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Cairo Industrial MDE Department

University training -1
Faculty of
Engineering

REPORT

Submitted By: Omar Mohsen Submission Date:


30/9/2017
Checked By:
Content:
Summary………………………………………………………………………………1

Industry of hydraulics...............................................................2

company………………………………………………………....2

Fluid basics and how to design a system roughly………………….3

Types of pumps…………………………………………………………………….4

Valves……………………………………………………………………………….....5

Seals&filters.............................................................................6

Fitting
connection..............................................................................7

Tank& design ............................................................................8

Flat adapters.............................................................................9

Case studies..............................................................................10

Maintenance & Assembly.........................................................11

Recommendation......................................................................12

References ...............................................................................13
Summary
The training mission is making the trainee able to understand from
basics to advanced concepts of hydraulics and mechanics. Meanwhile to
implement the concepts and putting it to real life applications. The
training started at 29/7/2017 and ended at

28/8/2017.
Industry of hydraulics
Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering, to
generate, control and transmit power. Fluid power uses fluids such as
mineral oil or water and pneumatics using gas such as air or other gases.
The application of fluid power systems is obvious in Machinery
operated by fluid power covers a wide range of applications in
industry. Mobile excavating equipment uses hydraulic systems.
Automated production lines may use pneumatic or hydraulic
systems to position work pieces or move tools. Variable-flow
control valves and position sensors may be included in
a servomechanism system for precision machine tools.
Company
Cairo Diesel Trading Group was established by engineer: Mahmoud Abd
el Rahman Ayad from 50 years. The company has many branches over
Egypt working in many fields (Hydraulics,diesel,mechanical,electrical,...)
being very special between other competitors in modifying machinery
and components. The company has been using technology in
production. A strong managerial foundation is acquired and working to
please and earn the confidence the customer. The company has the
power of attorney of Atos, Denison, Parker and Vickers in hydraulics
field.

Fluid basics and how to design a system roughly


To begin with, the customer requires press or a certain machinery to
compress a certain working piece or to have a certain gadget.
Mechanical, electrical and hydraulics have their own indexation to be
able to design the machine or the hydraulics circuit as hydraulics circuits
have these components.

Some mechanical terms are very mandatory to understand and to be


able to design fluid power system circuit. For the working piece, its
density and the quantity. Also for the machinery itself how many
cylinders are required some cylinders may be required for withdrawal
and other for packaging the gadget itself. Pressure is being assumed to
be able to identify the dimensions of the cylinder (inner diameter of the
cylinder, stroke, inner diameter of the piston). After knowing these
dimensions some properties could be known(ejection rate of pump,
velocity of piston both direction even knowing the electrical power of
the motor would be easy).
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝐿
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟(𝐾𝑤) = (𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 ( ) ∗ 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒)/510
min

Types of pumps
There are mainly three types of pumps:

a) Vane pump
b) Piston pump
c) Gear pump

Vane pump:
How Vane Pumps Work
Despite the different configurations, most vane pumps operate under
the same general principle described below.

1. A slotted rotor is eccentrically supported in a cycloidal cam. The


rotor is located close to the wall of the cam so a crescent-shaped
cavity is formed. The rotor is sealed into the cam by two side
plates. Vanes or blades fit within the slots of the impeller. As the
rotor rotates (yellow arrow) and fluid enters the pump, centrifugal
force, hydraulic pressure, and/or pushrods push the vanes to the
walls of the housing. The tight seal among the vanes, rotor, cam, and
side plate is the key to the good suction characteristics common to
the vane pumping principle.

2. The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber
through holes in the cam (small red arrow on the bottom of the
pump). Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes, rotor, cam, and
side plate.

3. As the rotor continues around, the vanes sweep the fluid to the
opposite side of the crescent where it is squeezed through discharge
holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of the crescent
(small red arrow on the side of the pump). Fluid then exits the
discharge port.

Advantages
 Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures
 Compensates for wear through vane extension
 Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG
 Can run dry for short periods
 Can have one seal or stuffing box
 Develops good vacuum

Disadvantages
 Can have two stuffing boxes
 Complex housing and many parts
 Not suitable for high pressures
 Not suitable for high viscosity
 Not good with abrasives
Piston pump:
An axial piston pump has a number of pistons (usually an
odd number) arranged in a circular array within
a housing which is commonly referred to as a cylinder
block, rotor or barrel. This cylinder block is driven to rotate
about its axis of symmetry by an integral shaft that is, more
or less, aligned with the pumping pistons (usually parallel but
not necessarily).

Gear pump

How External Gear Pumps Work


External gear pumps are similar in pumping action to internal gear
pumps in that two gears come into and out of mesh to produce
flow. However, the external gear pump uses two identical gears rotating
against each other -- one gear is driven by a motor and it in turn drives
the other gear. Each gear is supported by a shaft with bearings on both
sides of the gear.

1. As the gears come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the
inlet side of the pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the
gear teeth as they rotate.

2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets


between the teeth and the casing -- it does not pass between the gears.

