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THE IMPACT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON THE

LEARNING DOMAIN OF SELECTED STUDENTS


ON SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN TUY

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Teenagers need an average of about nine hours of sleep per night
but then most of them particularly students failed to get enough sleep.
The reason why the researchers cope up on this topic is to know the
Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the learning domain of selected students
on Senior High School in Tuy. Also because of the students that the
researchers encountered who suffer on sleep deprivation. Most of the
students who experienced this condition are those who spend much of
their time on their different responsibilities including their works and/or
sidelines to support their needs and accomplishing their activities that
are needed to be passed on time to get better grades. Substantially, those
situations inspire the researchers to conduct this study and to enlighten
students on what would be the effect of having lack of sleep on their
learning domain.
Sleep is considered as one of the most important things you to rest
and relax your state of mind or body. On the other hand, having a though
sleep is such an odd thing to do. (Pallab Ghosh, 2015)
The increase of intensity and frequency of sleep deprivation yields
various effects on the performance and learning domain experienced by
students. This research needs an absorption since that it gives an
enormous number of conflicts to students who are likely to participate in
class, expected to perform well, achieve higher grades on examinations
and accomplished all the assigned tasks. But on the other hand, all of
this became contradictory to what others expect them to do especially
the students family and teachers.
And if there are people who rely on the capability of a student, in
as much as the amount of trust and necessity they derogate. This will
also serve as their demanded primary weapon to face the journey they
wield. And of analyzed further, it is evident that this issue will play a
large role on the future at the student including their families.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research really wanted to encourage students to avoid
sleeping late at night for them to enhance their thinking capacities. The
way that an individual feels throughout the day is also highly affected by
the amount of sleep a person receives. Since that it appears that lack of
sleep seems to affect the student’s academic performance it’s better to
understand the possible outcomes of sleep deprivation so it has been
researched. The inquirers yearn to fulfill the unanswerable questions
itself as follows:
1. What is sleep deprivation?
2. How does sleep deprivation affects the learning domain of students
in terms of:
2.1. Cognitive Domain
2.2. Psychomotor Domain
2.3. Affective Domain
3. What are the factors contributes to a student’s sleep deprivation?
4. What are the ways to alleviate problem on sleeping?
SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS
The scope of this study will be confined to a general student who
trails in a status of lack of sleep specially the students of Senior High
School in Tuy in Luna St. Tuy, Batangas. The information gathered will
be delimited to the propositions what is sleep deprivation, how does
sleep deprivation affects the learning domain of students, what factors
contributes to the students sleep deprivation, and what are the ways to
alleviate problem on sleeping.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


“The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Learning Domain of
selected students on Senior High School in Tuy” will help the students
as well as the researchers for them to understand the effects of having
lack of sleep on their learning performance.
The study is important to the following readers:
To the students/ respondents
It will help to introduce to the students that sleep deprivation has a
large effect on their cognitive performance. This will also provide some
solutions to alleviate sleep problem and enlighten them against the
factors that will lead to sleep deprivation.
TEACHERS AND/OR FACILITATORS
This research will help them to understand the situation of the
students who are experiencing this type of fidelity. And by this study,
teachers will try to know and find their own ways to deal with their
students who are under the said condition which is the lack of sleep or
sleep deprivation.
TO THE FUTURE RESEARCHERS
This research will serve as a guide for the future researchers that
will choose to study the same topic for them to gain more ideas and to
add knowledge that will help them on the study that they are going to
conduct.
CHAPTER 2
REVIE OF RELATED LITERATURE
SLEEP DEPRIVATION
According to Harvard Health Publications sleep deprivation is a
condition where a person stay awake for more than normal, and as a
result may experience fatigue, lethargy or other effects.
This was supported by Epstein, Gibson, Powies, Noland and
Thabane 116 by their statement that sleep deprivation is a condition
caused by lack of sleep. It can cause a person to experience fatigue,
weight change, social change, clumsiness and daytime sleepiness. This
can also cause health problems by increasing stress and obesity. Sleep
deprivation is thought to create stress, and stress may cause sleep
deprivation and drastically influences physical performance and ability,
they added.
While Morgen Thaler, 2014 said that sleep deprived adults are not
affecting their capacity for critical thinking, those who do not meet sleep
requirements also have a higher risks of morality. Even though it is
generalized knowledge that sleep is essential to optimal performance,
healthy sleeping habits are not always promoted in certain settings and
factors associated with sleep deprivation.
Colten, Altevogt, and Institute of Medicine, 2006 also cited that
sleep deprivation refers to sleep that is shorter than the average basal
need of 7 to 8 hours per night. One of its main symptoms is excessive
daytime sleepiness in addiction to poor memory, poor concentration, and
depressed mood.
In addition to this, Pitcher and Walters, 1997 also defines sleep
deprivation. According to them, poor sleep hygiene is a common cause
of sleep deprivation. Voluntary sleep deprivation is common among
students, especially in times of high stress. These patterns of sleep loss
can result in 24 to 48 hours of sleep deprivation. This varies within
certain populations based on various factors such as age, race income,
and occupation problems that made us sleep deprivation happen.

EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION


“We all know what it feels like to not get enough sleep but we
know very little about the effects on the brain; we want to see how it
affects cognition, memory and your ability to concentrate.” (Prof.
Adrian Owen)
This statement is relevant to what the study found out by Binks
1999, where the person deprived of total sleep experiences negative
mood, sleepiness, fatigue and decline in alertness and performance.
Some sleep- deprived individuals report visual hallucinations or
distortions and feelings of paranoia. Systematic studies of total sleep
deprivation have revealed some temporary cognitive deficits but no
permanent effects.
In the study conducted by a team at Western University, Ontario,
they found out that lack of lack of sleep is having very profound effects
on decision making. They prove it by collecting the cognitive scores of
each volunteers, who take a cognitive tests online which involves your
skills in reasoning, language, comprehension and decision- making.
In addition to this, the performance of a passive, boring tests of
cognitive ability such as simple tests of vigilance (stating at a computer
screen looking for signals) is often disrupted by even a few hours of
sleep reduction. (Gillberg,1996). This is correlated to the idea that
without sleep, the brain struggles to absorb and retain ideas. (Sean
Coughlan, 2013)
This concludes that lack of sleep is a very serious physical barrier
to learning. That “sleepiness is a problem at all stages that are relevant to
learning memory and academic performance” stated by Derk- Jan Dijk,
director of the Sleep Research Centre at the University of Surrey.

FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEP DEPRIVATION


According to Fricsen, Susan C., Adolescent sleep loss and daytime
sleepiness has manifest itself in a wide range of negative outcomes from
increased risk of accidents and motor vehicle crashes, to substance use,
school failure, anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder, obesity, and even fibromyalgia. Nurse practitioners are able to
promote health through education for adolescents, their families, the
school system, and the community on the importance of sleep and the
need to prevent sleep deprivation.
While as cited from SCRIBD, various lifestyle factors can affect a
persons ability to sleep well. People working a shift other than the day
shift must recognize their priorities, or sleep difficulties may occur.
Based on circadian cycle, the body prepares for sleep at night by
decreasing the body temperature and releasing melatonin.
This was supported by Altun, Nursan Cinar and Cemile dede who
stated that factors influencing on the quality of sleep and detection of
them remains unidentified public health issue especially among
university students. In recent surveys nearly 75% of university students
reported occasional sleep problems such as difficulty falling asleep,
sleep disturbances, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and excessive
daytime sleepiness. It is necessary to investigate this issue among the
Turkish population because sleep patterns and habits are affected by
ethnicity, social factors and culture.
According to Harrison, Yvonne, Horne, James A (September,
2000), few sleep deprivation studies involve realism or high level
decision making, factors relevant to managers, workers and students
who are undergoing prolonged works. This also presents particular
difficulties for sleep- deprived decision making who require these latter
skills during various situations.
Hartini C. Brishnan, Eric J. Noakes and Lisa C. Lyons also cited
that chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due
to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive
impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a
simple animal model in which to the interactions between chronic sleep
deprivation and memory.

