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ASWipLL and

AS3010 Systems
Wireless IP-Based Local Loop System
Release 4.6

System Description

Leading the World in Wireless DSL


The ASWipLL product bears the CE marking. This CE marking demonstrates ASWipLL's full compliance with
applicable European Union (EU) directives:

The ASWipLL product bears the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) marking, demonstrating full compliance with UL's
safety requirements:

ASWipLL products bear the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) marking, demonstrating compliance with
FCC Part 15 regulations.

Revision Record: ASWipLL System Description


Pub/ Rev Date Update Description
- Nov-00 First edition and printing. Author: MCIL
- Mar-01 ASWipLL Release 1.4 (Marconi)
- Apr-01 ASWipLL Release 2.0 (Marconi)
- Jul-01 ASWipLL Release 2.2 (Marconi)
- Nov-01 ASWipLL Release 2.6 (Marconi)
- Jun-02 ASWipLL Release 3.0A (Marconi)
01 Mar-03 ASWipLL Release 4.0. Author: InterDoc. Formatting based on Airspan’s
template; SDTA deleted; Updating of content.
02 Apr-03 ASWipLL Release 4.0 and 4.1 Author: InterDoc (corrections)
03 June-03 ASWipLL Release 4.2. Auth: InterDoc.
04 Jul-03 ASWipLL Release 4.2A. Auth: InterDoc. Updates: Transparent Bridging; PPR;
SDA-4S models
05 Jul-03 ASWipLL Release 4.2A. Auth: InterDoc. Updates: 2.8 GHz; 5.8 GHz; Product
List
06 Oct-03 ASWipLL & AS3010 4.2B. Auth: InterDoc. Updates: 900 MHz; Auto
Negotiation; SDA-4S/VLtag; BSR dual ext. antenna; wire-coloring.
07 Feb-04 ASWipLL & AS3010 4.4. Auth: InterDoc. Updates: 700 MHz; Asymmetric
CIR/MIR; transp. bridging phase III; Antenna patterns
08 Aug-04 Rel. 4.6. Auth: InterDoc. Updates: SDA-1/DC; RSS LED Adapter; SDA-1/48V

Publication No. 25030311-08


 Copyright by Airspan Networks Inc., 2004. All rights reserved worldwide.
The information contained in this document is proprietary and is subject to all relevant copyright, patent and other
laws protecting intellectual property, as well as any specific agreement protecting Airspan Networks Inc. rights in
the aforesaid information. Neither this document nor the information contained herein may be published,
reproduced or disclosed to third parties, in whole or in part, without the express, prior, written permission of
Airspan Networks Inc. In addition, any use of this document or the information contained herein for any purposes
other than those for which it was disclosed is strictly forbidden.
Airspan Networks Inc. reserves the right, without prior notice or liability, to make changes in equipment design or
specifications.
Information supplied by Airspan Networks Inc. is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility
is assumed by Airspan Networks Inc. for the use thereof nor for the rights of third parties which may be effected in
any way by the use thereof.
Any representation(s) in this document concerning performance of Airspan Networks Inc. product(s) are for
informational purposes only and are not warranties of future performance, either express or implied. Airspan
Networks Inc. standard limited warranty, stated in its sales contract or order confirmation form, is the only warranty
offered by Airspan Networks Inc. in relation thereto.
This document may contain flaws, omissions or typesetting errors; no warranty is granted nor liability assumed in
relation thereto unless specifically undertaken in Airspan Networks Inc. sales contract or order confirmation.
Information contained herein is periodically updated and changes will be incorporated into subsequent editions. If
you have encountered an error, please notify Airspan Networks Inc. All specifications are subject to change
without prior notice.

Main Operations:
Airspan Communications Ltd.
Cambridge House
Oxford Road
Uxbridge
Middlesex
UB8 1UN
United Kingdom
Tel: (44)-895 467100
Web site: http//www.Airspan.com
Customer Service (TAC): Wipll.tech_support@airspan.com
This page is intentionally left blank.
S ys t e m D e s c r i p t i o n Contents

