desuperheaters 7210 11710
TOTAL 117510 121090 117510 121090
Hot low pressue boiler feed
lbs/hr E-14-123A/B 110300 110300
water
E-14-103 38400 38400 Note-3
E-14-108 56500 56500 Note-3
E-14-119 15400 15400
E-14-125 - -
TOTAL 110300 110300 110300 110300
Eye wash safety
Domestic water gpm 90 90
shower & fixtures
Utility water gpm Utility stations - 120 Note-2
V-14-123 - 230 Decoking
FT-133/201 sea water 0.5 0.5 Inst. Purge
TOTAL 0.5 0.5 350

(1) During an emergency the flow rate will be twice the normal to cool reactor effluent.
(2) Assumes 6 US in service @ 20 gpm each.
(3) 2 to 3 times normal BFW rate will be needed to cool reactor effluent during emergency
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ATK MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
Instrument air Scfm Instrument loops 300 300 300 300
Utility air Scfm Utility station - 700 Note-1
H-14-103 - 1300 Decoking
R-14-101/102 - - Note-2
TOTAL 2000 2000
Nitrogen Scfm R-14-101/102 390 Start-up N2 purge
C-14-101/102 inlet/outlet 780 Start-up N2 purge
V-14-103/104/105 & PK-14-
42
101V1
TOTAL 1200 1200
Supply Return
Circulating cooling Brgs/mech. Seals & seal
gpm Fractionator section pumps 182 182 182 182
water pots
L.O. cooler/brg. & mech.
Reactor section pumps 34 34 34 34
Seals
L.O. coolers/brgs. Mech.
P-14-101A/B & 102 315 315 315 315
Seals, etc.
C-14-101/102 coolers 358 358 358 358 S.O./L.O./Gland coolers
Sample coolers - 105 - 105
TOTAL 908 1014 908 1014
Sea water gpm Reactor side 698 866 698 866
Fractionator side 2066 2066 2066 2066
Contingency 556 - 556 -
TOTAL 3320 3320
(1) 14 Stations in use @ 50 Scfm each
(2) Utility air for catalyst regneration comes from unit-18, about 2 mmscfd to 5.1 mmscfd is required
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Utility systems
Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-2-44

2.7.2 MID-DISTILLATE MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
900 psig superheated steam lbs/hr C-14-101-ST 117806 129600 Note-1
C-14-102-ST 82720 91000
TOTAL 200526 220600 200526 220600
450 psig superheated steam lbs/hr C-14-101-ST 115339 125870
C-14-102-ST 80253 87270
Reactor feed
12560 12560
heaters
Steam driven
46763
pumps
H-14-103 12000 Soot blower
TOTAL 208152 225700 208152 178937
150 psig saturated steam lbs/hr E-14-103 41300 41300
E-14-108 29800 29800
E-14-119 10900 10900
E-14-125 17500 17500
H-14-103 79100 79100
H-14-101 11400 11400
H-14-102 9000 9000
TOTAL 99500 99500 99500 99500 Assumed 5% blowdown

(1) During reactor catalyst regeneration, 900 psig steam requirements is 175,000 lbs/hr for C-14-101-ST or C-14-102-ST
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MID-DISTILLATE MODE

Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
150 psig 680oF superheated
lbs/hr T-14-101 7570 7570
steam
T-14-105 4940 6180
T-14-102 23780 23780
H-14-103 17130 17130 Coil -1
H-14-101 11400 11400
H-14-102 9000 9000
Steam desuper
1690 1690
heaters
Contingency 2930 1690
TOTAL 39220 37980 39220 39220
150 PSIG 420oF superheated
lbs/hr H-14-103 60710 61970 Coil 2 @ 475oF
steam
H-14-103 3000 3000 Atomizing steam
Snuffing /Decoking
H-14-103 - 60000
emergency stm
C-14-101/102-P1 6680 9952 L.O. pump turbine
EA-14-104A/B - 16850 Note-1
Steam turbine
- 48104
driven pumps
H-14-101/102 - 12000 Snuffing steam
EJ-14-104/109 - 2100 Start-up evacuation
F-14-101A/B/C/D - 2000
DS-14-104 5520 9100
R-14-101/102
- 25640 Flange snuffing
outlet
Steam tracing 5000 5000
TOTAL 33360 66230 32870
(1) Flow varies with ambient air temperature (heating coil)
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MID-DISTILLATE MODE
Utility Units User Consumption Production Net export Net import Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
60 psig superheated
lbs/hr C-14-101/102 25376 31174 LO pump turbine
steam
C-14-101/102-
4300 6500 Gland leak off
ST
C-14-101/102-
1300 1300 Gland seal ejector
EJ1
20 US in operation @
Utility stations 50,000
2500 lb/hr
Pump seal
100 100
quench
TOTAL 1400 29676 37674 28276 36274
I.P. Condensate lbs/hr EA-14-104 - 16850 Heating coil
Steam tracing 5000 5000
V-14-125/126 - 1000 Steam separator
TOTAL 5000 22850 5000 22850
Fuel gas scfm H-14-101 471 576 Main/pilot burner
H-14-102 476 581 Main/pilot burner
H-14-103 - 1984 Main/pilot burner
V-14-
- 1500 Pressure control
101/117/124
Relief header 38 48
TOTAL 1009 4689 1009 4689
Fuel oil lbs/hr H-14-103 9030 11290
Recirculation 9030
TOTAL 18060 18060
HP Boiler feed water lbs/hr H-14-101 6953 6953
H-14-102 7000 7000
TOTAL 13953 13953 13953 13953
Note : Fuel gas flow rates are based on LHV=1360 BTU/SCF
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MID-DISTILLATE MODE

Consumption Production Net export Net import


Utility Units User Remarks
Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max. Normal Max.
L.P. boiler feed water @
lbs/hr E-14-123A/B 104500 104500
250oF Note-1
Steam
7210 10790
desuperheaters
11529
TOTAL 111710 115290 11710
0
Hot low pressure boiler feed
lbs/hr E-14-123A/B 104500 104500
water
E-14-103 43380 43380 Note-2
E-14-108 31300 31300 Note-2
E-14-119 11450 11450
E-14-125 18370 18370
TOTAL 104500 104500 104500 104500
Supply Return
Sea water gpm Reactor side 470 470 470 470
gpm Fractionator side 908 908 908 908
Contingency 272 - 272 -
TOTAL 1650 1650
Note : Domestic water, utility water, instrument air, utility air, Nitrogen and circulating cooling water consumptions are all the same for ATK and Mid-distillate mode.
(1) During an emergency the flow rate will be twice the normal to cool reactor effluent.
(2) 2 to 3 times normal BFW rate will be needed to cool reactor effluent during emergency
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HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

3.0 PROCESS VARIABLES &


CONTROLS
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.1-00

3.0 PROCESS VARIABLES & CONTROLS

This chapter describes the various process variables, their significance on the
operation of the Hydrocracker and how they are controlled.

3.1. IMPORTANT PROCESS VARIABLES/


NORMAL PROCESS CONTROLS.....………………………..….. 14-3.1-01 to 14-3.1-44

3.1.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................………....... 14-3.1-01


3.1.2 FEED EFFECTS ...................................................................……….................. 14-3.1-02
3.1.3 HYDROGEN EFFECTS .................................................................……........... 14-3.1-08
3.1.4 CATALYST EFFECTS ....................................................................………....... 14-3.1-14
3.1.5 REACTOR TEMPERATURE PROFILE ....................................……............... 14-3.1-18
3.1.6 FIRST STAGE CONVERSION ....................................................……….......... 14-3.1-21
3.1.7 SECOND STAGE PER PASS CONVERSION ........……................................. 14-3.1-23

3.2. NORMAL PROCESS CONTROLS..………................................................... 14-3.2-01 to 14-3.2-37

3.3. DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL


BY COMPUTER APPLICATION GROUP.................................................... 14-3.3-01 to 14-3.3-57

3.4. DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL


BY ASPEN TECH ........................................................................................... 14-3.4-01 to 14-3.4-17

3.5. PROCESS CALCULATION STRATEGIES ................................................. 14-3.5-01 to 14-3.5-18


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.1-01

3.1 IMPORTANT PROCESS VARIABLES/NORMAL PROCESS CONTROLS

3.1.1 GENERAL

Unlike many other refinery process units, the Hydrocracker has several aspects of a
special nature which should be understood well before operating the unit. Therefore
the important process variables are segregated from the normal process controls in
this section and discussed in detail.

A change in any one process variable is likely to affect several other factors in the
unit operation. A change that would appear to help achieve the prime objective may
at times prove to be detrimental instead. Thus, it is very important to understand the
interactions among the various process variables to prevent a well-intentioned move
from backfiring because of an unanticipated side effect.

Catalyst is what makes hydrocracking possible. Selection of the catalyst and its life
expectancy are important factors that govern the economics of hydrocracking.
Catalyst effects are described later in this chapter. However to help understand the
various factors in the process that affect the catalyst life, a brief review of the
function of the catalyst is given below.

On each catalyst pellet, there are millions of what are called “active sites”. The
active sites are where the feed is converted to products. As the catalyst temperature
is increased, the active sites work faster and convert more feed to products. If some
active sites are destroyed (through catalyst fouling), then a higher catalyst
temperature is needed to get the same conversion of feed to products from the fewer
active sites.

Thus, if the operation of the Hydrocracker is to be changed, there are two things to
consider with respect to the catalyst. First, what is the catalyst average temperature
(CAT) required to get the desired conversion at the new conditions. Second, what is
the fouling rate of the catalyst at the new conditions (oF/month the CAT must be
increased to get desired conversion). Then, knowing the EOR CAT (850oF
maximum reactor outlet = 825 CAT), the predicted CAT and the predicted fouling
rate, the catalyst life can be determined.
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3.1.2 FEED EFFECTS

The Hydrocracker has the flexibility to process many feed types (ARDS VGO, Coker
gas oil, FCC cycle oil, straight-run VGO, etc).

Each feed type will have different properties and in addition, these properties will
probably change with time. These feed properties could have significant effects on
the operation of the Hydrocracker with respect to the:-

1. Required catalyst average temperature (CAT).


2. Hydrogen consumption.
3. Product yields and properties.
4. Catalyst life.

3.1.2.1 FEED BOILING RANGE

The feed is a mixture of many sizes of molecules. The composition of the feed
mixture depends on the crude oil being run and the operating conditions of the
upstream unit (ARDS unit and the Vacuum unit). The primary function of the
Hydrocracker is to crack large molecules (VGO sized) into smaller molecules
(kerosene and diesel sized). The larger the large molecules, the harder it is to crack
them to smaller molecules. Thus, the feed boiling range (reflecting the sizes of
molecules in the feed) determines how hard the catalyst has to work to make desired
conversion products.

The feed boiling range has another effect on the CAT required to get a desired
conversion. As the feed gets heavier, all of the feed properties that hurt the catalyst,
such as the contents of Nitrogen, asphaltenes, metals and polycyclic molecules, get
worse.

Thus, heavier feed will hurt the catalyst life in two ways. The higher concentration
of large molecules and the higher feed Nitrogen will increase the CAT required to get
the desired conversion, thus shortening the catalyst life. In addition, the asphaltenes,
metals and polycyclic index (PCI) will increase, thus increasing the fouling rate.
Figure - 1 shows the effect of heavier feed on CAT.
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3.1.2.2 FEED NITROGEN

Feed Nitrogen is like a temporary catalyst poison. Nitrogen in the feed tends to be in
the form of basic compounds. The active sites on the catalyst that crack the feed are
acidic. The basic Nitrogen is adsorbed on the acidic active sites, thus neutralizing
them with respect to conversion. The unaffected active sites have to work harder to
compensate. Thus, the higher the feed Nitrogen, the higher the CAT required to get
a desired conversion. However, if the feed Nitrogen is lowered, some of the Nitrogen
neutralizing the active sites will desorb and there will be a new required CAT. Keep
in mind that although adsorption is very quick, desorption is slow. So, if the feed
Nitrogen is lowered, the new equilibrium of Nitrogen adsorbed on the active sites
may not be reached for several days. In some extreme cases where the feed Nitrogen
is drastically reduced, the new equilibrium may not be reached for several weeks.
Figure - 2 shows the effects of feed Nitrogen on CAT.

3.1.2.3 FEED ASPHALTENES AND METALS

Feed asphaltenes and heavy metal content must be limited to very low levels to
prevent rapid catalyst deactivation. Asphaltenes are very large, condensed-ring
molecules which boil well over 1000oF. With proper operation of the Vacuum unit,
asphaltene content of Hydrocracker feed should be well below 100 ppm. But even
short term operation of the Vacuum unit with insufficient overflash and wash rate
could cause high asphaltene levels in Hydrocracker feed (over 1000 ppm).
Asphaltenes, because of their structure and large size, are difficult to crack and are
likely to form coke.

Heavy metals, particularly Nickel and Vanadium, are strongly attracted to the catalyst
and destroy its activity. These metals are found predominantly in asphaltenes.
However, they are also present in large condensed-ring molecules called porphyrins
that boil at a lower temperature than asphaltenes. Metal concentrations as low as 1
ppm are harmful to the catalyst. Like asphaltenes, metals reach the catalyst in the
feed through poor operation in the upstream units.
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Iron carried in with the feed is likely to be a troublesome contaminant. It may be


chemically combined with heavy hydrocarbon molecules or it may exist as suspended
particulate matter. In either case, it not only deactivates the catalyst but also plugs
the catalyst interstices such that excessive pressure drop may develop. Most
particulate iron should be removed by the feed filters.

The reason that even a small amount of metals can have a significant effect on
fouling has to do with pore mouth plugging. Although the catalyst pellets look solid,
each is full of tiny pores that feed molecules can get into and react. Oil feed and
Hydrogen can react all the way into the center of the catalyst pellet. Metals,
however, don’t fit inside the catalyst pores. They react on the outside of the catalyst
so that when the metal is deposited on the catalyst surface, it not only fouls the active
sites on the outside of the catalyst, it blocks feed from getting to many active sites
inside the pores. This is why even small amounts of feed metals can foul the catalyst
very quickly.

3.1.2.4 FEED PCI

PCI stands for polycyclic index. It is a feed analysis determined by ultraviolet


absorption. It is a rough indication of the amount of multi-ring aromatics in the feed.
Polycyclics are likely to form coke and foul the catalyst.

Feeds high in PCI have the greatest effect on the second stage catalyst. As multi-ring
aromatics are difficult to crack, they have a tendency to build up in the second stage
recycle stream. This PCI build-up can cause high catalyst fouling rates. In addition,
if the build-up is uncontrolled, larger polycyclics such as coronene and ovalene can
deposit on heat exchanger surfaces causing loss of heat transfer and build-up of
pressure drop. The PCI build-up can be minimized by limiting the first stage feed
PCI to 800 ppm. Above 800 ppm, to protect the second stage catalyst, a bleed should
be taken from the fractionator bottoms, at a rate of up to 5 wt % of the fresh feed rate
to the first stage. This bleed will be low in Sulfur and Nitrogen, so is an excellent
FCC feedstock or low sulfur fuel oil blending component.
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To prevent uncontrollable catalyst fouling rates, a bleed should be taken at MOR of


the ARDS catalyst (PCI of about 800 ppm) as a precautionary measure. If the
recycle bleed is started too late, even a large bleed may not prevent high catalyst
fouling rates. A bleed equal to 5% of fresh feed to the first stage will be enough to
purge the recycle stream, yet not so excessive that product conversion is
unreasonably low. From this time on, the second stage catalyst fouling rate should be
monitored closely since the feed PCI will further increase as the ARDS nears EOR.
If the catalyst fouling rate increases, consider one of the following options:

1. Reduce the end point of the ARDS VGO. The highest concentration of
catalyst poisons and catalyst fouling precursors are in the high boiling range of
the feed. For the EOR ARDS VGO, reducing the nominal end point by 25oF
will only reduce the feed rate by 7.4 LV % but it will reduce the PCI from
1200 to about 800 ppm. This is the optimal solution from the standpoints of
cost effectiveness and process considerations.

2. Lower CAT in the ARDS unit. Although this will increase the sulfur
concentration in the ARDS product, it will decrease the conversion and thus
decrease the PCI of the Hydrocracker feed.

3. Change the catalyst in the ARDS unit. An extra month of life for the ARDS
catalyst may not be worth the greatly increased fouling of the Hydrocracker
catalyst.

4. Increase the recycle bleed rate.

3.1.2.5 UPSTREAM PROCESSING

Operation of the Hydrocracker can be significantly affected by the operation of


upstream units. This affect is compounded by the fact that there are several upstream
units. The first unit upstream is the Vacuum unit. It is very important that the
vacuum column operates to minimize the Hydrocracker feed end point and minimize
the tails. Catalyst poisons such as PCI, asphaltenes, metals and Nitrogen increase
exponentially with boiling point. The vacuum column should be operated with
maximum overflash to minimize the end point and 95% point of the feed, thereby
controlling these impurities.
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The ARDS unit is upstream of the Vacuum unit. The ARDS unit desulfurizes and
cracks atmospheric residuum. The Hydrocracker feed consists of the VGO boiling
range material that did not crack in the ARDS unit plus material cracked into the
VGO boiling range from the vacuum residuum (1000oF+). The ARDS unit is run to
get a constant desulfurization. However, in ARDS service, the active catalyst sites
responsible for desulfurization foul much faster than the active sites responsible for
cracking. So, as the ARDS CAT is increased to maintain a constant product sulfur,
the conversion increases. As the conversion in the ARDS unit increases, more
vacuum resid is cracked into the gas oil range. The cracked vacuum resid molecules
(usually high in multi-ring aromatics) are much harder for the Hydrocracking catalyst
to crack than gas oil molecules. So as the ARDS catalyst goes from SOR to EOR,
thus cracking more vacuum resid into the Hydrocracker feed, the CAT required to
maintain conversion in the first and second stage of the Hydrocracker goes up about
10 - 20oF. The decline in Hydrocracker feed quality as the ARDS conversion
increases is evidenced by the increase in the first stage feed PCI.

A bleed may be required from the second stage recycle stream to help protect the
second stage catalyst from PCI build up. As the ARDS CAT nears 750oF, check the
Hydrocracker feed PCI level regularly.

The ARDS unit can make poor Hydrocracker feed at SOR if it is operated
improperly. When operating an ARDS unit, there is a tendency to raise the CAT
higher than necessary to achieve the desired desulfurization. This will increase the
ARDS conversion and increase the difficulty of the Hydrocracker feed. It is
important to avoid overdesulfurizing in the ARDS unit to minimize the cracking of
vacuum resid.

3.1.2.6 FEED SULFUR

Feed sulfur must be limited to protect hydrocracker equipment from excessive


corrosion. Hydrocracker metallurgy and corrosion allowances were based on a
limited sulfur content in the feed. Feeds with higher than design sulfur content
would shorten the useful life of the reactor and other equipment in the unit. In
addition, running high sulfur feeds will increase the content of Hydrogen sulfide in
the recycle gas, thus lowering the partial pressure of Hydrogen.
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3.1.2.7 FEED CHLORIDES

Chlorides must be held to very low levels in the Hydrocracker feed because their
presence can cause stress corrosion cracking of the high pressure stainless steel
exchangers. High chlorides usually indicate faulty operation of the desalting
equipment in the upstream Crude units.

3.1.2.8 FEED TO SECOND STAGE

The second stage is able to operate with high conversions and low CATs because the
first stage has removed most of the catalyst poisons. Even small amounts of Sulfur
or Nitrogen could have a large effect on the second stage catalyst. If the first stage is
operating properly, it should remove most of the Sulfur and Nitrogen. At SOR,
second stage feed should contain less than 5 ppm Nitrogen and less than 40 ppm
Sulfur. For this reason, seal flushing oil to first stage HPRT which was originally
fresh VGO stream from the feed pump discharge is modified now with a line from
the second stage feed pump discharge.

Also, fractionator bottoms pumps seal flushing oil is modified with a stream from the
discharge of the same pump instead of flush oil from refinery header. These two
modifications ( Refer to unit modifications) helps to minimize Nitrogen entering the
feed system of second stage. However, contaminant levels high enough to affect the
second stage operation can reach the second stage through a feed effluent exchanger
leak or a leaky valve in the feed system. Also, as the first stage catalyst fouls, its
Nitrogen removal capability will decrease as the catalyst approaches EOR. The
effect of second stage feed Nitrogen on CAT is shown in figure - 3.

3.1.2.9 FRESH OIL FEED RATE

The first stage reactor section is designed to partially convert fresh feed to lighter
boiling products. When it is desired to change the feed rate to the Hydrocracker, the
interaction between CAT, conversion, and feed rate should be considered. To
maintain conversion while increasing the fresh oil feed rate, the reaction temperature
must be increased to compensate. Figure - 4 shows the changes in first stage CAT
required for different feed rates.
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3.1.2.10 SECOND STAGE OIL FEED RATE

As the Hydrocracker is designed in two stages with complete conversion of feed to


products, any feed not converted to product in the first stage and recovered in the
distillation section must be converted in the second stage. Thus, the second stage
feed consists of two components; fresh feed (oil that wasn’t converted by the first
stage) and recycle feed (oil that was not converted in one pass in the second stage).
Although small variations in the operation of the first stage and the fractionation
section are going to change the rates of fresh feed or recycle feed, it is generally best
to maintain a steady oil feed rate to the second stage. This avoids swings in the
reactor section operation (furnace firing rate, quench rates, make-up Hydrogen rate,
etc) and product quality due to variation in RCP (recycle cut point).

3.1.3 HYDROGEN EFFECTS

Hydrogen is the key ingredient in hydrocracking. Without it, the Hydrocracker is


worthless. With it, low value fuel oil can be converted to high value kerosene and
other products.

3.1.3.1 HYDROGEN MAKE-UP RATE

Most of the Hydrogen feed to the Hydrocracker is consumed chemically. A lesser


amount is physically dissolved in the products from the reactor sections and later
flashes out in the low pressure separator (LPS) and H2S stripper. A very small
amount “leaks” out - some through flanges and valve packings, some through
compressor shaft seals and even some by diffusion through steel walls. Hydrogen
may also be intentionally bled from the high pressure loop to maintain high
Hydrogen concentration.

Make-up Hydrogen is fed to each reactor section on (independent) pressure control in


each high pressure loop. As Hydrogen is consumed or dissolved, the system
pressure tends to fall. This falling system pressure is sensed at the suction of the
recycle gas compressor (PC-112 and PC-147, in the first and second stages), and
make-up Hydrogen is fed to the reactor section as required to maintain pressure.
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The make-up Hydrogen usage for all modes of operation can be summarized as
follows:

SCF PER BARREL


OF FRESH FEED

Chemical consumption (overall) about 1070 to 1350


Dissolved (per stage) about 105
Leakage allowance (per stage) about 40
Bleed 0

Chemical Hydrogen consumption decreases as the catalyst fouls. This is because the
Hydrogenation component of the catalyst fouls faster than the conversion component.
This decrease in Hydrogen consumption at EOR is reflected in reduced ATK smoke
points. Break-up of Hydrogen consumption for different modes of operation at
different stages of catalyst condition expected by design is given in the table below in
SCF per barrel of fresh feed.

H2 CONSUMPTION ATK - MODE M/D DIST. MODE


SOR MOR EOR SOR MOR EOR

First stage Chemical 915 815 715 850 750 650


Leaks 40 40 40 40 40 40
Dissolved 75 75 75 70 70 70
Bleed 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1030 930 830 960 860 760

Second stage Chemical 465 510 555 350 400 450


Leaks 40 40 40 40 40 40
Dissolved 140 140 140 125 125 125
Bleed 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 645 690 735 515 565 615

Overall Chemical 1380 1325 1270 1200 1150 1100


Leaks 80 80 80 80 80 80
Dissolved 215 215 215 195 195 195
Bleed 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1675 1620 1565 1475 1425 1375
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3.1.3.2 HYDROGEN MAKE-UP PURITY

Make-up Hydrogen from the Hydrogen plant consists of a mixture of Hydrogen and
methane. The Hydrogen is consumed in the hydrocracking reactions. The methane
concentration builds to an equilibrium in the recycle gas such that the amount
dissolved in the high pressure separator (HPS) liquids plus any leakage (these are
similar to the forms of Hydrogen loss) equals the amount coming in with the make-
up Hydrogen plus any methane formed in the reactors. Since methane does not
dissolve as readily as other light hydrocarbons, the concentration of methane in the
recycle gas will be large relative to the concentration in the make-up gas. The result
is reduced Hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor. For this reason, the purity of the
make-up Hydrogen should be kept at the design value or higher. Figure - 5 shows the
effect of make-up Hydrogen purity on the reactor Hydrogen partial pressure.

3.1.3.3 HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

Hydrogen partial pressure represents the concentration of hydrogen in the reactor. It


is equal to the mole percent Hydrogen multiplied by the pressure. Hydrogen partial
pressure has an important effect on catalyst fouling rate. An increase in Hydrogen
partial pressure acts to suppress the coke fouling of the catalyst. Therefore, the
Hydrogen partial pressure should be maximized within the mechanical limits of the
reactor system to maximize run length. Figure - 6 shows the effect of Hydrogen
partial pressure on catalyst fouling rate in the first stage. Figure - 7 shows the effect
in the second stage.

In addition to decreasing fouling rates, increasing the Hydrogen partial pressure


causes more aromatic molecules to be converted to naphthenic molecules. This
improves the smoke point and cetane number of the products.

The Hydrogen partial pressure can be increased by:


- Increasing total system pressure.
- Increasing make-up Hydrogen purity.
- Increasing recycle gas rate.
- Increasing bleed gas rate.
- Decreasing high pressure separator temperature.
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The Hydrogen partial pressure can be calculated approximately by the following


method. Although partial pressures are normally based on vapor phase only, to
avoid calculating the mole percent vaporized of a given stream, the Hydrogen partial
pressure is always calculated based on the assumption that the entire stream is
vaporized.

Hydrogen partial pressure is difficult to calculate exactly unless an exact yield


breakdown is known. It can be closely approximated following these steps.

1. Estimate the molar rate of oil feed. To do this, the volume flow rate, TBP 50%
point, and API gravity of feed are needed. Read the mole/bbl value from figure
17 at the end of this section.

2. The molar flow rates of recycle gas plus makeup gas from meter readings are
needed. Correct these for off-design conditions of temperature, pressure, and
specific gravity at the meter orifice as required.

3. Get the molar flow rate of Hydrogen (H2) at the top of the reactor from the gas
analysis and the molar flows from step 2.

4. Determine the partial pressure of Hydrogen at reactor inlet by getting the total
pressure and multiplying by the ratio of Hydrogen molar flow to total gas plus
oil molar flow.

5. Get the molar rate of chemical Hydrogen consumption by using Hydrogen


analyses together with meter readings for makeup gas (step-2) and any bleed
gas. Do not forget allowances for dissolved and leaked Hydrogen.

6. Get the molar rate of quench gas from the quench flow meters after correcting
as in step-2.

7. Estimate the molar flow of reactor effluent based on the assumption that the
increase in moles of oil over the reactor feed is about one half of the chemical
Hydrogen consumption.
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8. Get the molar flow of Hydrogen leaving the reactor using rates from steps 3, 5
and 6.

9. Determine the partial pressure at reactor outlet by getting outlet total pressure
and multiplying by the ratio of Hydrogen molar flow (step-8) to total flow
(step-7).

10. And finally, get the average Hydrogen partial pressure by averaging the inlet
and outlet values (steps 4 and 9.).

3.1.3.4 HYDROGEN RECYCLE RATE

Recycle gas has four major functions:

- Maintaining high Hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor.


- Providing a heat sink for the high heat of reaction in the reactor.
- Distributing reactants over the catalyst.
- Minimizing recracking of products by carrying them out of the reactor before
they can recrack.

Without recycle gas, the Hydrogen concentration (partial pressure) would be very
low because most of the Hydrogen is consumed by reaction in the reactor (about 80%
consumed at the reactor outlet).

The reaction of Hydrogen with the feed is highly exothermic. About 65 Btu are
released for every SCF of Hydrogen chemically consumed. At design rates of 38,000
BPOD and a chemical consumption of 915 SCFB of fresh feed (first stage ATK
SOR), the heat release is about 94 MM btu/hr or three times the design heat duty of
the reactor feed heater. The overall temperature rise from this massive heat release is
held in control by using quench gas. But this quench gas can only be added between
the catalyst beds. Keeping a high gas rate (make-up gas plus recycle gas) in the
reactor limits temperature rise in a catalyst bed by spreading the effects of the heat
release over a larger mass flow.
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The two phase reaction mixture of Hydrogen rich gas and oil is difficult to distribute
evenly across the catalyst in the reactor. A high recycle gas rate helps to evenly
distribute flow across the reactor by maintaining a high pressure drop. Good
distribution is essential to avoid hot spots in the catalyst caused by low flow or
stagnant conditions which cannot carry the heat of reaction away.

The hydrocracking reactions take place in the oil-soaked pores of the catalyst. The
cracked products are carried away from the reaction sites in two ways:

 By vaporizing into the gas stream.


 By trickling over the catalyst with the liquid which eventually leaves the
reactor.

Any cracked product which remains in the liquid is likely to crack again and again,
degrading to a less valuable product. A high recycle gas rate helps to vaporize
products and carry them out of the reactor before they can “overcrack”.

All four effects of recycle gas discussed above are favored by high recycle gas rates.
These effects all help minimize catalyst fouling.
Recycle gas rate should be adjusted to meet all the following limits:

 4500 SCF per barrel of fresh feed minimum total gas rate to reactor.
 50oF maximum temperature rise across any single catalyst bed.
 40 psi minimum reactor pressure drop.
3.1.3.5 HYDROGEN RECYCLE PURITY

The purity or Hydrogen concentration of recycle gas influences the reactor Hydrogen
partial pressure. The recycle gas purity depends mostly on make-up Hydrogen
purity. The HPS temperature and bleed gas rate also have an effect. Lowering the
HPS temperature and bleeding recycle gas will both increase Hydrogen purity.
The composition of the recycle gas is monitored by one specific gravity analyzer in
each reactor section. If the specific gravity of the recycle gas increases, it indicates
lowering H2 purity. Check the following.
- All reactor temperatures to see if there are any hot spots.
- The high pressure separator for high temperature.
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3.1.3.6 BLEED GAS RATE

The Hydrocracker is designed to operate with no bleed. Bleed is used primarily to


control the build-up of light hydrocarbons (such as methane) in the recycle gas,
which would lower Hydrogen purity and thus decrease Hydrogen partial pressure.
Because the make-up Hydrogen gas is relatively pure (97% H2), no bleed is required
for normal operation.
If the make-up Hydrogen purity falls (due to Hydrogen plant problems, for example),
a bleed can be used to maintain Hydrogen partial pressure.
Depending on the design of the Hydrogen system upstream of the Hydrocracker, it
may be difficult to control pressure by adjusting the make-up Hydrogen rate.
Therefore, the control system is also designed with the capability to put the make-up
Hydrogen on flow control and adjust system pressure with the bleed. The response
time for this method is faster and could be used if pressure control using make-up
Hydrogen is unstable.
3.1.4 CATALYST EFFECTS

The catalyst is what makes hydrocracking possible but they are very expensive.
Hydrocracking catalysts are usually cylindrical pellets of highly porous materials.
The types and characteristics of the catalyst are discussed below and in the catalyst
specifications given in table-7.1.
3.1.4.1 CATALYST TYPE

The type of catalyst selected has a big effect on the products made. Some catalysts
are extremely active; that is, it catalyzes a lot of cracking at moderate temperatures.
Some others are less active it requires a higher temperature to catalyze the same
amount of cracking. But a certain type of catalyst produces a higher yield ratio of
kerosene to naphtha than others and they are very effective in maximizing the yield
of high quality mid-distillate products (high-smoke ATK and low-pour gas oil) at
moderate temperatures without excessive naphtha or gas production. However, this
selectivity is not as tolerant in the second stage of feed poisons (such as Nitrogen,
Sulfur and asphaltenes) as first stage operation. If the second stage catalyst is
protected from such abusive operation by proper operation of the first stage, the
moderate temperatures and low fouling rates will translate to long catalyst life. The
choice of catalyst depends upon the product economy in terms of yield and quality.
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1st Stage Catalyst

Graded Bed

The first catalyst in the graded bed is a 0.5 ft layer of 5/8” diameter TK-10, it is use to
act as hold down material and it has a large void space making it ideal to grade the
trapping of large particulates.

The second catalyst is a 2 ft layer of 3/16” TK-711 material and is used to remove
particulate contaminants while providing a high void fraction. It also provides some
hydrodemetallisation. It has a low metals loading and for this reason is ideal for
providing activity grading. This is very important when feedstocks such as coker gas
oil are processed due to the large amount of heat release obtained from these feeds.

A 2 ft layer of HC-DM catalyst has been specified to remove the Ni and V present in
the feed and protect subsequent catalyst layers from metals poisoning. CGO contains
significant levels of Ni plus V.

UF-210Stars Pretreat Catalyst

The next catalyst in Bed 1 is a 13.1 ft layer of high activity UF-210Stars pretreat
catalyst. The pretreatment catalyst removes the sulphur and nitrogen containing
compounds from the feed that would suppress the activity of the hydrocracking
catalyst.

DHC-32 LT Unicracking Catalyst

Bed 2, 3 and 4 in the first stage utilize DHC-32 LT. it is use for producing maximum
ATK or maximum total distillate. It has a high hydrogenation activity that produces
high smoke point ATK and high cetane number diesel.

UF-210Stars Post Treat Catalyst

Post treat catalyst is loaded at the bottom of bed 4 to prevent recombination of


mercaptan sulphur. This will assure that the naphtha product remains on spec with
respect to Doctor Test and mercaptan sulphur content.
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2nd Stage Catalyst

The second stage environment has both low sulphur and ammonia. In order to
maximize distillate yields IATK or middle distillate), ammonia injection is expected
to be continued to attenuate the inherent catalyst acidity and reduce secondary
cracking to light ends. Increasing ammonia concentration can significantly increase
distillate yields.

Since KNPC require that second stage be capable of operating with fresh feed in case
of an emergency, a graded bed similar to that designed for the first stage was
implemented in order to protect the remainder of the loaded catalyst in the second
stage from metals contaminants and particulates.

Graded Bed

The graded bed is designed to protect the catalyst loaded in the layers underneath it.
The first layer in the second stage is a0.5 ft layer of TK-10. It is designed as a hold
down material and also has a high void fraction to enable the trapping of any
entrained particulates.

The next layer is a 0.7 ft layer of TK-711 catalyst and it is used to remove particulate
contaminants while providing a high void fraction. TK-711 also has activity for some
hydrodemetallisation. It has a low metals loading and for this reason is ideal for
providing activity grading.

HC-115 LT Unicracking Catalyst

The catalyst is a more distillate selective version of DHC-32 LT and its formulation is
very similar to that of DHC-32 LT. it requires slightly higher temperature.

UF-210Stars Post Treat Catalyst

Post treat catalyst is use on bed 4 of the second stage to prevent recombination of
sulphur. This will assure that the naphtha product remains on spec with respect to
Doctor Test and mercaptan sulphur content.
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3.1.4.2 CATALYST LOADING

Catalyst loading refers to how the catalyst is put into the reactor. The old style
method was to dump barrels of catalyst into the top of a long “sock” which extended
into the reactor. A man in the reactor would hold the bottom of the sock and move it
around the let the catalyst spill out and fill the bed. The problems with this method
were poor distribution, lower loaded catalyst densities, and onstream bed shrinkage.

A new method of loading called “Catalyst Oriented Packing (COP)”, improves


distribution and increases catalyst density. More is discussed about COP - loading in
Chapter -7.

A denser loading helps in two ways. First, more catalyst is loaded into the reactor so
the required CAT for a given conversion is lower. Second, the loading is more
uniform so there is less chance of a hot spot caused by flow maldistribution.

3.1.4.3 CATALYST TEMPERATURE

Catalyst temperature is a measure of how hard the catalyst is working. As the


temperature goes up, the catalyst cracks more and makes lighter products. At fixed
temperature with all other variables unchanged, the catalyst will produce a nearly
constant product slate, but over a period of time (weeks or months), the catalyst will
slowly “foul”- become coked up with reaction by-products and feed impurities. The
coke that lays down on the catalyst makes part of the catalyst useless. The catalyst
temperature must be raised to enable the remaining active catalyst to work harder and
compensate for lost activity. The rate of temperature rise to compensate for fouling is
called the fouling rate. A typical SOR operation fouling rate is about 2oF/month.

(This is typical for first stage ATK-SOR operation at design conditions).

Additional temperature variations may be required to compensate for changes in:

- Feed rate.
- Feed conversion.
- Feed properties.
- Feed boiling range.
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The temperature increases required for these changes are not fouling, but it is just a
measure of a tougher job for the catalyst. Higher temperature operations may lead to
higher fouling rates, but fouling can only be measured when running the same feed
and same product slate over a long time. Frequently changing feed effects make it
difficult to assess the fouling rate.

Catalyst temperature has another important effect. High catalyst temperatures result
in a lower smoke point kerosene product. This is a result of the equilibrium shift to
aromatic molecules from naphthenic molecules at higher temperatures. More
aromatics mean lower smoke point products. One of the advantages of the two stage
Hydrocracker is that second stage catalyst can crack at relatively lower temperatures
than the first stage. Hence, a higher smoke ATK product overall can be produced
than in a single stage Hydrocracker with equivalent cracking capacity.

3.1.5 REACTOR TEMPERATURE PROFILE

Hydrocracking reactions release a large amount of heat which causes the catalyst
temperature to rise. The higher temperature, in turn, enables the catalyst to crack
harder and release even more heat. Obviously, this sequence of events must be
controlled to prevent the temperature from going too high that reactor design
temperature is approached. Controlling the extent of reaction and rate of heat release
is the primary function of the quench system. The quench controllers monitor the
temperature at the top of beds 2, 3 and 4 and regulate the flow of quench gas to each
bed. The bed heights are chosen to give approximately equal heat release per bed,
provided each bed is operated at the same average temperature.

Three terms need definition before discussing reactor temperatures.

- Bed average temperature (BAT).


- Catalyst average temperate (CAT).
- Temperature profile.

The BAT is the simple arithmetic average of the bed inlet and outlet temperatures.
The CAT is the weighted average of the BATs - each BAT is weighted by the
amount of catalyst in that bed. BAT and CAT are calculated as follows. First, the
bed average temperature (BAT) for each of the four catalyst beds is calculated.

BAT (x), oF = [ Inlet T (x), oF + Outlet T(x), oF]/2


Where x = Bed number.
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Since there are three temperature indications at each bed position, average these after
throwing out any obviously bad readings.

Three terms need definition before discussing reactor temperatures.

- Bed average temperature (BAT).


- Catalyst average temperate (CAT).
- Temperature profile.

The BAT is the simple arithmetic average of the bed inlet and outlet temperatures.
The CAT is the weighted average of the BATs - each BAT is weighted by the
amount of catalyst in that bed. BAT and CAT are calculated as follows. First, the
bed average temperature (BAT) for each of the four catalyst beds is calculated.

BAT (x), oF = [ Inlet T (x), oF + Outlet T(x), oF]/2


Where x = Bed number.

Since there are three temperature indications at each bed position, average these after
throwing out any obviously bad readings.

Second, determine the catalyst average temperature (CAT) by averaging each bed
BAT after weighing them by the fraction of active catalyst in each bed.

CAT, oF = BAT (1) x 0.144 + BAT (2) x 0.240 +


BAT (3) x 0.287 + BAT (4) x 0.329

Note, this method is correct for both first and second stage reactor sections.

The temperature profile refers to the BATs :

- A flat profile means that all the BATs are equal.


- A rising profile means that each successive BAT (from top to bottom) is
greater than the previous one.
- A falling profile is the opposite of a rising one but is rarely used.

What is the significance of BAT, CAT and profile? Well, the CAT determines how
hard the catalyst works. The profile determines how the work is distributed over the
reactor.
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The optimum temperature profile in the reactors is influenced by the following


factors:

Catalyst life - A flat temperature profile distributes the work load evenly and
will result in the longest catalyst life.

If a rising temperature profile is used, the top beds will be underworked at the
expense of the bottom beds.

Mid-distillate yield - A flat temperature profile will result in the highest yield
of ATK and diesel. Higher catalyst temperatures favor naphtha production, so a
rising temperature profile will produce more naphtha due to the higher
temperatures in the bottom beds where most of the cracking is taking place.

PCI to second stage - A flat temperature profile will result in the lowest PCI of
the second stage feed. The PCI of the second stage feed increases when the
CAT in the first stage is increased. A rising temperature profile will result in
higher temperatures in the bottom beds of the first stage, a higher PCI of the
second stage feed and therefore, a shorter second stage life.

Utility costs - A rising temperature profile will result in lower utility costs for
two reasons.

- The reaction heat release is not quenched as hard so the recycle


compressor (which provides quench gas) horsepower goes down.

- The best course to take is to run a flat profile until the catalyst
fouling behavior on all the potential feeds is determined. In fact,
the catalyst performance guarantee is based on the reactor outlet
temperature being no more than 50oF hotter than the reactor inlet
temperature at any time. This 50oF limit would permit about a
10oF rising temperature profile.

Remember that running a rising profile does not affect the amount of heat contained
in the reactor effluent - it just makes it available at a higher temperature because of
the reduced quench gas flow. In effect less heat is wasted in the effluent cooler. The
heat saved is transferred in the feed effluent exchanger to reduce firing rate in the
reactor charge heater.
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The feed effluent exchangers can recover the extra heat to reactor feed by adjusting
the bypass rate. The reactor charge heater firing rate will automatically cut back to
hold reactor inlet temperature. Alternatively, the bypass rate can be increased to hold
the same charge heater duty. This will cause the effluent temperature leaving the
feed effluent exchangers to rise, enabling the H2S stripper feed exchanger to transfer
more duty (in the first stage).

3.1.6 FIRST STAGE CONVERSION

An understanding of the following terms is helpful in understanding the discussion


on the liquid conversion in the first stage.

- T* This is a temperature determined from the feed TBP assay 30% and
50% points.

- Expansion, E.
- Recycle cut point, RCP.
- Liquid conversion below T*, X(T*).
- Liquid conversion below RCP, X(RCP).
- CAT.

There are two conversions defined. The conversion below T*, X (T*), is a useful
kinetic parameter. This is the common conversion term used when expressing the
work load of the first stage. The conversion below recycle cut point, X (RCP), is
used to determine the work load in the second stage. X(RCP) is a measure of material
from the first stage which goes to product. The remaining material, material boiling
above RCP, is the amount of fresh feed to the second stage. The more fresh feed to
the second stage, the greater the second stage work load.

The distillation assays of both feed and first stage product are required in order to
calculate conversion. Figure -19 at the end of this section describes the method for
determining first-stage conversion. For this method, an estimate is needed for the
volume expansion, e, of feed to product. The volume expansion will depend not
only on the actual conversion but also on the condition of the catalyst. At start of run
conditions, more Hydrogen is consumed and the expansion is greater.
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The first stage conversion, X(T*), is a useful kinetic parameter in measuring how
hard the first stage is working. For a given feed rate, the higher the CAT in the
reactor, the greater is X(T*). Figure -4 can be used to determine the changes in
catalyst temperature required for different first stage conversions. Figure - 8
illustrates the effects of liquid feed conversion (i.e., increased CAT) on catalyst
fouling rate.

With a two stage Hydrocracker, the feed that is not converted in the first stage must
be converted in the second stage. The optimal amount of first stage conversion is
influenced by the following factors:

 Catalyst life - It is preferable to have an equal catalyst life in the first and
second stage. If conversion is shifted from the first stage to the second stage,
the first stage life will increase but the second stage life will decrease.

 Napththa yield - The first stage product slate is more oriented


towards heavier products than the second stage. If conversion is
shifted from the first stage to the second stage, for a given RCP, the
naphtha yield will increase.

 Product Sulfur and Nitrogen level - As the first stage conversion is decreased,
the distilled products from the first stage have higher Sulfur and Nitrogen
contents. If the first stage conversion is too low, the combined products from
the first and second stage may not meet the desired specifications.

 ATK smoke point - The ATK product from the first stage has a lower smoke
point than the ATK product from the second stage. However, smoke point
blends nonlinearly. As conversion is shifted from the first stage to the second
stage, the combined product ATK smoke point goes through a maximum.

 PCI to second stage - As the first stage conversion is increased, the


PCI of the feed to the second stage increases. In addition to causing
potential polycyclic build-up, the increased PCI to the second stage
will decrease the second stage catalyst life.

