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Assignment 1
“Approaches in English Language Teaching”

Learning Outcome:
 This assignment aims to be aware of the importance of approaches in the learning process.

 Read chapter 4 “Popular Methodologies” in The Practice of Language Teaching by J. Harmer.
 Read Bases Curriculares 7° a II Medio del Ministerio de Educación.
 Complete the following activities.
 Please upload your answers on Moodle.

Pre – Reading
1. Write some ideas in the first and second column
What do you know about What do you want to know What did you learn about approaches?
approaches? about approaches?
An approach is a technique, it The different kinds of To be honest, I learnt a little, just not to
shows me a way on how to approaches that exist, and how say that I learnt anything because I feel
learn something. to apply them in my future as it was a general overview about
an English assistant (teacher). approaches and we didn’t go into

During Reading
1. Mention the difference between an approach, a method and a technique.
An approach is how people learn a language, a method is the way the student used to
learn the language, and a technique is a specific strategy to achieve something.

2. List some key words with the corresponding approach

Grammar-translation: translate L2 sentences to L1, isolated points of grammar explained

Direct method: translation was abandoned, prioritizing only target language speaking
inside the classroom.
Audiolingualism: stimulus-response-reinforcement model, positive reinforcement,
learning by substitution, mistakes are allowed, habit-formation.
Presentation, practice and production (PPP): contextualized language to be taught,
choral repetition, individual repetition, cue-response drills (teacher nominates a student
and whit a word given, the student creates a sentence)
Engage, Study and Activate (ESA): emotionally engaged, how something is constructed,
use of the target language.
Four methods
a. Community Language Learner: translating students’ utterances, recorded utterances,
teacher and students analyze them, reflect.
b. Suggestopaedia: physical environment, students relaxed and comfortable, child-parent
relationship between student and teacher, previously-studied guide accompanied with
music, students leave the room silently.
c. Total Physical Response (TPR): commands, instructions to classmates, learning of their
L1 commands to benefit his L2, focuses on grammatical structures, best learning
accompanied by physical movements.
d. Silent Way: teacher models sounds, teacher by gestures shows when the student
should speak, correct sound->next item, is up to students learn the language.
Communicative Language Teaching –or approach-(CLT): how language is used, notions
expressed of the language, communicative functions, when and how was appropriate to
say something, meaning-focused communicative tasks, exposure to language, students
involved in realistic communication, role-play simulation, purpose for communicating,
focus on the content of the speaking.
Content based learning: lexical, functional areas and skills are all important, focuses on
grammar, lexis, functions, skills, interesting topics for the students, language presented
trough school subjects.
Task-based learning (TBL): meaningful tasks, tasks to perform or problem to solve, ask
and answer, free way to complete a task.
The Lexical approach: language= multi-word prefabricated chunks (Lewis, 1997), fluency
result of semi-fixed pre-fabricated items acquisition, teaching grammar by speaking,
speaking in context instead of teaching grammar by itself, suitable input.
Functional Approach: functions are the most important aspect, functions according
frequency and learners’ communicative needs, use PPP stages in lessons.
3. What generalizations can you make about approaches?
There exists multiple ways to learn and teach the language. All the approaches have the
goal to acquire the L2 in a way the student can feel comfortable during the lesson is
taught, some could use signs, physical movements, while others just talk, not paying
attention to the grammar, which is discovered and learned during the speaking practice.

Post Reading
-Reflect on the following question
What approach did your teachers use? How is this similar or different from the ones
suggested by the Ministry of Education?

The approach that I’ve seen during my whole schooling is the PPP approach, where we, as
students, have to repeat individually and as a choir, and also teachers naming students to
respond a question, focusing on grammar, and this is quite different that the Ministry of
Education suggested, which is the Communicative approach, where students are free to
interact with the language and their classmates, focusing on what the students try to

-List the aspects of the communicative approach that you can see in the video.
 Role play
 Exposure to language
 Meaning-focused communicative tasks
 Interaction with other learners
 Focus on content, not form

-Compare and contrast the information given in the video with a different approach.
Focus on student’s role, teacher’s role and types of activities.

Video Total Physical Response

Student’s role Active role, the student is Passive role, students just
the center of the class. hear the language
Teacher’s role Sets the communicative Do the communicative
activity. activity
Types of activities Role-play for interaction Physical activities
with other learners. Silent periods
L1 commands to benefit
their L2.

Gerardo Garrido.