Contents
1. Introduction............................................................................................. 1-1
1.1. Main Features.................................................................................... 1-2
1.2. Customer Benefits ............................................................................. 1-3
1.3. System Architecture........................................................................... 1-5
1.3.1. Base Station Site................................................................. 1-6
1.3.2. Subscriber Site .................................................................... 1-9
1.3.2.1. Outdoor Radio with Indoor Ethernet Switch/Hub ... 1-9
1.3.2.2. Indoor Radio Unit Only........................................ 1-12
1.3.3. Network Management Tools.............................................. 1-14
1.4. Applications ..................................................................................... 1-15
1.4.1. Broadband Data Access.................................................... 1-15
1.4.2. High Speed Internet Access .............................................. 1-16
1.4.3. Voice over IP..................................................................... 1-17
1.4.4. Traffic Engineering in Multi-Tenant Application.................. 1-18
1.4.4.1. VLAN Tagging .................................................... 1-18
1.4.4.2. Without VLAN Tagging........................................ 1-20
1.4.5. Repeater Solution.............................................................. 1-21

2. ASWipLL Radio Technology: Physical Layer ....................................... 2-1


2.1. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum ............................................... 2-2
2.2. Modulation ......................................................................................... 2-4
2.3. Frequency Bands............................................................................... 2-6
2.4. Standards Compliance....................................................................... 2-7
2.5. ASWipLL RF Antennas ...................................................................... 2-8
2.5.1. ASWipLL Internal Antenna Specifications............................ 2-9

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2.5.2. ASWipLL External Antennas ............................................. 2-12


2.5.2.1. ASWipLL 900 MHz.............................................. 2-12
2.5.2.2. ASWipLL 700 MHz.............................................. 2-12
2.5.3. RF Planning Considerations for Band-C in FCC Markets .. 2-13
2.6. Radio Planning ................................................................................ 2-14
2.6.1. Main Technical Parameters............................................... 2-14
2.6.2. System Coverage.............................................................. 2-15
2.6.2.1. Line of Sight........................................................ 2-15
2.6.2.2. Link Budget......................................................... 2-16
2.6.3. Interference Analysis ......................................................... 2-20
2.6.3.1. FDD versus TDD................................................. 2-21
2.6.4. Frequency Allocation ......................................................... 2-22
2.6.4.1. Synchronized versus Unsynchronized Operation 2-22
2.6.4.2. Frequency Allocation .......................................... 2-24
2.6.5. Capacity Considerations.................................................... 2-25
2.6.5.1. General............................................................... 2-25
2.6.5.2. VoIP Bandwidth and Simultaneous Calls ............ 2-26
2.6.5.3. Data Bandwidth................................................... 2-26
2.6.5.4. Calculation Example ........................................... 2-27
2.6.6. Selecting an Appropriate Operation Mode ......................... 2-27
2.6.6.1. ASWipLL Multiple Modes .................................... 2-27
2.6.6.2. System Range Considerations............................ 2-29
2.6.6.3. Interference Rejection ......................................... 2-31
2.6.6.4. System Capacity ................................................. 2-34
2.6.6.5. Conclusion .......................................................... 2-34
2.6.7. Radio Planning Software Tool ........................................... 2-35

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3. ASWipLL’s Air MAC Protocol ................................................................ 3-1


3.1. MAC Protocol Features...................................................................... 3-1
3.2. Preemptive Polling Multiple Access Protocol ..................................... 3-2
3.2.1. Slotted Aloha Process ......................................................... 3-3
3.2.2. Packet Transmission ........................................................... 3-3
3.2.3. Polling Sequence ................................................................ 3-4
3.2.4. PPMA vs. CSMA ................................................................. 3-4

4. ASWipLL Networking ............................................................................. 4-1


4.1. IP Routing.......................................................................................... 4-2
4.1.1. Multiple IP Subnets ............................................................. 4-3
4.1.2. Increased Network Efficiency - No Broadcast Packets ........ 4-3
4.1.3. DHCP Relay Agent Support ................................................ 4-3
4.1.4. Eliminates Need for External Routers.................................. 4-4
4.1.5. Interoperability with Third-Party IP Routers ......................... 4-4
4.1.6. Efficient Air IP Subnet Addressing ....................................... 4-4
4.1.7. RFC 1918............................................................................ 4-6
4.2. PPPoE Bridging ................................................................................. 4-7
4.2.1. PPPoE Limitations............................................................... 4-8
4.2.2. PPPoE Bridging and IP Routing Support ............................. 4-9
4.3. 802.1Q/p Support .............................................................................. 4-9
4.3.1. IP Routing ......................................................................... 4-11
4.3.2. PPPoE .............................................................................. 4-11
4.4. Transparent Bridging ....................................................................... 4-12
4.5. Quality of Service............................................................................. 4-14
4.5.1. ASWipLL End-to-End QoS ................................................ 4-16
4.5.1.1. DiffServ/TOS....................................................... 4-17
4.5.1.2. 802.1p................................................................. 4-18