The optimal balance of conversion between the first and second stage is difficult to
predict. Design ATK mode requires about 60% conversion less than T* in the first
stage and 60% PPC in the second stage. Design mid-distillate mode requires about
50% PPC in the second stage.
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3.1.7 SECOND STAGE PER PASS CONVERSION (PPC)

The recycle oil feed rate to the second stage is actually a combined feed rate. This
combined feed rate is made up of fresh feed (unconverted in the first stage) and
recycle feed (unconverted in a single pass in the second stage). PPC is the
percentage of combined feed which is converted to products in the reactor.
Therefore, fresh feed to the second stage divided by the total feed rate to the second
stage is called PPC, which is usually expressed as volume percent.

During normal operation, if the first stage conversion is kept constant and the RCP is
kept constant (i.e., fresh feed to the second stage is constant), the work load of the
second stage is determined. The second stage must convert all of the fresh feed to the
second stage. This can be done at any PPC by varying the total feed rate to the
second stage. So, if the fresh feed to the second stage is 20,000 BPOD, processing a
total feed rate of 40,000 BPOD with a 50% PPC is just as difficult for the catalyst as
processing a total feed rate of 30,000 BPOD with a PPC of 67%. The catalyst work
load is therefore measured by the term LHSV x PPC. This term is called the work
rate. figure - 9 shows the change in CAT required for a change in work rate, and
figure - 10 shows the change in fouling rate for a change in work rate.

Although the catalyst work load is measured by the work rate, the actual PPC has an
effect on the yields. For a given RCP, as the PPC increases, the product yields shift
so that more naphtha and less ATK is produced. Thus, it is usually best to minimize
PPC. This is done by maximizing total feed rate to the second stage irrespective of
the fresh feed rate to first stage.

The following scenarios show how PPC is interrelated with RCP, first stage
conversion, and second stage feed rate.

- When the conversion in the first stage is changed, such as reduced to extend
catalyst life or to change mode of operation, the second stage must pick up the
remaining load. Remember all feed is converted to product (normal two stage
operation); therefore, as the fresh feed to the second stage is increased, if the
second stage feed rate is constant, the PPC increases and the second stage CAT
must be increased.
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- If the RCP is changed without changing the first stage conversion below T*,
X(T*), the PPC changes because the amount of fresh feed to the second stage
changes as the first stage conversion below RCP changes, X(RCP). The
second stage CAT must be adjusted in order to compensate for the changed
work load (amount of fresh feed to crack to products).

- It is possible to increase PPC without changing catalyst temperatures in either


reactor section by merely decreasing the flow rate to the second stage. This will
increase the naphtha production.
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EFFECTS OF FEED 90% POINT ON CATALYST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE


FIRST STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-1
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EFFECT OF FEED NITROGEN ON CATALYST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE


FIRST STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-2
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EFFECT OF FEED NITROGEN ON CATALYST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE


SECOND STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-3
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EFFECT OF FEED LIQUID CONVERSION AND FEED RATE ON CATALYST


AVERAGE TEMPERATURE FIRST STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-4
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EFFECT OF MAKE-UP H2 PURITY ON HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE


FIRST STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-5
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EFFECT OF HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE ON CATALYST FOULING RATE


FIRST STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-6
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EFFECT OF HYDROGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE ON CATALYST FOULING RATE


SECOND STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-7
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EFFECT OF LIQUID CONVERSION AND FEED RATE ON CATALYST FOULING RATE


FIRST STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-8
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EFFECT OF PPC ON CATALYST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE


SECOND STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-9
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EFFECT OF PPC ON CATALYST FOULING RATE


SECOND STAGE REACTOR SECTION
FIGURE-10
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EFFECT OF OVERFLASH ON FRACTIONATOR BOTTOMS/


HEAVY ATK SPLIT
FIGURE-11
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EFFECT OF STRIPPING STEAM ON FRACTIONATOR BOTTOMS


HEAVY ATK SPLIT
FIGURE-12
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EFFECT OF REBOILER DUTY ON ATAK FLASH POINT


FIGURE-13
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HYDROCRACKER FEED AND PRODUCT ASSAYS


MID-DISTILLATE SOR OPERATION
FIGURE-14
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HYDROCRACKER FEED AND PRODUCT ASSAYS


MID-DISTILLATE SOR OPERATION
FIGURE-15
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EFFECTS OF DECREASED SECOND-STAGE CAT ON RCP


FIGURE-16
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FEED MOLAR DENSITY


FIGURE-17
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CONVERSION OF DISTILLATION ASSAYS TO TBP


FIGURE-18
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LIQUID CONVERSION DETERMINATION


FIGURE-19
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RECYCLE CUT POINT DETERMINATION


FIGURE-20
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3.2 NORMAL PROCESS CONTROL …………………………… 14-3.2-01 to 14-3.2-37

3.2.1 FIRST STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM …………………………………… 14-3.2-01

3.2.2 SECOND STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM ……………………………….. 14-3.2-09

3.2.3 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM …………………………………………….…. 14-3.2-14

3.2.4 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ……………………………………………. 14-3.2-18

3.2.5 SIDE STRIPPER OPERATION …………………………………………. 14-3.2-24

3.2.6 NAPHTHA STABILIZER SYSTEM ……………………………………. 14-3.2-28

3.2.7 NAPHTHA SPLITTER SYSTEM ……………………………………….. 14-3.2-29

3.2.8 EFFECTS OF REACTOR AND DISTILLATION SECTION


INTERACTIONS ………………………………………………………… 14-3.2-31
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3.2 NORMAL PROCESS CONTROLS

3.2.1 FIRST STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM

3.2.1.1 MAKE-UP HYDROGEN

1. Hydrogen flow rate

As explained in the process variable section, Hydrogen is consumed in the


process mostly for chemical reactions. The system pressure tends to drop due
to Hydrogen consumption.

The selected point to monitor the system pressure is the recycle gas
compressor suction at PT-112A and PT-112B. PT-112B is a low range
transmitter and used only in the regeneration mode.

Make-up H2 is admitted into the system to maintain the pressure as measured


at PT-112A. There are two ways the inflow of make-up Hydrogen is
controlled.

 Take excess Hydrogen by FC-115 and bleed out the excess to maintain
pressure.

 Take Hydrogen just enough to maintain the system pressure by


PC-112A.

 See CHPS pressure control for more details.

2. Make-up Hydrogen temperature

Make-up Hydrogen is preheated by the reactor effluent in E-14-105. The


control valve on the bypass of E-14-105 (HC-160) is normally shut to utilize
max. heat recovery from the reactor effluent which will heat up the Hydrogen
to approximately 70-75oF below the reactor inlet temperature. Hydrogen
picks up further heat in the reactor annulus to reach the reactor top at almost
the same temperature as the inlet of the reactor. However, there is no
provision to read this temperature.
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In case E-14-105 outlet temperature increases due to a situation like a


temperature runaway, or at end-of-run operation, HC-160 has to be opened to
control the temperature within limits. This means the effluent temperature will
go up and affect the downstream equipment such as overloading the steam
generator and fin fans and possible thermal shocks and leaks. If make-up
Hydrogen temperature is less than the required temperature after E-14-105 due
to bypassing the effluent stream, then it will cause a drop in the reactor inlet
temperature which may require extra duty from the fired heater.

3. Make-up header supply pressure

Since the reactors operate at high pressure, about 2280 psig, the Hydrogen
must be compressed to a higher pressure to flow in to the reactors. The
Hydrogen plant (unit-18) has three parallel three-stage make-up compressors
to supply the Hydrogen. They are C-18-110A/B and C.

3.2.1.2 FEED TEMPERATURE

The feed to the unit is normally hot VGO at a temperature of 360oF. Aside
from the normal hot VGO feed, Atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from CDU unit-11
and Coker gas oil (CGO) from coker unit-20 are also available as feed but each
one have a maximum feed limitation due to its properties. AGO and CGO are
supplied as additional feed having an initial source temperature of 580oF and
450oF respectively. Both AGO and CGO feed combined with the hot VGO
feed results to a temperature range from 320o F to 350oF, while the feed pump
suction maximum operating temperature is 420o F.

When there is a shortage of hot feed, cold VGO is taken as feed from the
storage and this cools down the total feed. The cold VGO feed is therefore
heated in the 150 psig steam heater E-14-132 to a temperature of 380oF. This to
ensure proper viscosity for the in the downstream system. The temperature is
controlled by TC-658. If the feed temperature drops, it will overload the feed
heater H-14-101 and if the temperature is more than 420oF, it is not good for
the feed pump mechanical seals.
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3.2.1.3 FEED FILTERS

Feed filters are provided to remove particulate material that would cause
plugging of the catalyst beds resulting in pressure drop problems in the reactor.
The size of the filter elements is 20 microns. To maintain good filter operation,
the filter banks are periodically back-flushed with fractionator bottoms. When
captured particulate matter increases the pressure drop across the filters to 20
psig, the automatic back-flush sequence is initiated by the differential
pressure controller PDIC-105. Lower setting of PDIC-105 will increase the
frequency of back-wash to as many as 3 times in 8 hours. This will affect the
fractionator level and the valuable unconverted gas oil will be lost as filter
back wash. If the PDIC-105 setting is too high, it will increase the back
pressure to Vacuum Rerun unit causing their control valve on VGO to open
wide. Additional local PDI is provided for the feed filter differential pressure
for comparison with PDIC-105 and in case of the latter’s malfunction, the
second PDI will be of help if ever the actual pressure drop goes high, the feed
filter banks can be operated manually i.e. one at a time until the pressure drop
has been reduced.

3.2.1.4 SURGE DRUM V-14-101 PRESSURE

The surge drum pressure is normally controlled at 45 to 50 psig. The drum pressure
is important to provide the required suction head for the feed pumps.

The pressure is controlled by a split range controller PC-106. Pressure is made up


from refinery fuel gas header by PV-106A and excess pressure is relieved to either
to the blowdown header or to the gas recovery header by PV-106B. PV-106A
operates from 3 to 9 psig to close and PV-106B from 9-15 psig to open to blow
down.

3.2.1.5 SURGE DRUM V-14-101 LEVEL

Surge drum level is controlled by LC-101 on the hot VGO feed to the unit by FV-
161/261 at unit-13. However, when cold feed is taken in, it is possible to select
the level control between hot feed and cold feed by FV-103 at unit-14. The selector
switch is LSH-101. Normally the surge drum level is controlled at 80% in order to
provide a hold-up capacity in case of any upset in the vacuum unit.
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3.2.1.6 FEED TO FIRST STAGE


From the feed surge drum the oil is pumped into the first stage reactor system by the
feed pump P-14-101A or common spare P-14-101B. The flow is measured by FT-
109 and is controlled by FC-109. A spill-back is provided on each pump to control
the pump minimum flow by FC-106 on P-14-101A with the downstream line going
back to the surge drum and FC-107 on P-14-101B having a downstream loop option
either going back to the surge drum V-14-101 in case P-14-101B is used for 1st
stage or the other loop option where it will be going to the fractionator bottom line
of P-14-102 suction, if it is used for the 2nd stage. The minimum flow requirement is
25,000 BPD. Normal feed rate to the first stage is 42,500 B/D. Reduction in feed
rate below 30,000 BPD will necessitate the shutdown of the HPRT.

3.2.1.7 FEED PREHEATING SYSTEM

The fresh oil feed combines with Hydrogen-rich recycle gas from the recycle gas
compressor, C-14-101 at E-14-102AB inlet. The combined stream is heated in
these exchangers and further heating to reactor inlet temperature takes place in the
feed heater H-14-101.

TC-110 regulates a bypass around the feed effluent exchanger E-102AB to control
the heater inlet temperature, as required to maintain a temperature differential of
35-50oF across the heater. The temperature rise across the heater provides the
operators with the capability to quickly reduce the reactor inlet temperature in an
emergency, by shutting down the heater. Having the heater inlet temperature
controlled prevents disturbances in the reactor outlet temperature from affecting the
reactor inlet temperature.

3.2.1.8 REACTOR FEED HEATER H-14-101

The reactor feed heater provides the final heat to bring the feed mixture up to
reaction temperature.
The heater is designed to provide a maximum T of 50oF across the heater. The oil
feed is partially vaporized into a mist when it leaves the heater. The heater outlet
temperature is the same as the 1st bed inlet temperature of the reactor R-14-101,
read at TI-124 and TI-678.

TC-124 controls the heater outlet temperature by regulating the fuel gas pressure
controller PC-109 on cascade control to control the fuel gas flow through PV-109.
The gas flow is measured by FI-113 to the main burners.
Refer to Chapter-7 for detailed instrumentation of heater H-14-101.
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3.2.1.9 REACTOR, R-14-101

Feed mix from H-14-101 and make-up Hydrogen from reactor annulus combine at
the reactor inlet zone. The reactor is divided into four catalyst beds and each bed
are provided with TI points radially to monitor the temperature. The first bed inlet
temperature is controlled by the feed heater outlet.

Each subsequent bed is provided with a cold quench gas connection from the
recycle gas compressor C-14-101, to control the temperature rise, and thereby the
reaction rate. The following are the temperature controllers for each bed.

Reactor (1st bed) inlet TC-124 Controls the heater outlet

2nd bed inlet TC-134 Controls the temperature between beds 1 and 2

3rd bed inlet TC-133 Controls the temperature between beds 2 and 3

4th bed inlet TC-132 Controls the temperature between beds 3 and 4

Even through it is possible to control the reactor bed average temperatures


individually (BAT), changes in temperatures are aimed at a proportionate increase
or decrease of the beds for the total reactor catalyst. This is achieved by calculating
the Catalyst Average Temperature (CAT) and effecting control through an
Advanced Control Strategy.

For more details on CAT control refer ACS no.3 in chapter no.3.3.

2nd bed inlet temperature control

There are seven thermocouples provided to read the 2nd bed inlet temperature. They
are arranged with four TI points located near the reactor wall and the other three TI
points located near the center. These inner (center) three TI points are 1210, 1211,
1212 and any one of these points can be selected manually by selector swtich
THS-134 at LCR, to control the bed inlet temperature by TC-134.

3rd and 4th bed inlet temperatures are controlled in a similar manner. The tag
numbers are available in the P & ID, KE-4.
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3.2.1.10 REACTOR EFFLUENT COOLING SYSTEM

The reactor effluent flows from the bottom of the reactor R-14-101 to the make-up
Hydrogen/reactor effluent exchanger, E-14-105. After preheating the make-up
Hydrogen, the effluent preheats reactor feed in E-14-102AB. The effluent is further
cooled by generating intermediate pressure steam in E-14-103. Steam pressure in
E-14-103 is controlled by PC-417 at 160 psig and level in steam generator is
maintained by LC-151 at 60%, with low pressure (250 psig) boiler feed water.

The effluent is further cooled by preheating H2S stripper feed in E-14-104 to about
275oF. This temperature is important eventhough it is not directly controlled,
because the wash water injected at the inlet of the fin-fan coolers should vaporize
only minimally so that the bulk of the water injected will be available for washing
the salts to prevent scale formation and salt plugging of the tubes.

The effluent is finally cooled to about 150oF by TC-206 in the effluent air cooler
EA-14-101 and then flows to the cold high pressure separator (CHPS) V-14-102.
This temperature is important. If it is more than 150oF, the recycle gas purity will
be affected. If it is too low, the separation of water from oil can be difficult.

3.2.1.11 COLD HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATOR V-14-102 LEVEL

The reactor effluent is cooled and then separated in the CHPS, V-14-102. Sour
water leaves at the bottom of the separator on interface level control LC-107 set at
60%. The Hydrogen rich gas leaves at the top of the separator to the suction of the
recycle gas compressor C-14-101.

Oil is drawn from the side of the separator on level control by LC-104. This oil
drives the power recovery turbine, P-14-101-PT. LV-104C is the inlet to power
recovery turbine and LV-104A and B control valves are bypassing the HPRT.
LV-104A,B & C operate on split range control by LC-104. LV-104C operates in
3-9 psig from close to open, LV-104B operates in 9-12 psig and LV-104A
operates in 12-15 psig range.

Normally the level is controlled by LV-104C through the HPRT. When HPRT is
shut down, level is controlled by LV-104B & A valves.
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3.2.1.12 COLD HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATOR V-14-102 PRESSURE

1. System pressure is to be maintained at 2280 psig. This is to maintain


maximum Hydrogen partial pressure in the system. If this pressure drops, the
Hydrogen partial pressure comes down, which tends to coke up the catalyst.
When the system pressure increases, the partial pressure of Hydrogen
improves but on the other hand the system pressure will get closer to the set
pressure of the system PSVs. So the optimum pressure is the highest that can
be accommodated within the unit equipment limitations.

2. There are two pressure transmitters to read the pressure of the CHPS,
PT-112A and PT-112B. In normal operation, CHPS pressure is controlled by
PC-112A using the transmitter PT-112A. PT-112B with PC-112B controls
the system pressure during catalyst regeneration. Selector switch HS-135
selects between PC-112A and B.

PC-112A can control the system pressure in two ways.

a. Take make-up Hydrogen on flow control in excess of the process


requirement and bleed out the excess by FV-120 on pressure control by
PC-112A.

b. Fix the bleed off gas rate by FC-120 and control the system pressure by
PC-112A on FT-115 flow indication of the make-up Hydrogen intake.

Selection switches HS-165 and 166 are provided to make the control selection
between 1 & 2 above. Refer to the control sketch attached.

In MAB unit, option 2 above has been preferred.

3. Two emergency depressuring valves HV-132 and HV-133 are provided to


depressure the unit in case of emergency. These are remotely operated from
the control room by HC-132 and HC-133.

3.2.1.13 WATER AND CHEMICALS INJECTIONS

1. Injection water system

The function of injection water is to remove ammonia and some Hydrogen


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sulfide from the effluent. The source of injection water is from within the
unit normally. Water is routed to the injection surge drum V-14-105 and it is
pumped to EA-14-101 by a P-105A/B/C.

 Excess water is sent to the SWS unit-26 to control the level in the
injection water surge drum by PC-135.

 If additional water is required, this is made up by stripped sour water


from the SWS unit by LC-115.

 Surge drum is maintained under 35 psig pressure with Nitrogen to


provide required suction head for the pump.

 The pressure is controlled by a split range pressure controller PC-132.


Low pressure is made-up from Nitrogen header by PV-132A and excess
pressure is relieved to blow down by PV-132B. PV-132A operates from
3-9 psig to close and PV-132B from 9-15 psig to open to blow down.

 Injection water rate is 40 gpm by design regulated by the pump capacity.


The rate is based on the unit feed rate (approximately 1 gpm per 1000
BPD of feed) and the expected ammonia concentration of the sour water
exiting the CHPS.

2. Poly Sulfide Chemical

Poly sulfide is a corrosion inhibitor. It is used along with the injection water
to promote the formation of a harder and more adherent form of Iron sulfide.
V-14-104, the poly sulfide drum is blanketed with Nitrogen. Nitrogen
pressure in V-14-104 is controlled by a self regulated pressure controller
PCV-131 to maintain a pressure of 15 psig.

3.2.1.15 RECYCLE COMPRESSOR, PROCESS CONTROLS

1. Speed control

Normal speed of the compressor is 11,990 rpm. Over speed trip is 13,576
rpm. Speed is maintained to control the minimum required gas-to-oil ratio
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which is 4500 SCF/B. HC-139 regulates the speed manually or by ACS no.5
(Gas to oil ratio controller).

2. Anti-surge control

An anti-surge controller FC-121 is provided to avoid compressor from


surging. This control responds to a characterized minimum flow signal. The
minimum setting for FC-121 should correspond to 110% of the compressor
surge line flow at any combination of operating pressure and speed. When the
flow reaches the set point, FV-121 will open to recycle gas back to the high
pressure separator maintaining the 10% margin above surge.

3. Separation seal gas control

Nitrogen is used buffer gas and separation gas for the recycle gas compressor
dry gas seal (DGS) system. Buffer gas which is nitrogen is supplied at a
pressure between 70 to 100 psig and is use as a seal gas for the secondary
DGS. Separation gas on the other hand which is also a nitrogen, its pressure
is controlled by PCV-912 (PCV-952) at 1.5 psig. Separation gas is use to
prevents the bearing lubricating oil penetrating into the gas seals.

4. Refer to Chapter-7 for detailed information on the compressor and turbine


instrumentation.

3.2.2 SECOND STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM

3.2.2.1 MAKE-UP HYDROGEN

1. Hydrogen flow rate

As explained in the process variable section, Hydrogen is consumed in the


process mostly for chemical reactions. The system pressure tends to drop due
to Hydrogen consumption. The selected point to monitor the system pressure
is the recycle gas compressor suction at PT-147A and PT-147B, PT-147B is a
low range transmitter and used only in regeneration mode. Make-up
Hydrogen is admitted to the system to maintain the pressure as measured at
PT-147A. There are two ways the inflow of make-up Hydrogen is controlled.
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 Take excess Hydrogen by FC-129 and bleed out the excess


to maintain pressure.
 Take Hydrogen just enough to maintain system pressure by
PC-147A.

2. Make up Hydrogen temperature

Make-up Hydrogen is preheated by the reactor effluent in E-110. The control


valve on the bypass of E-110 (HC-161) is normally shut to utilize maximum
heat recovery which will heat up the Hydrogen to approximately 65-70oF
below the reactor inlet temperature. Hydrogen picks up further heat in the
reactor annulus to reach the reactor top at almost the same temperature as the
inlet of the reactor. However, there is no provision to read this temperature.
In case E-14-110 outlet temperature increased due to a situation like a
temperature runaway or at end-of-run operation, HC-161 has to be opened to
control the temperature within limits. This means the effluent temperature
will go up and affect the downstream equipment such as overloading the
steam generator and finfans and possible thermal shocks and leaks.

3.2.2.2 FEED TO SECOND STAGE

During normal operation, oil feed to the second stage comes from the
fractionator bottom of the distillation section. This recycle feed is pumped
into the reactor system by the second stage feed pump, P-14-102 or by P-14-
101B. The flow is measured by FT-110 and is controlled by FC-110. A spill-
back is provided on each pump to control the pump minimum flow by FC-108
on P-14-102 wherein the downstream line loop is going back to the suction
line upstream of MOV-138 (fractionation bottoms line) and FC-107 on P-14-
101B whose downstream line are provided with two options either the
downstream line routed to the fractionator bottoms line similar to P-14-102
spillback FC-108 normal loop or it can be routed to the surge drum. Normally,
if P-14-101B is used for the 2nd stage, then the spillback FC-107 should be
going back to the suction line of the pump which is the fractionator bottoms
line. Isolation valves are provided for switching over FC-107 downstream line
to the required spillback line up.

Normal feed rate to the second stage is 40,000 B/D. The minimum flow
requirement is 25,000 B/D. Reduction in feed rate below 35,000 B/D will
necessitate the shutdown of the HPRT.
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3.2.2.3 FEED PREHEAT

Unconverted recycle feed from fractionator bottom is combined with Hydrogen rich
recycle gas from the recycle compressor, C-14-102. The combined stream is heated
in the reactor feed-effluent exchanger E-14-107A and B. Further heating to reactor
inlet temperature takes place in the feed heater H-14-102.

TC-213 regulates a bypass around the feed effluent exchanger. This temperature
controller which controls the heater inlet temperature is required to maintain a
temperature rise of 35-50oF across the heater. The temperature rise across the
heater provides the operators with the capability to quickly reduce the reactor inlet
temperature in an emergency by shutting down the heater. Having the heater inlet
temperature controlled by varying the feed effluent exchanger bypass also prevents
disturbance in the reactor outlet temperature from affecting the reactor inlet
temperature through the feed-effluent exchanger.

3.2.2.4 REACTOR FEED HEATER H-14-102

The reactor feed heater provides the final heat to bring the feed mixture to reaction
temperature. TC-227 controls the heater outlet temperature by regulating the fuel
gas flow to the heater burners on cascade control with PC-144.

Heater is designed to provide a maximum T of 50oF across the heater.

Refer to Chapter-7 for detailed instrumentation of heater H-14-102.

3.2.2.5 REACTOR R-14-102

Feed from H-14-102 and make-up Hydrogen from reactor annulus combine in
reactor inlet. The reactor is divided into four catalyst beds. Each bed inlet and
outlet zones are provided with 6 TI points radially to monitor the temperature. The
first bed inlet temperature is controlled by the feed heater outlet.

Each subsequent bed is provided with a cold quench gas connection from the
recycle gas compressor C-14-102 to control the temperature rise, and thereby the
reaction rate. The following is a list of the temperature controllers for each bed.

Reactor (1st bed) inlet TC-227 Controls the heater outlet


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2nd bed inlet TC-235 Controls the temperature between beds 1 and 2

3rd bed inlet TC-234 Controls the temperature between beds 2 and 3

4th bed inlet TC-233 Controls the temperature between beds 3 and 4

Reactor catalyst Average Temperature (CAT) which is the weighted average


temperature of all four beds is controlled by DMCplus. For more detail on CAT
control refer DMCplus in chapter no.3.2.

The temperature control philosophy of selecting any one TI point by a selector is


similar to the first stage reactor. Refer to P & I diagram for tag numbers.

3.2.2.6 REACTOR R-14-102 EFFLUENT COOLING SYSTEM

The reactor effluent flows from the bottom of the reactor R-14-102 to the make-up
Hydrogen/reactor effluent exchanger, E-14-110. After preheating the make-up
Hydrogen, the effluent preheats reactor feed in E-14-107AB.

The effluent is further cooled by generating intermediate pressure steam in


E-14-108. Steam pressure in E-14-108 is controlled by PC-418 at 160 psig and
level in steam generator E-14-108 is maintained by LC-151 at 60% with low
pressure boiler feed water.

3.2.2.7 HHPS V-14-107 LEVEL

The reactor effluent separation in the second stage reaction section differs from the
first stage in that it has both hot and cold high pressure separators. The hot high
pressure separator V-14-107 is provided to remove high molecular weight
compounds from the reactor effluent before cooling in the effluent air cooler,
EA-14-102. This prevents possible tube fouling and plugging in the air coolers.
The vapors from the HHPS is cooled by heating recycle gas in E-14-109 and then
further cooled in the air cooler EA-14-102.

The level control in HHPS is by LC-116 on LV-116ABC. LV-116C drives the


second stage power recovery turbine and flows to V-14-108. If for any reason the
HPRT is not on line, the level will be controlled by LV-116B and A. These three
control valves operate in split range. LV-116C operates from 3 to 9, LV-116B
operates from 9-12 psig and LV-116A operates from 12-15 psig.
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3.2.2.8 WATER AND CHEMICALS INJECTION

During normal operation, water is not injected into the second stage because
negligible amount of ammonia and Hydrogen sulfide are formed. However,
facilities are available to inject water and poly sulfide ahead of the second stage air
cooler for use if in case during normal two stage operating mode, V-14-109 water
routine sample indicates high on iron content ( maximum of 2.0 ppm iron content
for both V-14-102 and V-14-109 water samples ) or when the second stage is
operating on fresh feed (1st stage out of service). The rate of injection is 40 gpm by
FI-216 on P-14-105 A/B/C discharge and FI-234 which is recently provided for 2nd
stage water injection flow measurement located downstream of the isolation valves
manifold for 2nd stage water injection line. If both 1st and 2nd stage requires water
injection, two of the water injection pumps P-14-105A/B/C are in service in order
to supply the required water injection flow to each stages.

Piping is also available to inject water upstream of E-14-104. If the heat transfer
efficiency of E-14-104 has decreased due to deposition of ammonium salts, water
can be used to wash the exchanger. Continuous use of water injection in E-14-104
may cause corrosion.

3.2.2.9 CHPS V-14-109 PRESSURE

The system pressure is maintained at 2280 psig. The significance of this pressure
and the control philosophy for 2nd stage are the same as for 1st stage. Only tag
numbers are different.

1st stage 2nd stage

Pressure transmitter PT-112A & B PT-147A & B


Location of PT, suction of C-14-101 C-14-102
Pressure controller for normal operation PC-112A PC-147A
Pressure controller for regeneration PC-112B PC-147B
Make-up Hydrogen flow transmitter FT-115 FT-129
Bleed control valve FV-120 FV-137
Selector switches HS-135/165/166 HS-173/167/174
Emergency depressuring stations HC-132/133 HC-170/171
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3.2.2.10 CHPS V-14-109 LEVEL

Sour water is drawn off from the bottom on interface level control by LC-124.
Oil level is controlled by LC-123.

3.2.2.11 RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR PROCESS CONTROLS

1. Speed control

Normal speed of the compressor is 9,800 RPM. Over speed trip is 12,400
RPM. Speed is maintained to control the minimum required gas to oil ratio
which is 4500 SCF/B.

HC-177 regulates the speed manually or by the ACS no. 5 (Gas to oil ratio
controller).

2. Anti-surge control.

The control philosophy is similar to C-14-101. The anti-surge controller for


C-14-102 is FC-138.

3. Separation seal gas control`

This is similar to the 1st stage recycle gas compressor explained earlier in this
chapter.

4. Refer to Chapter-7 for more detailed information of the machine.

3.2.3 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM

3.2.3.1 COLD LOW PRESSURE SEPARATOR V-14-110 & K.O. DRUM V-14-111 SYSTEM

1. Pressure control

Cold low pressure separator V-14-110 receives three streams, from V-14-102,
V-14-108 and V-14-109. These streams are flashed in V-14-110 then cooled
to about 105oF in E-14-112 and sent to the CLPS overhead knockout drum
V-14-111. From V-14-111 the flashed gases are released to the Hydrogen
recovery unit. The operating pressure of CLPS is 320 psig by design.
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The pressure in the cold low pressure separator (CLPS) is only variable within
a narrow range. Pressure is controlled by PC-169 on the net offgas from the
CLPS overhead knockout drum V-14-111. On the high end of the controlled
pressure range, it is limited by the relief valve set pressure on the CLPS, V-
114-110, of 355 psig. On the low side, pressure is limited by the ability to
pressure CLPS liquid into the H2S stripper or to pressure net offgas to the
Hydrogen recovery unit.

Within this range, lower pressures are favored because they allow more
dissolved gases to flash off. At very low pressures, however, too many C4
and C5+ hydrocarbons are lost from hydrocracker products to downstream
recovery units.

3.2.3.2 CLPS V-14-110 LEVEL CONTROL

Oil is drawn from the side of the vessel to H2S stripper via E-14-104 on level
control by LC-164.

Sour water is drawn from the bottom of the vessel on interface control by LC-165
and sent to SWT unit. This quantity of water is relatively small, being the entrained
water vapor in the oil stream coming from the separators.

3.2.3.3 CLPS O/H K.O. DRUM V-14-111 LEVEL CONTROL

Vapors from CLPS are cooled in E-14-112A/B to about 105oF and the heavier ends
of the gas are condensed. This liquid is drawn on level control by LC-129 and sent
to H2S stripper along with the oil from V-14-110.

3.2.3.4 H2S STRIPPER OPERATION

The primary purpose of the H2S stripper is to reduce the Hydrogen sulfide content
of the reactor section products. This permits the use of cheaper materials of
construction in the downstream distillation equipment. In addition, most of the
propane and lighter hydrocarbons are removed from the heavier hydrocarbon liquid
products. This aids in recovery of these products in the fractionator that is, the
fractionator can operate at lower pressure. In distillation, hydrogen sulfide behaves
much like propane. So removing hydrogen sulfide by stripping with steam is
roughly equivalent to stripping propane.
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Steam is used as the stripping medium because it is relatively cheap. The


alternative of a fired reboiler is much more expensive. There are potential
problems with steam stripping; however, in order to remove the hydrogen sulfide
from the bottoms stream, about 2 pounds of steam are needed per barrel of
bottoms. This amount of steam could exceed the saturation level of water vapor in
the column if the column operation is not properly controlled.

If the overhead temperature is too low, some of the steam would condense in the
top of the column. This condensate would re-vaporize lower in the column, being
heated by oil of higher temperatures. This would lead to a large internal recycle of
water and steam, eventually leading to column flooding. Keeping the stripper
hotter by raising feed temperature and reducing cold reflux will help prevent
steam saturation at the top of the stripper. But if the column is too hot, too much
pentane and heavier hydrocarbons are lost in the reflux drum offgas. Proper
operation involves being neither too hot nor too cold.

3.2.3.5 FEED TEMPERATURE

Raising the stripper feed temperature will raise all other column temperatures and
will vaporize more light ends overhead. This gives better removal of hydrogen
sulfide and decreases the possibility of water condensation in the column.
However, it requires more heat input to the stripper feed, higher condenser duty,
and higher reflux rates. Higher hydrocarbon vapor and liquid rates could cause
flooding. Remember that too low a temperature could also result in flooding due
to internal recycling of steam and condensate.

Stripper feed temperature is controlled by TC-316 which varies the amount of


CLPS oil bypassed around E-14-104.

3.2.3.6 REFLUX DRUM TEMPERATURE

Increasing reflux drum temperature increases overall column temperatures and


makes it easier to remove hydrogen sulfide. However, the hotter column results in
greater loss of pentane and heavier hydrocarbons to the overhead gas system.
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Increasing reflux temperature only 10oF at design conditions (ATK-EOR) will


result in an additional loss of about 100 BPOD of C5+ to the overhead recovery
system. Set the reflux drum temperature low enough to assure good recovery of
C5+ hydrocarbons, but high enough to prevent water condensation in the column.

Reflux drum temperature is adjusted by controlling the fan pitch on the air-cooled
overhead condenser by local-mounted controllers HIC-180/183/186/299.

3.2.3.7 REFLUX RATES & TOP TEMPERATURE & REFLUX DRUM LEVEL

H2S stripper operates on total reflux. The reflux is split into two streams one to the
top of the column and the other to the feed line.

The relative flow rates of the two H2S stripper reflux streams are important. The
reflux to the top of the column is controlled to hold a constant top tray temperature.
Reflux added to the feed is varied to hold a constant level in the reflux drum. If
most of the reflux is to the feed (“feed reflux”), temperatures in the packing below
the feed will be at or near the point of steam condensation. If most of the reflux is
to the top of the column (top reflux), that section will be near steam condensation
conditions. The optimum split between top and feed reflux streams is to be decided
by operating experience in view of the above limitations.

The stripper top temperature is controlled by TC-331 on cascade control with


FC-141 on top reflux stream. The reflux drum hydrocarbons level is controlled by
LC-133 on feed reflux stream. Sour water is drawn out by interface level controller
LC-135.

3.2.3.8 STRIPPING STEAM RATE

Increasing steam rate to the stripper will result in better removal of hydrogen
sulfide, unless too much steam results in steam condensation in the column. High
stripping steam rates can also lead to column flooding because of high vapor traffic.
Stripping steam should be adjusted to give adequate vapor rates in the H2S stripper
for hydrogen sulfide removal, but low enough to avoid water condensation
problems. A proper value is in the range of 1-5 pounds of steam/bbl of bottoms to
hold hydrogen sulfide below 0.5 ppm.

Stripping steam is controlled by FC-140.


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3.2.3.9 COLUMN OVERHEAD PRESSURE

The column overhead pressure is 115 psig by design.

Higher column pressure makes hydrogen sulfide removal more difficult but will
increase recovery of C5+ liquid. Column pressure must be high enough to get the
overhead off gas to the downstream gas handling unit. The pressure of the H2S
stripper is controlled by PC-173, which adjusts the rate of H2S stripper reflux drum
off gas to the Gas Handling unit.

3.2.4 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

The product fractionator is designed to recover conversion products and produce


second-stage reactor feed. In mid-distillate operation, whole naphtha goes
overhead, light and heavy ATK are drawn as sidecuts, gas oil is drawn as the
bottom sidecut, and second-stage feed is pulled as bottoms. The gas oil stripper is
not used during ATK operation as no gas oil is drawn from the fractionator.
Process variables affecting the recovery of these products are flash zone
temperature, column pressure, overflash rate, stripping steam rate, heat removal and
side cut stripper operation. These process variables are discussed separately below.

3.2.4.1 FRACTIONATOR FEED PREHEAT SYSTEM

Fractionator feed is preheated in preheat exchangers from 234oF at the H2S stripper
bottoms to 455oF at the outlet of the preheat exchangers to the inlet of H-14-103,
for ATK (SOR) mode and it is about 100oF higher for Mid-distillate mode.

The feed is split between the two preheat exchanger trains and the split flow is
balanced by flow controllers HC-297 and HC-298 based on the temperature pick-up
as read at TIX-331 and 332 on the fractionator feed side and TIX-338 on the
fractionator bottoms to the pumps. Fractionator bottoms temperature out of E-
14-118 read at TIX-338, should not exceed 420 F which is the limitation for the 2nd
o

stage feed pump mechanical seal, hence flow through HC-298 will be adjusted to
meet the requirement.
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3.2.4.2 FRACTIONATOR FEED HEATER H-14-103

Fractionator feed is heated in the fractionator feed heater H-14-103 to the required
flash zone temperature which is 607oF for ATK (SOR) and 687oF for mid-distillate
(SOR) by design.

Heater pass flows are controlled by H2S stripper level controller LC-131 on cascade
control with individual pass flow controllers FC-151, 152, 153, 154, 295 and 296.

Refer to Chapter-7 for detailed instrumentation regarding skin points, process coil
outlet TI points, convection sections, preheater facilities and fuel oil/fuel gas
controls.

Each pass outlet temperature is indicated by TI points, but the control is only on the
combined outlet of the heater. Heater outlet temperature is controlled by TC-367
on cascade control via FC-180 with fuel gas PC-202 or fuel oil PC-207.

Although both fuel gas and fuel oil burners are available, normally fuel gas is
selected for heater temperature control and fuel oil when used will be on a fixed
flow.

3.2.4.3 FLASH ZONE TEMPERATURE

At a given column pressure, the amount of feed that vaporizes in the fractionator
flash zone is determined by the flash zone temperature. The amount of flash zone
vaporization determines the overflash rate that can be obtained. Increasing the flash
zone temperature allows improved distillate yields and/or increased overflash rates.

The flash zone temperature is about 100oF higher for mid-distillate operation than
for ATK operation. (The column overhead pressure is also 10 psig lower). The
TBP cut point between product and recycle feed is increased from 550oF to 700oF
during mid-distillate operation. To vaporize sufficient fractionator feed to draw the
heavier distillate product (boiling below RCP) during mid-distillate operation, the
flash zone temperature is increased.

During any mode of operation, minor variations in flash zone temperature can be
used to adjust the over flash rate.
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3.2.4.4 COLUMN PRESSURE

The column overhead pressure is 20 psig, by design. Operating pressure in the


fractionator is controlled by using fuel gas blanket to maintain pressure in the reflux
drum by PC-182 and excess pressure is bled either to the blowdown header or to the
gas recovery header by PC-228. PT-182 is common for both pressure controllers.

Pressure is an important variable in determining the fractionator feed heater duty.


For a fixed fractionator column distillate yield and overflash rate, reducing the
column pressure reduces the heat input required in the heater. Conversely, for a
fixed furnace duty, reducing the column pressure improves the fractioantor distillate
yield by increasing the overflash rate, resulting in better separation.

Column pressure is 10 psig lower during mid-distillate operation than during ATK
operation. Coupled with an increased flash zone temperature (increase of 100oF),
the reduced pressure for mid-distillate operation allows the fractionator column to
recover a heavier distillate yield while :

 Operating with similar fractionator feed heater duties in


both modes of operation.
 Maintaining a sharp separation between the bottom
sidecut product and fractionator bottoms by maintaining
an adequate overflash rate.

However, reducing the column pressure also increases the amount of vapor
traveling up the column. The additional vapor traffic must be handled in the
column and the overhead system. Lower pressures make it necessary to operate the
overhead system at lower temperatures.

3.2.4.5 OVERFLASH RATE

The column overflash rate (FI-162) determines the sharpness of separation between
the heavy ATK sidecut and the fractionator bottoms during ATK operation, and
between gas oil sidecut and the fractionator bottoms during mid-distillate operation.
Increasing the overflash rate improves the separation between the lowest sidecut
and the fractionator bottoms. Overflash also prevents high-boiling end-point
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molecules, which are entrained in the vapor leaving the flash zone, from being
carried up the column and into the recovered products.

The overflash in the fractionator is a measure of the extent of “overvaporization” of


the fractionator feed as it enters the flash zone. If a perfect split of distillate
products, and fractionator bottoms were possible in the flash zone, then the heater
duty would be adjusted to just vaporize all the products and no overflash would be
measured. Unfortunately, such separations just don’t happen. To achieve a good
separation and hence make product specifications, the heater must supply additional
heat to vaporize additional feed so that the vapor leaving the flash zone can be
washed with overflash liquid on the distillation trays. Overflash liquid is the
overflashed vapor from the flash zone which has been condensed and is travelling
back down to the flash zone.

The heat of vaporization of the overflash is removed in the circulating refluxes and
the overhead condenser. To minimize fuel used in the heater, the overflash rate
should be the minimum needed to give an acceptable bottom sidecut product
(meeting desired specifications), but at the same time recover all product from the
fractionator feed.

The effect of poor separation between the fractionator bottoms and heavy ATK can
be shown in two ways. First, a poor split will allow more heavy molecules to get
into the ATK. This will increase its freeze point. If the freeze point goes above the
required product specification, the RCP will have to be reduced. This will decrease
the ATK yield. Second, a poor split will allow more ATK to get into the
fractionator bottoms. This ATK will be recracked in the second-stage reactor, so it
is effectively lost. Figure-11 shows the relationship between the overflash and the
ATK freeze point and the ATK lost in the fractionator bottoms.

3.2.4.6 STRIPPING STEAM RATE

Stripping steam is fed to the fractionator below tray 1 as controlled by FC-163.


Increasing the stripping steam will improve the recovery of distillate products by
reducing the amount of lighter boiling products in the fractionator bottoms. High
steam rates increase the amount of vapor that must be handled in the column and
also increases the condenser duty in the column overhead. High vapor loadings in
the column can lead to flooding.
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Decreasing the stripping steam rate will reduce steam consumption and overhead
condenser duty, and the amount of product (material boiling below RCP) in the
fractionator bottoms will increase. However, too low stripping steam rate can also
lead to poor column performance (weeping) in the stripping section (trays 1-7).
The optimal stripping steam rate should be based on operating experience balancing
product recovery and sharpness of separation at the RCP with steam costs and
overhead condenser capacity. A proper range is 15-20 pounds of steam/bbl of
fractionator bottoms. Figure-12 shows the relationship between the stripping steam
rate and the ATK freeze point and the ATK lost in the fractionator bottoms.

3.2.4.7 FRACTIONATOR HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEMS

The fractionator has three heat removal systems:

 The bottom circulating reflux (bottom pumparound).


 The top circulating reflux (top pumparound).
 The overhead condenser system.
Each of these systems is controlled separately. The proper balance of heat removal
among these systems is necessary to balance the fractionation between product cuts
with the minimum use of heat.

1. Bottom pumparound
The bottom pumparound is drawn from tray 17 and is returned to tray 10 of
the fractionator after it gives up heat to the fractioantor feed (only during
mid-distillate mode) and reboils the light ATK sidecut stripper in E-14-120.
To maintain a constant heat removal, a trim steam generator, E-14-119, with
temperature control of the pumparound bypass, cools the pumparound before
it returns to the fractionator. The heat removal by this pumparound reduces
both vapor and liquid rates above tray 19; it also cools the rising flash zone
vapor including overflash vapor, thus generating the liquid overflash which
flows down over the trays to the flash zone (trays 8-17). The bottom
pumparound duty controls the fractionation above tray 19 by controlling the
liquid and vapor traffic in this section of the column.
Bottom pumparound flow is controlled by FC-159 and its temperature by
TC-371 on the bypass around E-14-119. E-14-119 level is controlled by
LC-157 and pressure by PC-419
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2. Top pumparound

The top pumparound is drawn from tray 27 and returned to tray 29. It controls
column traffic and fractionation between naphtha and ATK products. The
pumparound removes heat from the column by reboiling the naphtha stabilizer
in E-14-128, heating the fractionator feed in E-14-115, and reboiling the
naphtha splitter in E-14-130. To maintain a constant heat removal, a trim air
cooler, EA-14-105, which is provided with temperature controllers on the
outlet line before it returns to the fractionator.

Top pumparound flow is controlled by FC-160 and temperature by TC-369A /


TC-369B on the bypass line and outlet line of air cooler EA-14-105
respectively. Additionally, EA-14-105 fan pitch is also controlled remotely by
HC-206 at the DCS.

Increasing either the top or bottom circulating reflux heat removal has the
following effects :
 Reduced vapor and liquid column traffic above the circulating reflux.
 Reduced fractionation (less sharp splits) above the circulating reflux.

Reducing circulating reflux heat removal has the direct opposite effects.