3. Finally, the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the outlet port
under pressure.

Because the gears are supported on both sides, external gear pumps are
quiet-running and are routinely used for high-pressure applications such
as hydraulic applications. With no overhung bearing loads, the rotor
shaft can't deflect and cause premature wear.

Advantages
 High speed
 High pressure
 No overhung bearing loads
 Relatively quiet operation
 Design accommodates wide variety of materials

Disadvantages
 Four bushings in liquid area
 No solids allowed
 Fixed End Clearances

Practical experience:

Properties of pumps
Displacement(cm/𝑟𝑒𝑣 3 ) Volumetric displacement of the
pump
Pressure continuous The normal pressure
Pressure max The maximum pressure
intermittent max. The sudden maximum
pressure

Fluid Connections
• port A (inlet)
port B (system)
• port X (rotary servo)

• port E, H (rotary servo)

Generally, the company is dealing most with gear pump and vane
pump.

When Maintenance is required properties above was mainly focused


about so to when the pump is not fixed a new suitable pump is
acquired specially (dealing with aluminum pumps).

Other time the customer requires a pump from other competitive


pumps that the company does not have the power of attorney so either
going to the site or the information of the pump is sent so the
substitution of (Denison.Parker,Atos) to be available .

Technical issue:

A gear pump brought to the company having no plates so these was


the corresponding steps :

1)Count down the number of teeth of the gear(N)

2)Measure by Vernier caliper the width of the gear(K)

3) Measure by Vernier caliper the pitch of the gear(H)

4)Measure the depth of gear teeth(S)


𝑁∗𝑆∗𝐾∗𝐻
Volume/rev= ∗𝛈
1000

Where 𝛈 is the mechanical advantage?

Types of valves
Hydraulic system mainly consists of three main types of hydraulic
circuits:

a) Flow Control Hydraulic Valves


Used to regulate flow in a hydraulic circuit
Two-Way Valves Examples are: check valves, two-way valves.
Two-way gate valve:
Needle - Can throttle flow
Gate - Used as on-off valves

Globe - Note suitable for throttling

by comparing in the from the control overview

a) compensated flow control


b) non-compensated flow control
Control valve circuits:
Meter in, meter out - bleed off
A) Meter Out
Used when a load may run away when a restricting force on the ram
suddenly is removed. Free or rapid reverse flow through check valve.

B) Meter In :
Controls amount of fluid to actuator - excess flow is diverted over relief
valve. - Load continuously resists actuator in one direction
Bleed-Off Circuit:

Divert some of a system flow to a lower pressure area

Later in the case studies more details about how one of the
control circuit was used in a real life application

B) Directional valve
Directional control valves are one of the most fundamental
parts in hydraulic machinery as well as pneumatic
machinery. They allow fluid flow into different paths from
one or more sources. They usually consist of a spool
inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically
controlled. The movement of the spool restricts or permits
the flow; thus, it controls the fluid flow.
Properties that are very important while choosing the suitable
valve:

a) size (6,10,16,25,32)

b) number of ports

c) direction of spool

d) voltage (AC OR DC)

e) other accessories

note: NG6, NG10 (P, T, A,B) where p(pressure),t(tank),a and b


(user)

NG16, NG25,NG32(P,T,A,B,X,Y) where x (oil signal) and y


(return line)

Directional valve spools are many so practically there are some


used:

1-Closed center

2-Open center

3-pressure in connected to tank

4- A and B are connected to Tank

c)flow pressure valve:

Relief valves
Most fluid power systems are designed to operate within a
preset pressure range. This range is a function of the
forces the actuators in the system must generate to do the
required work. Without controlling or limiting these
forces, the fluid power components (and expensive
equipment) could be damaged. Relief valves avoid this
hazard. They are the safeguards which limit maximum
pressure in a system by diverting excess oil when
pressures get too high.

The most type used in the training while there are other types
(Cracking pressure and pressure override-Guided-piston relief
valves).

Seals

Types of seals:

1)wiper seals

2) O-ring seals

3)slipper seals

4) compact seals
1)wiper seals: They are type of seal that prevent dust, dirt, grains of
sand and metal swarf from penetrating. This archived by a special design
which largely prevents the development of scratches, protects the
guiding parts and extends the working life of seals. Oversized diameters
ensure a tight fit in the groove thus preventing the penetration of the
foreign particles and dampness.

2) O-ring: O-ring seal is applicable for dynamic applications.

3)slipper seal (guide rings): guide rings and tapes prevent metallic
contact between pistons and cylinders or rods and glands where forces
act perpendicular to the direction of movements.
4)compact seals:

Double-acting compact piston seal assemblies consisting of an


elastomeric piston seal, two thermoelastomeric Back-up Rings and
two thermoplastic wear rings. They are installed in closed grooves.

Filters
There are three types:

1)returnable line filter (practical wise the most common 80-85%)

2)suction filter (the cheapest filter)

3) pressure filter (the most expensive)

Some filters have by pass (check valve) others not.