SOLUTIONS FOR SLEEP DEPRIVATION


According to Charles Samuel, MD, CCFP, DABSM, there are
multiple ways to manage nor to avoid sleep deprivation such as focusing
on minimizing total sleep dept by taking some actions like improving the
day of sleep environment, catching up sleep during break times and
learning how to catnap. Staying on a quiet environment also helps. In
addition to this, Samuel also propose an equation to determine how
much sleep is needed by a person and then multiplying it by 7. The
resulting number must be the amount of sleep that a person needs per
week.
Michael J. Breus, PhD also cited some solutions to get a better
sleep. According to him, a person who has a problem against sleeping
must avoid watching television, eating and discussing emotional issues
on bed. An individual must also minimize noise, light and temperature
extremes. Those things can disrupt the quality of sleep. Another one is
avoiding drinking liquids after 8 p.m. because this may reduce
awakening due to urination. And lastly, exposing to bright light was not
a good idea because it can disturb restful sleeping. This solutions can
have a tremendous impact upon getting a better sleep.
Another way to overcome sleep deprivation is natural aids. Most of
these aids come from leaves, roots and tree barks. This includes kava-
kava, which is herbal remedy that relaxes the body and enhance
dreaming. Valerian root, which eases anxiety and chamomile and
alleviate nerve and muscle tension, it was often drunk as a tea. Plethora
of natural remedies will also help in releasing Melatonin and Tryptophan
which are considered as natural chemicals in the body that leads to a
healthy sleep. This was according to Kopparapu, Puranik, Nargud,
Samuel, Shahapurkar, and Matthew, 2012.
This was supported by Yuan- Fang, Jian- Hua, Neng- Gui, Zhao-
Hui, Zhen- Hua, Shu- Jun, and Wen- Bin, 201. They said that there are
different drugs that can be used to aid with sleep deprivation. There are
also multiple treatments that have been proven but one seems to stand
out. They proved that acupuncture is actually an effective aid against
sleep deprivation although more research is going into some other test to
discover the true potential of that treatment.
Studies have shown that when 20 milligram (mg) of d- am
phetames are taken orally, an individual returns to its cognitive state
which are present when sleep deprived, that allows for an improvement
in addition, and subtraction as well as logical thinking. Amphetamines
also increase the confidence of a person in their actions and decisions. It
also believes that nicotine has the ability to aid the enhancement of
cognitive functions when sleep deprived due to the fact that this is a
stimulant but it seems that some research shown that it has n positive
effect on the brains cognitive capabilities, because of its inability to
improve sleep latency. These findings were cited in the empirical
research of Newhouse, Penetar, Fertig Thorne, Sing, Thomas, and
Behenky, 1992.
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the research design utilize in this study,


including the subject of the study, research instruments and data
gathering procedure.

RESEARCH DESIGN
The researchers used case study of qualitative research design.
According to Martyn Shuttleworth, a case study is an depth study of a
particular situation rather than a sweeping statistical survey. It is a
method used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one
easily researchable topic. The researchers use this method since study
focuses on the impact of sleep deprivation to the learning domain of
students in Senior High School in Tuy.

SUBJECT OF THE STUDY


The researchers gathered twenty five (25) Grade 11 students and
twenty five (25) Grade 12 students with a total of fifty (50) students for
the school year 2017-n 2018 at Senior High School in Tuy . They
gathered students served as the respondents of the study. Likewise, the
respondents were selected through purposive sampling in which the
students were purposely asked if they are experiencing sleep
deprivation.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
After analyzing the main purpose of the study, the researchers
constructed an interview guide which was applied in a guided interview
to gather the data from the respondents. The researchers will also
provide some questionnaire for the respondents to easily adopt the topic
and lend their insights against the problem.

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE


To validate this study, the researchers seek permission to conduct
the study from the school teachers. After the approval of the permit, the
researchers will immediately proceed to the interviewing of the
respondents. The interview was directed with tree persons: the
interviewer, recorder and note taker.
After conducting the interview, the gathered data will be collected
by the researchers. The results will be write into themes, analyzed and
interpreted. The result of the study served as the basis of the researchers
in their conclusions and recommendations.