3. Top reflux and top temperature


The overhead air-cooled condenser is designed to condense all the fractionator
overhead. From this condensed overhead the naphtha product is drawn on
level control of the reflux drum (LC-139 which resets FC-164). Overhead
reflux is returned to tray 50 to control the temperature of the column overhead.
This determines the cut point between naphtha and light ATK.
Control adjustment to the overhead condenser duty is by fan pitch control
TC-623 or by switching air cooler fans on or off condition or by switching air-
cooler fans on or off. The overhead condenser duty should be maximized (all
fans on) to prevent net vapor flow off the reflux drum which would mean loss
of naphtha product to the flare. The overhead duty can be reduced for power
savings if pressure control of the column can be maintained in the overhead
system without vapor loss to the relief system.
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Top temperature is controlled by TC-374 on cascade control with FC-161 on


naphtha reflux.

3.2.4.6 REFLUX DRUM LEVEL

Reflux drum V-14-117 naphtha level is controlled by LC-139 on cascade control


with FC-164 on naphtha feed to the stabilizer.

Water collected is drawn on interface level control by LC-141.

3.2.5 SIDE STRIPPER OPERATION

There are three side strippers associated with the fractionator. During ATK
operation, two sidecuts are drawn. These two sidecuts are the light ATK which is
drawn from tray 38 of the fractionator and reboiled in the light ATK stripper
T-14-103 and the heavy ATK which is drawn from tray 27 and reboiled in the
heavy ATK stripper T-14-104. Additionally, during mid-distillate operation, a third
sidecut is drawn from the fractionator and is steam stripped in the gas oil stripper
T-14-105.

The purpose of the side strippers is to remove the light components from the
product to meet flash point specification. These light molecules are removed in the
strippers by being boiled out of the product (in the two ATK strippers) or being
steam stripped from the product (in the gas oil stripper).

3.2.5.1 SIDECUT PRODUCTION RATES

Each of the sidecut draw rates and the stripper bottoms rates are controlled the same
way. The stripper feed rate drawn from the fractionator is controlled by the bottom
level control of the stripper.

Sidecut Draw Rate Controlled by

Light ATK LC-142


Heavy ATK LC-143
Gas oil LC-144
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The net product rate from each side stripper is flow controlled :

Sidecut Controlled by

Light ATK FC-166


Heavy ATK FC-168
Gas oil FC-170

The production rate for a sidecut can be changed by resetting the flow controller. A
change in a sidecut rate is usually balanced with a move on one or more other
fractionator operating variables, such as :

The production rate of another sidecut.

Fractionator heat removal.

Fractionator overflash rate.

RCP.

Two examples illustrate this :

1. One example is when the mode of operation is changed. A review of the


process flow diagrams for ATK and mid-distillate operations illustrates the
necessary changes in sidecut rate that are required in order to make the desired
on-specification products.

Operation ATK Mid-distillate

Naphtha product, BPOD 12,390 14,010


Light ATK product, BPOD 11,580 8,550
Heavy ATK product, BPOD 18,665 7,400
Gas oil product, BPOD 0 11,845
o
RCP, F 550 700
Top pumparound, MM btu/hr 60 51
Bottoms pumparound, MM btu/hr 20 44
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2. Another example is when the yield of naphtha is maximized. The normal


whole naphtha cut is C5-250oF TBP. The maximum naphtha cut is C5-330oF
TBP. The additional naphtha is taken from the light ATK (the front end of the
light ATK or the 250-330oF TBP fraction) :

Operation ATK Mid-distillate

Naphtha product, BPOD 13,500 14,010


Light ATK product, BPOD 11,580 8,550
Heavy ATK product, BPOD 16,480 7,400
Overhead condenser, MM btu/hr 110 103
Overhead temperature , oF 226 292
Top pumparound, MM btu/hr 57 61
Bottoms pumparound, MM btu/hr 20 20
o
RCF, F 550 550

3.2.5.2 ATK STRIPPER REBOILER DUTIES

1. Heavy ATK reboiler

The heavy ATK reboiler, E-14-122, removes the light components from the
heavy ATK draw by boiling them overhead in the heavy ATK stripper, T-
14-104. These light components are mostly light ATK product, though a very
poor fractionation between light and heavy ATK will result in some heavy
naphtha being drawn with the heavy ATK. The result of this poor split is poor
yields and poor product qualities (low flash point for the whole ATK product).
The higher the reboiler duty, the sharper the split between light and heavy
ATK. Since these two ATK products are combined (sent to common offplot
tankage), a sharp product split between them is not necessary. The design
duty of 12 mm btu/hr (500-1200 Btu/bbl stripper bottoms product) is a
compromise between good column fractionation (on-specification product
qualities) and heat conservation, as the reboiling medium is fractionator
bottoms which preheats feed to the fractionator heater after reboiling the
heavy ATK.

The reboiler duty is controlled by adjusting FC-167 on the bypass flow around
the reboiler.
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2. Light ATK reboiler

The light ATK reboiler, E-14-120, boils the lighter boiling fractions from the
light ATK draw in the sidecut stripper, T-14-103, and returns them overhead
back to the fractionator.

The higher the reboiler duty, the sharper the split between ATK and naphtha.
A sharp split means the yields of ATK can be maximized while meeting flash
point specification and requires a higher duty (1200-2200 Btu/bbl stripper
bottoms product) to achieve the sharp split between naphtha and ATK.

The reboiler duty is controlled by adjusting FC-165 on the bypass around the
reboiler. The effect of the light ATK reboiler duty on the whole ATK flash
point is shown in Figure-13.

3.2.5.3 GAS OIL STRIPPING STEAM RATE

The gas oil stripper, T-14-105, is stripped with steam. The steam rate is controlled
with FC-169 and is adjusted to strip the lightest boiling components from the gas
oil. Increasing the stripping steam rate gives better removal of light components.
Stripping out the lighter fractions from the gas oil gives a sharper split between
heavy ATK and gas oil. This sharper split permits a lower cut point between them
while still meeting the gas oil flash point specification. The lower cut point results
in better heat recovery in the heat exchange system. There are also some
undesirable effects.

Increased stripping steam rates can lead to :

 Flooding of the stripper due to high vapor traffic.

 Flooding of the fractionator above the stripper overhead return


due to high vapor traffic.

 Increased overhead condenser duty to condense additional steam.

 Increased steam consumption.


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3.2.5.4 GAS OIL PRODUCT COOLING

Gas oil product is cooled in the steam generator E-14-125. The level in E-14-125 is
controlled by LC-160 and pressure by PC-420.

3.2.6 NAPHTHA STABILIZER SYSTEM

The main objective in stabilizer control is to limit the amount of light ends (C4-) in
the naphtha product, in order to meet the RVP specification.

3.2.6.1 TRAY 2 TEMPERATURE

The temperature of tray 2 of the stabilizer is sensitive to the Butane content in the
bottoms (whole naphtha product). At design operating pressure of the column (90
psig), the tray 2 temperature and corresponding volume percent C4- in the bottoms
stream for different operating conditions is shown below :

Approximate
tray 2 Vol %
Operation temp., oF C4 -

C5-330oF TBP whole Naphtha


ATK Mode-EOR 300 0.1

C5-250oF TBP whole Naphtha


ATK Mode-EOR 275 0.15

The temperature at tray 2 is controlled by TC-420 on cascade with FC-171 to vary


the flow of top pumparound bypassing the reboiler, E-14-128. If the RVP of the
light naphtha is not meeting specification, the temperature should be raised.

3.2.6.2 REFLUX DRUM TEMPERATURE

The reflux drum temperature is not controlled automatically. The temperature is


determined by the overhead condenser, which holds constant pressure and the
reflux rate, which is controlling the composition of the overhead system.
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3.2.6.3 REFLUX AND LPG FLOW RATES

The stabilizer reflux rate is controlled by FC-172 and LPG withdrawal is controlled
by FC-174. The higher the reflux rate, the lower the C5+ content of the overhead
liquid (LPG). The lower the rate, the higher the C5+ content in the LPG. The
target for C5+ liquid in the LPG is 2 vol percent. The purity should be achieved for
a reflux to LPG flow ratio (FC-172/FC-174) of about 2.5.

3.2.6.4 OVERHEAD PRESSURE

The stabilizer pressure is controlled by two pressure controllers working


independently from each other (taking impulse from the same PT-195 on the vapor
line), where the 1st controllers consist of PC-195A and PC-195B split range type,
both located at E-14-127A/B shell side outlet line and bypass line respectively,
while the 2nd controller is PC-380 located at the reflux drum off gas line to unit-33
fuel gas system. The stabilizer has a partially submerged, water-cooled overhead
condenser with a hot-vapor bypass line. The pressure is maintained by adjusting the
effective cooling area of the overhead condenser (area not submerged in liquid). If
the pressure rises, PC-195B closes and PC-195A opens thereby making more
cooling area being exposed and more overhead gas is condensed. If the pressure
drops PC-195A closes and PC-195B opens, more tubes are submerged, and the
condenser duty drops. If the overhead condenser becomes overloaded, excess vapor
can be released to the fuel gas system by PC-380.

The pressure is normally maintained at about 80 psig.

Lowering the pressure will lower the bottom temperature required to reach given
Butane content in the bottoms. But too low a pressure will eventually cause column
flooding by increasing the volume of the vapor traffic up the column.

3.2.7 NAPHTHA SPLITTER SYSTEM

The objective of the naphtha splitter is to split the stabilized whole naphtha into a
light naphtha product (C5-180oF TBP) and heavy naphtha product (180-250oF TBP
during maximum ATK operation and 180-300oF TBP during maximum naphtha
operation). The controls for column operation are discussed below.
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3.2.7.1 TRAY 2 TEMPERATURE

As with the stabilizer, the tray 2 temperature of the splitter is sensitive to the
content of low boiling material in the bottoms. At the normal operating pressure of
15 psig, a tray 2 temperature of about 270oF (about 290oF for maximum naphtha
case) corresponds to a cut point temperature of 180oF between light and heavy
naphtha.

The tray 2 temperature is controlled by TC-430 on cascade with FC-252 which


adjusts the bypass flow around the reboiler, E-14-130.

3.2.7.2 REFLUX DRUM TEMPERATURE

The temperature for the reflux is about 167oF (by design).

The reflux drum temperature is controlled by TC-433 & 434 on fan pitch control
on the overhead condenser EA-14-111.

The temperature should be controlled so that column pressure can be maintained


without excessive fuel gas consumption, as dissolved fuel gas could ruin the RVP
of the light naphtha. The temperature should be low enough that the light naphtha
rundown cooler, E-14-131 can maintain the desired battery limit temperature, and
that no vapor is lost to flare.

3.2.7.3 OVERHEAD PRESSURE

The column overhead pressure is 15 psig (by design). It is controlled by adding


fuel gas to the reflux drum or relieving vapor to flare. PC-199 controls the vapor
line pressure in a split range with PV-199A on fuel gas make-up and PV-199B on
excess to either blowdown or gas recovery line. PV-199A closes from 3-7 psig
and PV-199B opens from 9-5 psig with a 2 psi recess.

3.2.7.4 REFLUX FLOW RATE

The splitter reflux rate is set by FC-177. A higher reflux rate will require a higher
reboiler duty to maintain the cut point between light and heavy naphtha. This will
increase column traffic, and will be effective in improving the split between light
and heavy naphtha as long as the column does not flood.
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3.2.8 EFFECTS OF REACTOR AND DISTILLATION SECTION INTERACTIONS

Unlike a crude unit atmospheric column which gets steady feed rate and
composition, the Hydrocracker fractionator is faced with swings in composition
depending on how the reactor sections are operating and how the upstream units
(feed sources) are operating. To cope with these changes while producing
on-specification products, it is important to understand how the product TBP
assays and cut points are related and how the reactor and distillation sections
interact.

3.2.8.1 HYDROCRACKER FEED AND PRODUCT ASSAYS

Like crude oil, hydrocracker feed and products are mixtures of many different
hydrocarbons, each boiling at a different temperature. A TBP assay is a method of
determining how these boiling points are distributed. As most laboratory analysis
of feed and product liquids are ASTM D-1160 and D-86 distillations, it is possible
to convert these data into TBP assays.

Figure-14 at the end of this section illustrates the use of assays to analyze
hydrocracker operation. First, notice that the horizontal axis is shown as BPOD
instead of the typical volume percent. Second, notice that the fresh feed and recycle
feed do not come close to the product assays - each reactor has cracked the feed into
a much lighter material. If the reactors crack more or less, the product assays will
move up or down on the drawing.

The fractionator will never see the fresh feed, it only sees the mixture represented
by the heavy line drawn through the product assays. For a given feed to the
fractionator, the fractionator operating variables define the product assays and cut
points. The main cut points are set as follows :

 The naphtha cut point is set by the overhead temperature controller


(TC-374), which resets the flow controller (FC-161), which
regulates the reflux back to the fractionator. More reflux means
less net naphtha. The naphtha cut point is the cut point between
the heavy naphtha and light ATK.
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 The light naphtha-heavy naphtha cut point is set by the bottom


temperature in the naphtha splitter. The higher the temperature,
the higher the cut point and the higher the rate of light naphtha
production.

 The light ATK-heavy ATK cut point is set by the draw rate for
light ATK (FC-166).

 During mid-distillate operation, the heavy ATK-gas oil cut point is


set by the draw rate for heavy ATK (FC-168).

 Since the recycle feed flow rate is fixed with flow controller FC-
110 (for both modes of operation), the RCP is set by the draw rate
of the lowest sidecut. During ATK operation, the RCP is
determined by the draw rate of heavy ATK (FC-168). During
mid-distillate operation, the RCP is determined by the gas oil draw
rate (FC-170).

Note that the naphtha-ATK, ATK-gas oil, and ATK-fractionator bottoms (similarly
for gas oil-fractionator bottoms during mid-distillate operation) cut points are
uncontrolled - they will change if the reactor cracks more or less. In addition,
consider a simple mass balance around the bottoms section of the fractionator
including the lowest sidecut (eg heavy ATK during ATK operation) and the feed to
the second stage. The flow rate of ATK and recycle feed are set, hence the RCP is
determined for a given fractionator feed assay. In order to maintain the fractionator
bottoms level, the CAT of the second-stage reactor must be adjusted. if the CAT is
too low then not enough cracking going on and the level will rise. More will be
discussed on fractioantor level control.

The product cut assays are also affected by distillation operations as follows. (refer
to Figure-14).

 The light naphtha end point (shown by point “A”) as well as the
cut point depend on the reflux to the naphtha splitter (FC-177).
The difference between the end point and the cut point is called
the “tail”. Increasing the reflux rate and reboiler duty (thus
sending more vapor up the column and more liquid down) will
reduce this tail.
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 The heavy naphtha start point (Point “B”) depends primarily on


the naphtha splitter reboiler duty. Increase the reboiler duty and
increase the splitter reflux to reduce the tail and improve the flash.

 The heavy naphtha end point (Point “C”) depends mostly on the
liquid traffic between tray 39 and tray 50 in the fractionator. The
end point is controlled by the overhead reflux rate (FC-161). Any
change in fractionator operation which sends more heat up the
column to this section will reduce this tail.

 The light ATK start point (Point “D”) depends primarily on the
light ATK reboiler duty. Increase the duty to reduce the tail and
improve the flash.

 The light ATK end point (Point “E”) depends mostly on the liquid
rate between tray 31 and tray 36. Changes in operation which
increase the load on these trays will reduce the tail.

 The heavy ATK start point (Point “F”) depends primarily on the
heavy ATK reboiler duty. Increase the duty to reduce the tail and
help to improve ATK product flash.

 The heavy ATK end point (Point “G” depends mostly on the liquid
traffic between trays 21 and 26. Reducing the bottom
pumparound heat removal sends more heat up the column and will
reduce the tail.

 The gas oil start point (Point “H”) depends primarily on the gas oil
stripping steam rate. Increasing the steam rate will reduce this tail.

 The gas oil end point (Point “I”) depends primarily on the liquid
rate between trays 8 and 16. Increasing the overflash rate will
decrease the tail.

 The recycle oil feed start point (Point “J”) depends primarily on
the stripping steam rate to the fractionator. Increase the steam rate
to reduce the tail.
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3.2.8.2 FRACTIONATOR LEVEL CONTROL

One important difference between the hydrocracker fractionator operation and most
crude unit columns is the bottom level control system. A crude column is fed with
a constant feed blend (rate and composition). The relative amounts of naphtha,
kerosene, diesel and bottoms does not change unless the feed is changed. As a
result, on-specification products can be produced by finding the product draw rates
which meet specifications and holding these draw rates steady. The bottoms rate is
allowed to vary (on level control) to hold column level.
The feed to the hydrocracker product fractionator is not steady in rate or
composition. The relative proportions of naphtha, ATK, gas oil and bottoms vary
depending on how much cracking is taking place in the reactors. Also, the bottoms
rate cannot be used to hold column level since the bottoms is the feed to the second-
stage reactor.

If this second stage feed rate is increased to hold level in the fractionator, the extra
liquid would come right back to the fractiopnator after passing through the reactor.
Reactor temperatures would swing; product yield distributions would bounce
around as a result of changing CAT in the reactor. This ripple effect would carry
through to the fractionator, where bouncing fractionator feed composition would
further complicate level control efforts.

The feed to the second stage should be kept constant to provide the steady reactor
operation which gives a steady product distribution. Some other means of
maintaining the level in the fractionator is required. Since the side products are set
up to be drawn on flow control, there is no automatic correction for column bottom
level, except in case of very high level (emergency) or for single-stage once-
through operation (SSOT).

What can be done to hold column level? To understand this, it is important to


understand the mass balance of the unit. The main feed entering the hydrocracker is
the fresh feed to the first stage. The material fed to the fractionator must come out.
The main streams leaving are the products drawn form the fractionator. The
bottoms stream (“unconverted feed”) does not count as a feed or a product in this
mass balance because it just recycles around. If more products are drawn than feed
going in, the column level will fall. If less are drawn, the column level will rise.
Two manual adjustments can be made to hold level :
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 The first is to adjust the set points of the product flow


controllers.

 The second is to adjust reactor temperature in either the first


stage, second stage, or both.

Either one of these adjustments requires a secondary adjustment in the other to keep
products on specification :

 In the first case, changing the product draw rates will change the
cut points between products and the cut point between the lowest
side product and the bottoms (RCP). These changes will change
product qualities. Changing the RCP will affect the pour or freeze
of the side product. To make product with on-specification pour
or freeze requires a secondary change in reactor temperature.

 In the second case, changing the catalyst temperature will also


change the freeze or pour of the lowest side product. Moving
back to specification on all products will require a secondary
move in product draw rates.

Note : If you are drawing more product than you are feeding, no change in
CAT’s will help.
It is also important to note that changing reactor temperature in either reactor stage
will accomplish these changes. However, the best course will be to hold constant
conversion in the first stage and adjust the reactor temperatures in the second stage.

3.2.8.3 RECYCLE CUT POINT CONTROL

The RCP is determined by the recycle feed rate and the distribution of reactor
products. Since the recycle feed rate must be fixed for steady reactor operation,
only the product distribution can be used to vary the RCP. The product distribution
can be changed by adjusting the CAT in either reactor. As the CAT in either reactor
is increased, the RCP decreases. A 5oF increase in the first-stage CAT will
decrease the RCP by approximately 50oF, and a 5oF increase in the second-stage
CAT will decrease the RCP by approximately 25oF. In deciding which CAT to
change, remember that conversion of PPC have large effects on the fouling rates of
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the first and second stage catalysts. (It is usually best to equalize the fouling rates
for the first and second stage. See figures 8 and 10).

As RCP is increased, less light products are made and more heavy diesel is
produced. To keep the same cut points between products for different RCP’s, the
fractionator draw rates require adjustment. Notice the effect on the product
distribution of a 5oF drop in the first-stage CAT (Figure-15) and a 5oF drop in the
second-stage CAT (Figure-16).

To summarize, the procedure required to increase the RCP is as follows :

1. Decrease the first or the second-stage CAT.

2. Adjust the fractionator draw rates to :

 Maintain column level

 Meet product specifications

3. Adjust fractionator preheater outlet temperature to maintain desired overflash.

To decrease the RCP, the same steps are required except that the first or second
stage CAT is increased rather than decreased.

3.2.8.4 RECYCLE CUT POINT CALCULATION

The RCP is the TBP cut point between the heaviest product and the recycle feed.
For a sharp cut, RCP can be determined by a shortcut method. But as the cut gets
less sharp, the following detailed procedure is used :

First, get assay data for the kerosene and recycle feed. TBP assays are preferred. If
only ASTM assays are available, convert them to TBP as shown on Figure-18.

Second, get the flow rates of kerosene and recycle feed corresponding to the time
the assay samples were drawn. Calculate the kerosene as a percentage of kerosene
plus recycle feed (X).
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Third, plot the kerosene assay between 0% and X%. Plot the recycle feed assay
between x% and 100%, as shown on Figure-20.

Fourth, determine the intercept line graphically plotting several points between the
kerosene end point and the recycle feed start point as shown on Figure-20. Read
the RCP as the intersection between the intercept line and the vertical line drawing
at X%.

The following shortcut method can be used if the cut between kerosene and recycle
feed is sharp.

First, follow steps 1 and 2 from the detailed procedure.

Second, let A = TBP 90% point of kerosene, oF


let B = TBP 10% point of recycle feed, oF

Then RCP = A + X (B-A).


100

3.2.8.5 UNCONVERTED OIL BLEED

Even though by design the Hydrocracker unit can operate for total conversion, in
actual experience a 5% bleed to storage of the fractionator bottoms has been
maintained in order to keep the PCI of the 2nd stage feed within allowable limits.
This has helped to prevent the formation of polycyclic compounds which foul and
plug the 2nd stage reactor downstream systems.

Bleed flow is regulated on manual control or by ACS no.8 on fixed flow control or
by LC-137 when it is required to control the fractionator level.

Cooling system

Unconverted oil is cooled in EA-104 to about 150oF. Local mounted HC-197


controls the fan pitch. During cold seasons TC-478 controls the steam heater to
maintain the storage temperature. Lower temperatures tend to solidify the oil in
cold climates.
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Hydrocracker Unit-14

DYNAMIC MATRX
CONTROL
OPERATOR’S MANUAL

BY

COMPUTER APPLICATION GROUP


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3.3 DYNAMIC MATRIX CONTROL

3.3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DMC PLUS

3.3.2 HYDROCRACKER DMC PLUS CONTROL DETAILS

3.3.3 CONTROLLER VIEWING

3.3.4 OPERATING GUIDELINES

3.3.5 PRODUCT QUALITY CALCULATIONS

3.3.6 AUTO LAB BIAS UPDATING FACILITY

3.3.7 HCR DMS PLUS MODEL FILE

3.3.8 APPENDIX
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3.3.1 INTRODUCTION

The DMCplus runs on the VAX computer (model 4000-500) system, which
is interfaced to the Honeywell TDC 3000 through (PLNM) Computer
Gateway. DMCplus collects data from DCS and sends setpoints to the
respective controllers using software interface called DMCplus connect.

Dynamic Matrix Control plus software has been licensed from Aspen
Technologies Inc., USA. All the major DMCplus related information’s can
also be monitored from the Infoplus-X Time Data Base (RTDB).

In order to understand what DMC is and how DMC is different from the
ACS strategies implemented earlier, it is necessary to explain the following
importand aspects of DMC.

 DMC IS A MULTI-VARIABLE CONTROLLER:

ACS is a single variable controller. Each ACS is designed to control one


variable. For example, separate ACS was used to control ATK flash, ATK
freeze, gas oil endpoint etc. Each of these ACS controllers were
independently adjusting the set points of fractionator top temperature, Heavy
ATK draw rate and gas oil draw rate respectively. But changes made by the
ATK flash ACS on the top temperature will not affect the flash, but also
many other variables such as ATK freeze, bottom level etc. hence while
making changes in any one of the parameters in the fractionator, DMC will
foresee its effect on the others and adjusts all of them simultaneously. DMC
manipulates multiple variable in order to control several process variables.

 DMC IS A MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER:

In a PID controller when the PV deviates away from the SP, its output
isadjusted to bring it back to SP. This is called feedback control. Whereas in
DMC changes which are going to occur in a PV in future is predicted ahead
of time so that corrective action is taken well before the violation take place.

 DMC TAKES CARE OF CONTRAINTS:

Manipulated variables whose set points is adjusted by DMC have high/low


limits and rate of change clamps. Controlled variables such as product
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qualities, compressor speed have high and low limits. All of the above
constraints are considered and accounted for in DMC’s overall control plan.

 DMC OPTIMIZES THE PROCESS:

Optimum targets are estimated using Linear Programming technique (LP)


taking in to consideration the cost of all products, utilities etc.

3.3.2 HYDRCRACKER DMC DETAILS

In Hydrocracker DMC there are two main controllers, U14MAIN1 and


U14MAIN2. Under each main controller there are two subcontrollers.
Following table outlines their names and functions.

Main Controller Sub-Controller


No. Control Area
Name Name
U14RX2 Reactor 2 Control
1 U14MAIN1
U14FRAC Fractionator Control
U14STAB Stabilizer Control
2 U14MAIN2
U14SPLIT Splitter Control

Before going in to the details of the controllers it is important to understand


the following terms used in the controller details.

 MANIPULATED VARIABLES (MV)

Variables which are receiving Set points or outputs from DMC are known as
MV. These variables when put in ‘CAS’ mode will receive SP or OP from
DMC once every minute. Example: 14FC168.SP, 14TC233.SP

 FEED FORWARD VARIABLES (FFW)

Variables which cause disturbance to the process are known as FFW


variables. Changes in these variables is not caused by DMC, but in order to
minimize the effect of these disturbance on the process, DMC will take
suitable action.
Example: Ambient Temperature
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 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

Manipulated Variables (MV) and feed forward variable (FFW) together are
known as Independent Variables. In DMC schematics if you touch
IND SUM it will show the list of both variables starting with MV and
ending with FFW.

 DEPENDENT VARIABLES

Variables which are controlled by DMC are known as Dependent Variables.


Example: TATK flash point, TATK freeze point, Reactor CAT
Operator specifies the limits (Low/High) with in which variables are to be
controlled.
Table 2 and 4 contain list of Independent variables for U14MAIN1 and
U14MAIN2
Table 3 and 5 contain list of Dependent variables for U14MAIN1 and
U14MAIN2

U14MAIN1-INDEPENDENT TAGS

TABLE – 2

14FC110SP (KBPD)
14TC227SP (DEG. F)
14TC235SP (DEG. F)
14TC234SP (DEG. F)
14TC235SP (DEG. F)
14TC213SP (DEG. F)
14HC177OP (PCT)
14TC367SP (DEG. F)
14FC161SP (KBPD)
14FC160SP (KBPD)
14TC369SP (DEG. F)
14FC159SP (KBPD)
14TC371SP (DEG. F)
14FC166SP (KBPD)
14FC168SP (KBPD)
14FC170SP (KBPD)
14FC165SP (KBPD)
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TABLE – 2

14FC167SP (KBPD)
14PC182SP (DEG. F)
14FC1489OP (PCT)
14TC234OP (PCT)
14PC177OP (PCT)
14HC297OP (PCT)
14TI724PV (DEG. F)
1403CATPV (DEG. F)
14FI104PV (BPD)
14TI320PV (DEG. F)
14FC109PV (KBPD)
14TC420PV (DEG. F)
14TC430PV (DEG. F)
33PC102OP (PCT)
14FC163SP (KLB-HR)
14FC137OP (PCT)
14FC165SP (KBPD)

U14MAIN1-DEPENDENT TAGS

TABLE – 3

1408CATPV (DEG. F)
1410HPPAVGPV (PSIA)
1410SCFBCOMP (SCF/BBL)
1408DTTOTPV (DEG. F)
1408BAT1PV (DEG. F)
1408BAT2PV (DEG. F)
1408BAT3PV (DEG. F)
1408BAT4PV (DEG. F)
1408DT1PV (DEG. F)
1408DT2PV (DEG. F)
1408DT3PV (DEG. F)
1408DT4PV (DEG. F)
14TC235OP (PCT)
14TC234OP (PCT)
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TABLE – 3

14TC233OP (PCT)
14TC213OP (DEG. F)
14PC144SP (PSIG)
14TI214PV (DEG. F)
14LC137PV (PCT) Ramp
14NAPH95PCT (DEG. F)
14TATKFLSH (DEG. F)
14TATKFREZ (DEG. F)
14DESLEP (DEG. F)
14PC182OP (PCT)
14TC623PV (DEG. F)
14TC374PV (DEG. F)
14TI137PV (DEG. F)
14TI376PV (DEG. F)
14TI377PV (DEG. F)
14TI380PV (DEG. F)
14LC142OP (PCT)

14LC143OP (PCT)
14LC144OP (PCT)
14FC161OP (PCT)
14TC369OP (PCT)
14FI162PV (KBPD)
14PC202SP (PSIG)
14AC113PV (DEG. F)
14PC177PV (PSIG)
14TI338PV (DEG. F)
14FC167OP (PCT)
14TC371OP (PCT)
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U14MAIN2-INDEPENDENT TAGS

TABLE – 4

14TC415SP (DEG. F)
14TC420SP (DEG. F)
14FC172SP (BPD)
14PC195SP (PSIG)
14PC380OP (PCT)
14FC177SP (BPD)
14TC430SP (DEG. F)
14PC199SP (PCT)
14TC433OP (PCT)
14FC164SP (PCT)
14TI376FILT (DEG. F)
14TI724PV (DEG. F)
14FC160PV (KBPD)

U14MAIN2-DEPENDENT TAGS

TABLE – 5

14TC423PV (DEG. F)
14TC415OP (PCT)
14FC172OP (PCT)
14FC171OP (PCT)
14PC380PV (PSIG)
14FI174BPV (BPD)
14PC195OP (PCT)
14LNRVP (PSI)
14LN95PCT (DEG. F)
14PC199PV (PSIG)
14TI429PV (DEG. F)
14FC177OP (PCT)
14FC252OP (PCT)
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3.3.3 CONTROLLER VIEWING

There is one DMCplus subcontroller each in this unit for the reactor,
fractionator, stabilizer, and splitter. To view information about subcontroller
you should:

 Push the appropriate button on the TDC keyboard as shown below-

In the first row last three buttons to your right and first button to your left in
the second row are for Reactor 2, fractionator, stabilizer, and splitter
respectively.

You will now see the DMCplus controller display (in tubular form) of HCR
DMCplus controller. Menu bar description is given in Fig-1.

Each DMCplus controller has a special name, for eg., the fractionator
subcontroller is called U14FRAC.

3.3.3.1 TURNING THE DMCplus OFF

If you have a problems with DMCplus controller, then to turn it off, should:

 Go to the DMCplus controller display (described above)


 There are two ON/ON boxes at the top left hand side. One ON box indicates
that VAX computer is running OK. Operator cannot change this.
 Touch the other ON box and press ENTER to turn DMCplus main
controller OFF.
 The display (to left hand) should now say “(DMC OFF). The DMCplus
controller is now off.
 If you want to switch OFF only the subcontroller then touch the box Sub On
And press ENTER.
 When the controller is turned off, all the MVs will go to “AUTO”, or
“MAN”. When the DMCplus controller is turned ON, again all the MVs
which are in shed mode will go to CAS and DMCplus will start adjusting
their set points. When DMCplus controller is off, the ACS strategies will
not come on line.
 In DMCplus, whenever the controller is turned ON all MVs will go from
MAN / AUTO to CAS mode by themselves.
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 Operator can view the description, loop status and key word of all the
independent (MV/FF) and dependent (CV) variables. Touch the box
(DES/MAIN) and press ENTER. Description will be displayed instead of tag
numbers.
 Operator can go to the DETAIL PAGE of the individual CV or MV tags by
touching the respective values shown under the columns (STAT).
 There is a NEXT RUN/40 SEC counter which indicate when the DMCplus
will run next, Here 40 SEC. reveals that DMCplus controller will next run
after 40 sec.

3.3.3.2 TURNING THE DMCplus ON

To turn DMCplus subcontroller ON you should:

 Go to to DMCplus controller display (described previously)


 Touch the display SUB OFF the top left hand side.
 Then press ENTER.

The display (left hand) should now say (SUB ON). The DMCplus
subcontroller is now ON.

3.3.3.3 INDEPENDENT SUMMARY (REFER ATTACHED FIG2)

Independent summary consists of manipulated and FF summary. To view


the IND SUM summary you should:

 Go to the DMCplus controller display (described above)


 Touch the display ON in the middle of the top row where it says “IND
SUM”

This will take you to a summary of all the MVs & FF variables.

The name INDEP stands for ‘INDEPENDENT VARIABLES”. This is a


variable which the DMCplus can adjust to control the process.

 For example, the first MV in the reactor list is 14FC110 and DMCplus can
change the set point of 14FC110.
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Each MV of the INDEP SUM variable had the following attributes:

 High The maximum allowed value that DMCplus can set


 Value The value of the variable now
 Low limit The minimum allowed value that DMCplus can set
 LP target The “long term” target (where it will end up in two
and half hours
 Current move The amount it moved on the last execution
 LP step & max move These will be explained in the more detailed notes
provided later.

If you compare the “value” and the ‘LP target”, you will see if the variable
is tending to increase over the next two and half hours or if it is tending to
decrease. The current move will tell you how fast it is increasing or
decreasing.

The DMCplus can move the INDEP variable anywhere in between the high
limit and the low limit. If you want to change the amount the INDEP
variable can move, then you can change the high limit and / or the low
limit. To do that you can:

 Touch the high limit or low limit on the display


 The limit will light up and you can now adjust the limit as you wish.
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3.3.3.4 DEPENDENT SUMMARY (REFER ATTACHED FIG-3)

To view the “DEP SUM” summary you should:

Go to the DMCplus controller display (described above).


Touch the display on the top (in the middle) where it says “DEP SUM”

This will take you to a summary of all the controlled variables.

The name DEP SUM stands for “DEPENDENT VARIABLE”. This is a


variable which the DMCplus is trying to control within given range.

For example, the first DEP variable in the list is 1408CAT (Rx2 CAT)
DMCplus is controlling this DEP variable using the related MVS.

Each of the DEP variable had the following attributes:

 High limit The maximum allowed value that DMCplus should


control up to
 Value The value of the variable now
 Low limit The minimum allowed value that DMCplus should
Control down to
 LP Target The “long term” target (where it will end up in two
and half hours)
 LP Error The amount that the LP target is outside the high or
low limit
 Ramp SP Set point for the fractionator level LC137 given to
DMCplus controller

If you compare the “Value” and the “LP target” you will see if the variable
is tending to increase over the next two and half hours or if it is tending to
decrease.

The DMCplus can try to control the DEP variable anywhere in between the
high limit and the low limit. If you want to change the range within which
DMCplus is told to control then you can change the high limit and /or the
low limit. To do that you can: –

Touch the high limit or low limit on the display.


The limit will light up and you can now adjust the limit as you wish.
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3.3.3.5 CONSTRAINTS

You can give DMCplus high and low limits for each of the DEP variables
and each of the IND variables. Once you have done that DMCplus will
choose if it wanbt to operate either,
 Somewhere in the middle of the limits
 Up against the high limit
 Up against the low limit

When DMCplus is controlling up against the high or low limit, it will tell
you this by coloring in the name of the MV or CV in white.

For example, one of the DEP variables (on the DEP summary page) is the
TATK Freeze point. This is usually operating at the high limit (-49) and you
will see that its limit is colored in white and also that the LP target is equal
to the high limit (eg., The LP target and the high limit are both -49).

Sometimes it is not possible for every DEP variable to be within its limits,
and one or more must be allowed to go outside the limits to make sure that
the rest are OK. DMCplus will tell you if any DEP variable is going outside
the range by coloring in the name of the DEP variable in red. It will tell you
the amount it is going out of range in the “LP Error” column. The main
reason that you will get these “LP Errors” is because DMCplus does not
have the freedom to do all the things you have asked for.

3.3.3.6 FEED FORWARD (REFER FIG -2)

To view the FF summary you should:

 Go to the DMCplus controller display (described above)


 Touch the display on the top row where it says “IND summary”. This will
take you to the summary of all the manipulated and feed forward variables.
 Variables indicated as “FFW” in the left most column are the feed forward
variables.
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3.3.4.0 DMCplus OPERATING GUIDELINE

3.3.4.1 LP ERROR AND OPERATOR ACTIONS:

DMCplus adjusts MVs within the high and low limits to control CVs within
their high and low limits. For example BAT1 PV is controlled using TC227-
SP. If the limits on TC227 are tightly clamed DMCplus will not be able to
maintain BAT1 PV within its limits. Under such circumstances SS target of
BAT1 PV will be highlighted with Red Colour. Operator can rectify this
situation by relaxing the limits of TC227.SP or BAT1 PV, if it is acceptable
and safe.

3.3.4.2 ACS STATUS WHEN DMCplus IS OFF

ACS which were operating prior to DMCplus commissioning do no come


online when DMCplus is turned OFF. Operator has to make changes to the
set points of the controllers in order to control the process.

3.3.4.3 DMCplus MESSAGE LOG: (REFER ATTACHED FIG-4)

In DMCplus messages from the controller are displayed after each


execution. To clear old messages touch MSG CLR box and press
ENTER. Old messages will be cleared after approximately 1 min time.

3.3.4.4 DMCplus GETTING SWITCHED OFF DUE TO RAMP IMBALANCE

In DMCplus level LC137 is treated differently than the other controlled


variables. Level is called RAMP variable because it does not reach steady
state when an open loop response test is done. (In other words when FC170
is increase LC137 will keep on decreasing without reaching a steady state).
When DMCplus is not able ot balance the level within limits due to MV
constraints limits it will switch ‘OFF’ with a message “RAMP imbalance
outside limits”. Under such circumstances operator has to stabilize the level
by taking suitable action. Verify whether the steady state target for LC1237
is within limits in DMCplus display and then turn DMCplus ON.
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3.3.4.5 PROCEDURE FOR RELEASING INSTRUMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE:

It is very important to follow the procedure given below before releasing


any tag for instrument maintenance activities such as transmitter zero
checking, valve stroke checking etc.
1. If the Tag is a controller it should be switched to ‘MANUAL’.
2. PV Source of the tag needs to be put on ‘MANUAL’.
3. Services Indicator for the Corresponding Variable needs to be turned OFF in
DMCplus display. There is a slight procedure difference in turning the
service indicator from ON to OFF between Independent and Dependent
Variables.
a) In the case of Independent Variables when you touch SRV indicator
following.
Three boxes will appear:

SRV SRV SRV


OFF ON FFW

SRV
Touch the box and press ENTER.
OFF

b) In the case of Dependent Variables touch the SRV Indicator


ON and simply press ENTER to turn it OFF .

4. If an Instrument is being released for stroke checking, carefully review if the


output of this variable is used in Independent or Dependent summary pages.
In case it is used please turn ‘OFF’ the Services indicator as explained.
5. 33PC102 (Fuel gas header pressure Controller) is used as feed forward
variable in U14MAIN1. This tag comes under the purview of utilities
section. If this valve is to be stroked or checked by them, they have been
instructed to inform you in advance. In this case turn the service indicator
OFF for 33PC102.OP
6. 14TC420.PV and 14TC430.PV are used as feed forward variables in
U14MAIN1. Even though these variables come under stabilizer / splitter, it
is important to understand that they will affect fractionator DMCplus. So
remember to turn SRV OFF in U14MAIN1 for these two variables when
they are released for maintenance.
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3.3.5.0 PRODUCT QUALITY CALCULATION

3.3.5.1 TATK FLASH POINT:

Total ATLK flash is calculated using the following Input tag values for 20
min:

14TI375 Light ATK Draw Temperature


14TC374 Frac. Ovhd Temperature
14PC182 Frac. Ovhd Pressure
14FC165 BPA Flow to Light ATK Reboiler
14FC161 Frac. Ovhd Reflux

When any one of the above parameters goes bad then the Calculated ATK
flash point will go “BAD” and it will not be used inside DMC control. The
following table indicates the effect of each Variable inside the equation for
calculation of flash point.

Input Tag Multi Factor Factor No.


14TI375 +0.27 1
14TC374 +0.193 2
14PC182 -1.393 3
14FC165 +5.890 4
14FC161 -0.284 5

The operator entered bias value through “AUTOBIAS” program is also used
inside calculation to adjust the drift in the calculation.

3.3.5.2 TATK FREEZE POINT

Total ATK freeze point is calculated using the following input tag values
averaged for 20 min:-

14TI375 Light ATK Draw Temp.


14TI376 Heavy ATK Draw Temp.
14TI377 Diesel Draw Temp.
14TC374 Frac. Ovhd Temp.
14PC182 Frac. Ovhd Temp.
14FC168 Heavy ATK Draw Rate
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When any one of the above parameters goes “BAD” then the calculated
ATK freeze point will go “BAD” and it will not be used inside the
DMCplus control. The following table indicates the effect of each variable
inside the equation for calculation of freeze point.

Input Tag Multi Factor Factor No.


14TI375 -0.301 1
14TI376 +0.266 2
14TI377 +0.403 3
14TC374 +0.228 4
14PC182 -0.729 5
14FC168 +0.511 6

The operator entered bias value through “AUTOBIAS” program is also used
inside calculation to adjust the drift in the calculation.

3.3.5.3 FRACTIONATOR NAPHTHA ASTM 95% POINT

The Fractionator Overhead Naphtha (V117) 95% point is calculated using


the following input tag values averaged for 20 min:-

14TC374 Frac. Ovhd Temp


14PC182 Frac. Ovhd Press.
14FC165 BPA Flow to Light ATK Reboiler

When any one of the above parameters goes bad then the calculated Frac.
Naphtha 95% point will go”Bad” and it will not be used inside to DMCplus
control. The following Table indicates the effect of each Variable inside the
equation of calculation of Naphtha 95% point.

Input Tag Multi. Factor Factor No.


14TC374 +1.175 1
14PC182 +6.380 2
14FC165 +11.03 3

The operator entered Bias value through “AUTOBIAS” program is also


used inside the calculation to adjust the drift in the calculation.
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5.4 GAS OIL (DIESEL) END POINT:

The Diesel end point is calculated using the following input tag value averaged for
20 min:-

14TI380 Frac. Bottom Temp


14TI377 Diesel Draw Temp
14PI183 Frac. Tray.7 Pressure
14FC170 Diesel Draw Rate
14FI162 Tray.7 Over Flash

When any one of the above parameters goes bad then the Calculated Gas Oil end
point will go “BAD” and it will not be used inside the DMCplus control. The
following table indicates the effect of each variable inside the equation for
Calculation of gas oil end point.

Input Tag Multi. Factor Factor No.


14TI380 +2.283 1
14TI377 +1.367 2
14PI183 -1.572 3
14FC170 +1.76 4
14FI162 -1.884 5

The operator entered Bias value through “AUTOBIAS” program is also used inside
the Calculation to adjust the drift in the Calculation.

5.5 LIGHT NAPHTHA RVP:

The Light Naphtha RVP is Calculated using the following input tag values
averaged for 20 min:-

14TI429 Splitter top temp


14TC430 Splitter reboiler temp
14PC199 Splitter top press
14FC164 Naphtha stream from Frac. Ovhd
14FC177 Splitter top reflux
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When any one of the above parameters goes bad then the Calculated Light Naphtha
RVP will go “BAD” and it will not be used inside the DMC control. The following
table indicates the effect of each variable inside the equation for Calculation of
RVP.

Input Tag Multi. Factor Factor No.


14TI429 -0.384 1
14TC430 +0.306 2
14PC199 -0.2957 3
14FC164 -0.2357 4
14FC177 +0.02978 5

The operator entered Bias value through “AUTOBIAS” program is also used inside
the Calculation to adjust the drift in the Calculation.
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5.6 LIGHT NAPHTHA 95% POINT:

The light Naphtha 95% point is Calculated using the following input tag values
averaged for 29 min:-

14TI435 Splitter reflux temp.


14TI429 Splitter top temp
14TC430 Splitter reboiler temp
14PC199 Splitter top press
14FC177 Splitter top reflux

When any one of the above parameters goes bad then the Calculated Light Naphtha
95% will go “BAD” and it will not be used inside the DMC control. The following
table indicates the effect of each variable inside the equation for Calculation of
95% point.

Input Tag Multi. Factor Factor No.


14TI435 -0.228 1
14TI429 +1.675 2
14TC430 -0.654 3
14PC199 -2.792 4
14FC177 -0.065 5

The operator entered Bias value through “AUTOBIAS” program is also used inside
the Calculation to adjust the drift in the Calculation.