Material (paper-stainless steel-wire mesh).


Dimensioning (filters 125 micrometer,130micrometer.....etc)

Fitting connection
Generally fitting connections:

1-hoses

2-pipes

The factors affecting choosing the right hoses?

1-size

2-temperature

When specifying hose, there are two temperatures you need to identify.
One is the ambient temperature, which is the temperature that exists
outside the hose where it is being used; the other is the media
temperature, which is the temperature of the media conveyed through
the hose

3-application

Before selecting a hose, it is important to consider how the hose


assembly will be used. Answering the following questions may help: •
What type of equipment is involved? • What are the environmental
factors? • Are mechanical loads applied to the assembly? • Will the
routing be confined? • What about hose fittings – permanent or field
attachable? • Will the assembly be subjected to abrasion? Sometimes
specific applications require specific hoses. For example, applications
where hoses will encounter rubbing or abrasive surfaces would best be
handled by our family of abrasion-resistant hoses with both Tough and
Super Tough covers.
4-media

What will the hose convey? Some applications require the use of
specialized oils or chemicals. Consequently, the hose you order must be
compatible with the medium being conveyed. Compatibility must cover
not just the inner tube, but the cover, hose fittings, and O-rings as well.
Practical wise there was no application in the training the media was
considered.

5-pressure

When considering hose pressure, it’s important to know both the system
working pressure and any surge pressures and spikes. Hose selection
must be made so that the published maximum working pressure of the
hose is equal to or greater than the maximum system pressure. Surge
pressures or peak transient pressures in the system must be below the
published maximum working pressure for the hose.
Cooling systems and Tanks
Mainly cooling systems are divided to two types of systems:

1)Air cooling system

2)Water cooling system

Cooler:

Flat

Cylindrical

It has 4 openings (water outlet-water inlet-oil inlet -oil outlet)

Temperature cooler:

It works with electrical or hydraulic motor

(air outlet- air inlet-oil inlet- oil outlet)

Design of tank: the dimension of the tank roughly speaking is (3.5-5)


*ejection rate of the pump.

Example:
If the pump rate of disposition is 30l/min

Flat adapters

There are a number of standardized methods in use to attach the


hose or tube to the component. Some are intended for ease of use
and service, others are better for higher system pressures or
control of leakage. The most common method, in general, is to
provide in each component a female-threaded port, on each hose
or tube a female-threaded captive nut, and use a separate adapter
fitting with matching male threads to connect the two. This is
functional, economical to manufacture, and easy to service.
Fittings serve several purposes;

1. To join components with ports of different sizes.


2. To bridge different standards; O-ring boss to JIC, or pipe
threads to face seal, for example.
3. To allow proper orientation of components, a 90°, 45°,
straight, or swivel fitting is chosen as needed. They are
designed to be positioned in the correct orientation and then
tightened.
4. To incorporate bulkhead hardware to pass the fluid through
an obstructing wall.
5. A quick disconnect fitting may be added to a machine without
modification of hoses or valves

Practically catalogue of parker was the reference used in the


training, there was mainly two standards used JIC standard and
MUMBAI standard.

JIC standard:

defined by the SAE J514 and MIL-F-18866 standards, are a type


of flare fitting machined with a 37-degree flare seating
surface. JIC (Joint Industry Council) fittings are widely used in
fuel delivery and fluid power applications.

MUMBAI standard:
Case study

While the period of the training in the company, Arab Contractors


needed a project for carrying Ramses statue stand still to the
museum. Arab contractor sent the description of the
electrohydraulic circuit to do the action required. First the required
force to carry was 120 ton ,so the chosen pump Parker T1
hydraulic truck pump series has operating pressures up to 350 bar
(5,000 psi) and speeds up to 2300 rpm. The T1 pump has a robust
design that provides circuit reliability for the most demanding truck
applications, displacement 81 and 121 cc. so the inner diameter of
the cylinder after calculation 21cm.The second issue that the
circuit must be designed for controlling sudden removal of the
load, so the used circuit is meter out circuit.

The third issue that the one of the four cylinders may do action
without the other three cylinders is a flow divider was needed

And there will be six directional valves is needed one for the mode
of the 4-working cylinder and 4 directional valves for each cylinder
working alone mode. Also, a directional valve acting as a key for
the circuit.

Maintenance & Assembly


Petrojet sent the company a telescopic cylinder

That the seals of the cylinder damaged so the original seals


dimeters and thickness were dimensioned and replaced with the
suitable seals. Some cylinders were single and some were double
acting cylinder ,they were carried by four forks caterpillars
Recommendation
The company was welcoming the trainees of engineering universities.
There was a great enrichment for my practical and academic
experiences. Also dealing directly with the technicians and labors also
added a lot to my personal experiences as in industry there is direct
contact between engineers and technician so it was a crucial skill to gain.

References

1-Parker & Atos catalogues in different components in hydraulic systems

2- http://www.pumpschool.com

3-lunchbox sessions