Anda di halaman 1dari 1


Lydia Benitez , Kyle Helzer , Ali Dorchak , Laura Olsen

1 2 2 2

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

ABSTRACT & INTRODUCTION: METHODS: Figure 6: The figure below shows that, as was expected, the CSY3 ER29-30AP
mutant (which most closely resembles CSY2) showed substantially less per-
Almost all eukaryotic cells contain small organelles known as peroxisomes. The following mutants were designed using PCR site directed mutagenesis cent processing (1.36%) by DEG15 than the wild type (5.88%) when tested
Peroxisomal function depends on its protein makeup even though it does not CSY3 E29A, CSY3 R30P, and CSY3 ER29-30AP. They were expressed in using an in vitro protease assay. The CSY3 E29A mutant showed slightly less
have the capability to synthesize its own. A family of proteins, known as per- pCR®II-TOPO® plasmids, transformed and then the DNA was purified on a large- processing (3.03%), suggesting that the glutamate does not play a promi-
oxins, work with peroxisomal targetting signals (PTS) to transport the proper scale. The DNA was then transcribed and translated in vitro using radioactive nent role in the mechanism while the CSY3 R30P mutant showed the great-
proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. Citrate Synthase is a peroxisomal 35
S-methionine. DEG15 protease assays were incubated with the CSY3 proteins, est decrease in processing (1.03%). This suggests that the arginine plays a
enzyme which can be encoded by five different CSY genes. CSY1, CSY2, and visualized using autoradiography, and quantified with a phospho-imager to d- heavy role in the processing mechanism.
CSY3 are thought to contain PTS2s, and they are known to be peroxisomal. etermine percent processed
PTS2 proteins usually undergo processing by a protease (DEG15 in plants and
TYSND1 in mammals), once they enter the lumen of the peroxisome, which
removes the PTS2 portion; however testing on CSY2 has shown that it is not RESULTS & DISCUSSION:
processed by DEG15. This experiment was designed to study the role of two
main peptides found within CSY3. Three mutants were created to make CSY3 Figure 3: The figure below (left) demonstrates what the linear form of CSY3 in
resemble CSY1 and CSY2 at these same loci: CSY3 E29A showed 3.03% pro- the pCR®II-TOPO® plasmid looks like. It is expected that this band should be
cessing, suggesting that the Glu is not a crucial component in the mecha- around 5.5 Kb in total because the gene itself 1.53 Kb while pCR®II-TOPO® is 4.0
nism. CSY3 R30P did show substantial decrease in percent processing (1.03%) Kb. The second band displays pCR®II-TOPO® once the gene had been dropped.
which suggests that the Arg is a key peptide in the DEG15 mechanism. CSY3 The top band (pCR®II-TOPO®) is right at the 4.0 Kb mark on the ladder, while the
ER29-30AP results confirmed the hypothesis that the difference between lower band (CSY3) is between the 1.0 Kb and 1.65 Kb marks
these these two peptides in CSY2 and CSY3 could be a cause for the lack of
processing seen in CSY2 but not in CSY3.

5.0 Kb
4.0 Kb
5.0 Kb
1.65 Kb Testing these results for reproducibility will give a better understanding of
the roles of these peptides in the DEG15 processing mechanism and allow
1.0 Kb
for a deeper understanding of protein transport into the peroxisome. This
1.0 Kb
knowledge will then be able to aid in future treatments for patients who face
many life-threatening peroxisome disorders.
Figure 1: The figure above demonstrates how PTS containing proteins trans- Figure 4: The figure above (right) shows mRNA samples which were run on a gel REFERENCES:
lated in the cytosol of the cell undergo a special mode of transportation after the in vivo transcriptions. The higher bands are the linear form of the CSY3
through the peroxisomal membrane. This transportation is performed mainly genes in pCR®II-TOPO®. The lower bands are the mRNA product. 1. Hayashi, M. and Nishimura, M. (2003) Entering a new era of research on
by a group of proteins known as peroxins. There are two main types of PTSs, plant peroxisomes. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 6, 577–582.
PTS1 (C-terminus) and PTS2 (N-terminus). Pex5p is the transporter respon- 2. Helzer, K. and Olsen, L. (2012) Processing of Citrate Synthase by the
sible for binding PTS1 containing proteins and taking them to the peroxi- Peroxisomal Protease DEG15 in Arabidopsis thaliana. MCDB Honors
somal membrane, while Pex7p holds the same responsibilities corresponding Thesis University of Michigan. 28.
to PTS2. Issues with these transport systems can result in disorders such as
Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) disorders. (Taken from Hayashi, M. and
CSY1: RLAVLNAHLTVSEPN---QVLPAIEPWCT”SAHITAAPHGSLKG 49.0 KDA I would like to thank the NSF for providing the funding for me to come to
CSY2: RLAVLTAHLAVSDTVGLEQVLPAIAPWCT^SAHITAAPHGSLKG 52.5 KDA Michigan, the College of Pharmacy IREU for every effort they put in into
CSY3: RLAVLSGHLSEGKQD-----SPAIERWCT^SADTSVAPLGSLKG 52.4 KDA making this program happen and pairing us with a primary investigator at
Figure 2: The figure above shows a piece of the alignment of the CSY amino the University of Michigan, Dr. Laura Olsen for allowing me to work in her lab
Figure 5: The figure above shows the results of both the translations and the and providing me with all materials necessary to do so, Kyle Helzer for shar-
acid sequences. The red residues correspond to the PTS2 sequence and the DEG15 protease assays. It is difficult to distinguish processing from this gel;
blue residues are similar to the known PTS2 consensus sequence. All of the ing his project with me and, along with Ali Dorchak, answered my many
however, the values are represented by the percent processing found with questions through each day.
highlighted segments represent areas of interest--the yellow portion is under phospho-imaging. The processing labels are only true for the assay lanes.
investigation in this experiment. (Taken from 2. Helzer, K. and Olsen, L.)


in the Structure and Function of Proteins

at the University of Michigan