6.0 LAB BIAS UPDATION FOR PRODUCT QUALITY

Objective: The objective of this operator interface is to update the calculated


inferential value with lab results. The operator enters the lab result for each quality
and sample time. The schematic will calculate the lab bias and update the
calculated value automatically.
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Procedure:

1. This graphic can (refer Fig-5) be called on screen by selecting the


“AUTOBIAS” target on DMCplus graphic “DEP SUM” or alternatively by
entering “14 AUTOBS” after selecting the ‘SCHEM” button on the console
panel. Values displayed in green color have targets which open ports for data
entry.
2. Select a quality e.g “TATK FLASH” which is to be updated. The selected
quality will then appear highlighted in reverse video, can color.
3. Select the second row in the box to enter the “Labresult” of the quality. A
port opens on the display prompting for the new value to be entered. Enter
last lab result value in proper format.
4. Select the third row in the box showing the “TIME OF LAB SAMPLE”.
Enter the date as (Month Day) e.g 10th February is to be entered as 02 10.
After the date has been entered another port opens on the display in which
the time is to be entered as (Hours Minutes). e.g 10:00 hrs is to be entered
as 10 00.
5. The operator is then questioned “IS THE LAB SAMPLE AND ENTRY
TIME CORRECT? YES/NO”. select “YES” if the lab result and time of lab
sample are entered correctly. Select “NO” if either the lab result or time of
lab sample are entered incorrectly. If “NO” has been selected then repeat
the procedure from step 2.
6. The following calculated values will now be displayed.
 ‘HOURLY AVERAGE CALC. VALUE” –(This means the
calculated avg. value of quality one hour before the sampling time.)
 “HOURLY STD. DEVIATION CALC. VALUE” – (Variation of
calc. Value from linear average for one hour).
 “HOURLY AVG/STD. DEVIATION RATIO” – ratio of the above
two values.
 “LABBIAS (LAB-CALC) DIFFERENCE” – The difference between
lab value and calculated property.
 “% OF GOOD SAMPLES”n- (% of good samples from History
module).
7. The “UPDATE FACTOR” and “ABS BIAS LIMIT” are engineer inputs
which are entered by the engineer when appropriate. The (Lab-Calc.) value
is multiplied by update factor and checked against ABS BIAS LIMIT before
updating in calculation. The maximum bias will not exceed the “ABS BIAS
LIMIT” at any time.
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8. The last row of the table will now display “NO UPDATE” and “UPDATE”
targets. Select “UPDATE” to proceed with autobiasing of the quality. Select
“NO UPDATE” to cancel the autobias procedure.

“NO UPDATE” may be selected by the operator if the Hourly Std.


Deviation of calc. value is greater than the following values:- (which means
process was not steady during sampling time)

For TATK FLASH 2.0


For TATK FREEZE 2.0
For GAS OIL EP 3.0
For FRAC NAP 95% 3.0
For LT. NAP RVP 2.0
For LT. NAP 95% 5.0

9. The operator is further questioned “ARE YOUR SURE? YES/NO”.


Selecting “YES” will update the quality with new bias value. Selecting
“NO” will not update the quality. If “YES” has been selected then the
“TIME OF LAST UPDATE” will change to reflect the time when the update
has been carried out.
10. This Completes the autobiasing procedure. Select a new quality to be update
and repeat from step 1.

NOTE: Should the “absolute bias limit” be lesser than the calculated Lab bias (Lab-Calc
difference) then “EXCEEDED” will appear on the line displaying the value of the
absolute bias limit in the quality tag selected. Also should the percentage of good
samples be less than 90% autobiasing of the quality tag will not be carried out.
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7.0 HCR DMCplus MODEL FILE:

This Section contains the model file for the HCR U14MAIN1 and U14MAIN2
controllers. The row indicates manipulated and feed forward variables (IND). Column
indicates controlled varialbes (DEP). In Reactor Fractionator Controller these are 23
MVs, 10 FFWS and 13 CVs. The effect of increasing 1 unit of each MV on the
corresponding CV is shown as a response curve. For example 1 Deg F increase in
14TC235SP will increase 1408CAT by 0.415 Deg. F. This number is called steady state
gain. If there is no effect on any given DEP variable for change in the IND variable, that
particular box is shown blank. Steady State gain matrix is shown in Figure -6.
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APPENDIX

Special Utilities: - (Refer Figure – 7)

1) ACS for setting the set point of 14PC228:-

Set point of 14PC182 is set by fractionator DMCplus. There is an ACS,


14PC228BIAS which will add 1.0 psi to the set point of 14PC182 and set it
to 14PC228. In order to use this ACS put 14PC228 on CAS. Before putting
it on CAS keep the SP of 14PC228 same as that of 141PC182. When you do
not wish to keep the SP of 14PC228 1.0 psi more than 14PC182 then keep
14PC2285 on Auto. ACS group number is 257.

2) ACS for setting the output of 14HC298:-

Output of 14HC297 is set by fractionator DMCplus. There is an ACS in


group 257, which will calculate the output of 14HC298 as, 14HC298.OP =
100.0 – 14HC297. OP and set it ti 14HC2987. In order to use this ACS put
14HC298 on CAS. To turn this ACS OFF put 14HC298 on AUTO or MAN.

3) ACS for setting the output of 14TC434:-

Output of 14TC433 is set by Splitter DMCplus. There is an ACS in group


257, which will set the output of 14TC434 same as that of 14TC433. In
order to use this ACS out 14TC434 on CAS. To turn this ACS off put
14TC434 on AUTO. Before putting 14TC434 from AUTO to CAS make
sure the output of 14TC434 is same as that 14TC433.

4) ACS for changing the HIGH/LOW limits of BAT1 / BAT2 / BAT3 / BAT4:-

When the High and Low limits of 1408CAT is changed, it is necessary to


change the limits of BAT1 to BAT4. There is an ACS, 14BATBS, which
will automatically set the High / Low limits of BAT1 to BAT2 same as that
of 1408CAT in DMCplus. If you do not want a flat profile then go to detail
page of 14BATBS as shown in figure – 8. Enter appropriate values in Factor
(1) to Factor (4) depending on the type of profile required.
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U14Main1
(Hydrocracker Main Fractionation column)

DMCplus Operation Manual

Prepared For

KNPC Mina Abdullah Refinery

By

AspenTech Middle East


Kuwait
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Table of Contents

3.4.1 DMCPLUS CONTROLLER ................................................... 14-3.4-01

3.4.2 OPERATING THE CONTROLLER ………………………… 14-3.4-02

3.4.2.1 SWITCHING THE CONTROLLER ON ………………………….. 14-3.4-02

3.4.2.2 SWITCHING THE CONTROLLER OFF ………………………….. 14-3.4-03

3.4.2.3 SWITCHING CONTROLLER VARIABLES ON, FFW AND OFF …. 14-3.4-03

3.4.2.3.1 Switching a MV to ON/OFF/FFW ………………. 14-3.4-04

3.4.2.3.2 Switching a CV to ON/OFF ……………………... 14-3.4-04

3.4.2.4 CONTROLLER ACTION WHEN LOOPS FAIL …………………………. 14-3.4-04

3.4.2.4.1 Controller action when a measurement fails …….14-3.4-04

3.4.2.5 EMERGENCY ACTION ………………………………………………….. 14-3.4-04

3.4.2.6 UNIT STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN ……………………………….. 14-3.4-04

3.4.3 U14MAIN1 CONTROLLER ........................................................ 14-3.4-05

3.4.3.1 OBJECTIVES OF U14MAIN1 DMCPLUS CONTROLLER …………14-3.4-05

3.4.3.2 INFERENTIAL MODELS …………………………………………..14-3.4-05

3.4.3.3 MANIPULATED VARIABLES ……………………………………..14-3.4-07

3.4.3.3.1 ACS to be OFF before DMCplus Startup ………..14-3.4-08

3.4.3.3.2 Cascaded loops to be broken before DMCplus Startup ……


14-3.4-08

3.4.3.4 CONTROLLED VARIABLES ………………………………………14-3.4-08

3.4.3.5 FEED FORWARD VARIABLES …………………………………..14-3.4-11


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3.4.3.6 OPERATOR LIMITS …………………………………………….14-3.4-11

3.4.3.6.1 MV Limits during Commissioning ……………….14-3.4-11

3.4.3.6.2 CV Limits during Commissioning ……………….14-3.4-12

3.4.3.6.3 Some Guidelines on changing the Limits ………..14-3.4-13

3.4.3.7 CONTROLLER GAIN MATRIX ......................................................14-3.4-14


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3.4.1 DMCPlus Controller

DMC Stands for Dynamic Matrix Control supplied by AspenTech of U.S.A.

DMCPlus Controller has three types of variables –

 CV – Controlled Variable
 MV – Manipulated Variable
 FF – Feed Forward Variable

The DMCPlus controller controls the CV s by moving the MV s. The MV s are


either valve outputs or set points of PID loops, cascade loops, ratio blocks or other
DCS based advanced regulatory control blocks. The CV s are called “Dependent
Variables” and MV s and FF s are called “Independent Variables”.

CV s are controlled between their lower and upper operating limits. The CV limits
can get temporarily violated. The MV s are moved between their lower and upper
operating limits to control the CV s between their limits. The MV limits are never
violated. FF s are used as “Information variables” by the controller as they affect
the dynamics of CV s.

The controller uses a MV & FF relationship with CV also called the “dynamic-
model” to predict future behaviour of the process. The controller uses these
predictions and current value of CV s relative to their limits to move the MV s to
meet the controller objectives.

The U14Main1 controller runs every 2 minutes.


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3.4.2 Operating the Controller


The scope of U14Main1 DMCplus Controller for KNPC Mina Abdullah (MAB)
Refinery includes the Hydrocracker (HCR) Main Fractionation column (T102), its
associated side strippers (T103 to T105), column feed heater (H103) and the feed
preheat system.

The controller is operated through the U14Main1 DMCplus Screens available on


the four Honeywell DCS Operator Consoles used for HCR operation. The
controller runs every 2 minutes on the DMCplus Server named “Cricket” located
in the LCN Room of the MAB Central Control Building.

DMCplus Screens on the HCR Operator Consoles are used to make changes in the
operating limits of the DMCplus controller. Engineering changes such as
controller tuning and setting of validity limits are done on the DMCplus Server
“Cricket”.

This document focuses on managing the controller operation through the HCR
Operator Consoles.

3.4.2.1 Switching the controller ON

The following steps should be followed to turn the controller ON:

1. Press the blue key “FRACTIONATOR” located in the top row of the keyboard
of the four HCR operator consoles. This takes directly to the U14Main1
Controller Screen – “NT_U14FRAC”
--- OR ---
Enter “PLUSMV” for the “SCHEMA Key”. Then Enter “NT_U14FRAC” in
the box “Sub controller”. This will also take to the U14Main1 Controller
screen.

2. Select “IND SUM” box on the screen that takes to the “Independent Screen”.
Check that “SP/OP” are within the “LOW LIMIT” and the “HIGH LIMIT”. If
required adjust the Limits as per the prevailing column conditions. Check
“STAT” value is “RDY”. If this is not the case, then either:
a. Change the limit
b. OR change the setpoint from the DCS. Either of these actions should
result in the value being within the limits.

Ensure that all “MV” s are switched from “AUTO” to “CAS” Mode.
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3. Select “DEP SUM” box that takes to the “Dependent Screen”. Check that the
“LOW LIMIT” and “HIGH LIMIT” are as per the prevailing or desired
operating conditions.

4. After validating Independent and Dependent Limits select the “DMC” box.
This will switch the controller ON after the watchdog countdown timer is
reinitialised to 120 from 0.

3.4.2.2 Switching the controller OFF

To turn the controller OFF, follow these steps:


1. Open the U14Main1 DMCplus Screen.
2. Select the “DMC” box. .
3. Press ENTER key to switch the controller OFF.

When the controller switches OFF, the PID control loops goes to the AUTO or
MAN mode as per the shed-mode configuration.

3.4.2.3 Switching Controller Variables ON, FFW and OFF

In general all MV s should be ON. Individual loop needs to be turned OFF due to
following reasons –

- An instrument is taken out for service


- The control loop performance deteriorates that requires tuning or taken in
MAN mode or servicing of the valve / measuring element is required.
- Due to process reasons

Individual loop is taken in FFW mode due to –

- process reasons
- There is a need to run the loop in AUTO mode instead of CAS mode.

In the FFW mode, the MV acts like FF variable. Hence, should the MV needs to
be taken out of DMCplus give due consideration to first take it into FFW instead
of switching off.

Similarly, a CV is switched OFF when the instrument goes bad (e.g. taken for
maintenance).
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3.4.2.3.1 Switching a MV to ON/OFF/FFW

1. Go to “IND SUM” screen and select “DMC SRV” for that variable.

2. On the above selection three boxes namely DMCSRV OFF, DMCSRV ON


and DMCSRV FFW appears at the bottom of the screen. Select DMCSRV
OFF to switch OFF this MV. Select DMCSRV FFW to take this MV to FF
mode. Similarly select DMCSRV ON to take it into DMCplus. Note that the
MV should be in CAS mode before turning the variable ON.

3.4.2.3.2 Switching a CV to ON/OFF

1. Go to the DEP SUM screen and select “DMC SRV” for that variable.
2. Press ENTER to turn OFF the variable if it is ON. Similarly the variable can
be turned ON from an OFF state.

3.4.2.4 Controller action when loops fail

3.4.2.4.1 Controller action when a measurement fails

If the measurement fails, then that loop will be taken out of the DMCplus
controller automatically. When the measurement becomes normal, then the
following action is required to take it into DMCplus:

 For a MV follow the procedure 2.4.1.

 For a CV or FF the variable automatically switches ON when the


measurement becomes normal.

3.4.2.5 Emergency action

In case of major unit upset operators should switch the DMCplus controller OFF.
The controller should be turned ON after the upset dies off and normal operation
is resumed.

3.4.2.6 Unit start-up and shutdown

During unit start-up, the DMCplus controller should be switched ON after normal
operation is achieved.

During unit shutdown, the DMCplus controller should be switched OFF before
starting shutdown procedures.
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3.4.3 U14Main1 Controller


This section describes specific information for the U14Main1 DMCplus
controller.

3.4.3.1 Objectives of U14Main1 DMCplus controller

 Maximize Light ATK Draw.


 Maximize Heavy ATK Draw.
 Maintain Total ATK Freeze point towards (or below) the upper operating limit
and above the Lower operating limit.
 Maintain Total ATK Flash point between the upper and lower operating
limits.
 Maintain Naphtha 95% point between the upper and lower operating limits.
 Maintain Total ATK EP below the upper operating limit.
 Maintain Gas Oil 95% point between the upper and lower limits.
 Maintain Column bottom level at the specified set point and between the
upper and lower operating limits.
 Maintain temperatures of fractionation top/bottom/different sections,
LATK/HATK side stripper bottoms and feed to Reactor heater H102 between
the specified upper and lower limits.
 Maintain Heater H103 O2 in flue, draft pressure and FG firing set point
between the operating limits.

3.4.3.2 Inferential Models

Values for the following CV s are obtained from the inferential models –

 14NAPH95DMCP - Heavy Naphtha 95 % point (deg F)


 14ATKFLSHDMC - Total ATK Flash point (deg F)
 14ATKFREZDMC - Total ATK Freeze Point (deg C)
 14ATKEPDMC - Total ATK End Point (deg F)
 14GO95DMCPV - Gas Oil 95 % point (deg F)
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These inferential models are dependent on the process tags. The Inferential CV
needs to be turned OFF in DMCplus if any process tag involved in the
inferential calculation goes bad. Dependency of the above inferential CV tags
on the process tags are –

Inferential CV
Tag used in Inferential Calculation
Tag
1408CAT, 14TC374.PV, 14PC182.PV, 14FC161.PV,
14NAPH95DMCP 14FC164.PV, 14FC163.PV, 14FC169.PV, 14FC165.PV,
14TI390.PV, 14TI391.PV, 14FC166.PV
14ATKFLSHDMC 14TI375.PV, 14TI376.PV, 14PC182.PV, 14FC165.PV,
14FC166.PV, 14FC167.PV, 14FC168.PV, 14FI150.PV
14TI377.PV, 14PC182.PV, 14PI183.PV, 14FC161.PV,
14ATKFREZDMC
14FI150.PV, 14FC168.PV, 14TC367.PV
14ATKEPDMC 14TI377.PV, 14PI183.PV, 14PC182.PV
14TI377.PV, 14PI183.PV, 14FC170.PV, 14FI150.PV,
14GO95DMCPV
14FC168.PV, 14TC371.PV, 1403CAT.PV

For example, if the indicator 14FC165.PV is taken out of service then the CV
inferential tags 14NAPH95DMCP and 14ATKFLSHDMC should be switched
OFF in DMCplus.

The inferential CV tags are real time representation of the product property that
needs to be maintained and are compared with the laboratory results that are
available on a periodic basis. Laboratory results for ATK Flash and Freeze are
available every shift and the remaining properties are available on a daily basis.

Ideally the inferential CV values must match the lab results within ±1 deg C for
ATK freeze and within ±2 deg F for the remaining properties. However due to
several unknown factors such as changes in feed quality, catalyst activity / fouling,
hydrogen purity (going to the reactors), separation efficiency in H2S stripper and
main fractionation column the inferential prediction can deviate from the Lab
results. It is therefore important to update the Bias error for these inferential
tags whenever the lab results are available.

Procedure to update the bias error is as follows –


 Go to the “NT_U14FRAC” display for the U14Main1 controller.
 Select “AUTOBIAS” box. This leads to “14AUTOBS” screen for “Hydrocracker
Lab bias Update”.
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 Select the property to be updated namely “TATK FLASH”, “TATK FREEZE”,


“GASOIL 95”, “TATK EP” and “HY. NAPH 95%”.
 Enter the lab result in the 2nd row.
 On selecting Time of Lab Sample in the 3rd row, boxes appear in the bottom
screen to enter the date and time of the sample collection
 Select UPDATE box to update the lab bias.
 The lab bias is updated with a UPDATE FACTOR mentioned in the last row. For
example; if UPDATE FACTOR is 0.5, ATK Freeze inferential reading at 6:00
AM is -49.5, lab result at 6:00 AM is -50.1 and if the BIAS is updated at 9:30 AM
- then a bias of [-50.1-(-49.5)]*0.5 is filtered and gets added to the ATK Freeze
inferential value after 9:30 AM. This bias gets added until the next lab result is
entered.

Important Note: Sample collection Time is very vital for updating the lab bias.
Do not enter Analysis time reported in the Lab sheet, instead enter the time when
sample was collected in the Field. This helps in maintaining accuracy of the
inferential model. For example, if the regular sample at 14:00 hrs is actually collected
at 13:30 hrs, then the time to be entered for lab bias should be 13:30 instead of 14:00.

3.4.3.3 Manipulated Variables

MV s for the U14Main1 controller along with there loop status in DMCPlus and in
shed-mode are as follows –
DMCPlus
DMCplus
MV Tag Startup
Shed mode
Mode
14PC182SP CAS AUTO
14TC623OP CAS AUTO
14FC161SP CAS AUTO
14FC160SP CAS AUTO
14TC369SP CAS AUTO
14FC166SP CAS AUTO
14FC168SP CAS AUTO
14FC170SP CAS AUTO
14FC165SP CAS AUTO
14FC167SP CAS AUTO
14FC159SP CAS AUTO
14PC419SP CAS AUTO
14TC367SP CAS AUTO
14FC163SP CAS AUTO
14HC297OP CAS MAN
14HC298OP CAS MAN
14FC149OP CAS MAN
14PC177OP CAS MAN
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3.4.3.3.1 ACS to be OFF before DMCplus Start-up

 All ACS loops in the DCS within the U14Main1 scope should be switched OFF
before starting the DMCplus Controller.
 If required the ACS loops can be switched ON when DMCplus is NOT running.

3.4.3.3.2 Cascaded loops to be broken before DMCplus Start-up

 Cascade loop for the Main Fractionation Top Temperature control


(14TC37414FC161) should be broken before switching ON the DMCplus
controller; i.e. Switch 14FC161 from BCAS to CAS before starting DMCplus
controller.
 When DMCplus is switched OFF then 14FC161 sheds from CAS to AUTO mode.
Then the operator must change its state from AUTO to BCAS mode.

 Sometimes it is advisable to take 14FC161 in BCAS mode in DCS and put it in


FFW mode in the DMCplus controller. In such a case check the setpoint limit of
14TC374 and if required 14TC374 can also be switched off from DMCplus. Such
conditions would arise when there is significant changes in the ambient
temperature / humidity/ wind direction that results in disturbances in the pressure
that requires faster control of 14TC374 in DCS in the BCAS mode.

3.4.3.4 Controlled variables

DMCplus controller maintains the CV s between their upper and lower operating
limits. CV s in the U14Main1 Controller and the MV s used to control them are listed
below. The effect of FF s on CV s that are considered in the model are also tabulated
below.

CV Related MV s Related FF s
14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14LC137PV
14FC168SP, 14FC170SP 14FI104PV, 14FI148APV
14PC182OP 14PC182SP, 14TC367SP 14TI724PV
1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14FC161SP,
14TC623PV 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC160SP, 14FC163SP
14TI724PV
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CV Related MV s Related FF s
14FC161SP, 14FC160SP,
14TC369SP, 14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14TC374PV 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP, 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC165SP, 14FC167SP, 14TI724PV
14FC159SP, 14FC163SP
14FC161SP, 14FC160SP,
14TC369SP, 14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14NAPH95DMCP 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP, 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC165SP, 14FC167SP, 14TI724PV
14FC159SP, 14FC163SP
14FC161SP, 14FC160SP,
14TC369SP, 14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14ATKFLSHDMC 14FC168SP, 14FC165SP, 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC167SP, 14FC159SP, 14TI724PV
14FC163SP
14FC161SP, 14FC160SP,
14TC369SP, 14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14ATKFREZDMC 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP, 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC165SP, 14FC167SP, 14TC371_FF
14FC159SP, 14FC163SP
14FC161SP, 14FC160SP,
14TC369SP, 14FC166SP,
1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14ATKEPDMC 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP,
14PC182_FF, 14TC371_FF
14FC165SP, 14FC159SP,
14TC367SP
14LC142OP 14FC166SP, 14FC165SP 14PC182_FF
14FC161SP, 14FC160SP,
14TC369SP, 14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14TI375PV 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP, 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC165SP, 14FC159SP, 14TI724PV
14FC163SP
14FC161SP, 14FC166SP,
14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14TI394PV 14FC168SP, 14FC165SP,
14TC371_FF, 14TI320PV
14FC163SP
14LC143OP 14FC168SP, 14FC167SP 14PC182_FF
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CV Related MV s Related FF s
14FC160SP, 14TC369SP,
14FC166SP, 14FC168SP,
1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14TI376PV 14FC170SP, 14FC167SP,
14PC182_FF, 14TC371_FF
14FC159SP, 14TC367SP,
14FC163SP

14FC160SP, 14FC166SP,
14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14TI397PV 14FC168SP, 14FC167SP,
14TI320PV
14FC159SP

14LC144OP 14FC170SP 14PC182_FF, 14PC182_FF

1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14TC369SP, 14FC168SP,
14GO95DMCPV 14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14FC170SP
14TC371_FF, 14TI724PV

14TC369SP, 14FC166SP, 1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,


14TI377PV 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP, 14PC182_FF, 14TC371_FF,
14FC159SP, 14TC367SP 14TI724PV

14TC367_FF, 14PC182_FF,
14PC419OP 14FC159SP, 14PC419SP
14TC371_FF, 14TI724PV

14FC161SP, 14FC166SP,
1403DTTOTPV, 1408DTTOTPV,
14TI380PV 14FC168SP, 14FC170SP,
14PC182_FF, 14TI320PV
14TC367SP, 14FC163SP

14TC367SP, 14HC297OP,
14TI338PV 14TI320PV
14HC298OP

14PC202SP 14TC367SP 14TI320PV, 33PC102OP

14HC297OP, 14FC149OP, 14TC367_FF, 14TI320PV,


14AC113PV
14PC177OP 14TI724PV, 33PC102OP

14TC367_FF, 14TI724PV,
14PC177PV 14FC149OP, 14PC177OP
33PC102OP
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3.4.3.5 Feedforward Variables

These variables are read by the DMCplus controller and represent disturbances
coming into the plant.

1403DTTOTPV
1408DTTOTPV
14TC367_FF
14PC182_FF
14TC371_FF
14TI320PV
14FI104PV
14FI148APV
14TI724PV
33PC102OP

3.4.3.6 Operator limits

Following operator limits were set for the MV s and CV s during the controller
commissioning. Due care should be exercised in changing these limits. Usually the
limits require a change when there is change in the mode of operation, throughput,
yield pattern, reactor condition (SOR / EOR), Reactor severity etc. Some general
guidelines in changing these limits are also summarized.

3.4.3.6.1 MV Limits during Commissioning

MV Lower Limit Upper Limit


14PC182SP 20 24
14TC623OP -5 5
14FC161SP 20.5 25
14FC160SP 82 83.5
14TC369SP 330 332
14FC166SP 9.4 9.8
14FC168SP 13.1 13.8
14FC170SP 5.8 8.5
14FC165SP 27 27.5
14FC167SP 25.8 26.5
14FC159SP 39 41
14PC419SP 185 185
14TC367SP 639 642
14FC163SP 25.5 25.5
14HC297OP 60 62
14HC298OP 40 40
14FC149OP 53 82
14PC177OP 71 88
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3.4.3.6.2 CV Limits during Commissioning

Lower Upper
CV Limit Limit
14LC137PV 50 65
14PC182OP 1 10
14TC623PV 105 140
14TC374PV 216 217
14NAPH95DMCP 230 250
14ATKFLSHDMC 110 115
14ATKFREZDMC -50 -48.5
14ATKEPDMC 538 546.5
14LC142OP 30 55
14TI375PV 300 304
14TI394PV 384 391
14LC143OP 22 45
14TI376PV 412 418
14TI397PV 521 528
14LC144OP 32 70
14GO95DMCPV 620 690
14TI377PV 563 568
14PC419OP 12 52
14TI380PV 595 615
14TI338PV 376 386
14PC202SP 15 19.5
14AC113PV 1 2.5
14PC177PV -0.4 -0.1
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3.4.3.6.3 Some Guidelines on changing the Limits

1. When the column pressure is changed, due care is required in setting correct
DMCplus limits for the column top temperature 14TC374 as it has impact on
the TATK Yield, Flash point and Naphtha Yield. If the column pressure is
reduced by 1 psig the limits of 14TC374 should also be reduced by 1 deg F.
Similarly, limits of 14TC374 should be increased by 1 deg F if pressure
setpoint is increased by 1 psig.
2. Limits of other temperature CV s should also be reviewed when the pressure
setpoint is changed.
3. When cycling or major disturbance is observed for 14TC374PV due to
disturbance in 14PC182 mostly coming from sudden changes in ambient
temperature, humidity or wind direction then it is advisable to take FC161SP
to BCAS from CAS mode and make it FF in the DMCplus controller. This
will allow faster corrective action in DCS to have better control of
14TC374PV. Check the correct set point of 14TC374 before putting this
master loop in AUTO.
4. When the ambient disturbance subsides and 14TC374 is steady then break the
14TC37414FC161 cascade and take 14FC161 into DMCplus by reverting it
to CAS mode. Again review the limits of 14TC374 in DMCplus.
If the hourly average of ATK Freeze (e.g. in Group 153) is more than -48.5
deg C (i.e. above upper limit) for more than an hour then reduce the lower
limit by 0.1 KBPD for either 14FC166 or 14FC168 whichever is at the lower
limit. Similar adjustment is required if the lab result is more than -48.5 deg C.

5. Similarly, if hourly average of ATK Freeze is less than -50.0 deg C (i.e. below
lower limit) for more than 1 hour then increase the upper limit by 0.1 KBPD
for either 14FC166 or 14FC168 whichever is hitting the upper limit. Similar
adjustment is required if the lab result is below -50 deg C.
6. If hourly average of ATK flash is more than 115 deg F (i.e. upper limit) for
more than 1 hour then reduce limits of 14TC374 by 0.5 deg F and also reduce
lower limits of either 14FC165 or 14FC166 by 0.5 KBPD whichever is at the
limits. Similar adjustment is required if the lab result is above 115 deg F.
7. Similarly, if hourly average of ATK Flash is less than 110 deg F (i.e. lower
limit) for more than 1 hour then increase limits of 14TC374 by 0.5 deg F and
increase upper limits of either 14FC165 or 14FC166 by 0.5 KBPD whichever
is hitting the upper limit. Similar adjustment is required if the lab result is
below 110 deg F.
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.4-14

3.4.3.7 Controller Gain Matrix

Controller Gain matrix provides the relationship between independent and dependent variables. It shows the steady-state values of CV s when there is a
unit change in the independent variable.

CV

MC
HDMC

ZDMC

CPV
14TC374PV

14NAPH95D

14ATKEPD
MCP

14ATKFLS

14TI375PV

14TI394PV

14TI376PV

14TI397PV
14LC137PV

14TC623PV

14GO95DM

14TI377PV

14TI380PV

14TI338PV

14AC113PV

14PC177PV
14PC182OP

14LC142OP

14LC143OP

14LC144OP

14PC419OP
14ATKFRE

14PC202SP
MV

14PC182SP 0.07
0.00
14TC623OP 0.07
3
- - - - - - - - -
14FC161SP
1.03 1.33 0.66 0.96 1.54 1.89 0.73 2.60 0.26
- - - - - - - -
14FC160SP
0.40 0.36 0.29 0.19 0.15 0.63 0.63 0.22
14TC369SP 0.53 0.57 0.27 0.09 0.20 0.88 0.67 0.35 0.47 0.29
- - - - - -
14FC166SP 1.08 3.74 1.55 1.08 1.71 2.28 0.23
0.15 3.56 2.18 1.11 0.75 1.05
- - - - - - -
14FC168SP 2.38 4.36 0.95 0.88 8.45 4.86 0.40
0.21 1.63 1.59 0.75 1.45 2.19 2.60
- -
14FC170SP 0.67 1.29 0.76 2.40 0.33 2.80 9.03 2.15 0.48
0.21 0.42
14FC165SP 1.11 1.10 0.72 0.22 0.80 0.42 1.01 1.60
-
14FC167SP 0.56 0.55 0.59 0.13 0.32 1.44
0.48
- - - - - - - - -
14FC159SP 0.94
0.15 0.43 0.24 0.30 0.90 0.50 0.53 0.19 0.43
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CV

HDMC

MC
ZDMC

CPV
14NAPH95D

14ATKEPD
MCP

14ATKFLS

14TI375PV

14TI394PV

14TI376PV

14TI397PV
14LC137PV

14TC623PV

14TC374PV

14GO95DM

14TI377PV

14TI380PV

14TI338PV

14AC113PV

14PC177PV
14PC182OP

14LC142OP

14LC143OP

14LC144OP

14PC419OP
14ATKFRE

14PC202SP
MV

-
14PC419SP
0.15
-
14TC367SP 0.92 0.46 0.65 0.75 0.20 0.23
0.45
-
14FC163SP 1.45 0.38 1.62 0.38 0.07 0.40 1.04 0.55
0.45
-
14HC297OP 0.13
0.02
-
14HC298OP
0.16
14FC149OP 0.02 0.01
-
14PC177OP 0.08
0.01
- - - - -
1403DTTOTPV 0.58 0.73 1.05 0.15 0.41 0.17 1.14
0.04 0.11 0.33 0.18 0.29
- - - - - -
1408DTTOTPV 0.28 0.67 1.53 0.43 0.73 0.28
0.05 0.19 0.44 0.53 0.51 0.24
- 0.00
14TC367_FF 0.48 0.27 0.29 0.20 0.24 0.27 0.32 0.60 0.97 0.26
0.05 5
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
14PC182_FF 0.05 0.28 0.19 0.07
0.81 0.37 1.52 1.28 0.91 4.00 0.83 0.73 0.48 0.19 2.28 0.40 0.26
-
14TC371_FF 0.13 0.35 0.45 0.26 1.40 0.33
0.62
- - - -
14TI320PV 0.80 0.06
0.20 0.13 0.04 0.03
-
14FI104PV 0.00
02
CV

MV

14TI724PV

33PC102OP
14FI148APV
Operating Manual

14LC137PV

-
0.15
Hydrocracker Unit-14

14PC182OP

0.60
14TC623PV

0.82
14TC374PV
0.39
14NAPH95D
0.40

MCP

14ATKFLS
0.08

HDMC

14ATKFRE
ZDMC

14ATKEPD
MC

14LC142OP

14TI375PV
0.16

14TI394PV

14LC143OP

14TI376PV
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery

14TI397PV

14LC144OP

14GO95DM
0.63

CPV

14TI377PV
0.16

14PC419OP
0.23

14TI380PV

14TI338PV

14PC202SP
0.21

14AC113PV
-
-

0.29
0.01
Revision - 03 2013

14PC177PV
1
0.02
0.00
Page 14-3.4-16
Dynamic Matrix Control
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-00

3.5 PROCESS CALCULATION STRATEGIES ………………… 14-3.5-01 to 14-3.5-18

3.5.1 INTRODUCTION TO PCS ……………………………………………… 14-3.5-01

3.5.2 PCS NO.1450 MATERIAL BALANCE, UTILITIES AND COST


OPERATING FACTOR …………………………………………………. 14-3.5-03

3.5.3 PCS NO.1451 REACTORS R-14-101/102 TEMPERATURE PROFILE .. 14-3.5-04

3.5.4 PCS NO.1455 T-14-102, FRACTIONATOR MODELLING ……………. 14-3.5-06

3.5.5 PCS NO.1456 T-14-106, DEBUTANIZER MODELLING ……………… 14-3.5-07

3.5.6 PCS NO.1457 T-14-107, NAPHTHA SPLITTER MODELLING ……….. 14-3.5-08

3.5.7 PCS NO.1458 T-103/T-104, KERO STRIPPER MODELLING …………. 14-3.5-09

3.5.8 PCS NO.1459 T-105, GAS OIL STRIPPER MODELLING …………….. 14-3.5-10

3.5.9 PCS NO.1460 T-14, H2S STRIPPER MODELLING ……..……………… 14-3.5-11

3.5.10 PCS NO.1464 H-14-101/102/103 HEATERS EFFICIENCY ……………. 14-3.5-12

3.5.11 PCS NO.1466 C-14-101/102 COMPRESSOR MODELLING …………… 14-3.5-13

3.5.12 PCS NO.1467 C-14-101/102 ST TURBINE MODELLING ……………… 14-3.5-14

3.5.13 PCS NO.1474 PUMP MODELLING STRATEGY ……………………… 14-3.5-15

3.5.14 PCS NO.1475 FLARE CONTROL VALVE MODELLING …………….. 14-3.5-17

3.5.15 PCS NO.1476 FLOW COMPENSATED GRAPHICS …………………… 14-3.5-18


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Process calculation strategies


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3.5 PROCESS CALCULATION STRATEGIES

3.5.1 INTRODUCTION TO PCS

PCS is a set of on-line performance models that provide mathematical simulations


and calculations of the process units, using on-line process plant data and
mathematical/empirical techniques. The on-line models predict operating
performance for equipments such as pumps, compressors, turbines, exchangers,
heaters, reactors, reformers, fractionators, etc. The models also provide plant wide
performance calculations and reports such as unit yields, material balances, reactor
catalyst fouling predictions, product costs, utilities/chemical costs, net operating
margins, on-stream factors and start-up/shutdown dates, equipment efficiencies,
etc.

The main Objectives of the PCS are as follows :

1. Decision support tool that provides key information and performance


parameters that are not available in instrument read-outs.

2. Assist panel operators to respond to process anomalies by monitoring unit


performance calculations.

3. Improve panel operator performance/efficiency for better monitoring and


control.

4. Automate some functions performed by process engineers and operational


planning engineers with resulting improvement of spills and efficiency.

5. Evaluate plant performance and compare actual operating performance to


expected values.

6. Predict operating performance for operating equipment, process units and


process systems.
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-02

3.5.1.1 POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN USING PCS

1. PCS are designed to be used reliably during the normal plant operations.
They are not designed to handle big upsets such as pump failure, water shots,
power failure and/or start-up and shutdown operations.

2. In PCS, one tag information may be used in several strategies. If any such
tag is to be calibrated/checked, wherein the PV status is not normal, the PCS
outputs will not be calculated.

3. In the calculation of each strategy, several DCS inputs are being used, and so
also lab inputs. It is thus essential to update the lab inputs periodically to
calculate the most realistic performance outputs. Also it is important to
detect the instrument zero error and get them rectified to result in accurate
PCS outputs.

Operator interface & interaction:

1. From PCS overview detailed PCS graphics can be accessed by touch target.

2. The PCS graphics display the detailed performance data in tabular form.

3. Touching the tag name in the PCS graphics will bring in a standard change
zone that gives provision to go to point details, change the point execution
status, and point process special the point.

4. The previous and next targets are given to scroll over the different PCS
graphics.

5. Figures displayed in yellow color are calculated by the program which can be
changed only by the command language (CL) program.

6. Figures displayed in blue means DCS plant data input.

7. Figure displayed in green means “Operator” or “Engineer” input.

8. All input parameters and constants are engineer key locked and to be changed
by computer application group only.
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-03

3.5.2 PCS NO: 1450

TITLE : MATERIAL BALANCE, UTILITIES AND COST OPERATING FACTOR

Objective:

Calculate and monitor the unit material balance, cost and operating factors.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line using this PCS for.

1. Unit material balance : -


2. Unit operating factor and cost : $/Yr.

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1450MBAL, 14500PFAC, 1450COST

The above tags are AM bound data point that runs once a day at 6.00AM
frequency with command language block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

Free format log : 140FLO6R


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-04

3.5.3 PCS NO: 1451

3.5.3.1 TITLE : REACTORS R-14-101/102 TEMPERATURE PROFILE

Objective:

Calculate and monitor the reactor temperature profile.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line using this PCS for.
o
1. Inlet temperature, F
o
2. Outlet temperature, F
o
3. Bed inlet average temperature, F
o
4. Bed outlet average temperature, F
o
5. Bed average temperature, F
6. Bed average  temperature, o
F
7. Bed temperature (% of total T), %
o
8. Max. bed temperature, F
o
9. Inlet temperature spread, F
o
10. Outlet temperature spread, F
11. Position 1 T, o
F
12. Position 2 T, o
F
13. Position 3 T, o
F

Strategy details:
PCS point : 1451R101PR, 1451R102PR

The above tags are AM bound data point that runs on 2 minutes frequency with
command language block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:
PCS overview : 140POV1
PCS graphics : 140P511, 140P512, 14514, 140P515, 140P5110

 PCS graphic 140P5110 shows summary of performance parameters.


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-05

3.5.3.2 TITLE : RX-101/102 REACTOR CATALYST PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

Objective:
Calculate and monitor the performance of R-101/102 catalyst.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.


o
1. Weighted bed average temperature, F
2. Total Bbls of feed processed, KBBLS
3. Catalyst life, BBL/LB
4. Chemical H2 consumption, KSCFH
5. Chemical H2 consumption, SCF/BBL
6. Conversion below T*(by RXR T), %
7. Conversion below T*(by H2 consumption), %
8. RX-101 RCP conversion (by RXR T), %
9. RCP conversion (by H2 consumption), %
10.Per pass conversion (by RXR T), %
11.Per pass conversion (by H2 consumption), %
12.Liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), 1/HR
13.Catalyst work rate, -

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1451R101PR (for R-101), 1451R-102PR(for R-102)

The above tags are AM bound data point that runs on 2 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1


PCS graphics : 140P511

 PCS graphic 140P511 shows summary of performance parameters.


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-06

3.5.4 PCS NO: 1455

TITLE : T-14-102, FRACTIONATOR MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the performance of the fractionator.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Liq. flow from trays 8, 17, 27, 50, KLB/HR


2. Vap. flow to trays 8, 17, 27, 50, KLB/HR
3. % flooding on trays 8, 17, 27, 50, %
4. O/H condenser duty, MMBTU/HR
5. Top P/A duty and % heat removal, MMBTU/HR,%
6. Bottom P/A duty and % heat removal, MMBTU/HR,%
7. Fractionator pressure drop, PSI
8. HCPP at fractionator. O/H, PSIG
9. Internal reflux, KBPD

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1455FRACFLOOD, 1455HTREM

The above tags are AM bound data points that run on 2 minutes frequencies with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to them.
Also, there are AM points providing fractionator pr. drop, HCPP etc., display of the
same is given in PCS graphics as given below.

Operator interface:
PCS overview : 140POV

PCS graphics : 140P551, 140P552, 140P553, 140P554

 PCS graphic 140P554 shows summary of performance parameters.


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-07

3.5.5 PCS NO: 1456

TITLE : T-14-106, DEBUTANIZER MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the performance of the debutanizer.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Liq. Flow from top & bottom trays, KLB/HR


2. Vap. Flow to top & bottom trays, KLB/HR
3. % Flooding on top & bottom trays, %
4. Reflux ratio, RATIO
5. Yield of o/h off gas, WT %
6. Yield of LPG, WT %
7. Debutanizer pr. drop, PSI
8. O/H condenser duty, MMBTU/HR
9. Reboiler duty, MMBTU/HR
10. Reboiler duty / bbl of bottom, KBTU/BBL
11. Preheater duty, MMBTU/HR
12. (Reb. + preheater ) duty/bbl of feed, KBTU/BBL

Strategy details:
PCS point : 1456STBMOD
The above point is AM bound data point that runs on 2 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1

PCS graphics : 140P561, 140P562, 140P563

 PCS graphic 140P563 shows summary of performance parameters.


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-08

3.5.6 PCS NO: 1457

TITLE : T-14-107, NAPHTHA SPLITTER MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the performance of the naphtha splitter.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Liq. Flow from top & bottom trays, KLB/HR


2. Vap. Flow to top & bottom trays, KLB/HR
3. % Flooding on top & bottom trays, %
4. Reflux ratio, RATIO
5. Lt. Naph. Yield on feed, WT %
6. Heavy naph. Yield on feed, WT %
7. Column pr. Drop, PSI
8. O/h condenser duty, MMBTU/HR
9. Reboiler duty, MMBTU/HR
10. Reboiler duty / bbl of bottom, KBTU/BBL
11. Reboiler duty/bbl of feed, KBTU/BBL

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1457NSMOD

The above point is AM bound data point that runs on 2 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1

PCS graphics : 140P571, 140P572, 140P573

 PCS graphic 140P573 shows summary of performance parameters.


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-09

3.5.7 PCS NO: 1458

TITLE : T-103/T-104, KERO STRIPPER MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the performance of Light ATK and Heavy ATK strippers

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Reboiler duty, MMBTU/HR


2. Reboiler duty per BBL of product, KBTU/BBL
3. Fractionator bottom average specific heat, BTU/LB-F
Strategy details:

PCS point : 1458LSTRMOD (FOR LIGHT ATK)


1458HSTRMOD (FOR HEAVY ATK)

The above tags are AM bound data point that runs on 2 minutes frequencies with
CL block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1


PCS graphics : 140P581 (FOR LIGHT ATK)
140P582 (FOR HEAVY ATK)
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-10

3.5.8 PCS NO: 1459

TITLE : T-105, GAS OIL STRIPPER MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the performance of Gas oil stripper.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Steam flow per BBL of product, lb/bbl


Strategy details:

PCS point : 1459GOLBBL

The above tag is AM point that run on 2 minutes frequencies.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1

PCS graphics : 140P59


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-11

3.5.9 PCS NO: 1460

TITLE : T-14-101, H2S STRIPPER MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the performance of the H2S stripper.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Liq. Flow from tray 2, KLB/HR


2. Vap. Flow to trays 2, KLB/HR
3. % Flooding on trays 2, %
4. Reflux ratio , RATIO
5. Steam/bbl. of feed, LB./BBL.

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1460 STR1

The above tag is AM bound data point that run on 2 minutes frequencies with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to them.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1

PCS graphics : 140P601, 140P602

 PCS graphic 140P602 shows summary of performance parameters.


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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-12

3.5.10 PCS NO: 1464


TITLE : H-14-101/102/103 HEATERS EFFICIENCY

Objective:
Calculate and monitor the performance parameters of the heaters.
Strategy description:
1. Total fired duty, MMBTU/HR
2. Heat absorbed by HC, MMBTU/HR
3. Heat absorbed by steam, MM BTU/HR
4. Total absorbed process duty, MM BTU/HR
5. Radiant heat flux, MM BTU/HRFT2
6. Flue gas O2, %
o
7. Stack temperature, F
8. Efficiency, %
9. Fuel cost saving, $/YR
o
10. Min./Max. coil outlet temperature, F
o
11. Average coil outlet temperature, F
o
12. Max. skin temperature, F
o
13. Min./Max. cot deviation, F
o
14. Average cot deviation from actual, F
15. Velocity coil no.1 in/out, FT/SEC
16. Velocity coil no.2 in/out, FT/SEC
17. Velocity coil no.3 in/out, FT/SEC
18. Velocity coil no.4 in/out, FT/SEC
19. Velocity coil no.5 in/out, FT/SEC
20. Velocity coil no.6 in/out, FT/SEC
Strategy details:
PCS point : 1464H101EFF, 1464H102EFF, 1464H103EFF
The above tags are AM bound data points that runs on 5 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.
Operator interface:
PCS overview : 140POV1
PCS graphics : 140P642 to 140P649 all pages
 PCS graphic 140P649 shows summary of performance parameters.
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-13

3.5.11 PCS NO: 1466

TITLE : C-14-101/102 COMPRESSOR MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate and monitor the performance of recycle gas compressors.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.


o
1. Expected polythrop temperature, F
2. Expected discharge pressure, PSIG
3. Actual pressure ratio, RATIO
4. Actual inlet flow, ACFM
5. Surge inlet flow, ACFM
6. Minimum flow, ACFM
7. Actual, polythroph efficiency, EFF
8. Expected ploythroph efficiency, FFF
9. Actual polytroph head, F LB/IB
10. Expected polytroph head, F LB/IB
11. Actual BHP, BHP
12. Expected BHP, BHP
13. Actual weight flow, LBS/MIN
14. Expected weight flow, LB/MIN

Strategy details:
PCS point : 1466C101EFF

The above tag is AM bound data point that runs on 10 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV1


PCS graphics : 140P661, 140P662, 140P663

 PCS graphic 140P663 shows summary of performance parameters.


KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-14

3.5.12 PCS NO: 1467

TITLE : C-14-101/102 ST TURBINE MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate and monitor the performance of compressor turbines.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Theoretical heat input, BTU/HR


2. Actual heat input, BTU/HR
3. Inlet steam enthalpy, BTU/HR
4. Outlet stem enthalpy, BTU/HR
5. Efficiency, %
6. Actual HP input, HP

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1467S101EFF, 1467S102EFF

The above tags are AM bound data points that runs on 5 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV2


PCS graphics : 140P671, 140P672

 PCS graphics 140P671/140P672 show summary of performance


parameters.
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-15

3.5.13 PCS NO: 1474

TITLE : PUMP MODELLING STRATEGY

Objective:

Monitor pump performance and predict next maintenance date by displaying date
of last maintenance and calculation of accumulative run-time in hours since last
maintenance date at normal and low flow and run-time since dates of initial unit
commissioning.

Strategy description:

This strategy models all pumps in unit-14 that have pump run/stop indication in the
DCS. (A total of 38 pumps with their spares were modelled). The strategy
accumulates the pump run-time hours only when the pump is in running state.

The following parameters are calculated in the strategy.

1. Accumulative run time in hours since date of last maintenance (TIMEX (1)).

2. Accumulative run time in hours since date of last maintenance when the
pump runs lower than minimum design pumping capacity (TIMEX (2)).

3. Accumulative run time in hours since date of initial unit commissioning.


(TIMEX (3)).

A parameter called (FLAG) is defined to automatically reset the counters for


TIMEX (1) and TIMEX (2) to zero when the pump is sent for a major maintenance
(overhaul....etc).

Operator interface:

PCS graphic : 140P741, 140P742


Free format log : 140FL14R (can be printed from area 6A in LCN # 2).

Each pump listed in the graphic has a target. To display relevant data for a desired
pump. Pump number must be selected first.
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-16

Operator interaction:

When the pump is sent for maintenance, it is important that the pump maintenance
FLAG is set to ON. By doing this, the strategy stamps the date automatically
which will be displayed as date of last maintenance and it will initialize and reset
the timers for calculation runtime since last maintenance at normal and low flow to
zero. A new count is started when the pump is brought back from maintenance
and started. The counter for calculating the accumulated run time since initial
commissioning TIMEX (3) will not be reset to zero when the pump is sent for
maintenance.

To set the pump maintenance completion flag, simply touch FLAG box on the
graphic. A port on the left corner will be prompted. Type ON and press enter. A
supervisory key is required to do this change. it is recommended that this change
is done with prior knowledge of the Supdt. or Section head.

The parameters FLOW and TARGET are inputs for actual design flow and
minimum flow as percent of design flow (from pump data sheets), respectively.
These are locked with Engineer access only. Changes to these parameters to be
done by Computer Application Engineers only.
KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-17

3.5.14 PCS NO: 1475

TITLE : FLARE CONTROL VALVE MODELLING

Objective:

Calculate & monitor the flow parameters of flare control valves.

Strategy description:

The following control valve flows are calculated and monitored on-line.

Flare gas flow through 14PV199B/ 14PC228 SCFH

Strategy details:

PCS point : 1475PI99B/ 1475P228

The above tag is AM bound data point that runs on 2 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operator interface:

PCS overview : 140POV2

PCS graphics : 140P751

 PCS graphic 140P751 shows summary of performance parameters.


KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
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Hydrocracker Unit-14 Page 14-3.5-18

3.5.15 PCS NO: 1476

TITLE : FLOW COMPENSATED GRAPHICS

Objective:

Calculate and monitor compensated values of flow rates of liquids and gases.

Strategy description:

The following parameters are calculated and monitored on-line.

1. Compensated flow for liquid, KBPD


2. Compensated flow for gases, KSCFH/MSCFH
3. Compensated flow for steam, KLB/H/LB/HR

Strategy details:

The tags are AM bound data points that runs on 2 minutes frequency with
command language (CL) block (program) attached to it.

Operate interface:

PSC overview : 140POV2


PCS graphics : 14FC1

 PCS graphic 14FC1 shows summary of performance parameters.


KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision – 03 2013

HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

4.0 START-UP PROCEDURE


KNPC - Mina Abdulla Refinery
Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-00

Page 1 of 3

4.0 START-UP PROCEDURE

The procedure described in this chapter is for the start-up of the unit after
a “turnaround” with fresh batch of catalyst loaded on both reactors. Both
reactor stages can be prepared in parallel. However first stage unit will be
started initially on single stage once through basis while second stage is
getting ready for commissioning. Prior to introduction of feed, hydrocracker
catalyst requires sulfiding. Distillation section will be made ready under hot
oil circulation well in advance of the sulfiding activities so that feed can be
introduced into the reactor as soon as the sulfiding is completed. Long
delays can cause loss of H2S from the catalyst. With first stage reactor
section operating normal at design feed rate and conversion on single stage
once through basis, second stage reactor catalyst can be sulfided and
fractionator bottoms unconverted oil feed stock can be routed as feed for
second stage reactor. Thus the unit will operate on two stage recycle
operation.

Various safety hazards associated with unit start-up are not included here.
However, they are extremely important and should be discussed with all
personnel involved.

4.1 START-UP FIRST STAGE ......................................................... 14-4-01 to 14-4-43

4.1.1 PREPARE FOR START-UP .......................................................…........ 14-4-01

4.1.1.1 CHECK UNIT FOR START-UP CLEARANCE ....................... 14-4-01


4.1.1.2 COMMISSION UTILITIES ...................................................... 14-4-03
4.1.1.3 TIGHTNESS TEST HIGH PRESSURE SECTION AND
FRACTIONATOR LOW PRESSURE SECTION ..................... 14-4-04
4.1.1.4 PURGE OUT OXYGEN FROM H.P. SECTIONS..................... 14-4-06
4.1.1.5 STEAM PURGE, LEAK TEST AND BACK-IN
NITROGEN IN THE LOW PRESSURE SECTIONS................. 14-4-07
4.1.1.6 FUEL GAS, FUEL OIL AND FLARE HEADERS..................... 14-4-10
4.1.1.7 ON COMPLETION OF PURGING............................................ 14-4-11

4.1.2 COMMISSION HYDROCARBON HEADERS ..................................... 14-4-11

4.1.2.1 COMMISSION FLARE HEADERS ................................…...… 14-4-11


4.1.2.2 COMMISSION FUEL GAS HEADER ..............................……. 14-4-12
4.1.2.3 COMMISSION FLUSHING OIL SYSTEMS .............................. 14-4-13
4.1.2.4 COMMISSION FUEL OIL SYSTEM ..................................…... 14-4-14
4.1.2.5 COMMISSION SOUR WATER HEADER ...........................….. 14-4-14
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-00

Page 2 of 3

4.1.2.6 COMMISSION MAKE-UP HYDROGEN HEADER ................. 14-4-15


4.1.2.7 COMMISSION START-UP HYDROGEN HEADER................. 14-4-15
4.1.2.8 COMMISSION CAUSTIC HEADER......................................... 14-4-15
4.1.2.9 COMMISSION POLYSULPHIDE POT V-14-104...................... 14-4-16
4.1.2.10 COMMISSION ANTI-OXIDANT CHEMICAL
SYSTEM ................................................................................... 14-4-16

4.1.3 LINE UP UNIT FOR OPERATION ........................................................... 14-4-16

4.1.3.1 ISOLATE SECOND STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM ................... 14-4-16


4.1.3.2 LINE UP REACTOR SYSTEM FOR GAS CIRCULATION
AND START RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR.......................... 14-4-17
4.1.3.3 LINE-UP HEATER CONVECTION COILS FOR BOILER FEED
WATER CIRCULATION AND FIRE HEATER H-14-101 ......... 14-4-19
4.1.3.4 LINE UP AND COMMISSION FEED SYSTEM ........................ 14-4-20
4.1.3.5 FLOAT COLD L.P. SEPARATOR ON FLARE .......................... 14-4-20
4.1.3.6 FLOAT H2S STRIPPER ON FLARE ......................................... 14-4-21
4.1.3.7 LINE UP FUEL GAS AND FLARE SYSTEM FOR
FRACTIONATOR ...................................................................... 14-4-21
4.1.3.8 LINE UP STABILIZER SYSTEM .............................................. 14-4-21
4.1.3.9 LINE UP FLARE AND FUEL GAS TO SPLITTER SYSTEM ... 14-4-22
4.1.3.10 LINE UP FRACTIONATOR AND START
COLD FLUSHING OIL CIRCULATION ................................... 14-4-22
4.1.3.11 START HOT OIL CIRCULATION IN
THE FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ............................................. 14-4-25

4.1.4 SULFIDE THE CATALYST ..................................................................... 14-4-26

4.1.4.1 PREPARE CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM ......................... 14-4-26


4.1.4.2 TIGHTNESS TEST REACTOR SYSTEM ................................. 14-4-26
4.1.4.3 TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE LIMITATIONS ................. 14-4-27
4.1.4.4 DRY OUT THE CATALYST BY HOT RECYCLE
GAS CIRCULATION ................................................................. 14-4-27
4.1.4.5 CARRY OUT QUENCH RESPONSE TEST................................ 14-4-28
4.1.4.6 CATALYST SULFIDING OPERATION .................................... 14-4-29

4.1.5 INTRODUCE FEED ................................................................................... 14-4-31

4.1.5.1 PRESSURE UP SYSTEM ........................................................... 14-4-31


4.1.5.2 TEST PSV’s IN THE STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM ........... 14-4-32
4.1.5.3 START UP FEED PUMP ............................................................ 14-4-34
4.1.5.4 RECYCLE GAS RATE ............................................................... 14-4-36
4.1.5.5 ADJUST THE REACTOR AVERAGE TEMPERATURE ........... 14-4-36
4.1.5.6 LINE OUT FRACTIONATOR ON ATK MODE ........................ 14-4-38
4.1.5.7 START-UP STABILIZER T-14-106 ............................................ 14-4-38
4.1.5.8 INCREASE THE UNIT FEED RATE ......................................... 14-4-41
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Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-00

Page 3 of 3

4.1.6 NORMALIZE OPERATIONS .................................................................... 14-4-42

4.2 START-UP SECOND STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM ...................... 14-4-44 to 14-4-59

4.2.1 PREPARE FOR START-UP ........................................................................ 14-4-45

4.2.1.1 CHECK THE UNIT FOR START-UP CLEARANCE .................... 14-4-45


4.2.1.2 TIGHTNESS TEST HIGH PRESSURE SECTION ........................ 14-4-45
4.2.1.3 PURGE OUT OXYGEN ................................................................ 14-4-45

4.2.2 COMMISSION HYDROCARBON HEADERS ............................................ 14-4-46

4.2.3 LINE UP THE REACTOR RECYCLE GAS CIRCUIT ................................ 14-4-46

4.2.4 PRESSURE UP THE REACTOR SYSTEM ................................................. 14-4-48

4.2.5 START RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR C-14-102 ..................................... 14-4-48

4.2.6 LINE UP HEATER CONVECTION SYSTEM ............................................. 14-4-49

4.2.7 FIRE HEATER H-14-102 ............................................................................. 14-4-49

4.2.8 TIGHTNESS TEST REACTOR SYSTEM AT 300 PSIG ............................. 14-4-49

4.2.9 SULFIDE THE CATALYST ........................................................................ 14-4-50

4.2.9.1 DRY OUT THE CATALYST BY HOT


RECYCLE GAS CIRCULATION ................................................ 14-4-50
4.2.9.2 CARRY OUT QUENCH RESPONSE TEST................................. 14-4-51
4.2.9.3 CATALYST SULFIDING OPERATION ..................................... 14-4-51

4.2.10 INTRODUCE FEED .................................................................................... 14-4-53

4.2.10.1 PRESSURE UP SYSTEM ............................................................. 14-4-53


4.2.10.2 TEST PSVs IN STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM ...................... 14-4-54
4.2.10.3 LINE UP AND PREPARE FEED PUMP ...................................... 14-4-54
4.2.10.4 FEED PUMP START-UP .............................................................. 14-4-55
4.2.10.5 RECYCLE GAS RATE ................................................................. 14-4-57
4.2.10.6 ADJUST THE REACTOR FED AND
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE ....................................................... 14-4-57

4.2.11 NORMALIZE OPERATIONS ....................................................................... 14-4-59

4.3 START-UP BAR CHART AFTER A TURNAROUND ................... 14-4-60 to 14-4-62


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4.1 START-UP FIRST STAGE

4.1.1 PREPARE FOR START-UP

4.1.1.1 CHECK THE UNIT FOR START-UP CLEARANCE

1. Check for mechanical completion of jobs as per turnaround job lists.

2. Check and update blind lists. All internal shutdown blinds go OUT and
start-up blinds go IN. Hydrocarbon blinds at unit battery limit are to be
made normal only after reaction section is prepared for make-up Hydrogen
intake and fractionation section is ready to receive hydrocarbons.

3. Check power supply is available for all rotating equipment, instruments and
UPS system. Check out electrical system MOVs and test motors wherever
possible.

4. Check out instrumentation including valve stroking, interlocks, alarm


settings etc.

5. Check readiness of all major equipment for start-up. Ensure all pumps,
compressors and their DGS system and lube oil console are ready for
operation and their pump strainers have been cleaned and installed back.

6. Check readiness of fire protection and fire fighting equipment and safety
equipment.

7. Check for housekeeping in and around unit boundaries.

8. Check for the availability of hand tools, valve keys, hoses etc. used by
operators.

9. Check all chemicals and oils used in the unit are available and ready for use.
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10. Ensure operating procedures and log sheets are available in CCR and
operator shelter.

11. Obtain start-up clearance duly signed by all concerned.

12. Inform all concerned sections about impending start-up.

4.1.1.2 COMMISSION UTILITIES

1. Instrument air.

2. Utility air

3. Nitrogen headers for process used and recycle gas compressor DGS system
supply header should be both available as required, (if the nitrogen header
pressure for start-up utilization is not enough, nitrogen trailers should be made
available).

4. Sea water for cooling.

 Coolers and condensers will not be commissioned until steam purging


is completed.

5. Circulating cooling water.

6. IP condensate header.

7. 60 psig, 150 psig, 450 psig and 900 psig steam headers. Commission
steam headers starting with 60 psig steam and going up on the different
pressure stages. The four steam headers are to be commissioned one by
one as follows:

 Keep all steam tracings out of service. Isolate all equipments i.e.
turbines, ejectors, heaters convection coil tie-ins etc.

 Line up and open all low point drains.


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 Slowly open the warm-up bypass valve upstream of header battery limit
block valve.

 Drain condensate from all low point drains.

 The warm-up period will be 2 to 4 hours depending on the size, length


and pressure of the headers.

 After ensuring that the line is completely drained of condensate, throttle


the drain bleeders and pressurize the line.

 When the pressure is equal at both the upstream and downstream sides
of the battery limit block valves, open the block valves wide and
commission the line.

 Commission steam traps and close drain points.

8. Boiler feed water and boiler blow down system.

 HCR unit produces 450 psig and 150 psig steam using HP boiler feed
water and MP boiler feed water respectively.

 Isolate the lines at the steam generators E-14-103, E-14-108, E-14-119


and E-14-125 and open battery limit valves at reactor side and
fractionator side.

 Isolate H.P. boiler feed water at LC-208 and open


the battery limit valve slowly and
commission the header.

 Isolate the intermittent and continuous blowdown headers at the steam


generators and open the battery limit valves and commission the headers
at reactor side and fractionator side.
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9. Utility water

Block off the header at H-14-103 decoking system, H-14-103 analyzer


system, turbine gland steam extract ejectors and commission the header.

10. Flare headers

Low pressure flare header will be commissioned after Oxygen freeing of all
systems and before charging fuel gas header. High pressure flare header
should be commissioned before admitting make-up Hydrogen in the reaction
section.

11. Process water and injection water headers will be commissioned after
purging Oxygen from the circuits.

 Line up all instruments on V-14-105.


 Commission Nitrogen blanket system through PC-132 and set pressure
at 30 psig.
 Open stripped water battery limit valve and commission LC-115 to
build up a 70% level in V-14-105.

4.1.1.3 TIGHTNESS TEST HIGH PRESSURE SECTION

Tightness test is carried out to ensure proper connecting of lines, gasket tightness
of disturbed flanges and to ensure that the vents and drains of lines and
equipment are closed. Tightness check of high pressure sections in HCR unit
will be carried out first under Nitrogen pressure, followed by vacuum test. For
convenience, this test can be combined with the Oxygen purging procedure.

1. General

1. Equipment and part of the system that were not included in the
shutdown or were kept isolated for some specific reasons will be
Nitrogen purged, if necessary, and tested for Oxygen content separately.
They are brought into the system only after rest of the systems have
been tested and Oxygen freed.
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 Carry out reactor system initial leak check after pressuring with
nitrogen to 10 psig. Ensure all disturbed flanges/equipment manways
are full tight and vent/drain valves closed.
 After the initial system pressuring and leak check were done, carry
out the vacuum pulling of the reactor system and hold the vacuum
pressure for one hour.
 If no deviation of the vacuum pressure occurred, proceed to break the
vacuum with nitrogen and pressure up the 10 psig, otherwise if not,
re-check the system again possible for loose flange or vent / drain
valve open condition. Then repeat the vacuum pulling procedure.

2. Recycle gas compressor will not be part of the system for tightness test
or evacuation. The compressor will be purged separately and made
Oxygen free.

3. Line up and commission the DGS separation gas nitrogen line and then
commission the lube oil system. Keep recycle compressor isolated and
purge out casing barrel separately. Ensure its suction / discharge /
spillback line (while all MOVs are at closed condition) are all free of
any liquid and scales that can go back or may enter to the compressor
barrel once the MOVs are open. Line up the compressor to the reactor
system. Refer to chapter-7 for compressor and auxiliary system
commissioning procedure.

4. During Nitrogen purging, normal flow path will be followed for


effective purging of the system.

5. If the refinery Nitrogen header supply is not enough to meet the


demands for leak test or evacuation, supply by trailers will be arranged
well in advance.

6. All disturbed flanges and manways will be sealed with masking tape for
leak test with soap solution. These tapes are a fire hazard and should be
removed away before the system is heated up.

7. Second stage reactor system will remain blind isolated from first stage.
Follow unit master blind list.

8. All fans at air coolers will be stopped during tightness and evacuation
test.
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4.1.1.4 PURGE OUT OXYGEN FROM H.P. SECTIONS

Before admitting hydrocarbons into the unit, Oxygen (air) should be purged out
of the system. The procedure strictly followed in HCR unit is to withhold the
make-up Hydrogen blind till the Oxygen content in the system has been reduced
below 0.5 vol. %. The elimination of Oxygen can be accomplished by three
methods.

1. Steam out and back-in Nitrogen.


2. Dilute with Nitrogen by pressurizing and depresurizing technique.
3. Evacuate and break vacuum with Nitrogen.

Steam-out is widely used in refineries but is not suitable in systems containing


catalyst or austenitic steel equipment. Dilution method with Nitrogen is
expensive in terms of Nitrogen and the time it takes to complete the operation.

Evacuation method is used on systems which have been designed to withstand a


full vacuum. Both first and second stage reactor systems are designed to
withstand full vacuum in the case of HCR unit.

1. After successfully testing vacuum, increase pressure in the system to 10


psig with Nitrogen.

2. Carry out evacuation and Nitrogen pressuring steps.

3. Send samples from different locations for Oxygen content in the system.
Oxygen purging will be considered completed when two successive lab
results of 0.2 vol % or less of Oxygen are obtained.

4. Once the Oxygen elimination is achieved, commission all instruments that


have been isolated for vacuum test. Remove all compound gauges and
install suitable gauges for leak test with Hydrogen.

5. Sweep make-up Hydrogen and high pressure purge headers with Nitrogen
from reactor system, and vent at unit battery limit. Block in the system
after Oxygen content in the header has fallen below 0.2 vol% and remove
blinds at battery limit and PV-112A. Retain the blind at second stage make-
up Hydrogen control PV-147A.

6. Depending on the availability of Nitrogen, increase the pressure in the


system with Nitrogen and leak test at 100 psig.
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7. Purge C-14-101 barrel separately and line up the compressor to the circuit.
Seal oil and lube oil systems should be in operation before purging the
barrel. Refer to chapter-7 for compressor and auxiliary system
commissioning procedure.

8. Warm up 450 psig and 900 psig steam lines free of condensate to
C-14-101-ST.

9. Line up reactor circuit to receive Hydrogen, starting with all pressure safety
valves. Car seal all the listed valves in their CSC/CSO positions.

10. Remove all low pressure fittings and gauges. Swing back connections made
for Nitrogen break-in.

4.1.1.5 STEAM PURGE, LEAK TEST AND BACK-IN NITROGEN IN THE LOW PRESSURE
SECTIONS

Prior to the start-up of actual operations, the equipment and lines in the low
pressure sections must be leak-tested and made Oxygen free. Steam purge is the
standard procedure for leak-testing and expelling air (Oxygen) from this system,
followed by the introduction of Nitrogen to replace the condensing steam. In
addition to purging within the unit battery limits, it may be necessary to purge
liquid and product gas delivery lines to their destinations to ensure proper
elimination of Oxygen in the section as a whole. All hydrocarbon lines entering
the unit also must be free of Oxygen before the plant is started-up.

1. General procedure

1. Steam-purging will be carried out using regular stripping steam to


towers and by temporary steam connections to steam-out points of
vessels. Additional steam hoses will be provided wherever required
and the locations selected will be high points to avoid condensate
filling.

2. During purging, system will be proven clear from blinds and blocks
and from plugging of drains and bleeders. Circuits should be
conveniently separated for this purpose.

3. All lines will be steamed out up to the point of shut off . Level gauge
glasses, float chambers and instrument lead lines will be steamed out
but the instruments will be isolated for protection wherever required.
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4. All vents and drains of vessels, columns and other equipment will be
opened for steaming and draining condensate.

5. All water coolers will be isolated and drained of water to prevent


condensation of steam and their drains kept open to prevent condensate
build-up. All fans at the air coolers will be stopped as well.

6. Purging is completed when the exiting steam has reached saturated


steam temperature at atmospheric pressure.

7. Leak-test of the system will be done at specified pressures by closing


vents, throttling drains and regulating steam intake. While pressuring
up, the safe limits of the system should not be exceeded.

8. Leak-test, rectification and re-test will continue till no leaks are found.
Pressure gauges in the system will be checked for dependability and
then commissioned.

9. After satisfactory steam purging and leak testing, Nitrogen will be


introduced in each system through hose connections at suitable points.

10. Steam will be gradually reduced to the system till fully closed, backing
in Nitrogen at the same time. Nitrogen pressure will be always
maintained to avoid re-entry of air in the circuits as a result of steam
condensation.

11. Gas samples, taken away from purge points, should be tested for
Oxygen content. The safe maximum limit for Oxygen content is 0.2
vol%.

12. Hose connections and all temporary fittings should be removed and all
drains and vents capped after successful completion of purging.

2. Steam purge

1. Line up low pressure sections for purging. These include feed, low
pressure separation and distillation system.
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2. Thoroughly purge all towers, vessels, exchangers, heater coils and


other associated pipelines up to battery limit.

3. Include bypasses of vessels, equipments, exchangers, control valves


etc. for purging.

3. Leak test with steam/Nitrogen

Isolate the system section wise to carry out leak list as follows :

1. Feed system, at 20 psig with steam.

Include VGO feed lines, feed filters along with the feed surge drum for
steaming. Keep the feed pumps isolated at suction and spill back.

2. Cold L.P. separator, at 50 psig with Nitrogen

Steam V-14-110 and V-14-111 and connected lines upto battery limits.
Introduce N2 and test for leaks.

3. H2S stripper system T-14-101, at 20-30 psig with steam.

Steam the tower along with overhead system EA-14-103 E-14-113


A/B  V-14-112. Line up condensate drains of pot V-14-113. Include
E-14-104 shell side along with H2S stripper feed line during test.

4. Fractionator system at 10-15 psig with steam.

Include heater H-14-103 passes T-14-102 and overhead system


EA-14-106  V-14-117 in steaming. Add additional steam hoses at
product side strippers, T-14-103, 104 & 105.
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5. Fractionator pumparound systems with preheat exchangers and


reboilers will be tested with the tower. Use additional steam hoses as
required. P-14-113/P-14-115/P-14-116 discharge circuits should be
steamed separately and tested for tightness and then float the system
along with the fractionator tower.

6. Stabilizer tower T-14-106, at 25-30 psig with steam.

Steam the tower along with overhead system, test for leak.

7. Naphtha splitter tower T-14-107, at 10 psig with steam.

Steam the tower along with overhead system, test for leaks.

8. Injection wash water system

 V-14-105 along with lines up to high pressure section and vent gas
lines will constitute the system.
 Steam purge the system and leak test at 20 psig.

4.1.1.6 FUEL GAS, FUEL OIL AND FLARE HEADERS

If not included for hot wok or turnaround jobs, fuel gas and flare headers will
normally be kept under Nitrogen pressure. In such cases, no steam purging of
these headers will be required. The header includes fuel gas headers to reactor
section up to V-14-114 and the header to fractionator section up to V-14-115.

1. Steam-purge fuel gas the header separately and leak-test at 10 psig up to the
burner rings in each heater.
Individual fuel gas lines to heaters remain blinded.

2. Steam purge L.P flare headers in reactor section and fractionator section
and H.P. flare headers.
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3. Fuel oil header


 Steam-purge and leak-test supply and return headers, H-14-103
supply and return loops at 20 psig.
 Fuel oil supply and return headers remain blinded at the heater.

4.1.1.7 On completion of purging and testing with steam in a system, back-in Nitrogen
immediately and hold a positive pressure of 5-10 psig.

4.1.2 COMMISSION HYDROCARBON HEADERS

Once the purging of both high and low pressure systems is completed, all the
hydrocarbon blinds at unit battery limit will be made normal under positive
Nitrogen pressure.

Simultaneously, all safety valves and relieving headers will be lined-up and their
isolation valves car-sealed in the respective CSO/CSC positions. Operators
should thoroughly check these headers to reconfirm that all temporary
connections have been removed and drains and vents capped properly.

In the order of priority, each hydrocarbon header will be commissioned into the
unit and the respective instrument loops put into service.

4.1.2.1 COMMISSION FLARE HEADERS

1. Low pressure flare header

 Stop all hot work in the train still under shutdown.

 Install caps and plugs on drains and vents.

 Pull out unit battery limit blind under Nitrogen purge, wearing gas mask
for protection against passing gases from flare mains.
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 Open battery limit valve and lock the valve in open position.

 Continue a small Nitrogen purge till fuel gas purge is available.

2. High pressure flare header

 Install caps and plugs on drains and vents.

 Pull out unit battery limit blind under Nitrogen purge, wearing gas
mask.

 Open battery limit valve and lock the valve in open position.

 Continue a small Nitrogen purge till fuel gas purge is available.

The battery limit knife-valves on flare lines must be locked in open position
by inserting the special locking rod across the valve gate. This is important
to avoid the accidental fall of the valve gate during normal operation.

4.1.2.2 COMMISSION FUEL GAS HEADER

1. Ensure all connecting lines to fuel gas header are isolated.

 Blanket gas connections at the respective vessels.

 Main fuel gas supply line to all heaters blinded at the respective heaters.

2. Stop all hot work in the train still under shutdown.

3. Cap all bleeders and drains.

4. Remove unit battery limit blind under Nitrogen sweep.

5. Open battery limit block valve slowly and equalize pressure with the
refinery header. Open valve fully.
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6. Commission fuel gas purge through FI-228 to low pressure and FI-195 to
high pressure flare header in reactor section and through FI-223 in
fractionator sections.

7. Remove Nitrogen hose connections and cap bleeders.

8. Line up LC-214 and LV-214 on V-14-114 to flare header in reactor section.

9. Line up LC-216 and LV-216 on V-14-115 to flare header.

4.1.2.3 COMMISSION FLUSHING OIL SYSTEMS

1. Filtered flushing oil header

 Ensure all users of flush oil to instrument leads are isolated.

 Open battery limit valve on filtered flush oil header, slowly equalizing
pressure. Check and drain water from low points.

 Check and confirm instrument purge oil at each purge point. Oil purge
to instrument leads will be commissioned only for test purposes.

2. Unfiltered flushing oil header

 Ensure all flushing oil connections to equipment and lines are closed.

 Open battery limit valve on the flushing oil header slowly and
equalize pressure.

 Flush and clear the header through pumpout connections.


 Cap vents and drains.
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4.1.2.4 COMMISSION FUEL OIL SYSTEM

Prior to commissioning fuel oil header into HCR unit, the refinery fuel oil supply
and return headers should have been in operation.

The supply and return lines to and from the heaters should be kept blinded till the
heater is ready for lighting pilot burners.

1. Open common circulation line between supply and return header near
heaters.
2. Commission steam tracers.
3. Open flushing diesel to fuel oil supply line from unit battery limit and flush
the header back to return line pumpout connection. Vent out all Nitrogen
from the header.
4. Close and blind pumpout and flushing diesel connections.
5. Open slowly battery limit return valve and equalize line pressure. Open fuel
oil supply valve at unit battery limit to establish normal circulation.
6. Commission FI-306 and close the bypass.

4.1.2.5 COMMISSION SOUR WATER HEADER

Sour water header will be commissioned in co-ordination with Sour Water


Treating unit.

1. Isolate all branch connections to sour water header from all concerned
vessels.

2. Remove temporary connections and cap vents and drains.

3. Slowly open battery limit block valve on sour water header and equalize
pressure.

4. Open valve fully.


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4.1.2.6 COMMISSION MAKE-UP HYDROGEN HEADER

1. Ensure Hydrogen header tie-in to first and second stage reactor system is
isolated at the manifold and blinds are in place at PC-112A and PC-147A.

2. Isolate connections to analyzers at both stages.

3. Ensure header is proven Oxygen free.

4. Remove all temporary connections and make sure all vents and drains are
shut and caps/plugs installed back.

5. Slowly open battery limit valves and equalize the pressure in the header and
commission the line.

4.1.2.7 COMMISSION START-UP HYDROGEN HEADER

1. Isolate the line at the connection at E-14-112A/B in reactor side and the
connections at T-14-101 at fractionator side.

2. Ensure header is proven Oxygen free.

3. Remove all temporary connections, close vents and drains and re-install
caps and plugs.

4. Slowly open the battery limit valve and equalize the header pressure and
commission the lines.

4.1.2.8 COMMISSION CAUSTIC HEADER

In case the catalyst was regenerated during the turnaround, prior to sulfiding, the
catalyst has to go under the process of reduction and this requires caustic
circulations in the effluent cooling system. Normally the caustic header is kept
isolated at unit battery limit with the blind in closed position. If required, remove
the blind, isolate the line at the suction of P-14-105B and commission the header.
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4.1.2.9 COMMISSION POLYSULFIDE POT V-14-104

Commission Nitrogen blanket to the suction drum V-14-104 and prepare a batch
of poly sulfide chemical.

4.1.2.10 COMMISSION ANTI-OXIDANT CHEMICAL SYSTEM

Anti-oxidant chemical is injected into product kerosene during normal operation


of the unit. Commission Nitrogen blanket through PC-611 and prepare a batch of
chemical.

4.1.3 LINE UP UNIT FOR OPERATION

During the line up of any system it is important to line up all instrumentation first.

4.1.3.1 ISOLATE SECOND STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM

1. Follow master blind list to isolate the second stage reactor system. Care
should be taken when installing the blinds so that they could be
removed while first stage unit is in operation.

2. The system isolation blinds are :-

 Make up Hydrogen at PV-147A


 Second stage effluent to V-14-110 and recycle gas bleed to Hydrogen
recovery unit.
 V-14-108 liquid to H2S stripper at LV-119.
 Depressuring lines HV-170/HV-171.
 V-14-109 PSV-155/156
 V-14-108 PSV-153/240
 C-14-102 discharge to flare 2" line.

3. Isolate steam generation system

Close the block valves at the convection coils of H-14-102 at inlet and outlet
and leave vents open at all the four sets of tubes. Close the boiler feed water
to steam generator E-14-108 at LV-154.

4. Ensure H-14-102 fuel gas is blinded.


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4.1.3.2 LINE UP REACTOR SYSTEM FOR GAS CIRCULATION AND START RECYCLE GAS
COMPRESSOR

1. Reactor feed circuit

Oil feed to reactor system is kept isolated at feed pumps discharge manifold.
Recycle gas system will be lined up as follows. Open up the block valve at
E-14-102A/B effluent exchanger tube side inlet. Line up TV-110 bypass
control around E-14-102AB. Keep the u/s block valve open. Keep the
recycle compressor C-14-101 suction and discharge closed.

The system now is lined up from C-14-101 discharge  E-14-102A/B tube


side  H-14-101  R-14-101. Reactor effluent system passes through
E-14-105 shell side to E-14-102A/B shell side  E-14-103 tube  E-14-
104 tube  EA-14-101ABCD  V-14-102 high pressure separator  C-
14-101 Recycle gas compressor suction. No block valves are involved in
this circuit.

2. Make up Hydrogen

Once the system is proven Oxygen free, remove the blind from make-up
Hydrogen at PV-112A. Open up the isolation block valve at E-105 tube
inlet. Keep PV-112A block valves shut.

3. E-14-103 steam generator

Build up normal level by admitting boiler feed water and keep shell side
vent open to atmosphere.

4. E-14-104

Keep shell side outlet valve open to float along with H2S stripper system.
The LP shell side should be protected from any possible leak in tube side.

5. EA-14-101ABCD effluent cooler.

Line up the water injection by opening valves at all the 16 injection points.
Ensure the fin fan motors are energized and operable. Test the fan pitch
control system TC-206.
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6. V-14-102 H.P. Separator

Line up safety valves. Of the two PSVs only one is required for normal
service and the other kept as a standby, protected from system.

Line up PSV-117 to flare. Keep PSV-118 isolated by closing the u/s block
valves. Keep LV-104ABC control valves u/s block valves shut. Line up the
downstream header to float with cold low pressure separator V-14-110.

Block off u/s valve of LV-107 interface control valve. Ensure the
downstream part of the line is floating with the sour water refinery header
and B/L valve car sealed in open position.

7. R-14-101 first stage reactor

Line up all the three quench control valves TV-132/133/134. Commission


the inlet and outlet PT-113/PT-114 and both the PDT-115 and PDT-116.
Line up the recycle purge gas to all these instruments. Ensure all the
temporary spool pieces are removed from the Nitrogen and Soda ash
solution connections and blinds installed.

8. Pressure up the reactor system

The catalyst sulfiding process requires the system to be pressured up with


Nitrogen. Admit Nitrogen at compressor discharge and allow system to
pressure up to 100 psig and check system for leaks. Make sure depressuring
valves HV-132/133 are lined up. Draw out all condensate from the system
at low points. Line up recycle compressor with the system. Further
pressuring up with Nitrogen can be done in two ways.

 Bring in Nitrogen using high pressure cylinder


nitrogen trailers supplied by local contractors.
 Use make up compressor of unit-18 to boost the refinery header
Nitrogen to higher pressure to deliver into HCR unit. In this case
swing spools to connect suction and discharge line of C-18-110 with
1st stage reactor circuit.
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9. Start recycle gas compressor C-14-101

At 300 psig system pressure start recycle compressor as per normal


procedure (Chapter-7) and establish gas circulation at maximum rate.
Activate fin fans in EA-14-101 as required. Introduce recycle gas purge to
reactor annulus at a rate of 250 kscf/hr as indicated at FI-226.

Note : HCR recycle compressor’s minimum suction pressure is 675 psig


with Hydrogen in the system. However with Nitrogen in the system
during the start-up, the compressor can be operated at 300 psig.

4.1.3.3 LINE-UP HEATER CONVECTION COILS FOR BOILER FEED WATER CIRCULATION
AND FIRE HEATER H-14-101

1. Build up level in V-14-127

Admit H.P. boiler feed water through LV-208 the convection coil back to
V-14-127 and build up level to 70%. Keep the vent open to atmosphere at
V-14-127.
2. Line up the steam generation coil at H-14-101. Start P-14-127 and establish
water circulation.

3. Line up the steam super heater coil by opening the inlet and vent valves at
the coil outlet. Keep the coil outlet valve shut.

4. Line up 150 psig superheater steam coil by opening the inlet and the
silencer vent valves. Keep outlet valve shut.

5. Fire heater H-14-101.

Light up burners in feed heater as per normal procedure (Chapter-7) and


proceed with system heating up. Line out catalyst bed temperatures at
300oF.

6. Admit 150 psig steam into coils when heater arch temperature is above
450oF. Steam is brought in by backing up 150 psig steam from refinery
header into steam generation system header through PV-446.
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Operating Manual Revision - 03 2013

Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-20

4.1.3.4 LINE UP AND COMMISSION FEED SYSTEM

For some type of catalyst for start-up with fresh catalyst. The hydrotreating
catalyst is not able to de-nitrogenate the design feed stack to sufficient degree to
prevent nitrogen poisoning of the cracking catalyst. For this reason the initial
start-up with fresh catalyst is done with a low nitrogen content flushing oil. In
this manner, the hydrotreating reactor temperature can be raised to a level where
the catalyst will being to convert organic nitrogen and design feed stock can
gradually be started to the unit.

1. Set V-14-101 feed surge drum pressure at 40 psig.

2. Line up the feed filter system.

3. Bring in cold VGO through FV-103 and build up level to 80% or flushing
oil as required.
4. Line up the feed pump P-14-101 by opening the suction MOV-137 and
suction isolation block valve at the pump. Vent the pump free of air/vapor.
Line up the discharge spill back control valve FV-106 back to surge drum
V-14-101. Commission FC-106 at the suction of the pump. Drain the pump
casing free of water and secure the drain and vent valve shut and caps
installed.

Line up P-14-101B as standby. Line up P-14-102 for test purpose with


suction from V-14-101.

Install blind at discharge to pump-out system. Keep discharge manifold


valves isolated.
4.1.3.5 FLOAT COLD L.P. SEPARATOR ON FLARE

1. Block off LV-164 and LV-165 at V-14-110 and LV-129 at V-14-111.

2. Introduce start-up Hydrogen into system by crack opening the block valve at
V-14-111 inlet and set the pressure at PC-169 at 200 psig.

3. Line up LV-104ABC downstream system to V-14-110.

4. Commission sea cooling water to E-14-112A/B.

5. Drain out all condensate at low points. Do not leave any drains unattended.
Hydrogen leaking from the system is a fire hazard.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-21

4.1.3.6 FLOAT H2S STRIPPER ON FLARE

1. Keep P-14-113ABC pumps discharge valves shut. Also block off start-up
line at P-14-112A/B discharge to stabilizer.

2. Shut off block valve on start-up circulation at tower T-14-101.

3. Introduce start-up Hydrogen to tower by crack opening the block valve and
set the system pressure at 50 psig at PC-173.

4. Drain out all the condensate at low points. Do not leave any drains
unattended.

4.1.3.7 LINE UP FUEL GAS AND FLARE SYSTEM FOR FRACTIONATOR

1. Block of the discharge valves of P-14-114A/B and the product pumps.

2. Line up the heater H-14-103 passes block valves and allow the fractionator
feed heater preheat system to float along with the rest of the system.

3. Open fuel gas to V-14-117 through PC-182. Line up PC-228 to flare and set
the system at 10 psig pressure. Build up 50% level in V-14-117 by bringing
naphtha from off-site using the 2" start-up line.

4. Line up the pumparound systems with P-14-115A/B and P-14-116A/B


floating with the rest of the system.

5. Drain out all the condensate at low points.

4.1.3.8 LINE UP STABILIZER SYSTEM

1. Back in fuel gas to the reflux drum and equalize the system with fuel gas
header via PC-380. Once equalized, set PC-380 for normal pressure.

2. Shut off suction jump over valve to P-14-123ABC.

3. Line up the stabilizer bottoms to splitter tower T-14-107 upto FV-176 and
shut off the block valve u/s FV-176.

4. Shut off block valves of product LPG at LV-148.

5. Commission the sea cooling water to E-14-127.


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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-22

4.1.3.9 LINE UP FLARE AND FUEL GAS TO SPLITTER SYSTEM

1. Shut off discharge block valves P-14-123ABC heavy naphtha product


pumps and P-14-124AB light naphtha product pumps.

2. Commission fuel gas through pressure controller PC-199. Set the pressure
at 10 psig.

3. Commission sea cooling water to E-14-126 and E-14-129.

4.1.3.10 LINE UP FRACTIONATOR AND START COLD FLUSHING OIL CIRCULATION

Increase system pressure to 20 psig at PC-182/228, open up flushing oil to


P-14-114AB suction and build up the level to 50%. Check and drain condensate
at the pumps casing.

The oil circulation will be established between T-14-101 and T-14-102 as


follows.
1. Line up T-101 H2S stripper bottoms to P-113A/B/C HV-297/298
exchanger feed pre-heat train, then to E-115 to E-114 A/B and to
E-118A/B/C/D  E-116 E-117  H-103 feed heater  T-102
fractionator. Keep P-14-113A/B/C discharge valves shut until the level in
T-14-101 bottom is built up to 50%.
2. Line up T-14-102 fractionator bottoms to P-14-114A/B  E-14-122  E-
117 tube side  E-14-118A/B/C/D tube side  HV-191  T-14-101.
Make sure E-14-122 tube outlet block valve shut and FV-167 wide open.

3. Start P-14-114 and transfer oil through HV-191 to T-14-101. Adjust T-14-
101 pressure to 100 psig using start-up Hydrogen.

4. With T-14-101/102 levels established, start P-14-113A/B and establish oil


circulation. Set P-14-114B on auto standby.

5. Line up LV-137 to EA-14-104 to tankage and bleed off slowly to fill up the
system up to battery limit.

6. Keep two pumps at T-14-101 H2S stripper bottoms running and have the
third pump on auto standby. Clean suction strainers as necessary.

7. Set H-14-103 heater passes flow at 4,500 to 5,000 BPD per pass.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-23

8. Stop circulation at intervals. Allow water to settle and drain all low points
for water.

9. Add flushing oil to T-102 to make up level as required.

10. Prepare pumparound system. Use P-14-114 discharge jumpover line to top
reflux line downstream FV-161 and fill up fractionator draw-off pans of top
and bottom pumparound streams. Allow this flow to wash down the trays
all the way to the tower bottoms. Continue draining out condensate at
intervals.

11. Keep adding flushing oil at P-14-114 suction during this process for making
up T-14-102 bottom level.

12. Top pumparound stream

 Open P-14-115 suction and line up discharge to E-14-


128  E-14-115 E-14-130  EA-14-105  FV-
160  T-14-102. Have all exchanger bypasses FV-
171, TV-328, FV-252 and TV-369 wide open. Open
FV-160 and let the level gravitate and fill up the
system. Continue adding oil to the system via top
reflux line.

 Start P-14-115 to establish circulation and maintain


minimum flow of the pump at 26,100 BPD. Prove
system healthy and stop pump.

 Make sure exchanger E-14-128 and E-14-130 bypass


wide open and tube side outlet valves closed after
flushing the exchanger. These exchangers will be put
in service slowly at a later stage when reboiling duty is
required.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-24

13. Bottom pumparound stream

 Open P-14-116 suction and discharge block valves.


Line-up E-14-116 E-14-120 E-14-119 FV-159
T-14-102 and leave system filling up. Have
exchangers bypassed by opening TV-327, FV-165,
TV-371. Add flushing oil to P-14-114 suction while
filling up the system.
 Commission E-14-119 shell side under boiler feed
water level control and open vent to atmosphere.

 Start P-14-116 and establish circulation. Check system


healthy. Maintain minimum flow of pump at 16,240
BPD and stop the pump after test.

 E-14-120 tube side will be closed after flushing until


reboiler duty is required.

14. Commission fans on EA-14-103 and EA-14-106 as required.

15. Commission E-14-113A/B sea water.

16. Check condensate in V-14-117 and pump out as required.

17. Check condensate at V-14-112 and line up LV-135.

18. Line up product strippers’ LV-142, LV-143 and LV-144 and fill up product
streams by gravitation through the pumps. Commission sea cooling water to
all product coolers.

 Light ATK. Line up P-14-119 through EA-14-107 


E-14-121A/B  FC-14-166 and pump out contents to
slop and stop the pump.

 Heavy ATK. Line up P-14-120  E-14-114A/B E-


14-123A/B  EA-14-108A/B E-14-124A/B FV-
168  to slop and the stop pump.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-25

 Gas oil. Line up P-14-121 E-14-125 EA-14-109


V-14-118  FV-170 to slop. Build up boiler feed
water level in E-14-125 and vent shell side to
atmosphere. Pump out contents to slop and stop pump.

19. Switch over pumps and clean their strainers.


4.1.3.11 START HOT OIL CIRCULATION IN THE FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

1. Line up H-14-103 convection coils and fire the heater

 Both steam superheater coils (420oF/680oF) outlet


should be kept shut and the vent to silencer open.

 Commission balanced draft system as per normal


procedure (Chapter-7). Adjust draft to minimum by FC-
149 and PC-177.

 Fire the furnace with pilot burners as per normal


procedure (Chapter-7).

 When heater arch temperature reaches 300oF, Crack


open steam to superheater coils, venting through the
silencer to atmosphere.

2. Continue hot oil circulation in the system

Light burners in H-14-103 as required to increase transfer line temperature


to 220oF at the rate of 25oF per hour and hold for 4 hours. Then raise the
temperature again at 25oF per hour to 400oF and hold. This process will
help to dry out the heater refractory. If major repairs are done, then follow
dry out procedure recommended by Inspection Section.

3. Ensure flow through passes

Vary pass flows and confirm flow through all passes. Cross check process
and skin temperatures. Record the temperature frequently until heater
outlet temperature reaches 400oF. Hold conditions until feed is introduced
to the unit.
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-26

4.1.4 SULFIDE THE CATALYST

4.1.4.1 PREPARE CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM

1. V-14-103 sulfiding chemical drum is normally kept under +ve Nitrogen


pressure with an inventory of DMDS chemical left over from the previous
turnaround activity.

2. Load fresh inventory into V-14-103 by using portable pump. The estimated
requirement for first stage catalyst sulfiding is 6720 gallons and for second
stage is 6050 gallons, plan the inventory accordingly.

3. Check and ensure availability and condition of P-14-103 sulfiding injection


pump, motor lube oil system etc.

4. P-14-103 sulfiding pump discharge line-up will depends on the type of catalyst
sulfiding procedure is to be implemented in accordance with the process
engineering department. If the catalyst sulfiding is dry type, then the P-14-103
discharge line up will be connected to first stage heater H-14-101 inlet sulfiding
spool and if it is wet type sulfiding, new facilities are provided which is
connected at P-14-103 discharge line i.e. HC-155 for 1st stage P-14-101A suction
line injection and HC-156 for 2nd stage P-14-102 suction line injection points.
Refer to process engineering establish sulfiding procedures.

4.1.4.2 TIGHTNESS TEST REACTOR SYSTEM

1. System tightness should be monitored closely during the pressuring up and


heating process. All disturbed joints, flanges, vessel manways, thermowell
flanges etc. should be checked using masking tape and soap solution.

2. With the recycle compressor in operation, loss of system pressure should not
exceed 50 psig/hr. However, checks for leaks should continue at different
stages as the system pressure and reactor temperature are raised.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-27

4.1.4.3 TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE LIMITATIONS

WHEN HEATING THE REACTOR

The rate of heating should be kept within the following limits.

Reactor outer shell metal temperature


Below 250oF Above 250oF

Feed temperature change Less than 15oF Less than 25oF


per 15 min. per 15 min.

Feed temperature Not to exceed 300oF more than metal


temperature.

Bottle purge gas temperature Not to exceed 200oF more than metal
temperature.

Example : If the skin temperature is 200oF, the feed temperature should be


below 500oF and purge gas temperature below 400oF.

System pressure must not exceed 625 psig (25% of design) until the reactor metal
temperature is above 250oF. Follow all skin TIs for this limitation.

4.1.4.4 DRY OUT THE CATALYST BY HOT RECYCLE GAS CIRCULATION

1. With recycle gas rate at maximum and bed temperature lined out at 300oF
hold conditions for the catalyst to dry out.

2. Drain out the condensate from V-14-102 and monitor the amount of water
draining.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-28

3. Hold the conditions until the water draining out is less than 0.1 wt% of the
catalyst per hour.
4. Heat the reactor inlet to 425oF whereas the lower bed to be maintained at
about 390-415oF. Use quench gas to maintain this profile.

5. When H-14-101 heater arch temperature is more than 850oF divert 450 psig
steam to the header. Close silencer vents.

6. At 300 psig reactor system pressure and with recycle gas circulating normal,
start to introduce make-up Hydrogen to the system and build up pressure to
650 psig at the reactor inlet. Pressuring rate should be between 250 psig to
300 psig per hour. Hydrogen partial pressure should be maintained between
200 and 400 psig.

Once the system Hydrogen partial pressure reached 400 psig, recycle gas
compressor DGS system “bypass isolation valve downstream seal gas filter”
should be close, which located at the DGS rack.

7. Circulate recycle gas at maximum rate while building up pressure to provide


enough heat removal capacity in the event of a temperature excursion.

4.1.4.5 CARRY OUT QUENCH RESPONSE TEST

Interbed quench valves should be operated and tested to confirm their satisfactory
performance and quench gas distribution. Follow as below.

1. Print out the reactor bed temperatures.

2. Open bed No.4 quench TV-132 50% for 5 minutes or until the bed
temperatures below the quench (No.4 bed inlet) are lowered and remain
steady.

3. Printout the profile again.

4. Shut off bed No.4 quench and repeat the above steps for bed No.3 and bed
No.2. Save the print-outs for process engineer’s evaluation.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-29

4.1.4.6 CATALYST SULFIDING OPERATION

At this stage, the first stage reactor section is lined up for normal operations of the
unit. The fractionator activities are planned in such a way that the fractionator
section is ready to receive feed from the reactor section immediately after the
sulfiding of the catalyst is over.

There are two types of sulfiding process, i.e. dry sulfiding and wet sulfiding which
will be based on the UOP catalyst used in hydrocracker

A. Dry phase sulfiding procedure

1. Maintain reactor inlet temperature at 390oF prior to the introduction of DMDS.


This is required to prevent the reduction of catalyst to base metal. Shut off
the recycle gas purge to reactor annulus.

Now the system is ready for catalyst sulfiding. Begin injecting sulfiding
chemical (DMDS) into the gas stream at a rate equivalent to 0.5 mol% H2S
but not more than 1.0% mol. Once it confirmed that DMDS is pumped. Start
raising the reactor inlet temperature to 450oF at rate 10-15oF/hr and 7-8 gpm
at the pump discharge will be adequate to begin with. The T should be
maintained below 50oF and all beds below 500oF.

2. Addition of sulfiding chemical results in two types of reactions which are


exothermic with liberation of water.

 Hydrogen with sulfiding chemical will form H2S. This


always occurs in the top of the first bed.

 Sulfiding chemical reaction with catalyst when metal


oxides are converted to sulfides. This occurs a few
inches below the top surface of the first bed and moves
down.

3. Lack of temperature release will indicate the sulfiding chemical passing


through the catalyst bed without any reaction taking place. This will
ultimately appear in the separator. If this happens, stop injecting chemical
and increase reactor inlet temperature by 10oF and then start again.

4. Watch the temperature very closely now. Hold the temperature in the
catalyst below 450oF at all times. If required, adjust the rate of chemical
injection.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-30

5. Draw out accumulated water from high pressure separator V-14-102.


Record the quantity.

6. Monitor DMDS inventory in V-14-103. Do not inject chemical more than


1.0% mol at reactor inlet even if the temperature is less than 500oF 450oF in
the catalyst beds.

7. Frequently check the recycle gas for H2S content. The frequency should be
within 15 minutes. Use dragger to test in the unit.

8. Add enough Hydrogen into the system to hold system pressure at 650 psig
and for 70% vol. H2 at reactor inlet. If concentration of H2 is less than 45%
bleed to flare and replenish with make-up.

9. After the sulfiding temperature wave has passed through the reactor, the H2S
concentration in recycle gas will rise rapidly. When 0.5% vol. H2S is
detected in the reactor effluent, block in the gas bleed, continue sulfiding
injection at a low rate, until the H2S content in the recycle gas reaches 1-2%
vol. Meanwhile, increase reactor inlet temperature to 650oF aiming for a
minimum 630oF temperature at reactor outlet.

10. Observe the temperature rise in the beds. Do not allow this rise to exceed
50oF across any bed. Stop increasing the temperature until the reaction
wave is completed.

11. Allow the system pressure to increase while the reactor temperature is being
raised to 600oF. Set the pressure to 730 psig at the suction of the recycle
compressor. Regulate the rate of increasing system pressure watching the
rise in temperature in the catalyst beds.

12. Add sulfiding chemical intermittently to maintain the H2S content


at 1-2% vol. in the recycle gas.
13.
14. Sulfiding is complete when the reactor system is held steady for 4
hrs in the following conditions.

 730 psig pressure at recycle gas compressor suction.


 Reactor inlet temperature 650oF.
 Reactor outlet temperature 630oF or more.
 Recycle gas H2S content 1-2% vol.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-31

15. Stop chemical injection, remove spool piece at heater inlet and install blind
flanges. Install blinds at recycle gas to make-up compressor suction and
discharge line connection at heater inlet.

B. Liquid phase sulfiding procedure

Please refer to the process engineering established sulfiding procedure.

4.1.5 INTRODUCE FEED

4.1.5.1 PRESSURE UP SYSTEM

Now the system is ready for pressuring up to normal operating level.

1. Keep adding Hydrogen to raise the system pressure at a rate of 250 psig
max. aiming for 2280 psig at the compressor suction indicated by PC-112A.
Meanwhile, slowly cool down reactor beds to 450oF.

2. Hold pressure at different stages and check system for leaks.

3. Do not allow any gas bleed from the system now. That may cause loss of
H2S content in the system.

4. Pressure up cold L.P. separator V-14-110/111 system to 250 psig using


start-up Hydrogen.

5. Pressure up T-14-101 H2S stripper system to 110 psig using start-up


Hydrogen.

Note : Make sure the start-up H2 is shut before introducing feed into
system.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-32

4.1.5.2 TEST PSVs IN STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM

Pressure safety valves in steam generation system of H-14-101, H-14-102,


H-14-103 convection section and V-14-127 steam drum, will be pop-tested on
line subsequent to all major turnaround activities. For PSVs removed from the
system during turnaround such testing is mandatory.

1. Divert 150 psig steam from steam generator to header and line up
H-14-101/H-14-103 superheater coils venting at silencer to atmosphere.
Follow the testing sequence as below.

2. The test in hydrocracker unit should be conducted during the initial stage of
the start-up, prior to introduction of oil feed.

3. Details of these pressure safety valves are mentioned in the attached list.

4. Each one of them will be tested and witnessed by Inspection section as per
the following procedure.

 Prior to testing, a test pressure gauge will be installed


at a point nearest to the pressure safety valve, upstream
of the outlet block valve.
 Start closing the outlet valve slowly, allowing the
pressure to build up. Do not allow the pressure to
exceed PSV set pressure.
 Watch the pressure closely. Record the pressure when
the pressure safety valve starts leaking steam and then
lifts. Open up the block valve back to system. Record
the pressure for PSV shut off.
 While closing the valve, care should be taken to avoid
shocks in the system.
 If the pressure safety valve fails to pop at the design set
pressure, close the valve further to increase the
pressure to the max. allowable set pressure mentioned
in the table.
 If not successful discontinue the test and the PSV
should be removed to shop for re-setting.

5. When testing pressure safety valves on V-14-127, where two pressure safety
valves are involved with different settings, the test will be done one by one.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-33

HYDROCRACKER PSVs THAT REQUIRE ON-STREAM POPPING

On stream Set pressure Preset


S.No. Location PSV No. set pressure tolerance (psig) pressure
(psig) Min. Max. (psig)
1 H-14-101 14-PSV-368 550 533.5 566.5 517.0
Medium pressure steam
2 H-14-101-E1 14-PSV-406 195 189.15 200.85 185.25
Superheater coil
3 H-14-102 14-PSV-386 195 189.15 200.85 185.25
Superheater coil
4 H-14-102 14-PSV-442 550 535.5 565.5 517.0
Medium pressure steam
5 H-14-102 14-PSV-443 500 485.0 515.0 475.0
Medium pressure steam
6 H-14-103 14-PSV-241 225 218.25 231.75 213.75
Superheater coil
7 H-14-103 14-PSV-235 225 218.25 231.75 213.75
Superheater coil
8 V-14-127 14-PSV-437 525 509.25 540.75 498.75
Steam drum
9 V-14-127 14-PSV-438 540 523.8 556.20 513.0
Steam drum
10 H-14-101 14-PSV-359 500 485.0 515.0 475.0
Medium pressure steam

Note : Reset pressure is normally kept within 5% of the set pressure. However
minor variations are acceptable, provided it is more than the operating
pressure.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-34

4.1.5.3 START UP FEED PUMP

Steam and Hydrogen consumption will rise sharply with introduction feed to the
unit. Co-ordinate with concerned sections to ensure availability of Hydrogen and
steam.

1. Reduce system pressure to 2100 psig. When oil feed is introduced into the
reactor the system pressure will rise rapidly.

2. Sample VGO feed stock in surge drum V-14-101 and ensure the material is
on-spec.

3. Start the feed pump P-14-101A on total spill back to V-14-101. Set FV-106
at 25000 BPD and allow the pump to run for 15-30 minutes. In case any
major maintenance work was carried out for the second stage feed pumps
test-run them one at a time now, on total spill back.

Keep a small bleed back into tankage through EA-14-104. Bring in fresh hot
VGO and maintain surge drum level. Ensure the pump is mechanically sound
and warming up slowly. Sample the hot VGO again to confirm that it is on
spec. Shut off the bleed to tankage.

4. Make sure the filter back flush system is lined up and on automatic mode.

Note : Check the second stage isolation at the feed manifold. Ensure
the valves are tight shut and holding.

5. Maintain fractionator bottom level at 60% by adding flushing oil at P-14-114


suction if required.

6. Open block valves at FV-109 and FV-235. Keep last stop check valve shut at
manifold.

7. Open FV-235 by actuating HLS-115 at local control room.

8. Open last stop check valve.

9. Open FV-109 and cut in feed into the reactor at 15,000 BPD rate.
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Start-up procedure
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-4-35

10. Add burners in H-14-101 heater and maintain heater outlet temperature at
425oF.

11. After oil has passed through the heater, increase feed rate to 20,000 BPD.

12. Control reactor system pressure by using depressuring valves HV-132/133.

13. Maintain maximum recycle gas rate in the system.

14. Be alert for temperature waves in reactor beds as the oil feed passes through
the catalyst bed where oil is adsorbed by the dry catalyst. As the temperature
wave reaches the bottom of each catalyst bed, “pre-quench” the temperature
wave by opening the quench valve at the inlet of the bed below the
temperature wave. Quickly open valve until the temperature wave passes
through the top of the bed below, then return the quench to automatic at
425oF.

15. Set FV-106 spill back at 23500 BPD on automatic. Control the surge drum
level bringing hot VGO.

16. As the system gets filled up and liquid seals are ensured, line up the level
control valves LV-104A/B of H.P. Separator and LV-164 of cold L.P.
separator and LV-129 of V-14-111.

17. Set the pressure controller PC-169 to 310 psig.

18. Line up TV-316, the bypass control valve of E-14-104 and set TC-316 at
350oF.

19. At 20000 BPD feed rate, it takes about 20-30 minutes for a level to appear in
H.P. separator.

20. Add fans on EA-14-101 as required and set TC-206 at 145oF.


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Start-up procedure
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21. As the steam production increases in E-14-103 line out PC-446 at 160 psig on
auto. Open up 150 psig superheater coils outlet at H-14-101 and H-14-103
and drain out condensate from stripping steam header. Do not shut off vents
to silencers until ready for using the stripping steam to towers.

22. As the oil stream reaches the H2S stripper, stop taking flushing oil to the
fractionator system. Continue the circulation partially to maintain individual
heater pass flows at 5000 BPD.

23. Route fractionator bottoms to tankage through EA-14-104  Feed tank.


Watch the exit temperature of the cooler. The maximum limitation of the
cooler is 19000 BPD. Adjust unit feed rate to 19000 BPD at this stage until
the conversion starts in the reactor.

4.1.5.4 RECYCLE GAS RATE

During unit start-up when feed rate is held at minimum, recycle gas rate should be
maintained high at a minimum of 5000 SCF/BBL of oil.

However, when the unit feed rate is normalized maintain maximum recycle gas rate
possible to help better distribution in the catalyst beds, which will help prolong
catalyst life.

4.1.5.5 ADJUST THE REACTOR AVERAGE TEMPERATURE

1. Hold the unit feed rate minimum at 20000 BPD.

2. Start increasing the catalyst bed temperature at 50oF/hr to 600oF. Watch the
T at the beds inlet to outlet. Keep the quench valves on automatic.

3. Commission injection water and polysulfide to EA-14-101. Line out LV-107


and draw out the sour water from the system on level control.

4. Further increase will be done at 10oF/hr increments until the CAT reaches
660oF. Keep a close watch on the bed Ts. Watch Hydrogen consumption at
FI-115. Hold conditions for a while and make sure there is no excessive heat
liberated at the catalyst beds.
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5. Catalyst bed T and increase in Hydrogen consumption indicate the


conversion activity. This will be reflected in the distillation system at
T-14-101 and T-14-102. Both towers will show signs of vapor traffic and
requires close follow-up.

6. Start increasing H-14-103 transfer line temperature at a rate of 50oF/hr aiming


for 600oF. Watch fractionator tower top temperature.

7. Add fans on EA-14-103/EA-14-106 as required.

8. Start P-14-117 and introduce top reflux to tower at a low rate to hold the
temperature below 220oF.

9. Slowly introduce stripping steam to tower T-14-102 bottoms. Ensure the


condensate is drained out and steam is dry. Steam rate target will be 15lbs of
steam per barrel of bottoms oil flow. Draw out condensate by starting
P-14-118 and set the level control LC-141 on auto. Shut off steam vents to
silencer at H-14-101/H-14-103 and commission desuperheaters TC-794 at
H-14-101 and TC-825 and TC-812 at H-14-103 superheater coils outlet.
Stripping steam temperature target is 680oF.

10. Introduce stripping steam to T-14-101 activate overhead condenser


EA-14-103 fans as required and line out the system. As level appears in
V-14-112 overhead accumulator start P-14-112 and establish top reflux to
tower. Set the top temperature at 220oF at TC-321. Draw off condensate and
line up to P-14-118 suction and set the LC-135 on auto. Any excess
hydrocarbon level in V-14-112 will be transferred to T-14-106 stabilizer using
2" start-up line. As system gets stabilized, commission feed reflux via
LV-133.

11. Continue increasing the reactor temperature at a rate of 5oF/hr max. Close
attention is required to follow the rate of increase in Hydrogen consumption,
T across the beds and the catalyst temperature profile. Aim to set all the
four beds average temperature at the same level. This is termed as “FLAT
PROFILE”.

Hold the reactor temperature at 660oF and wait until the fractionator system is
lined out.
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4.1.5.6 LINE OUT FRACTIONATOR ON ATK MODE

1. Set the fractionator top temperature TC-374 on automatic at 220oF and


observe the reflux flow rate indicated at FC-161. Rate of increase in the flow
rate of this stream will indicate the demand for further heat removal from the
column. Top pumparound system can be activated now. Make sure all
preheat exchangers and reboilers are bypassed and start P-14-115 and
establish the return flow at 30000 BPD indicated at FC-160 and hold. Adjust
the return temperature at TC-369 as the top reflux duty increases at FC-161.
Set the return temperature at 350oF at TC-369 and increase pumparound flow
rate as the heat removal duty increases. Keep standby pump P-14-115B on
auto-start.

2. Observe the following now

 Hydrogen consumption as indicated at FC-115.

 Fractionator over-flash rate at FI-162.

 Drop in fractionator bottoms product as indicated at FI-


148.

 Drop in fractionator bottoms temperature at TI-380.

 Slight increase in tower bottoms pressure as indicated at


PI-163.

4.1.5.7 START-UP STABILIZER T-14-106

1. Pumpout V-14-117 on level control LC-139FV-164 to T-14-106.

2. Start P-14-123 and pump out T-14-106 level to slop and maintain the level at
50%.

3. Start warming up reboiler E-14-128. Watch pumparound return temperature


(TI-605) to T-14-102 and adjust as required.

Continue pumping whole naphtha from T-14-106 stabilizer on level control


by setting HS-282 to LC-146 to LV-147.
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4. Adjust T-14-106 stabilizer tray-2 temperature at 270oF on TC-420 cascading


with FC-171 of E-14-128 reboiler. Aim for 140oF-145oF at tower top
temperature.

 Set PC-195 and PC-380 at 80 psig.

 Ensure sea water in service for E-14-127A/B.

 Splitter T-14-107 will not be operated at this stage due to


low naphtha make. MOV-14-213 at tower bottom will
remain shut.

5. As level appears in V-14-122, start P-14-122 in service for reflux.

 Set TC-423 at 140oF.

 Adjust tray-2 temperature and top temperature


depending on product sample results.

 Line up PC-380 to fuel gas and set at 80 psig. Shut the


jumpover to flare header.

6. Draw out condensate from V-14-122 boot on level control LC-149.

Route LPG product on level control LC-148 to gas handling.

7. Commission heavy ATK system.

 Activate all cooling systems, E-14-114, E-14-123, EA-


14-108A/B and E-14-124.

 Commission reboiler E-14-122 on line by opening the


outlet valve slowly avoiding thermal shock on the
exchanger. Adjust the duty for ATK flash point.
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 Adjust draw-off rate according to product quality.

 Commission antioxidant injection to product ATK.

8. Activate bottom pumparound

 As the top pumparound and top reflux duty increase,


activate bottom pumparound system.

 Keep E-14-116 bypassed (during ATK mode).

 Keep E-14-120 light ATK reboiler bypassed.

 Commission E-14-119 with LC-157 in service for level


control.

 Adjust bottom pumparound temperature at 450oF at E-14-


119.

 Set FC-159 at 20,000 BPD.

 Route E-14-119 steam product to steam header with PC-


419 set at 150 psig.

 Keep bottom pumparound P-14-116B on auto standby.

9. Light ATK system will not be activated at this low feed rate, since the total
ATK product will not be enough to meet the minimum flow requirement for
the pumps.

10. Sample products, fractionator bottoms and H.P.Separator V-14-102


hydrocarbon for LAB analysis.

11. Set reactor CAT according to products draw-off rate and fractionator bottom
unconverted oil flow rate.

12. Monitor over-flash rate at FI-14-162. Minor adjustment of over-flash rate can
be adjusted by H-14-103 heater outlet temperature.
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4.1.5.8 INCREASE THE UNIT FEED RATE

As the fractionator system operation steadies out and unconverted oil product rate
gets reduced, the unit feed rate can be increased.

1. Co-ordinate with refinery shift controller for increased make-up Hydrogen


requirement and VGO feed. Expected increase on make-up Hydrogen
consumption is 40 to 50 KSCFH per 1,000 BPD of feed increase.

2. Increase feed rate to reactor in the increments of 1,000 BPD. Allow 10 to 15


minutes between each step.

Increase CAT by about 1.5oF per 1,000 BPD feed increase. Target CAT will
be determined as per the conversion in the reactor.

3. Adjust top pumparound rate first and then bottom pumparound rate if
required.

4. As the feed rate is increased, reduce fractionator bottom circulation rate at


HC-191.

5. Heater outlet temperature remains same at 607oF.

6. Commission light ATK system when heavy ATK product rate is above 8000
BPD which will be enough to split into light and heavy ATK streams.

7. Commission P-14-101A hydraulic power recovery turbine when the unit feed
rate reaches 30000 BPD.

8. Unit total feed rate can be increased to the design level of 38000 BPD.
However, the fractionator bottoms unconverted oil product rate will be very
high in the range of 16,000 BPD and it may not be economical to run the unit
on full feed rate in single stage once through operation. Therefore, unit is
better operated at a lower feed rate until second stage section is ready for
processing the unconverted oil from fractionator bottoms.
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4.1.6 NORMALIZE OPERATIONS

With the unit operating stable and steady, attention should be given to normalize
the unit conditions to design level.

1. Set the reactor bed average temperature (BAT) in all four beds to flat profile.

2. Adjust E-14-102 bypass TV-110 to set the heater H-14-101 duty to a


minimum of 45oF.

3. Set LC-101 feed surge drum level control on automatic cascading with
FC-13-161/FC-13-261.

4. Monitor the recycle gas purity. Bleed to HR unit if required to maintain the
gas purity at 90% minimum.

5. Optimize fractionator feed preheat exchangers duty. E-14-116 will remain


bypassed in the ATK mode operation.

6. Adjust HV-297/HV-298 monitoring fractionator bottoms exit temperature to


2nd stage feed pump suction header indicated at TI-338. Aim to set the
temperature at 380oF; pump suction temperature maximum limitation is
420oF.

7. Start commissioning DMC controls in the systems.

8. Check PSVs and depressuring valves in the system and make sure they are
holding.

9. Set all standby pumps on automatic.

10. Ensure steam tracing to lines, equipment and instrumentation systems are
functioning normal.
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11. Review all equipments interlock and maintenance bypass system in the DCS /
FSC panel.

12. Check all steam traps in the unit commissioned and ensure they are
functioning normal.

13. Review all fire and safety equipment check list.

14. Review car seals check list.

15. Check all utility stations for hoses, steam lances etc.

16. Check on area housekeeping.


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4.2 START UP SECOND STAGE REACTOR SYSTEM

GENERAL

Principle of preparation and lining up, purging and pressure testing of the second
stage reactor system is similar to that of the first stage system.

If the turnaround activities are completed as planned on time, second stage start-up
is a follow up activity of the first stage. If there are no delays or constraints
involved, second stage reactor system should be made ready for sulfiding as soon as
the sulfiding activity is completed in the first stage. Sulfiding activity requires
36-48 hrs. During this period, fractionator bottoms unconverted oil will be on spec
for second stage feedstock with Nitrogen content less than 10 ppm.

Major steps of the start-up are : -

4.2.1 PREPARE FOR START-UP

4.2.2 COMMISSION HYDROCARBON HEADERS

4.2.3 LINE UP RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR/REACTOR CIRCUITS

4.2.4 PRESSURE UP THE REACTOR SYSTEM AND TEST

4.2.5 START RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR

4.2.6 LINE UP HEATER CONVECTION COILS

4.2.7 FIRE HEATER

4.2.8 TIGHTNESS TEST REACTOR SYSTEM

4.2.9 SULFIDE THE CATALYST

4.2.10 INTRODUCE FEED


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4.2.1 PREPARE FOR START-UP

4.2.1.1 CHECK THE UNIT FOR START-UP CLEARANCE

Refer to para 4.1.1.1 and 4.1.1.2 for preparation of unit. Follow these steps for
start-up of 2nd stage and utilities commissioning. Utilities involved are all in
service with the first stage start-up activities. However, in case second stage unit
has to be commissioned while first stage undergoes turnaround activities, these
steps shall be followed in detail.

4.2.1.2 TIGHTNESS TEST HIGH PRESSURE SECTION

Carry out reactor system leak test check after initially pressuring up with nitrogen
to 10 psig. Ensure all disturbed flanges/equipment manways are full tight and
vent/drain valves closed.

4.2.1.3 PURGE OUT OXYGEN

Before admitting hydrocarbon into the unit, Oxygen (air) should be expelled out of
the system.

Evacuation and purge method is used in the high pressure circuit which is designed
to withstand full vacuum. Hot low pressure system of V-14-108 will be purged and
tested separately. Open up E-14-109 shell side inlet and outlet block valves.

1. After the initial system pressure-up and leak test check were done, carry out
the vacuum pulling of the reactor system and hold the vacuum pressure for
one hour.

If no deviation of the vacuum pressure occurred, proceed to break the vacuum


with nitrogen and pressure up the 10 psig, otherwise if not, re-check the
system again possible for loose flange or vent / drain valve open condition.
Then repeat the vacuum pulling procedure.

2. Send samples from different locations for Oxygen content in the system.
Oxygen purging will be considered completed when two successive lab results
of 0.2% or less of Oxygen are obtained.

3. Once the Oxygen in the system is eliminated, commission all instruments that
have been isolated for vacuum test. Remove all compound gauges and install
suitable gauges for leak test.
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4. Purge out V-14-108 hot low pressure system until free of Oxygen. Pressure
up system with Nitrogen to 25 psig and check for leaks.

5. Depressure the reactor system and hot low pressure system.

6. Remove isolation blinds under Nitrogen + ve pressure and check the blind
flanges for leaks.

7. Pressure up system with Nitrogen to 100 psig and check system for leaks.
Drain out all the condensate at low points.

8. Line up and commission the DGS separation gas nitrogen line and then
commission the lube oil system. Keep recycle compressor isolated and purge
out casing barrel separately. Ensure its suction / discharge / spillback line
(while all MOVs are at closed condition) are all free of any liquid and scales
that can go back or may enter to the compressor barrel once the MOVs are
open. Line up the compressor to the reactor system. Refer to chapter-7 for
compressor and auxiliary system commissioning procedure.

9. Warm up 450 psig and 900 psig steam lines to C-14-120-ST.

10. Remove all low pressure fittings and gauges.

4.2.2 COMMISSION HYDROCARBON HEADERS

Note : Follow steps 4.1.1.5 to 4.1.2.10 and 4.1.3.4 to 4.1.3.11 in case second stage
unit is being prepared for single stage operation. Feed pump for second
stage will be P-14-102.

4.2.3 LINE UP THE REACTOR RECYCLE GAS CIRCUIT

During the line-up of any system it is important to line up all instruments first.

1. Reactor circuit

Line up reactor circuit to receive Hydrogen, starting with all pressure safety
valves. Carseal all the listed valves in their CSC/CSO position.

Pressure up compressor to equalize with the system pressure and open up


suction and discharge and spillback block valves.
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Oil feed to reactor system is kept isolated at feed pump discharge manifold.
Open up tube side inlet block valve of feed effluent exchanger E-14-107A/B
and line up the bypass TV-213.

The system is now lined up from C-14-102 discharge  E-14-109 shell side
 E-14-107A/B  H-14-102 R-14-102. Reactor effluent system passes
through E-14-110 shell side to E-14-107A/B shell side  E-14-108 tube side
 V-14-107 hot high pressure separator. Gas and vapor phase from
V-14-107 passes through E-14-109 tube side  EA-14-102 V-14-109 cold
high pressure separator. V-14-109 gas is the suction to C-14-102 recycle
compressor.

2. E-14-108 steam generator

Build up normal level by admitting boiler feed water and keep shell side vent
open to atmosphere.

3. EA-14-102A/B

Water injection nozzles valves remain shut. (Water injection will be


commissioned only when second stage unit is processing fresh feed) Ensure
fin fan motors are energized and operable. Test the fan pitch control system
TC-438.

4. V-14-107

Keep LV-116ABC control valves u/s block valves shut. Line up the
downstream header to float with hot low pressure separator V-14-108.

5. V-14-108 hot low pressure separator

Open PSVs bypass to flare and let the system float with flare system. Keep
LV-119 isolated. Vapor line joining with LV-123 downstream header will
remain isolated at V-14-110 inlet manifold.
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6. V-14-109 cold high pressure separator

Line up depressuring valves HV-170/HV-171. Keep LV-123 and LV-124


isolated. Line up PSV-155 to flare. Keep PSV-156 u/s block valve shut.

7. R-14-102 second stage reactor

Line up all three quench control valves TV-233/234/235. Commission the


inlet and outlet PT-148/PT-149 and both the PDIs-150/151. Line up the
recycle purge gas to all these instruments. Ensure all the temporary spool
pieces are removed from Nitrogen as well as soda ash solution connections
and blinds installed.

4.2.4 PRESSURE UP THE REACTOR SYSTEM

Catalyst sulfiding process requires the system to be further pressured up with


Nitrogen and this can be done in two ways.

 Provide a high pressure nitrogen trailer which is supplied by local


contractors, and install a piping connection to the reactor system.
 Use the make-up compressor in unit-18 to boost the refinery nitrogen header
to high pressure to deliver to HCR unit. In this case swing spools to connect
suction and discharge line of C-18-110 with second stage reactor circuit.
 Bring up the system pressure to 300 psig and check for leaks.

4.2.5 START RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR C-14-102

At 300 psig system pressure start recycle compressor as per normal procedure
(Chapter-7) and establish gas circulation at maximum rate. Activate fin fans at
EA-14-102 as required. Introduce recycle gas purge to reactor annulus at a rate of
250KSCF/HR as indicated at FI-227.

Note : HCR recycle compressor’s minimum suction pressure is 675 psig with
Hydrogen in the system. However, with Nitrogen in the system during
start-up, compressor can be operated at 300 psig pressure.
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4.2.6 LINE UP HEATER CONVECTION SYSTEM

When the first stage unit is in operation commissioning the convection coils of
second stage heater should be carried out carefully and slowly.

1. Open block valves at the outlet of BFW make-up coil and let the coil fill up
and equalize the pressure with the rest of the system. Valve at inlet remains
shut.

2. Open block valve at the steam generation coil outlet and equalize the pressure.
Valve at coil inlet remains shut.

3. 450 psig steam super heater coil inlet and outlet valves remain shut and vent
valve to silencer open.

4. 150 psig steam superheater coil inlet and outlet valves remain shut and vent
valve to silencer open.

4.2.7 FIRE HEATER H-14-102

Purge heater fire box with steam and deblind fuel gas. Light up heater as per
normal procedure (Chapter-7) and proceed with system heating up.

4.2.8 TIGHTNESS TEST REACTOR SYSTEM AT 300 PSIG

1. System tightness should be monitored closely during the pressuring up and


heating process. All disturbed joints, flanges, vessel manways, thermowell
flanges etc. should be checked using masking tape and soap solution.

2. With N2 supply shut and recycle compressor in operation, loss of system


pressure should not exceed 50 psig/hr. However, checks should continue at
different stages as the system pressure and reactor temperature are raised.

3. Temperature and pressure limitations

Refer para 4.1.4.3


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4.2.9 SULFIDE THE CATALYST

4.2.9.1 DRY OUT THE CATALYST BY HOT RECYCLE GAS CIRCULATION

1. Continue heating up the system to line out reactor bed temperature at 300oF.

2. When heater H-14-102 arch temperature is above 450oF, start commissioning


the convection coils by slowly opening the inlet valves of all the four coils.
Outlet valves of both steam superheater coils will remain shut venting the
coils through silencer to atmosphere.

3. Continue hot gas circulation at 300oF reactor temperature and drain out
condensate from cold high pressure separator V-14-109. Monitor the amount
of water draining. Hold the conditions until the water draining out is less than
0.1 wt% of the catalyst per hour.

4. Then heat the reactor inlet to 425oF until the lower beds are lined out at
390-415oF. Use quench gas to maintain the profile thereafter.

5. When heater H-14-102 arch temperature is more than 850oF, divert 450 psig
steam to the header and line up 150 psig steam. Close vents to silencers.

6. E-14-108 steam generator. Shut off vent to atmosphere and divert product
steam to header. Set PC-418 on auto.

7. At 300 psig reactor system pressure and with recycle gas circulating normal,
start to introduce make-up Hydrogen to the system through PV-147A and
build up pressure to 650 psig at the reactor inlet. Pressuring rate should be in
the range of 250 psig to 300 psig per hour. Hydrogen partial pressure should
be maintained between 200 and 400 psig.

8. After introducing Hydrogen to the reactor system, the recycle gas compressor
DGS system “bypass isolation valve downstream seal gas filter” should be
close, which located at the DGS rack.

9. Circulate recycle gas at maximum rate while building up pressure to provide


enough heat removal capacity in the event of a temperature excursion.
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4.2.9.2 CARRY OUT QUENCH RESPONSE TEST

Interbed quench valves should be operated and tested to confirm their satisfactory
performance and quench gas distribution. Follow as below.

1. Print out the reactor bed temperatures.

2. Open bed N0.4 quench TV-233 to 50% for 5 minutes or until the bed
temperatures below the quench (bed no.4 inlet) are lowered and remain
steady.

3. Print out the profile again.

4. Shut off bed no.4 quench and repeat the above steps for bed no.3 and bed
no.2. Save the print-outs for process engineer’s evaluation.

4.2.9.3 CATALYST SULFIDING OPERATION

NOTE: The following procedures of catalyst sulfiding is based on established dry


phase sulfiding process. The procedure vary according to the catalyst
manufacturer e.g. Chevron or UOP catalyst suppliers.

A. Dry phase sulfiding procedure

1. Maintain reactor inlet temperature at 390oF prior to the introduction of


DMDS.. This is required to protect the reduction of catalyst to base metal.
Shut off the recycle gas purge to reactor annulus.

Now the system is ready for catalyst sulfiding. Begin injecting sulfiding
chemical (DMDS) into the gas stream at a rate equivalent to 0.5 mol% H2S
but not more than 1.0% mol. Flow rate of 7-8 gpm at the pump discharge will
be adequate to begin with. The T should be maintained below 50oF and all
beds below 500oF.

2. Addition of sulfiding chemical results in two types of reactions which are


exothermic with liberation of water.

 Hydrogen with sulfiding chemical will form H2S. This always occurs in
the top of the first bed.
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 Sulfiding chemical reaction with catalyst when metal


oxides are converted to sulfides. This occurs a few
inches below the top surface of the first bed and moves
down.

3. Lack of temperature release will indicate the sulfiding chemical passing


through the catalyst bed without any reaction taking place. This will
ultimately appear in the separator. If this happens stop injecting chemical and
increase reactor inlet temperature by 10oF and then start again.

4. Watch the temperature very closely now. Hold the temperature in the catalyst
below 450oF at all times. If required, adjust the rate of chemical injection.

5. Draw out accumulated water from high pressure separator V-14-109. Record
the quantity.

6. Monitor DMDS inventory in V-14-103. Do not inject chemical more than


1.0% mol at reactor inlet even if the temperature is less than 450oF in the
catalyst beds.

7. Frequently check the recycle gas for H2S content. The frequency should be
within 15 minutes. Use dragger to test in the unit.

8. Add enough Hydrogen into the system to hold system pressure at 650 psig
and for maintaining 70% vol. H2 at reactor inlet. Bleed to flare, if necessary.

9. After the sulfiding temperature wave has passed through the reactor, the H2S
concentration in recycle gas will rise rapidly. When 0.5% vol. H2S is detected
in the reactor effluent, block in the gas bleed, continue sulfiding injection at a
low rate, until the H2S content in the recycle gas rate reaches 1-2% vol.
Meanwhile, increase reactor inlet temperature to 650oF aiming for a
minimum 630oF temperature at the reactor outlet.

10. Observe the temperature rise in the beds. Do not allow this rise to exceed
50oF across any bed. Stop increasing the temperature until the reaction wave
is completed.

11. Allow the system pressure to increase while the reactor temperature is being
raised to 600oF. Set the pressure to 730 psig at the suction of the recycle
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compressor. Regulate the rate of increasing system pressure watching the rise
in temperature in the catalyst beds.

12. Add sulfiding chemical intermittently to maintain the H2S content at 1-2%
vol. in the recycle gas.

13. Sulfiding is complete when the reactor system is held steady for 4 hrs in the
following conditions.

 730 psig pressure at recycle gas compressor suction.

 Reactor inlet temperature 650oF.

 Reactor outlet temperature 630oF or more.

 Recycle gas H2S content 1-2% vol.

14. Stop chemical injection, remove spool piece at heater inlet and install blind
flanges. Install blinds at recycle gas to make-up compressor suction and
discharge line connection at heater inlet.

B. Liquid phase sulfiding procedure

Refer to the process engineering established sulfiding procedure.

4.2.10 INTRODUCE FEED

4.2.10.1 PRESSURE UP SYSTEM

Now the system is ready for pressuring up to normal operating level.

1. Keep adding Hydrogen to raise the system pressure at a rate of 250 psig max.
aiming for 2280 psig at the compressor suction indicated by PC-147A.
Meanwhile, slowly cool down reactor beds to 425oF.

2. Hold pressure at different stages and check system for leaks.

3. Shut off V-14-108 PSV bypass to flare and open up vapor line to V-14-110.
Slowly open bypass around check valve on the vapor line and let system
equalize with V-14-110 and shut off the above bypass valve after pressuring
up.
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4. Do not allow any gas bleed from system now. That may cause loss of H2S
content in system.

4.2.10.2 TEST PSVs IN STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM

Pressure safety valves in steam generation system of H-14-102 will be


pop-tested on line. Follow the procedure described in step 4.1.5.2 for testing
PSVs-386/442/443.

4.2.10.3 LINE UP AND PREPARE FEED PUMP

1. Line up P-14-102 suction from fractionator bottoms unconverted oil header.

2. Make sure fresh feed line isolation valve from V-14-101 to second stage feed
pump suction is tight shut close.

3. Open suction MOV-138 and open suction block valve at pump. Prime up the
pump and secure vents and drains shut.

4. Keep the discharge block valve shut.

5. Crack open the spillback valve FV-108 and allow a small quantity of
fractionator bottoms to flow back into the surge drum and allow the pump to
warm up.

Note : The quantity of flow can be noticed by the drop in the rate of fresh
VGO feed into the surge drum.

6. Increase the second stage feed stock by reducing the fractionator bottoms
unconverted oil flow. Build up the tower bottoms level to 85% indicated at
LC-137.

7. During feed introduction to the reactor the sharp drop in fractionator bottoms
level can be overcome by adjusting the following parameters.

 Hold maximum possible feed rate to first stage unit, so


that unconverted oil product will be proportionately
high.

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 Hold minimum feed rate to the second stage reactor


during start-up until the effluent flows back to the
distillation section.

 While starting the feed pump, minimize spill-back and


cut-in feed to reactor as quickly as possible.

8. Reduce V-14-101 feed surge drum level to 50% and hold level control
LC-101 on manual. Spill-back flow during P-14-102 start-up will cause a rise
in level in the surge drum.

4.2.10.4 FEED PUMP START-UP

Steam and Hydrogen consumption will rise sharply during the introduction of feed
to the unit. Concerned sections should be informed to assure their availability.

1. Reduce system pressure to 2100 psig, when oil feed is introduced into the
reactor, the system pressure will rise rapidly.

2. Open block valves at FV-110 and FV-236. Keep the last stop check valve
shut at manifold.

3. Activate HS-136 start-up bypass and latch open FV-236.

4. Start the feed pump on total spillback. Set FV-108 spill-back control on
automatic. Start P-14-114B standby pump to maintain the main pump driver
motor load within limit.

5. Shut off LV-137 fractionator bottom to tankage.

6. Open last stop check valve in feed manifold and cut in feed to reactor at a rate
of 15000 BPD.

7. Add burners in H-14-102 and maintain heater outlet temperature at 450oF.

8. After oil has passed through the heater, increase feed rate to 20000 BPD and
hold.

9. Control reactor system pressure by using depressuring valves HV-170/171.


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10. Maintain maximum recycle gas rate in the system.

11. Be alert for temperature waves in reactor beds as oil feed passes through the
catalyst bed where oil is absorbed by the dry catalyst. As the temperature
wave reaches the bottom of each catalyst bed, “pre-quench” the temperature
wave by opening the quench valve manually. Return the quench control to
automatic as soon as the temperature rise is brought under control.

12. As the system gets filled up, and liquid seals are ensured, line up LV-116A/B
of Hot High Pressure Separator (HHPS) and then LV-119 of Hot Low
Pressure Separator (HLPS).

13. At 20000 BPD feed rate, it takes about 20-30 minutes for level to appear in
the HHPS.

14. Add fans on EA-14-102A/B as required and set TC-438 at 145oF.

15. Monitor fractionator bottoms level drop. If required, shut spillback to surge
drum and increase feed rate to 23000 BPD.

16. Watch pump suction temperature at TI-338. Adjust HV297/298 and maintain
temperature at 380oF.

17. As the separators’ levels are stabilized and the effluent flows down to the H2S
stripper, increase system pressure slowly to normal operating pressure of 2280
psig.

18. Adjust fractionator heater firing. Total flow through the heater passes will
increase now.

19. Control fractionator bottoms level by opening back to unconverted oil storage.

20. Monitor the effect of fractionator bottoms entering the first stage feed surge
drum. This will be reflected in the drop of Hydrogen consumption in the first
stage. However, this effect will be only temporary.
.
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21. Line out LV-123 of cold high pressure separator (CHPS).

22. Line out LV-124 of CHPS and draw out condensate periodically.

23. Adjust stripping steam rate to T-14-101 and T-14-102 proportional to the
increase in the rate of flow in the tower bottoms.

4.2.10.5 RECYCLE GAS RATE

During unit start-up when feed rate is held at minimum, recycle gas rate should be
maintained high at a minimum of 5000 SCF/BBL of oil.

However, when the unit feed rate is normalized, maintain maximum recycle gas
rate possible to help better distribution in the catalyst beds which will in turn help
prolong catalyst life.

4.2.10.6 ADJUST THE REACTOR FEED AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURE

1. Start increasing the catalyst bed temperature at a rate of 50oF per hour until
T appears in the beds. Set the quench controller on automatic. Considerable
amount of activity is expected at about 580oF CAT. This will be reflected in
the increase of make-up Hydrogen consumption indicated at FC-129.

2. Thereafter, reduce the rate of increase to 10oF/hr and closely monitor the
activity in the beds.

3. Increase the feed rate to 38,000 BPD. The rate of increase shall be dictated by
the heater duty.

4. Warm up and commission P-14-102 HPRT.

5. As the conversion takes place in the catalyst beds, observe the following :-

 Distillate level appears in V-14-109 and monitor the


flow rate at FI-136. At design conversion level, the
estimated flow rate of this distillate will be 20% of the
unit feed rate. A corresponding reduction in flow at
V-14-108 bottoms will be indicated at FI-135.
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 Make-up Hydrogen consumption, indicated at FC-129.

 Increase in overhead condenser duty and top reflux rate


in T-14-101.

 Increase in overhead condenser duty and top reflux rate


in T-14-102.

 Increase in Naphtha feed to stabilizer.

 Drop in unconverted oil flow to storage.

 Drop in fractionator bottoms outlet temperature


indicated at TI-380.

6. Expected CAT will be 50-60oF less than first stage CAT.

7. Adjust fractionator conditions as follows,

 Increase both pumparounds watching the top reflux rate.

 Increase ATK product draw. Observe the draw-off


temperature.

 Increase reboiler duty of both light and heavy ATK


strippers to meet the ATK flash point requirement.

 Adjust reboiler duty of naphtha stabilizer for light


naphtha RVP. Adjust naphtha splitter reboiler duty for
light naphtha and heavy naphtha specifications.

 Confirm product quality by check samples.

8. Continue adjusting the reactor CAT to meet the desired unconverted oil flow
rate.

9. Balance both reactor CAT to suit the desired conversion level and second
stage feed recycle cut point (RCP).

10. Make sure the feed pumps discharge manifold at P-14-101B block valves are
not passing.
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10. Adjust T-14-101 top temperature and V-14-112 overhead accumulator


temperature as per product off gas analysis.

V-14-112 operating temperature can be in the range of 115oF-120oF. This


figure may vary according to the severity of the reactor operation.

4.2.11 NORMALIZE OPERATIONS

1. Set the reactor bed average temperature (BAT) in all four beds to flat profile.
2. Adjust E-14-107A/B bypass TV-213 to set the heater H-14-102 duty to a
minimum of 45oF.

3. Monitor recycle gas purity. Bleed to HR unit if required.

4. Adjust HV-297/HV-298 monitoring fractionator bottoms exit temperature to


second stage feed pump suction header indicated at TI-338. Control the
suction temperature of P-14-102 at 380oF.

5. As the unit gets stabilized, commission ACS controls in the system.

6. Check PSVs and depressuring valves in the system and make sure they are
holding.

7. Set all standby pumps on automatic.

8. Review all equipments interlock and maintenance bypass system in the ICS
panel.

9. Ensure steam tracing to lines, equipments and instrumentations system are


functioning normal.

10. Check all steam traps to ensure they are functioning normal.

11. Review all fire and safety equipment check list.

12. Review car seals check list.

13. Check all utility stations for hoses, steam lances etc.

14. Check on area housekeeping.


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4.3 START-UP BAR CHART AFTER A TURNAROUND


Page 1 of 2
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4.3 START-UP BAR CHART AFTER A TURNAROUND


Page 2 of 2
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4.3 START-UP BAR CHART AFTER A TURNAROUND


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HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

5.0 SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE


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5.0 SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE

5.1 TURNAROUND SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE......................... 14-5-01 to 15-5-10

5.1.1 INFORM CONCERNED SECTIONS ......................................................... 14-5-01


5.1.2 REDUCE UNIT FEED RATE .................................................................... 14-5-01
5.1.3 COOL DOWN REACTORS TO 650oF AND
ADJUST FRACTIONATOR ...................................................................... 14-5-02
5.1.4 SHUT DOWN SECOND STAGE FEED
AND STRIP THE REACTOR .................................................................... 14-5-03
5.1.5 SHUT DOWN FIRST STAGE FEED
AND STRIP THE REACTOR .................................................................... 14-5-04
5.1.6 COOL DOWN FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM
ON FLUSHING OIL .................................................................................. 14-5-04
5.1.7 SHUT DOWN FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM
OPERATIONS ........................................................................................... 14-5-04
5.1.8 HYDROGEN STRIPPING OF REACTORS ............................................... 14-5-06
5.1.9 COOL DOWN REACTOR & SHUT DOWN
R.G. COMPRESSOR .................................................................................. 14-5-08
5.1.10 NEUTRALIZE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL
EQUIPMENT .............................................................................................. 14-5-08
5.1.11 DUMP CATALYST .................................................................................... 14-5-09
5.1.12 ISOLATE AND PREPARE ALL EQUIPMENT .......................................... 14-5-10

5.2 SHUT DOWN FOR CATALYST REGENERATION ........................ 14-5-11 to 14-5-11

5.3 SHUTDOWN OF ONLY SECOND STAGE ....................................... 14-5-12 to 14-5-13

5.4 SHUTDOWN OF ONLY FIRST STAGE ........................................... 14-5-14 to 14-5-16

5.5 SHORT PERIOD SHUTDOWN .......................................................... 14-5-17 to 14-5-17

5.6 IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ................................... 14-5-18 to 14-5-18

5.7 SHUTDOWN BAR CHART FOR TURNAROUND............................ 14-5-19 to 14-5-21


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5.1 TURNAROUND SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE

Turnaround is a planned shutdown and every planned shutdown requires certain


preparations which include, but not limited to, operating procedures, blind lists,
Inspection work lists and pre-shutdown maintenance activities. A list of all such
preparatory jobs will be prepared in advance and completed before the
commencement of the turnaround.

5.1.1 INFORM CONCERNED SECTIONS

Inform unit-13 regarding feed reduction and unit-18 regarding reduction in make-up
Hydrogen requirement. Inform utilities regarding reduction in 900 psig steam
consumptions and 450 psig/150 psig steam production.

5.1.2 REDUCE UNIT FEED RATE

1. Reduce first stage feed rate to minimum design feed of 20000 BPD at a rate of
5000 BPD per hour. Reduce reactor CAT by 2oF per 1000 BPD of feed. Hold
second stage feed rate and reduce CAT at rate of 1.5oF per 1000 BPD fresh
feed reduction in first stage.

2. Reduce product draw rate by 750 BPD for 1000 BPD fresh feed reduction to
keep the products on specification even though the unconverted oil flow will
be more than normal. Monitor products draw-off temperature, overflash rate
and fractionator bottoms outlet temperature for products quality predications.

3. Adjust both pumparound duties observing tower top reflux rate.

4. Adjust both ATK reboilers duty and stripping steam rate to towers.

5. Adjust reboiler duties of T-14-106/T-14-107.

6. When Naphtha feed to stabilizer drops to less than 5000 BPD bypass splitter
T-14-107.

1. Reduce reboiler E-14-130 duty slowly and bypass it.


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2. Keep the splitter tower on total reflux and reduce overhead receiver
V-14-124 level to minimum and shut off light naphtha product to storage.

3. Route splitter bottoms to whole naphtha tankage.

4. Reduce T-14-107 level to minimum.

5. Reduce T-14-106 level to minimum and shut off feed to splitter and block off
FV-176.

6. Open stabilizer bottoms jumpover to P-14-123 suction header and close


splitter bottom MOV-213.

7. Switch HS-282 for T-14-106 stabilizer level control to LV-147.

5.1.3 COOL DOWN REACTORS TO 650oF AND ADJUST FRACTIONATOR

Caution : Observe safe reactor cooling rates.

1. Start cooling down the reactors until 650oF. Adjust heater firing as required.
(Cooling of first stage rate 30oF/hr and second stage cooling rate 25oF/hr).

2. Meanwhile adjust fractionator system as follows.

1. Route ATK product to slops or assigned off-spec tankage.

2. Route naphtha product to slop.

3. Shut off stripping steam to towers and open steam superheater coil vents
to silencers at H-14-101/102/103. Shut off desuperheaters.

4. Reduce H2S stripper feed inlet temperature to 300oF by adjusting


TC-316. Keep tower on total reflux. Route excess level in V-14-112 to
the stabilizer, T-14-106.
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5. Reduce H-14-103 outlet to 350oF at a rate of 50oF/hr.

6. Stop ATK pumps. Bypass reboilers E-14-120 and E-14-122.

7. Switch fractionator bottoms to feed tank.

8. As the naphtha flow to stabilizer reduces, bypass reboiler E-14-128.

9. Stop both pumparound pumps.

10. Keep tower on total reflux.

11. Depressure T-14-106 and 107 to flare. Pump out accumulated level in
towers to slop.

12. Stop P-14-118 when interface levels are down to minimum.

5.1.4 SHUT DOWN SECOND STAGE FEED AND STRIP THE REACTOR

1. Stop feed pump P-14-102 when reactor temperature reaches 650oF. Adjust
H-14-102 firing.

2. Block off feed pump discharge at FV-110 manifold and isolate spillback
FV-108.

3. Maintain H-14-103 pass flow above the minimum flow requirement by


opening HV-191 T-14-101. This will also ensure minimum flow rate for
the bottoms pumps P-14-114/P-14-113.

4. As all the oil is swept off from the reactor beds, proceed with Hydrogen
stripping of the reactor catalyst. Maintain recycle gas rate maximum.

Refer step 5.1.8.


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5.1.5 SHUTDOWN FIRST STAGE FEED AND STRIP THE REACTOR

1. Continue cooling the first stage reactor aiming for 650oF.

2. Reduce feed surge drum, V-14-101 level to minimum.

3. Stop feed pump P-14-101A when reactor temperature reaches 650oF. Adjust
H-14-101 firing.

4. Block off feed pump discharge at FV-109 manifold.

5. Water injection system V-14-105 level reduce to minimum. Stop Polysulfide


injection pump and shut down water injection pump P-14-105. Isolate water
injection valves to EA-14-101. Block off interface control valves LV-107 and
LV-165.

6. As all the oil from the reactor beds is swept off proceed with Hydrogen
stripping of the catalyst. Maintain recycle gas rate maximum. Refer step
5.1.8.

5.1.6 COOL DOWN FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ON FLUSHING OIL

1. Continue fractionator internal circulation and reduce H-14-103 outlet


temperature to 180oF.

2. Switch fractionator bottoms to off spec tankage.

3. Start taking flushing oil to P-14-114 suction, continue circulation and displace
all the VGO from the system.

5.1.7 SHUT DOWN FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM OPERATIONS

5.1.7.1 STOP CIRCULATION

As the Hydrogen stripping of reactor catalyst is in progress, oil flow from the
reactor systems to the distillation section will become nil.
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1. Block off the following control valves

LV-119 of V-14-108
LV-164 of V-14-110
LV-129 of V-14-111

2. Minimize levels in the towers T-14-101/102 and overhead receivers


V-14-112/V-14-117/V-14-122 and V-14-124.

3. Shut down H-14-103 main burners and keep the pilot burners on to hold
fire box hot for steaming requirement.

4. Shut down P-14-113 and P-14-114 and shut off the discharge valves.

5. Shut off the circulation jumpover to T-14-101.

5.1.7.2 DEPRESSURE SYSTEM AND DRAIN

1. Depressure T-14-101 and overhead system to flare. Block off gas line at
battery limit.

2. Shut off fuel gas make-up at PV-182 and depressure fractionator system to
flare.

3. Transfer all hydrocarbon levels from overhead receivers (V-14-


112/122/124) to main towers and then pump out to slop.

4. Open up HV-200 and steam flush the heater passes, pump out the tower
bottoms to off spec tank.

5. Drain out the rest of the contents to pumpout system.

6. Drain out feed preheat exchangers, pumparound streams, reboilers at low


points.

Caution : for T-14-101 system H2S will be present. Do not drain to an


open system
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5.1.7.3 STEAMING

Steaming-out will be done in two steps. First steam out the system to flare and then
switch to atmosphere. Use PV-446 and back up 150 psig steam from refinery
header into stripping steam header. Keep the pilot burners on in heater H-14-103.

1. T-14-101: Line up the system to flare. Open PSV-170 bypass and PV-173
jumpover to flare. Open FV-140, steam the system to flare for 8 hours and
then continue steaming to atmosphere. Add steam hoses at V-14-112.

2. T-14-102: Line up the system to flare. Open PSV-180/181 bypass and PV-
228. Continue steaming using 150 psig emergency steam through heater
passes for 4 hours and switch to atmosphere. Add steam hoses at V-14-117.
Open FV-163 and continue steaming the tower. Open up FV-169 at T-14-105.
Fix additional steam hoses at T-14-103/T-14-104.

3. T-14-106: Open PSV-194 bypass and PV-380 jumpover to flare. Install


steam hoses and steam system to flare for 4 hours and then switch to
atmosphere. Fix additional steam hose at V-14-122.

4. T-14-107: Open up PSV-198 bypass and PV-199B to flare. Install steam


hose, steam system to flare for 4 hours, then switch to atmosphere. Add steam
hoses at V-14-124.

5. Exchangers and reboilers: Segregate each system, provide additional steam


hoses and steam out.

5.1.8 HYDROGEN STRIPPING OF REACTORS

5.1.8.1 After stopping the feed pump, continue gas circulation at maximum rate for 6 hours
at temperature 650oF.

5.1.8.2 H-14-101/102, 150 psig steam coil will be venting at silencers to atmosphere. Rest
of the 450 psig steam generation system will be operating normal.
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5.1.8.3 Increase reactor bed temperature to 750oF at a rate of 25oF/hr and hold for 10 hours
for catalyst stripping of hydrocarbons. Liquid accumulation in the separators will
stop by this time.

5.1.8.4 Depressure cold low pressure system to flare. Proceed with Nitrogen purging of
V-14-108/V-14-110/V-14-111.

5.1.8.5 Start cooling down reactors 50oF/hr until 400oF bed temperature.

5.1.8.6 Check recycle gas for CO content.

1. If more than 10 ppm, hold reactor temperature above 400oF to avoid formation
of carbonyls.

2. Block off

Make-up Hydrogen to system.


Water injection at manifold.
Feed manifold including P-14-101B.
High pressure separator level control valves.

3. Depressure system to flare. AT 700 psig system pressure, shut down feed
heater, and stop recycle compressor and block off suction and discharge.

4. Isolate steam generation system from 450 psig steam header, open vents to
atmosphere.

5. Depressure reactor system to flare header pressure and introduce Nitrogen at


compressor discharge and purge for one hour. Purge compressor separately.

6. Pressure up system with N2 to 100 psig and depressure to 5 psig. Repeat the
step once again.

Repressure system to 300 psig and start recycle compressor. Light up the feed
heater and hold reactor temperature above 400oF. Check the recycle gas for
CO content. If CO is still above 10 ppm, repeat above steps until the CO
content is less than 10 ppm.
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5.1.8.7 At 400oF and system under recycle gas circulation at normal operating pressure, if
CO content in recycle gas is less than 10 ppm, proceed with further cooling of the
reactor beds. Step no.5.1.8.6 needs not to be followed in this case.

5.1.9 COOL DOWN REACTOR & SHUT DOWN R.G. COMPRESSOR

Caution : Follow reactor cooling rate and pressure limitations.

Once the system is free of CO content

1. Shutdown feed heater, bypass feed effluent exchanger as required.

2. Open vents to silencers at the steam generation system.

3. Maximize recycle gas purge to reactor annulus for the shell metal cooling,
bypass E-14-105 by opening HV-160.

4. Reduce system pressure top 675 psig before any of the skin temperature drops
below 250oF.

5. When reactor beds and skin metal temperature is within 10oF of the recycle
compressor discharge temperature, shut down the compressor and depressure
system to flare. Keep the compressor DGS system separation gas (nitrogen
buffer gas) commissioned while the lube oil system still in commissioned.

6. Introduce Nitrogen at compressor discharge and purge system to flare.


Pressure up system to 25 psig and depressure to flare and repeat once again.

7. Under slight +ve Nitrogen sweep, proceed with preparation for blinding
system for maintenance.

5.1.10 Neutralize austenitic stainless steel equipment as per procedure. Refer to


Chapter-9.
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5.1.11 DUMP CATALYST

Catalyst may be dumped either wet or dry.

5.1.11.1 WET DUMPING PROCEDURE

1. Cool down reactor beds to 120oF, stop recycle compressor and depressure
system.

2. Purge system with Nitrogen.

3. Under Nitrogen sweep, install reactor isolation blinds.

4. Under Nitrogen sweep, remove reactor feed inlet spool and fill the reactor
with soda ash solution up to the top manway.

5. Soak for 4 hours.

6. Proceed with dumping the catalyst.

Note : For detailed procedure for catalyst wet dumping, refer to Chapter-9.

7. Neutralize reactor effluent exchangers E-14-105/E-14-102A/B (E-14-110/


E-14-107A/B in second stages) shell and tube side while system is under +ve
Nitrogen pressure.

8. Proceed with the maintenance activity in the rest of the system.

5.1.11.2 DRY DUMPING PROCEDURE

1. Cool down reactor beds and wall metal temperature to as low as 100oF.

2. Depressure system to flare and purge with Nitrogen.

3. Install reactor isolation blinds. Follow catalyst dry dumping procedure as


described in Chapter-9.

4. Neutralize reactor effluent exchangers.


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5. On completion of dumping the catalyst, wash reactor walls and internals with
soda ash solution while under Nitrogen atmosphere.

6. Allow reactor to ventilate and proceed with the maintenance activities.

Caution : Men working should use life supporting equipments.

5.1.12 ISOLATE AND PREPARE ALL EQUIPMENT for maintenance as per detailed
procedure provided in the unit shutdown file.
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5.2 SHUTDOWN FOR CATALYST REGENERATION

Reactor catalyst regeneration can be carried out only for one stage at a time. In
order to minimize the total down time period of the unit, any one stage can be
shutdown first to carry out the catalyst regeneration while the other stage operates
on single stage. In such case distillation section continues to operate until both
stages are shutdown.

5.2.1 SHUT DOWN THE UNIT

5.2.1.1 Carry out steps 5.1.1 to 5.1.8.5 and line out reactor bed temperature at 400oF.

5.2.1.2 Reduce system pressure, at 700 psig, shut down feed heater and stop recycle
compressor.

5.2.1.3 Depressure system to flare and introduce Nitrogen and purge system.

5.2.1.4 Under Nitrogen sweep, swing regeneration spools, install isolation blinds as per
blind list.

5.2.1.5 Regenerate the catalyst as per normal procedure. Refer to Chapter No.9 for detailed
procedure for catalyst regeneration.

5.2.1.6 On completion of catalyst regeneration process, cool down reactor beds to 10oF
within the recycle compressor discharge temperature.

5.2.1.7 Stop recycle gas compressor and depressure the system. Retain regeneration piping
for catalyst reduction process.

5.2.1.8 Install blinds for reactor isolation, open top inlet spool and let the reactor ventilate.
Add air hoses at the top of the first bed, build up O2 level to normal atmosphere and
allow man entry for maintenance activity.

5.2.1.9 Neutralize reactor effluent exchangers E-14-105/E-14-102A/B (E-14-110/


E-14-107A/B in second stage) shell and tube side while system is under Nitrogen
positive pressure.

5.2.1.10 Proceed with the maintenance activity in the rest of the system.
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5.3 SHUTDOWN OF ONLY SECOND STAGE FOR TURNAROUND

This section describes the procedure to shut down second stage unit while the first
stage unit continues to operate on single stage once through mode. However, at
design feed rate the unconverted oil product rate of 40% of the fresh feed processed
will be in the range of 15000 BPD. Unit feed rate shall be adjusted to reduce
unconverted oil rate if required.

5.3.1 Inform concerned sections regarding the change in make-up Hydrogen requirement
and steam production.

5.3.2 Reduce second stage reactor CAT at a rate of 20oF/hr. Hold feed rate same.

5.3.3 Reduce product draw-off rates as required, monitor fractionator overflash, product
draw-off temperature and tower bottoms temperature.

5.4.4 Hold tower bottoms level by adjusting unconverted oil flow. Start P-14-114B
standby pump to maintain the main pump motor load within limit.

5.3.5 Adjust both pumparounds duty.

5.3.6 Adjust ATK reboilers’ duty for flash point.

5.3.7 Adjust T-14-106/T-14-107 reboilers.

5.3.8 At 600oF reactor CAT stop feed pump, P-14-102 and isolate discharge and
spill-back valves.

5.3.9 Adjust stripping steam to towers.

5.3.10 Stop fractionator bottoms spare pump P-14-114B.

5.3.11 Hold recycle gas rate to reactor at maximum.

5.3.12 When no more oil appears in V-14-107 proceed with Hydrogen stripping of the
reactor catalyst. For Hydrogen stripping and reactor cooling refer to section
5.1.8  5.1.9.
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5.3.13 On completion of Hydrogen stripping of the catalyst, while reactor cooling is in


progress block off the following,

LV-116 ABC control valves at V-14-107


LV-119 control valve at V-14-108
LV-123/LV-124 at V-14-109
V-14-108 vapor line to V-14-110 at manifold. Float V-14-108 to flare.

5.3.14 During reactor cooling when H-14-102 arch temperate is less than 850oF, isolate
steam generation coils from rest of the unit under operation. Vent coils to
atmosphere.

5.3.15 For reactor cooling and follow up activities refer to section 5.1.10.

5.3.16 DUMP CATALYST

For catalyst handling procedure refer to section 5.1.11.


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5.4 SHUTDOWN OF ONLY FIRST STAGE FOR TURNAROUND

This sections describes the procedure to shut down first stage unit and switch over
second stage unit operation to process fresh feed on single stage mode.

5.4.1 REDUCE FEED RATE

1. Reduce first stage feed rate 5000 BPD per hour with corresponding reduction
in reactor CAT at a rate of 1.5oF per 1000 BPD feed reduction.

2. Reduce second stage CAT by 1oF for every 1000 B/D feed reduction in first
stage.

3. Adjust product draw-off rate. Monitor overflash rate, draw-off and tower
bottoms temperatures.

4. When naphtha product rate drops below 6000 BPD bypass splitter T-14-107
and route stabilizer bottoms to whole naphtha tankage.

5. Adjust reboilers as required.

5.4.2 COOL DOWN REACTORS

1. At 19000 BPD fresh feed to 1st stage, proceed with cooling down both
reactors to line out at 600oF CAT.

2. Start P-14-114B to keep P-14-114A motor load within limit.

3. Shut off stripping steam to towers.

4. Stop both pumparound pumps.

5. Route fractionator bottoms to VGO feed tanks.


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6. Stop ATK product pumps and bypass reboilers.

7. Reduce H-14-103 outlet temperature to 400oF.

8. Open FV-105 and commission fractionator bottoms recycle to surge drum at a


rate of 10000 BPD. Fresh VGO rate will fall back to 9000 BPD now.

9. Reduce second stage feed rate to 19000 BPD, hold reactor CAT at 600oF.

5.4.3 PREPARE FEED SYSTEM FOR SWITCH OVER

1. Line up P-14-101B for second stage service.

2. Hold suction line-up from surge drum.

3. Select HS-14-101 for first stage service, thus enabling MOV-137 sequence
logic for the pump security while it is in service for second stage.

4. Reduce feed surge drum level to 60%.

5. Increase fractionator bottom level to 80%.

5.4.4 SHUT DOWN FEED TO FIRST STAGE

1. Stop feed pump P-14-101A. Adjust H-14-101 firing.

2. Open HC-191 for fractionaotr circulation to T-14-101, hold H-14-103 passes


flow within safe limit.

3. Stop water injection to EA-14-101 and block off LV-107.

4. Commission water injection to second stage effluent cooler EA-14-102. Line


up LV-124 to draw out sour water.
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5.4.5 INTRODUCE FRESH FEED TO SECOND STAGE

1. Override FSLL-236 to prevent FV-236 from accidental shut off during pump
switch over.

2. Keep both pumps for fractionator bottoms.

3. Start P-14-101B on spill back

4. Switch feed delivery from P-14-102 to P-14-101B by opening FV-108 and


closing FV-107. Shut down P-14-102. Enable FSLL-236.

5. Closely monitor R-14-102 bed temperature.

6. Slowly back off recycle feed to surge drum and allow fresh VGO to increase
back to 19000 BPD.

7. Follow normal start-up procedure to line out second stage on fresh feed single
stage mode and adjust distillation system accordingly.

5.4.6 HYDROGEN STRIPPING AND REACTOR COOLING

Refer to section 5.1.8 to 5.1.9 for Hydrogen stripping and reactor cooling.

1. On completion of Hydrogen stripping and while the reactor cooling is in


progress, isolate first stage system from L.P. System by blocking off
LV-104ABC control valves.

2. Hold E-14-104 shell side floating with H2S stripper feed line until 1st stage
system is depressured.

3. During reactor cooling, when H-14-101 arch temperature is less than 850oF,
isolate steam generation coils from the rest of the unit under operation. Vent
coils to atmosphere. Leave E-14-103 shell vent open.

5.4.7 FOR REACTOR COOLING, CATALYST HANDLING REFER TO 5.1.11.


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5.5 SHORT PERIOD SHUTDOWN

At times, a shutdown may be necessitated due to problems elsewhere such as


shortage of feed availability or problem in units supplying utilities, Hydrogen etc.
This situation is still a planned shutdown and is different in approach from an
emergency shutdown. The duration of such shutdowns is seldom long and start-up
is relatively easy.

In the case of a planned short period shutdown the unit will be brought down in a
normal and safe manner. The reactor systems will be cooled down to 450oF with
the recycle compressors in service and the pressure dropped to 675 psig in
accordance with the cooling limitations. The fractionator section will be kept under
hot oil circulation with flushing oil.

The steps 5.1.1 through 5.16 will apply for this procedure with additional cooling
and depressuring action for the reactors.
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5.6 IMPORTANT SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

All general safety precautions relevant to shutdown of a process unit are applicable
here. (Refer to Basic Operator Training manual).

Additionally, the following points are important for the Hydrocracker unit.

1. Reactor system pressure

During shutdown operation reactor system pressure should be brought down to


25% of the design pressure i.e. 670 psig before any of the skin thermocouples
reach 250oF.

2. Reactor cooling

During any reactor cooling steps, the cooling rates should be kept within the
following limits.

Reactor outer shell metal temperature


Below 250oF Above 250oF

Feed temperature Less than 15oF Less than 25oF


change per 15 min. per 15 min.

Feed temperature Not less than metal temperature minus 200oF.

Bottle purge gas Not less than metal temperature minus 200oF
temperature.

Example : If the metal temperature is 500oF the feed and purge gas
temperatures should not be below 300oF.
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Page 1 of 3

5.7 SHUTDOWN BAR CHART FOR TURNAROUND


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5.7 SHUTDOWN BAR CHART FOR TURNAROUND


HYDROCRACKER UNIT-14
SHUTDOWN BAR CHART FOR TURNAROUND (TYPICAL)
(SECOND STAGE)

DAY NO. 1 2 3 4 5
SR. M A N M A N M A N M A N M A N
NO. ACTIVITY HOURS 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120

1 Feed temperature reduction at 5000 BPD/hr and 4


1.5oF/1000 BPD feed reduction

2 20000 BPD (min) feed and temperature reduction 2.5


to 650oF at 25oF/hr

3 Stop P-101A at 650oF and hold for 6 hours 6

4 Increase reactor temperature to 750oF at 25oF/hr 4

5 Hydrocarbon stripping at 750oF 10

6 Reactor pressure reduction to 700 psig at 250 psig/hr 7

Reactor temperature reduction from 750oF to 400oF


7 at 50oF/hr and cooling down after CO reduction 56
to < 10 PPM

8 Stop C-14-102, depressure and pressure with Nitrogen 4

9 Reactor blinding under N2 positive pressure 16

Note :
TIMINGS ARE BASED ON HCR EOR OPERATING CONDITION WITH 42,500 BPD
FIRST STAGE FEED RATE AT 782 F CAT AND 40,000 BPD
SECOND STAGE FEED RATE AT 734.5 F.
FRACTIONATOR FEED HEATER TLT AT 652 F
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Page 3 of 3

5.7 SHUTDOWN BAR CHART FOR TURNAROUND


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HYDROCRACKER UNIT - 14

6.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES


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Page 1 of 2

6.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

6.1 GENERAL..................................................................................... 14-6-01 to 14-6-02

6.2 RECYCLE COMPRESSOR FAILURE ........................................ 14-6-03 to 14-6-07

6.2.1 FIRST STAGE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR FAILURE .................... 14-6-04


6.2.2 FIRST STAGE RECYCLE COMPRESSOR FAILURE WHILE
FEED & MAKE-UP HYDROGEN ARE NOT AVAILABLE ................... 14-6-05
6.2.3 SECOND STAGE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR FAILURE ............... 14-6-06
6.2.4 SECOND STAGE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR
FAILURE ALONG WITH FEED FAILURE ............................................. 14-6-07

6.3 LOSS OF MAKE-UP HYDROGEN............................................. 14-6-08 to 14-6-09

6.4 FEED FAILURE .......................................................................... 14-6-10 to 14-6-12

6.4.1 FIRST STAGE FEED PUMP FAILURE.................................................... 14-6-10


6.4.2 SECOND STAGE FEED PUMP FAILURE .............................................. 14-6-11
6.4.3 LOSS OF HOT VGO FEED ..................................................................... 14-6-12

6.5 POWER FAILURE ......................................................................... 14-6-13 to 14-6-16

6.5.1 EFFECTS ................................................................................................. 14-6-13

6.5.1.1 REACTOR SIDE ......................................................................... 14-6-13


6.5.1.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM ........................................................... 14-6-13
6.5.1.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ....................................................... 14-6-14
6.5.1.4 STABILIZER SYSTEM ............................................................... 14-6-14
6.5.1.5 SPLITTER SYSTEM ................................................................... 14-6-15

6.5.2 ACTION ................................................................................................... 14-6-15

6.5.2.1 REACTOR SIDE ......................................................................... 14-6-15


6.5.2.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM ........................................................... 14-6-15
6.5.2.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ....................................................... 14-6-16
6.5.2.4 STABILIZER AND SPLITTER SYSTEM ................................... 14-6-16
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Page 2 of 2
6.6 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE .................................................... 14-6-17 to 14-6-22

6.6.1 EFFECTS .................................................................................................. 14-6-17

6.6.1.1 REACTOR SECTION .................................................................. 14-6-17


6.6.1.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM ............................................................. 14-6-18
6.6.1.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ........................................................ 14-6-19
6.6.1.4 STABILIZER SYSTEM ............................................................... 14-6-19
6.6.1.5 SPLITTER SYSTEM .................................................................... 14-6-20

6.6.2 ACTION .................................................................................................... 14-6-22

6.6.2.1 REACTOR SIDE .......................................................................... 14-6-20


6.6.2.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM ............................................................. 14-6-21
6.6.2.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM ........................................................ 14-6-21

6.7 UTILITIES FAILURE ................................................................. 14-6-21 to 14-6-28

6.7.1 900 PSIG STEAM FAILURE ..................................................................... 14-6-21


6.7.2 450 PSIG STEAM FAILURE .................................................................. 14-6-22
6.7.3 150 PSIG STEAM FAILURE ..................................................................... 14-6-23
6.7.4 60 PSIG STEAM FAILURE ....................................................................... 14-6-23
6.7.5 SEA WATER FAILURE ............................................................................. 14-6-24
6.7.6 CIRCULATING COOLING WATER FAILURE ........................................ 14-6-25
6.7.7 PROCESS WATER FAILURE ................................................................... 14-6-25
6.7.8 UTILITY WATER FAILURE ..................................................................... 14-6-26
6.7.9 BOILER FEED WATER FAILURE ............................................................ 14-6-26
6.7.10 FUEL GAS FAILURE ................................................................................ 14-6-27
6.7.11 FUEL OIL FAILURE .................................................................................. 14-6-27
6.7.12 NITROGEN FAILURE ............................................................................... 14-6-28
6.7.13 FLUSHING OIL FAILURE ......................................................................... 14-6-28
6.7.14 PLANT AIR FAILURE .............................................................................. 14-6-28

6.8 REACTOR TEMPERATURE RUNAWAY ................................. 14-6-29 to 14-6-29

6.9 EQUIPMENT RUPTURE OR FIRE IN THE


HIGH PRESSURE SECTION ....................................................... 14-6-30 to 14-6-30

6.10 HEATER TUBE FAILURE ........................................................... 14-6-31 to 14-6-32

6.10.1 REACTOR FEED HEATER H-14-101/H-14-102 ........................................ 14-6-31


6.10.2 FRACTIONATOR FEED HEATER H-14-103 ............................................ 14-6-32

6.11 PUMP FAILURE ............................................................................ 14-6-33 to 14-6-40

6.12 EXCHANGER FAILURE ................................................................ 14-6-41 to 14-6-50

6.13 AMMONIA INJECTION FAILURE ………………………………… 14-6-51 to 14-6-51


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6.1 GENERAL

Emergencies are unexpected events which, in a normal operating unit, can be


caused due to failure of feed or utilities, failure of mechanical equipment, leaks of
inflammable or hazardous materials, fire incidents, etc.

It is not practical to predict every type of emergency and to recommend procedures


to handle every situation. Certain major emergencies will require an emergency
shutdown of the whole unit whereas some others may require only a partial
shutdown, while in some other situations the unit can be kept in operation with
some adjustments to unit capacity and operating conditions.

A proper understanding of the effects of known major failures and the acceptable
course of action will help operating personnel to evaluate any abnormal situation
and to take necessary action quickly to protect plant and personnel.

Operator experience, sound thinking and fast action will avert accidents and havoc
during an emergency. Operating personnel should always be prepared for
emergencies in their plants. Preparedness comes from learning and this learning
process is best programmed in the following sequence.

1. Type of emergency
2. Effects of the emergency
3. Immediate actions
4. Follow-up actions

In this chapter, certain emergency situations have been identified as listed in the
following pages. The actions recommended are to be used as guidelines only
because the situation arising out of an emergency can be complex which will
require on-the-spot judgment and decision, taking into consideration all factors and
information available at that point of time.

Hydrocracker is a high pressure, high temperature operation with Hydrogen which


has a high flammability range.
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Emergency procedures in the hydrocracker unit should be aimed at preventing fire


hazards due to thermal shocks, personnel injuries, equipment damage, heater
coking and excessive catalyst fouling. The following immediate steps should
protect the catalyst and equipment during most upsets.

1. Cool down the reactor

Reduce furnace firing or shut down the heater to keep reactor temperature
under control. The recommended reactor cooling rate can be exceeded in
order to gain control of the system. Once the situation is under control,
normal cooling rate restrictions should be followed.

2. Sweep out hydrocarbons from the catalyst

Maintain recycle gas flow through the system if the machine is available.
Because any time the unit is shut down, efforts should be made to strip off as
much hydrocarbon as possible from the catalyst beds.

3. Protect reactor shell

Prevent overheating and sulfide corrosion of the reactor shell by maintaining


purge gas flow through the reactor annulus.

4. Depressure the system safely

If depressuring of the system is necessary, remember to stay within safe


limits.
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6.2 RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR FAILURE.

EMERGENCY HANDLING PHILOSOPHY

Loss of recycle gas compressor for the first stage is the most serious emergency
in the hydrocracker unit, apart from a major fire or equipment failure.

Failure to restart the compressor immediately can lead to a complete shutdown of


the whole unit.

Immediate corrective steps to prevent a possible runaway temperature are :-

1. to depressure the reactor system

2. to continue oil feed flow to the reactors to cool the catalyst.

Close attention is required to prevent the unconverted effluent oil entering the
second stage reactor because fresh feed entering the second stage reactor can cause
excessive heat liberation and can even lead to a runaway temperature in the second
stage. To prevent this, action should follow in parallel to cool down the second
stage reactor and shut down the feed pump P-14-102.

Products from distillation section should be re-routed to off-spec tankage and the
fractionator system should be cooled down by closed circulation.

If the first stage recycle compressor requires major repairs and long delay is
anticipated, second stage can be re-started to operate on single stage once through
or single stage recycle mode.

Loss of recycle gas compressor for the second stage can be handled by the
corrective actions in the second stage section with adjustments carried out in the
distillation section for operating the first stage unit on single stage.
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6.2.1 FIRST STAGE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR FAILURE

EFFECTS

Failure of recycle gas flow to the reactor can cause immediate rise in catalyst
temperature. Unless quick corrective action is taken, it can lead to uncontrollable
runaway temperature resulting in the coking up of the catalyst and causing severe
damage to reactor internals and connected equipments exposed to the excessive
temperature.

ACTION

1. If the compressor shutdown is initiated on logic sequence where


suction/discharge/spill back MOVs close, keep the buffer gas (nitrogen)
supply to the DGS system commissioned.

2. Ensure feed heater H-14-101 has tripped off on interlock action.

3. Depressure system rapidly - shut off make-up Hydrogen to minimum


(250KSCF/HR flow for reactor annulus).

4. Maximize oil feed to reactor. Open feed effluent exchanger E-14-102A/B


bypass.

5. Stop water injection.

6. Shut off stripping steam to towers and open steam vents to silencers.

7. Route products to off-spec tankage and shut down product pumps when
column/vessel levels are low.

8. Cool down second stage reactor and when it is 150oF below operating
temperature, stop feed pump P-14-102. Line out reactor on hot gas circulation
at 600oF.

9. When first stage system pressure falls below 1500 psig stop feed pump.
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10. If the recycle compressor can not be restarted, continue depressuring the
system to flare and introduce Nitrogen to reactor.

11. Establish hot oil circulation in fractionator system, line out H-14-103 outlet at
400oF.

6.2.2 FIRST STAGE RECYCLE COMPRESSOR FAILURE WHILE FEED AND MAKE-UP
HYDROGEN ARE NOT AVAILABLE

EFFECTS

The effects are similar as in section 6.2.1. The reactor temperature rise will be
faster and can lead to runaway temperature unless quick corrective action is taken.
Second stage reactor system pressure will drop fast due to loss of make-up
Hydrogen.

ACTION

1. Ensure feed heater H-14-101 has tripped off on interlock action.

2. Depressure system rapidly.

3. Shut down second stage feed heater H-14-102.

4. Shut off bleed gas if open in second stage.

5. Shut down second stage feed pump P-14-102.

6. Shut off stripping steam to towers and open steam vents to silencers.

7. Stop water injection to EA-14-101.

8. When first stage system pressure drops to flare, introduce Nitrogen to reactor
sweeping to flare.
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9. Line out second stage reactor temperature at 400oF. Shut down recycle gas
compressor if system pressure drops < 675 psig.

10. Line out fractionator on hot oil circulation with H-14-103 outlet at 400oF.

6.2.3 SECOND STAGE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR FAILURE

EFFECTS

Failure of recycle gas flow to the reactor can cause immediate rise in catalyst
temperature. Unless quick corrective action is taken, it can lead to uncontrollable
runaway temperature resulting in the coking up of the catalyst and causing severe
damage to reactor internals and connected equipments exposed to high temperature.

ACTION

1. If the compressor shutdown is initiated on logic sequence where


suction/discharge/spill back MOVs close, keep the buffer gas (nitrogen) supply to
the DGS system commissioned.

2. Ensure feed heater H-14-102 has tripped off on interlock action.

3. Depressure system rapidly. Shut off make-up Hydrogen to minimum


(250KSCF/HR flow for reactor annulus).

4. Maximize oil feed to reactor. Open feed effluent exchanger E-14-107A/B


bypass.

5. Stop water injection if it was in service.

6. Isolate steam generation and 150 psig steam superheater coils of H-14-102
from the rest of the system and open up vents to silencer.

7. Reduce products draw off rates to keep on-spec conditions. Control


fractionator level by bleeding to unconverted oil storage. Start P-114B pump
to prevent P-114A motor overloading.
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8. Continue depressuring the reactor system when system pressure falls below
1500 psig, stop the feed pump P-14-102.

9. If attempts to restart the compressor fails, depressure the system to flare and
introduce Nitrogen to reactor.

6.2.4 SECOND STAGE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR FAILURE ALONG WITH FEED
FAILURE

EFFECTS

The effects are similar as described in section 6.2.3. The reactor temperature rise
will be faster and can lead to runaway temperature unless quick corrective action is
taken.

ACTION

1. If the compressor shutdown is initiated on logic sequence where


suction/discharge/spillback MOVs close, keep the buffer gas (nitrogen)
supply to the DGS system commissioned.

2. Ensure feed heater H-14-102 has tripped off on interlock action.

3. Depressure system rapidly.

4. Stop water injection if it was in service.

5. Isolate steam generation and 150 psig steam superheater coils from the rest of
the system and open up vents to silencer.

6. Reduce product draw off rates to keep on-spec conditions.

7. Open HV-191 to keep H-14-103 passes flow within safe limit.

8. If attempts to restart the compressor fails, depressure the system to flare and
introduce Nitrogen.
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6.3 LOSS OF MAKE-UP HYDROGEN

6.3.1 EFFECTS

If the loss of make-up Hydrogen is partial, unit operation can be continued with the
unit feed immediately reduced and reactor temperature cut down sufficiently to
arrest excessive reaction. Failing to do so will cause loss of system pressure
resulting in a fast drop of Hydrogen partial pressure. Operating the unit under low
Hydrogen partial pressure conditions will promote fouling and coking of the
catalyst and thereby reduced life expectancy. Total loss of make-up Hydrogen can
be handled only by stopping the liquid feed altogether and faster cooling of the
catalyst beds.

6.3.2 ACTION

6.3.2.1 REACTOR SECTION

1. Shut down the feed heaters H-14-101/H-14-102.

2. Stop the liquid feed.

3. Shut off the bleed gas if open.

4. Inject quench gas at maximum rate and speed up the recycle compressor until
the catalyst beds cools down 100-150oF below the operating temperature.
This cooling will arrest the coking activity of the liquid hydrocarbons
remaining on the catalyst beds.

5. If the make-up Hydrogen is not available for long duration, cool down
reactors to 400oF.

6. However, if the Hydrogen becomes available while the above steps are in
progress, aim to line out and hold the reactors at 500oF to re-introduce the
feed to the unit.
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7. Stop the recycle compressors if the system pressure falls below the minimum
suction pressure of 650 psig.

8. Depressure the reactor system and introduce Nitrogen to reactor annulus


before the catalyst beds temperature drops below 400oF.

6.3.2.2 FRACTIONATOR SECTION

1. Stop the product pumps.

2. Shut off stripping steam to towers.

3. Cool down the fractionator system as per normal shut down procedure.

4. Establish hot oil circulation at 400oF.

5. Vent out steam generators.


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6.4 FEED FAILURE

6.4.1 FIRST STAGE FEED PUMP FAILURE

EFFECTS

1. Loss of feed to the Hydrocracker unit is not as hazardous as the loss of recycle
gas compressor.

2. Feed heater outlet temperature will rise rapidly. This should be arrested
immediately to avoid exposing the reactor internals and catalyst to high
temperatures.

3. Maintain gas circulation so that feed can be re-introduced again.

4. Loss of feed to first stage will require second stage feed to be shut off to avoid
unconverted VGO entering the second stage reactor during the first stage feed
re-introduction. This requires the second stage reactor to be cooled down as
well and maintained under hot gas circulation.

5. Even momentary failure will require the above mentioned procedure to be


followed.

6. Re-introducing the feed immediately is impossible since the failure will result
in the closure of FV-235 shut-off valve. Re-opening the valve requires
activating the start-up bypass HA-115 in the LCR and requires time.
Meanwhile the catalyst turns dry and re-introducing the oil feed to hot dry
catalyst can be extremely dangerous as it can trigger a runaway temperature.

ACTION

1. Reduce H-14-101 firing to minimum. Aim to cool down reactor to


450oF-500oF.

2. Alert Hydrogen unit and reduce make-up Hydrogen to minimum. Keep the
Hydrogen flow just enough for the reactor annulus purge, at about
250KSCF/HR.
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3. Proceed with cooling of second stage reactor and line out second stage reactor
at 450oF-500oF.

4. Stop feed pump.

5. Shut off stripping steam to tower and stop the product draw-off pumps.
Maintain fractionator levels.

6. Establish hot oil circulation in fractionator system. Line out H-14-103 outlet
temperature at 400oF.

7. Prepare the feed pump to re-introduce the feed to first stage.

6.4.2 SECOND STAGE FEED PUMP FAILURE

EFFECTS

Failure of second stage feed pump will result in the sudden rise of H-14-102 outlet
temperature. This should be arrested immediately to avoid exposure of reactor
catalyst and reactor internals to high temperature. Second stage shut down will
reduce the product yields almost by 50% and the fractionator conditions should be
adjusted to keep the products on-spec. Unconverted oil flow rate will increase.
Unit operation can continue on first stage SSOT basis.

ACTION

1. Reduce H-14-102 firing to minimum.

2. Alert unit-18 and reduce make-up Hydrogen to minimum. Hold a flow of 250
KSCF/HR just enough for reactor annulus purge and system pressure control.

3. Cool down reactor catalyst beds to 450oF-500oF. Keep system ready for
re-introducing the feed.

4. Adjust fractionator conditions, pumparound duty, stripping steam rate etc.


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5. Reduce product draw-off rates as required to keep them on-spec.

6. Decrease first stage feed rate for unconverted oil product rate control.

6.4.3 LOSS OF HOT VGO FEED

EFFECTS

Loss of hot VGO feed for short duration does not warrant a shutdown of the unit if
cold VGO is brought in without delay. The feed surge drum V-14-101 inventory
will be sufficient for 15-20 minutes run time if the unit feed rate is reduced to
minimum. Rate of feed will be limited by the feed heater H-14-101 duty when
operating the unit with cold VGO supply.

ACTION

1. Reduce feed rate to first stage and adjust reactor CAT accordingly.

2. Hold second stage feed rate same and reduce CAT corresponding to feed
reduction in first stage.

3. Establish cold VGO supply.

4. Maximize heat duty of E-14-101 feed pre-heat exchanger.

5. Adjust fractionator conditions according to first stage feed rate.


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6.5 POWER FAILURE

6.5.1 EFFECTS

6.5.1.1 REACTOR SIDE

1. Both feed pumps stop causing loss of feed to reactors.

2. Both feed heaters H-14-101/H-14-102 outlet temperature will rise rapidly.

3. Make-up Hydrogen will be lost due to stoppage of make-up compressors


causing rapid loss of system pressure.

4. EA-14-101/EA-14-102 fin fans will stop. 50% of the fans will be taken over
by emergency back-up power. Still the compressor suction temperature will
rise fast.

5. Injection water pump P-14-105 will stop.

6.5.1.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM

1. Stripper bottom pumps P-14-113 will stop causing bottoms level to rise.

2. Stripping steam to tower bottom shuts off on logic sequence.

3. Overhead condenser fans will stop.

4. Reflux pump P-14-112 will stop.

5. E-14-113A/B sea cooling water will fail if the power failure affects the
Shuaiba booster pumps.
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6.5.1.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

1. Fractionator feed stops due to P-14-113 failure.

2. Heater H-14-103 will shut down on FSLL-119 interlock action. Pilots will
remain “on” and the heater will be operating on natural draft modedue to I.D.
fan and F.D. fan power failure trip condition.

3. Stripping steam to tower bottom shuts off on logic sequence.

4. Overhead fin fans will stop.

5. Overhead reflux pump P-14-117A will stop; will be taken over by P-14-117B
turbine.

6. Top pumparound pump P-14-115A will stop; will be taken over by P-14-
115B turbine.

7. Bottom pumparound pump will stop.

8. Products draw-off pumps will stop.

9. Fractionator bottom pump P-14-114A will stop; will be taken over by


P-14-114B turbine.

10. Unconverted oil cooler fin fan will stop. One fan out of two is backed up by
emergency back-up power.

6.5.1.4 STABILIZER SYSTEM

1. Bottom temperature will continue to increase causing tower pressure to build


up.

2. Overhead condenser E-14-127 sea cooling will fail if the power failure affects
the booster pump in Shuaiba.

3. Reflux pumps will stop.


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6.5.1.5 SPLITTER SYSTEM

1. Bottom temperature will continue to increase causing tower pressure to rise.

2. Bottom level will increase due to P-14-123 failure.

3. Overhead fin fans will stop.

6.5.2 ACTION

6.5.2.1 REACTOR SIDE

1. Minimize heater firing and proceed with cooling of the reactors.

2. Shut off bleed gas, if open.

3. 50% loss of effluent condenser duty will cause recycle compressor suction
temperature to rise fast. Reduce compressor speed to continue the recycle gas
circulation without exceeding the limits of suction and discharge
temperatures.

4. Due to loss of system pressure, if the recycle compressor is required to be


stopped before the reactor beds are cooled below 500oF, depressure the
system and introduce Nitrogen and continue purging to flare for further
cooling of the catalyst beds.

6.5.2.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM

1. The built-up level due to the failure of the bottom pumps needs to be flowed
down to the fractionator on gravity. The available pressure in the system also
helps to transfer the liquid level.

2. Bypass E-14-104 shell side to help cool down the stripper.

3. Maximize the cooling at E-14-113A/B, if the sea cooling water remains


available.

4. Transfer V-14-112 level to the stabilizer.


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6.5.2.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

1. Ensure P-14-114B turbine is on line and start emergency circulation.

2. Shut off pilot burners in H-14-103.

3. Allow top reflux and top pumparound streams to cool down the tower.

4. Reduce tower pressure to flare. This will help H2S stripper tower bottoms
level to flow down to fractionator by gravity.

5. Bleed out the tower bottoms level through EA-14-104 to tankage. One fan of
EA-14-104 is available on emergency back-up power.

6. Pump out V-14-117 overhead drum level as top reflux to tower. Shut off
feed to stabilizer by closing at FV-164.

7. Bypass reboilers E-14-120/E-14-122 in the ATK system.

6.5.2.4 STABILIZER AND SPLITTER SYSTEM

1. Partially bypass E-14-128 and hold stabilizer pressure at 15 psig.

2. Route stabilizer off gas to flare.

3. Shut off feed to splitter by FV-176.

4. Hold splitter tower at 15 psig.

5. Bypass splitter reboiler.

6. Open stabilizer bottoms jump-over to P-14-123 suction header and allow both
splitter and stabilizer level to drain out to stop on level control.
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6.6 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE

The likelihood of a total refinery instrument air failure is very remote. However, if
it occurs, the entire unit has to be shutdown. A few priority field actions are to be
taken to protect the equipment from damage and bring the plant to a safe shut down
condition.

6.6.1 EFFECTS

Control valves move to ‘fail safe’ status. (Refer to Chapter-8 for a summary of
control valves).

6.6.1.1 REACTOR SECTION

1. Loss of feed to reactors. Feed control valves FV-109/FV-110 shut off.


Pumps discharge spill-back valves open.

2. Feed heater H-14-101/H-14-102 will shut down due to closure of


PV-109/PV-144 control valves on low fuel gas pressure.

3. TV-110/TV-213 feed effluent exchanger bypass controls lock-in maintaining


the same position. HV-160/161 bypass across E-14-105/E-14-110 shut off.

4. Recycle gas compressors’ speed drops to minimum governor control


(8900 rpm) reducing recycle gas flow into the reactors.

5. Recycle gas compressors’ discharge spillback control valves open wide


causing reduction in gas flow into the reactors.

6. Make-up Hydrogen to reactors shuts off, causing the system pressure to drop.

7. High pressure separators level control valves shut off causing the levels to
build up.

8. Inter-bed quench valves will lock-in-maintaining the same quench gas flow to
reactors; helps cooling the reactor.

9. EA-14-101/EA-14-102 effluent coolers’ controls turn to maximum cooling;


helps reactor cooling.
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10. System depressuring valves will remain shut.

11. Steam generators. Boiler feed water make-up valves on level control system
open causing the level to build up.

12. Hot low pressure separator. Level control valve shuts off causing the level to
build up.

13. Cold low pressure separator level controls shut off causing the level to build
up. System pressure control valve PV-169 opens up causing the pressure to
drop.

14. Feed surge drum level will increase due to the fail-open action of the flow
control valve in unit-13. Surge drum pressure control PV-106A fuel gas
make-up opens and PV-106B flare valve closes.
6.6.1.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM

1. Stripper feed preheat bypass TV-316 opens up; helps cool the system.

2. System pressure control PV-173 opens up allowing pressure in the system to


drop.

3. Tower reflux control valve FV-141 opens and helps cooling the system. level
to drop.

4. FV-140 stripping steam to tower shuts off.

5. HV-297/HV-298 and heater H-14-103 pass valves open up helping tower

6. LV-133 shuts off. Causing V-14-112 level to rise.

7. HV-191 remains shut.


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6.6.1.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

1. H-14-103 trips off on fuel gas low pressure. Balanced draft system remains in
operation with FV-149/PV-177 locked-in. Stack damper opens up and pilot
burners remain on.

2. Stripping steam to tower shuts off.

3. PV-182 fuel gas make-up and PV-228 flare valve shut off.

4. Top reflux and pumparound controls open up helping cooling of the tower.

5. Overhead condenser EA-14-106 system goes to maximum cooling.

6. FV-164 stabilizer feed shuts off.

7. Reboilers E-14-120/E-14-122 unload.

8. Product controllers FV-166/168/170 shut off.

9. LV-141 interface level control shuts off.

6.6.1.4 STABILIZER SYSTEM

1. TV-415 and FV-245 shut off. E-14-126A/B gets bypassed, helps cool the
stabilizer.

2. E-14-128 reboiler unloads.

3. PV-195A opens and PV-195B shuts off helping maximum condensation of


the overheads.

4. FV-172 top reflux control opens; helps cooling.

5. FV-176 feed to splitter shuts off, causing stabilizer level to rise.

6. LV-149 interface level control shuts off.

7. LV-148 level control shuts off.


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6.6.1.5 SPLITTER SYSTEM

1. Feed to splitter is shut.

2. Tower reflux control valve FV-177 opens up, helps cooling.

3. E-14-130 reboiler unloads.

4. PV-199A/B shuts off; pressure holds.

5. LV-147 tower level control shuts off.

6. LV-150 overhead drum V-14-124 level control shuts off.

6.6.2 ACTION

In the hydrocracker unit, all efforts should be made to save the recycle gas
compressor from shutting down due to level build-up in the high pressure
separators. The level control valves will close and opening these valves on
handjack consumes time. However, the level build-up will not be very fast, since
the compressor discharge spill-back control valves open, thereby reducing the
recycle gas flow rate into the reactors.

6.6.2.1 REACTOR SIDE

1. Allow recycle gas flow to continue cooling the reactor.

2. If ever the compressor shuts down, restart immediately. Monitor reactor


temperature.

3. Shut off VGO feed to surge drum V-14-101. Block off fuel gas make-up
valve PV-106A.

4. Hand-jack open high pressure separators’ level control valves to get the levels
under control.

5. Recycle compressors’ seal oil PCVs should be taken on bypass. Stop the
standby pump if it has cut-in.
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6. Reactor cooling rate can be adjusted by hand-jack control of compressor


spill-back valve.

7. Control levels of low pressure separators V-14-108/V-14-110/V-14-111 on


control valve bypass. Block off PV-169 and use bypass, increase pressure in
the separators to transfer levels to H2S stripper.

8. Monitor reactor system pressure. If system pressure drops below 650 psig,
stop recycle gas compressor, depressure system to flare using depressuring
valves on handjack.

6.6.2.2 H2S STRIPPER SYSTEM

1. Allow cooling the stripper system on total reflux from P-14-112 .

2. Handjack open HV-191 and establish oil circulation.

3. System pressure will float with back pressure from L.P. gas refinery header.

6.6.2.3 FRACTIONATOR SYSTEM

1. Tower pressure is blocked in. Open PV-228 bypass to flare if there is a sign
of increase in pressure.

2. Bleed off the tower level to off-spec tankage through LV-137 bypass.

3. Stop pumparound and reflux pumps when system has cooled down.

4. Pump out stabilizer and splitter levels to slops.

6.7 UTILITIES FAILURE

6.7.1 900 PSIG STEAM FAILURE

The refinery steam header pressure may come down or may be totally lost due to
the failure of any or all of the boilers in the utility section.

EFFECTS

The equipment directly affected in the unit are the recycle gas compressors.
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ACTION

If the upset is of a short duration with partial drop in header pressure the unit
operation can be maintained by drastic cut in reactor operating temperature with
reduction in feed rate. Switching over of running turbines elsewhere in the unit to
motors will be helpful to require control of the refinery steam system.

If the upset is due to total steam failure, proceed as follows.

1. Shut down feed heaters H-14-101/H-14-102 and open up feed effluent


exchanger bypasses.

2. Shut down the recycle gas compressors before the speed drops to critical
range.

3. Depressurize both systems rapidly.

4. Follow the action plan as per recycle gas failure in section 6.2.

During the reactor depressurization with feed oil flowing in for catalyst cooling a
rise in second stage catalyst beds if noticed, may be due to fresh unconverted
fractionator bottoms entering the second stage reactor. In such an event, P-14-102
should be shut down immediately.

6.7.2 450 PSIG STEAM FAILURE

HCR is a net producer of 450 psig steam from the exhaust of recycle gas
compressor turbines combined with the steam produced from the feed heaters’
convection section steam generation system. The only users of 450 psig steam are
the spare pump turbines in the distillation section and H-14-103 soot blowers.

EFFECTS

1 Drop in pressure of 450 psig steam will trip the recycle gas compressors on
turbine exhaust low pressure.

2. Refinery wide 450 psig steam failure will result in the loss of make-up
Hydrogen and the recycle gas failure.

3. Loss of steam to soot blowers in H-14-103.


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ACTION

Shut down the unit following the procedure for loss of recycle gas compressors.

6.7.3 150 PIG STEAM FAILURE

Chances of total loss of 150 pig steam alone is extremely remote in the refinery.
Drop in header pressure is a possibility.

EFFECTS

1. Recycle gas compressors steam driven lube oil turbine will be affected.
Motor driven standby pumps should cut in.

2. Loss of atomizing steam to fuel oil burners in H-14-103.

3. H-14-103 passes decoking, if in progress, will be affected.

ACTION

1. Shut off fuel oil burners.

2. Stop decoking operation.

6.7.4 60 PSIG STEAM FAILURE

60 psig steam failure in the refinery is very remote.

EFFECTS

1. Steam to gland ejectors of recycle gas compressors will be affected.

ACTION

Open gland steam to vent.


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6.7.5 SEA WATER FAILURE

EFFECTS

1. Prolonged sea water failure will result in the shutdown of the make-up
compressors in the Hydrogen unit and hence, make-up Hydrogen will be lost.

2. Loss of duty of E-14-127 stabilizer overhead condenser.

3. Loss of duty of E-14-113A/B H2S stripper overhead condenser.

4. Loss of duty of E-14-112A/B cold low pressure overhead condenser.

5. Loss of duty in product trim coolers.

6. Loss of duty in light naphtha product cooler E-14-131.

ACTION

1. Shut down the unit following the procedure for loss of make-up Hydrogen.

If the loss of sea water is of short duration unit operation can probably be
continued by lowering feed rate and operating the reactors on lower
temperature until the make-up Hydrogen supply is restored back.

2. E-14-127. Unload stabilizer reboiler and run naphtha product to off-spec


tankage.

3. E-14-113A/B. Utilize all the available duty of upstream fin-fan cooler


EA-14-103.

4. Loss of duty in E-14-112A/B will not have a major impact when unit feed is
lowered.

5. Loss of duty in product trim coolers can be overcome by utilizing all the duty
available in the upstream fin fan coolers.
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6.7.6 CIRCULATING COOLING WATER FAILURE

The cooling tower circulating cooling water system will operate during both power
and steam failures. This type of failure is quite unlikely with the provision of
motor driven pumps in addition to the steam driven pumps.

EFFECTS

Loss of cooling water supply to all rotating equipment’s bearing housings and lube
oil coolers of recycle compressor and feed pumps will result in serious damage to
these equipments.

ACTION

The unit should be shut down.

1. Shut down heaters H-14-101/102/103.

2. Continue operation of feed pumps and recycle gas compressors to cool the
reactors as long as the temperature in the bearings and seals do not exceed
limitations.

3. Arrange utility water hoses for external cooling as much as possible while
reactor cooling is in progress.

4. Shut down the feed and recycle gas compressors if limitations cannot be
maintained.

5. Depressure unit and introduce Nitrogen to reactors.

6.7.7 PROCESS WATER FAILURE

EFFECT

Process water supply to injection water system will stop.

ACTION

Utilize the distillation system condensate as make-up water to V-14-105.


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6.7.8 UTILITY WATER FAILURE

EFFECTS

Utility water is mainly used in standby pump driver turbines in distillation section
in gland steam extraction ejectors. It is also used as quench water during H-14-103
decoking operation.

ACTION

1. Operations of these turbines can be continued without interruption for short


duration. Switch over to motor driven pumps as soon as possible.

2. Decoking operation will have to be stopped immediately and can be resumed


as soon as the process water is available.

6.7.9 BOILER FEED WATER FAILURE

EFFECTS

Both low and high pressure boiler feed water are used for steam generation in HCR
unit.

L.P. boiler feed water is used for steam generation in HCR unit in E-14-103 and
E-14-108. Loss of L.P. boiler feed water will result in the loss of heat removal in
the reactor effluent system in E-14-103 and E-14-108 causing the fin fan cooler
inlet temperature to exceed limitation.

In the first stage, this can eventually exceed the recycle gas compressor suction
temperature safe limits.

In the second stage, operating temperature of hot high pressure separator and hot
low pressure separator can exceed safe limits.

Loss of high pressure boiler feed water will result in the loss of steam generation in
the convection section of H-14-101/H-14-102.
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ACTION

Unit operation cannot be maintained without boiler feed water.

1. Shut down the unit as per emergency shutdown procedure and cool down
reactors to 450oF.

2. Stop recycle gas compressors, reduce pressure to 650 psig and hold. Recycle
compressors can be restarted when the boiler feed water supply is restored.

3. Maintain hot oil circulation in fractionation section.

6.7.10 FUEL GAS FAILURE

EFFECTS

Total fuel gas supply failure will be immediately followed by make-up Hydrogen
failure and in all probability feed failure along with a steam failure.

ACTION

1. Heaters H-14-101/102/103 will shut down on fuel gas low pressure. Ensure
flames are off and introduce purge steam. Shut off pilot burners in H-14-103.
Shut down the unit as per emergency procedure.

2. If the steam system is still available, cool down reactors to 450oF, reduce
system pressure to 650 psig and stop recycle gas compressors.

3. In case steam systems have failed, shut down the unit as in case of recycle gas
compressor failure.

4. In case of partial loss of fuel gas for short duration, unit operation can be
maintained at reduced throughput.

6.7.11 FUEL OIL FAILURE

Only fractionator feed heater is equipped with combination burners capable of


firing fuel oil and/or fuel gas. Failure of fuel oil will not have any serious impact
on the heater operation as long as fuel gas supply remains available.
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6.7.12 NITROGEN FAILURE

There are two nitrogen headers supplying the unit. The first nitrogen supply header
is common to both reactor side and fractionator side. This nitrogen header are used
for blanketing in V-14-105 water injection surge drum, V-14-104 polysulfide drum,
PK-14-101 anti-oxidant drum, and recycle gas compressor lube oil reservoirs.
While the second nitrogen header (new) is only used for recycle gas compressors as
buffer gas for the DGS system.

EFFECTS

Total nitrogen failure will stop the nitrogen supply to vessels and reservoirs
blanketing. Such events will take sometimes for the equipment system pressure to
decrease below the operating pressure and will not cause serious problem but not
up to the point that the immediate system pumps suction pressure requirements will
be affected resulting to the pump discharge flow reduction failure. In this case,
water injection pump P-14-105 failure emergency procedure have to be carried out.

For the total nitrogen supply failure to the recycle gas compressor DGS system, as
buffer gas, both compressor will trip due to the interlock system of separation gas
low pressure which is set at 0.6 psig. Shutdown the unit following the procedure for
loss of recycle gas compressors.

6.7.13 FLUSHING OIL FAILURE

Flushing oil failure will not have any effect in the unit since it is not used on a
continuous basis.

6.7.14 PLANT AIR FAILURE

Failure of plant air has no significance in unit operation in normal cases. In case of
failure during H-14-103 tube decoking operation, coke burning activity will have to
be discontinued.
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6.8 REACTOR TEMPERATURE RUNAWAY

Hydrocracking reactions are exothermic. Reaction rate increases with increase in


operating temperature. Failure of quench control system or heater/feed-effluent-
exchanger interaction can trigger a temperature spiral upwards and lead to runaway
temperature in the catalyst beds. If the reaction temperature reaches as high as
900oF, thermal hydrocracking can occur.

ACTION

If any of the bed temperatures are approaching 850oF and still climbing, indicating
an imminent temperature runaway rather than a local hot spot, immediate actions
should be taken to prevent a disaster.

1. Continue feed at maximum rate.

2. Shut down feed heater.

3. Bypass feed effluent exchangers.

4. Shut off make-up Hydrogen to reactor.

5. Depressure system rapidly.

6. Continue recycle gas circulation with quench gas open maximum to beds.

7. If the temperature comes back under control bring in Hydrogen to hold system
pressure to continue gas circulation.

8. If the temperatures do not fall back, continue depressuring, stop feed pump
and keep gas circulation at maximum rate. Stop recycle compressor when
system pressure is less than 650 psig, depressure system to flare and introduce
Nitrogen to reactor and maintain Nitrogen sweep to flare until the reactor
temperature comes under control.

9. If the bed temperature still remain high, pressure up reactor system with
Nitrogen and establish Nitrogen gas circulation.
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6.9 EQUIPMENT RUPTURE OR FIRE IN THE HIGH PRESSURE SECTION

A major leak or flange failure in the reactor section will result in a serious fire.

ACTION

Whether the affected equipment is in first or second stage, the emergency shut
down should be carried out for the whole unit since feed, make-up Hydrogen and
utilities are all inter-related. Unit feed should be shut down immediately and all
efforts should be made to depressure the unit as quickly as possible. Fractionator
system can be maintained under oil circulation.

1. Shutdown feed heaters.


2. Shut off make-up Hydrogen and block off Hydrogen header at battery limit.
3. Shut off fuel gas header at battery limit.
4. Shut down feed pumps.
5. Shut down recycle gas compressors and depressure system rapidly.
6. Introduce Nitrogen to reactors and sweep the system.
7. Isolate hydrocarbon headers at battery limit.
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6.10 HEATER TUBE FAILURE

6.10.1 REACTOR FEED HEATER H-14-101/H-14-102

EFFECTS

1. Uncontrolled fire in heater fire box, below and around the heater.
2. Rapid depressurization of the system, depending upon how big the leak is,
causing sudden increase in the make-up Hydrogen flow.
3. Appearance of thick smoke and possibly flame in the heater stack.

ACTION

1. Minor tube leak.

If the heater tube leak is of a minor nature, it may be possible to shut down the
unit following normal shut down procedure. However, oil feed should be
taken out immediately. Allow the leaking out material to burn out by
keeping a few burners near to the area of leak. Reduce operating pressure to
minimize the leak. Keep the heater stacks wide open.

2. Tube rupture. 1st stage feed heater H-14-101

1. Shut down the heater immediately and open stack damper wide and open
snuffing steam.
2. Shut down feed pump.
3. Shut off make-up Hydrogen.
4. Shut down recycle gas compressor.
5. Depressure system rapidly to flare.
6. Introduce Nitrogen to reactor system. All Nitrogen to flow from
compressor discharge and heater outlet and prevent air entering the
reactor. Install additional Nitrogen hoses to reactor annulus continue
sweeping to flare.
7. Blind heater outlet flanges and continue sweeping the reactor with
Nitrogen.
8. Shut down second stage and fractionator system as per normal shutdown
procedure for feed failure to 1st stage unit.
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3. Tube rupture. Second stage feed heater H-14-102

Procedure to handle the situation will be similar to the first stage heater.
However, it will be possible to continue operating the first stage unit on single
stage mode if the nature of fire in the heater is not dangerous to the first stage
unit equipment.

6.10.2 FRACTIONATOR FEED HEATER H-14-103

1. Shut down the heater by activating any one of HS-292/A/B/C.


2. Shut down feed pumps P-14-101A/P-14-102 and proceed with normal
shutdown procedure aiming to line out both reactor system on hot recycle gas
circulation at 450oF.
3. Shut down H2S stripper bottoms pump P-14-113A/B/C and shut off the
discharge valves.
4. Open emergency steam to heater passes by activating the HS.
5. Depressure fractionator to flare.
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Emergency procedures
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-33

6.11 PUMP FAILURE

6.11.1 FIRST STAGE FEED PUMP P-14-101A

EFFECTS

Loss of feed to first stage reactor and related problems.

ACTION

Follow shut down procedure as per feed failure to first stage unit.

6.11.2 SECOND STAGE FEED PUMP P-14-102

EFFECT

Loss of feed to second stage reactor and related problems.

ACTION

Shut down second stage unit following the procedure for loss of feed to second
stage reactor.

First stage will continue to operate on single stage mode.

6.11.3 H2S STRIPPER REFLUX PUMP P-14-112

EFFECTS

1. Loss of reflux flow to H2S stripper causing rapid rise in tower top temperature.
2. Fast increase in V-14-112 level.
3. Products will turn off-spec.

ACTION

1. Shut off stripping steam to tower bottoms.


2. Bypass stripper feed preheat exchanger E-14-104.
3. Proceed with reducing the feed to unit.
4. Transfer V-14-112 level to T-14-106.

If the failure is to prolong for long duration, shut down the unit as per normal
shutdown procedure.
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6.11.4 H2S STRIPPER BOTTOMS PUMP P-14-113

EFFECTS

1. Feed to fractionator will stop.


2. H2S stripper bottoms level will rise rapidly.

ACTION

1. Shut down both reactors feed pumps.


2. Ensure fractionator feed heater has tripped off on interlocks action.
3. Shut off stripping steam to towers.
4. Stop product pumps.
5. Let H2S stripper level gravitate to fractionator through the feed heater.
6. Maintain fractionator system emergency circulation. Adjust HV-191 opening
to allow H2S stripper bottoms to flow freely to fractionator.
7. Maintain both reactor system on hot recycle gas circulation aiming to set the
CAT at 450oF.

6.11.5 FRACTIONATOR BOTTOMS PUMP P-14-114

EFFECTS

1. Loss of feed supply to second stage feed pump.


2. Rapid rise of level in T-14-102 bottom.

ACTION

1. Stop first stage feed pump immediately and proceed with emergency
shutdown of the unit.
2. Ensure second stage feed pump has tripped off on interlock action.
3. Shut off stripping steam to towers.
4. Divert products to slop.
5. Maximize draw-off from side-cut strippers.
6. Increase levels in all separators.
7. Stop H2S stripper bottoms pumps.
8. Keep all control valves in fractionator bottoms stream to unconverted oil
disposal wide open. Maintain maximum operating pressure in fractionator
(20 psi) to allow bottom level to flow down to unconverted oil disposal.
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-35

6.11.6 TOP PUMPAROUND PUMP P-14-115

EFFECTS

1. Fractionator column heat balances will be upset and top temperature will rise.
Higher rate of top reflux cannot compensate for the loss of pumparound flow.

2. Products will turn off-spec.

ACTION

1. Reduce feed rate to both reactor stages to minimum.


2. Increase bottom pumparound duty.
3. Route products to slop.
4. Reduce H-14-103 outlet temperature.
5. Unload both ATK reboilers E-14-102/E-14-122 and shut off stripping steam
to T-14-102 and T-14-105 and balance reactor temperature to hold tower top
temperature in controllable range.
6. Shut down unit feed if the failure is expected to prolong.

6.11.7 BOTTOM PUMPAROUND PUMP P-14-116

EFFECTS

1. Fractionator column heat balance will be upset and demand for top
pumparound and top reflux duty will rise rapidly.

2. Upset can be more severe it the column is operating in middle distillate mode.

ACTION

Try to run the unit at reduced load.

1. Route products to off-spec tanks.

2. Increase top pumparound duty to maximum.

3. Follow up with further actions as in the case of top pumparound pump failure.
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-36

6.11.8 FRACTIONATOR TOP REFLUX PUMP P-14-117

EFFECTS

1. Fractionator top temperature will rise rapidly.

2. Excessive level build-up in naphtha accumulator V-14-117.

ACTION

Unit should be shut down

1. Shut off stripping steam to tower bottom and diesel stripper if in operation.

2. Unload ATK reboilers E-14-120/E-14-122.

3. Increase top and bottom pumparound duty to maximum.

4. Reduce H-14-103 outlet temperature.

5. Proceed to shut down feed to both stages.

6.11.9 FRACTIONATOR OVERHEAD CONDENSATE PUMP P-14-118

EFFECTS

1. Rapid increase of interface level in V-14-117, V-14-112 and V-14-122.

2. Loss of process condensate supply to injectors water make-up to V-14-105.

ACTION

1. If the failure is of short duration, interface level can be handled by draining to


sewer. Beware of H2S.

2. Minimize stripping steam to tower bottom.

3. If the failure is prolonged stripping steam to tower will have to be shut off and
ATK product will be off-spec.
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-37

6.11.10 LIGHT ATK PRODUCT PUMP P-14-119

EFFECTS/ACTION

Loss of light ATK product

Unit operation can continue without the light ATK product draw.

1. Reduce unit feed rate limited by the heavy ATK product stream and
specification.

2. Increase heavy ATK draw proportionately for the loss of light ATK product.

3. Increase heavy ATK reboiler duty.

4. Unload light ATK reboiler.

6.11.11 HEAVY ATK PRODUCT PUMP P-14-120

EFFECTS

Loss of heavy ATK product causes the tower bottom level to increase.

ACTION

1. Reduce unit feed rate and activate diesel draw-off system if not in service.

2. Switch fractionator operation to middle distillate mode.

3. Adjust unit feed rate to minimum.

4. Increase light ATK product draw.

6.11.12 DIESEL PRODUCT PUMP P-14-121

EFFECTS

Loss of diesel product and increase in fractionator bottoms level.

ACTION

1. Reduce unit feed rate temporarily to control fractionator bottoms level.


2. Switch over unit operation to full ATK mode.
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-38

6.11.13 STABILIZER REFLUX PUMP P-14-122

EFFECTS

1. Loss of reflux flow to stabilizer.

2. Rapid increase in tower top temperature.

3. Reflux drum V-14-122 level will rise.

ACTION

1. Minimize stabilizer reboiler duty in E-14-128.

2. Bypass stabilizer feed preheat exchanger E-14-126.

3. Lower stabilizer system pressure to vaporize LPG level.

4. Reduce splitter reboiler duty to reduce the overhead vapor load.

5. Route naphtha product to off-spec tankage.

6.11.14 STABILIZER/SPLITTER BOTTOMS PUMP P-14-123

Failure of this service is only a remote possibility since three bottoms pumps are
available. Normal operating conditions require only one pump in service.
However, if it occurs,

EFFECTS

1. Heavy naphtha product flow stops. Splitter tower T-14-107 level will rise
rapidly.

ACTION

1. Bypass splitter by shutting off feed to tower and unload reboiler E-14-130.

2. Open stabilizer bottoms to P-14-123 pumps suction and gravitate level to off
spec. tanks.

3. Adjust unit feed rate to reduce whole naphtha production.


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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-39

6.11.15 SPLITTER REFLUX PUMP P-14-124

EFFECTS

1. Reflux to tower top stops and top temperature will rise rapidly.

2. Lt. naphtha product flow stops and V-14-124 level will rise.

ACTION

1. Bypass splitter tower and route stabilizer bottoms as whole naphtha.

6.11.16 WATER INJECTION PUMP P-14-105

EFFECTS

1. In the absence of wash water ammonium bi-sulfide, a byproduct of the


hydrocracking process has the characteristic of precipitating on metal surface.
Continued operation of the unit will cause fouling of EA-14-101 (EA-14-102
in the case of second stage) tubes.

2. Recycle gas purity drops causing the density to rise. Compressor turbine duty
will increase causing 900 psig steam consumption to rise fast.

ACTION

1. If the failure is of short duration (8 hrs. max.) or partial, higher gas bleed from
the system and proportionate reduction in unit feed rate can be done as a
temporary solution.

2. If the failure is total due to problems of both pumps and requires longer time
for restoration, the unit feed should be shut off to prevent plugging of the fin
fan tubes.
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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-40

6.11.17 POLYSULFIDE INJECTION PUMP P-14-104

EFFECTS

1. Sodium polysulfide forms a thin layer of iron sulfide on tube internal surface
and thus prevents flaking of metals otherwise normal in the process. Failure
of polysulfide injection, therefore, increases the rate of corrosion.

ACTION

Unit operation for longer period should be avoided and feed to unit should be shut
off.

6.11.18 BFW CIRCULATION PUMP P-14-127

EFFECTS

1. Loss of flow to steam generation coils H-14-101/102.

2. Loss of 450 psig steam product.

3. Hammering and possible damage to convection coils tubes.

ACTION

1. Reduce feed heaters’ firing to minimum.

2. Back off feed to both stages.

3. Hold reactors’ circuit under gas circulation.

4. Maintain fractionator system on hot oil circulation.


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Emergency procedures
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-41

6.12 EXCHANGER FAILURE

GENERAL

Failures of exchangers happen due to internal or external leaks. External leaks are
easily detected and they have to be dealt with as a fire hazard. On the other hand,
internal leaks are detected by abnormalities in operating conditions, product
contamination, loss in products yield, presence of hydrocarbons at refinery cooling
towers, product loss to sea water return system, etc. Exchangers provided with
block and bypass arrangements by design can be taken out of service without
shutting down the unit. However, in the case of hydrocracker unit, such exchangers
are very few only. For those which cannot be bypassed, the following options can
be considered as a course of action, depending on the severity of the leak and the
service of the exchanger.

1. Shut down the unit on emergency basis.


2. Shut down the unit per normal procedure.
3. Continue operations with adequate adjustments in unit operating conditions
and product routing until a shut down is planned.
4. Continue operations, monitoring leak situation without a shutdown plan.

In all cases of exchanger failures discussed below, internal leak alone is considered
as the cause of failure.

6.12.1 E-14-101 FEED PREHEAT EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

Cold VGO feed leaks into condensate header.

ACTION

Bypass the exchanger. Unit operation can continue with the available hot VGO
feed.
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6.12.2 E-14-102A/B 1ST STAGE FEED/EFFLUENT EXCHANGERS

EFFECTS

1. Fresh feed properties detected in H.P. separators’ liquid samples (ex.


Nitrogen, sulfur content) due to feed leaking into the effluent stream.

2. Lower Hydrogen consumption in the first stage and correspondingly higher


activity and Hydrogen consumption in second stage.

3. Lower product yield.

ACTION

1. Depending on the severity of the leak, shut down the 1st stage unit for
exchanger repair.

2. Switch second stage operation to fresh feed single stage mode.

6.12.3 E-14-103 1ST STAGE REACTOR EFFLUENT/STEAM GENERATOR

EFFECTS

1. Hydrocarbon appearing in refinery 150 psig steam header.

2. Higher make-up Hydrogen consumption.

3. Abnormal opening up of PC-446. However, this will happen only if the leak
is severe.

ACTION

1. Shutdown the unit on emergency basis and depressure unit for exchanger
repair.

2. Switch second stage operation to fresh feed single stage mode.


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Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-43

6.12.4 E-14-104 1ST REACTOR EFFLUENT/H2S STRIPPER FEED PREHEAT EXCHANGER.

EFFECTS

1. High Hydrogen content in H2S stripper off gas.

2. Higher rate of H2S stripper off gas flow and correspondingly high Hydrogen
consumption in the reactor.

ACTION

1. Depending on the severity of the leak shut down the unit, depressure and
repair the exchanger leak.

2. Switch second stage to fresh feed single stage mode.

6.12.5 E-14-105 1ST STAGE REACTORS EFFLUENT/MAKE-UP HYDROGEN PREHEAT


EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

1. Higher recycle gas purity.

2. Lower product yield.

ACTION

1. Depending on the severity of the leak, shutdown the unit, depressure and
repair the exchanger leak.

2. Switch second stage to fresh feed single stage mode.

6.12.6 E-14-107A/B 2ND STAGE FEED/EFFLUENT EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

1. Lower Hydrogen consumption.

2. Lower product yield.


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Emergency procedures
Hydrocracker Unit - 14 Page 14-6-44

ACTION

1. Depending on the severity of the leak, shutdown second stage for exchanger
repair.

2. First stage will continue to operate on single stage mode.

6.12.7 E-14-108 2ND STAGE REACTOR EFFLUENT/STEAM GENERATOR

EFFECTS

1. Hydrocarbon appearing in refinery 150 psig steam header.

2. Abnormal opening up of PC-446. However, this will happen only if the leak
is severe.

3. Higher Hydrogen consumption.

ACTION

1. Shut down the unit on emergency basis and depressure unit for exchanger
repair.

2. First stage unit will continue operating on single stage mode.

6.12.8 E-14-109 HHPS VAPOR/RECYCLE GAS EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

1. Lower product quality and yield.

2. Lower recycle gas flow to reactor causing higher temperature spread in


reactor beds.

ACTION

1. Depending on the severity of the leak, shut down the unit and depressure unit
for exchanger repair.

2. 1st stage will continue operating on single stage mode.


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6.12.9 E-14-110 REACTOR EFFLUENT/MAKE-UP HYDROGEN PREHEAT EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

1. Higher recycle gas purity.

2. Lower product field.

ACTION

1. Depending on the severity of the leak, shut down the unit for exchanger
repair.

2. 1st stage will operate on single stage mode.

6.12.10 E-14-112A/B COLD LOW PRESSURE SEPARATION VAPOR COOLER

EFFECTS

1. Hydrocarbon leak into seawater return system.

2. Reduction in off gas flow to refinery header.

ACTION

1. Shut down feed to both stages and maintain reactor circuits on gas circulation.

2. Depressure CLPS for exchanger repair.


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6.12.12 E-14-114 FRACTIONATOR FEED/HY ATK STRIPPER BOTTOM EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

ATK product turn off spec.

ACTION

1. Shut down feed to both stages.

2. Shut down fractionator system.

6.12.13 E-14-115 FRACTIONATOR FEED/HY ATK REFLUX EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

ATK product turn off-spec. due to H2S stripper bottoms leaking into ATK stream.

ACTION

Shutdown feed to both stages.

6.12.14 E-14-116 FRACTIONATOR FEED/GAS OIL REFLUX EXCHANGER.

EFFECTS

Fractionator feed enters the diesel draw tray. Causing higher components
appearing in the diesel distillation test. Slight leaks can be tolerated.

6.12.15 E-14-117 FRACTIONATOR FEED/BOTTOMS EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

Fractionator feed leaking into the bottoms stream showing lighter components in
the unconverted oil. Slight leaks can be tolerated.

6.12.16 E-14-118 FRACTIONATOR FEED/BOTTOMS EXCHANGER.

EFFECTS

Same as in the case of E-14-117


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6.12.17 E-14-119 GAS OIL REFLUX/STEAM GENERATOR

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaking into steam header.

ACTION

Shut down feed to unit and shut down fractionator system.

6.12.18 E-14-120 LIGHT ATK STRIPPER REBOILER

EFFECTS

Diesel reflux stream enters the ATK stripper. Products will turn off-spec.

6.12.16 E-14-118 FRACTIONATOR FEED/BOTTOMS EXCHANGER.

EFFECTS

Same as in the case of E-14-117

6.12.17 E-14-119 GAS OIL REFLUX/STEAM GENERATOR

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaking into steam header.

ACTION

Shut down feed to unit and shut down fractionator system.

6.12.18 E-14-120 LIGHT ATK STRIPPER REBOILER

EFFECTS

Diesel reflux stream enters the ATK stripper. Products will turn off-spec.

ACTION

Shut down feed to unit. Shut down fractionator system.


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6.12.19 E-14-121A/B LIGHT ATK PRODUCT COOLER

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into seawater return system.

ACTION

Bypass cooler and repair.

6.12.20 E-14-122 HEAVY ATK REBOILER

EFFECTS

Fractionator bottoms leak into ATK product. Product turns off-spec.

ACTION

Shut down feed to unit.

6.12.21 E-14-123 HEAVY STRIPPER BOTTOM/BFW EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

BFW leaks into ATK product. Product turns off-spec.

ACTION

Shut down feed to unit.

6.12.22 E-14-124A/B HEAVY ATK PRODUCT COOLER

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into sea water return system.

ACTION

Bypass the cooler and repair.


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6.12.23 E-14-125 GAS OIL STRIPPER BOTTOMS STEAM GENERATOR

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into steam system

ACTION

Shutdown diesel draw-off system.

6.12.24 E-14-126 SPLITTER BOTTOMS/STABILIZER FEED EXCHANGER

EFFECTS

Splitter bottoms (heavy naphtha) leaks into stabilizer feed and recycles causing
splitter feed rate to increase. Leak is tolerable until system capacity is affected.

6.12.25 E-14-127 STABILIZER OVERHEAD CONDENSER

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into seawater return system.

ACTION

Shut down feed to both stages and shut down stabilizer system. Reactor system
and fractionator system can be maintained under circulation.

6.12.26 E-14-128 STABILIZER REBOILER

EFFECTS

Heavy ATK stream leaks into stabilizer causing naphtha to turn off-spec.

ACTION

Shut down feed to both stages. Shut down stabilizer system and fractionator top
pumparound pump. Reactor can be maintained under gas circulation and
fractionator on oil circulation.
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6.12.27 E-14-129A/B HEAVY NAPHTHA COOLER

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into sea water return system.

ACTION

Bypass cooler and repair.

6.12.28 E-14-130 SPLITTER REBOILER

EFFECTS

Heavy ATK stream leaks into splitter tower, causing naphtha to turn off spec.

ACTION

Shut down feed to both stages and shut down splitter system. Shut down top
pumparound pumps. Fractionator can be maintained on oil circulation and reactors
under gas circulation.

6.12.29 E-14-131 LIGHT NAPHTHA PRODUCT COOLER

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into sea water return system.

ACTION

Shutdown splitter system. Route stabilizer bottoms as whole napththa.

6.12.30 E-14-132 COLD VGO FEED HEATER

EFFECTS

Hydrocarbon leaks into the Intermediate Pressure condensate system.


ACTION

Stop Cold VGO feed to the unit and isolate the exchanger shell and tube inlet/
outlet lines.
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6.13.1 AMMONIA INJECTION FAILURE

EFFECTS

In case of sudden tripping of aqueous ammonia pump, no sudden change in


operating conditions of 2nd stage is expected if the pump can be put back in
operation within an hour. There is no need to change CAT of 2nd stage reactor.

In case both aqueous ammonia pumps are not available, 2nd stage reactor should be
closely monitored for ∆T. The CAT will need to be slowly reduced aiming the ∆T
as before to avoid high reaction.

Leak in the ammonia facility

In case of any leak in the system including pump suction or discharge circuit, the
running pump should be stopped. Wear breathing apparatus (SCBA) to approach the
spill area from upwind and evacuate area downwind. Dilute the spill with water.
Carry out the necessary safety precautions in dealing with ammonia spill. For safety
and health issues with ammonia handling, refer to the MSDS safety procedures.