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4.6. Bandwidth Management .................................................................. 4-18


4.6.1. MIR and CIR ..................................................................... 4-19
4.6.1.1. MIR ..................................................................... 4-19
4.6.1.2. CIR ..................................................................... 4-21
4.6.2. CIR Proportional Degradation............................................ 4-22
4.6.3. ASWipLL CIR/MIR and VoIP ............................................. 4-23
4.6.4. ASWipLL CIR/MIR and Modem Rate................................. 4-24
4.6.5. Fairness ............................................................................ 4-24
4.7. Security ........................................................................................... 4-26
4.7.1. Layer 1: Frequency Hopping ............................................. 4-26
4.7.2. Layer 2 .............................................................................. 4-27
4.7.2.1. PPMA ................................................................. 4-27
4.7.2.2. Authentication (PPMA)........................................ 4-28
4.7.2.3. Encryption........................................................... 4-28
4.7.2.4. PPPoE Bridging .................................................. 4-28
4.7.2.5. 802.1Q................................................................ 4-29
4.7.3. Layers 3 to 7 ..................................................................... 4-30
4.7.3.1. IP Filtering........................................................... 4-30
4.7.3.2. Intracom.............................................................. 4-31
4.7.3.3. Management (SNMP) ......................................... 4-31

5. ASWipLL Voice-over-IP Solution........................................................... 5-1


5.1. Main Features.................................................................................... 5-1
5.2. Interconnection with PSTN................................................................. 5-2
5.3. Number of Supported VoIP Calls ....................................................... 5-2
5.4. VoIP Related Capabilities .................................................................. 5-4

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6. ASWipLL Base Station Devices............................................................. 6-1


6.1. Base Station Radio (BSR) ................................................................. 6-3
6.1.1. BSR Models ........................................................................ 6-5
6.1.1.1. BSR with Built-in Antennas ................................... 6-5
6.1.1.2. BSR with External Antenna................................... 6-6
6.1.2. Standard Accessories.......................................................... 6-7
6.1.3. Hardware Interfaces ............................................................ 6-7
6.1.4. Connector Pinouts............................................................... 6-8
6.1.4.1. 15-pin D-type Connector (Ethernet) ...................... 6-8
6.1.4.2. 9-pin D-type Connector (Serial)........................... 6-10
6.1.5. Network Management ....................................................... 6-10
6.1.6. Technical Specifications .................................................... 6-11
6.2. Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU) ............................................. 6-14
6.2.1. Hardware Interfaces .......................................................... 6-15
6.2.2. Network Management ....................................................... 6-16
6.2.3. LED Indicators................................................................... 6-16
6.2.3.1. BSR’s LEDs ........................................................ 6-16
6.2.3.2. 100Base-T LEDs................................................. 6-17
6.2.3.3. Status LEDs........................................................ 6-17
6.2.4. Technical Specifications .................................................... 6-18
6.3. SDA-1/48V....................................................................................... 6-19
6.3.1. Standard Accessories........................................................ 6-20
6.3.2. Hardware Interfaces .......................................................... 6-20
6.3.3. Connector Pinouts............................................................. 6-20
6.3.3.1. 15-pin D-type Connector (Ethernet) .................... 6-20
6.3.3.2. RJ-45 (Ethernet) ................................................. 6-21
6.3.3.3. RJ-11 (Power)..................................................... 6-22
6.3.4. Technical Specifications .................................................... 6-22

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6.4. Global Positioning Satellite Antenna ................................................ 6-23


6.4.1. Configurations and Optional Hardware.............................. 6-24
6.4.2. Connector Pinouts............................................................. 6-24
6.4.3. Technical Specifications .................................................... 6-25
6.5. Base Station Power System (BSPS)................................................ 6-26
6.5.1. Features............................................................................ 6-26
6.5.2. System Description ........................................................... 6-27
6.5.3. Main Unit ........................................................................... 6-28
6.5.3.1. Rectifier Module .................................................. 6-31
6.5.3.2. System Controller ............................................... 6-34
6.5.4. DC Distribution Unit ........................................................... 6-37
6.5.4.1. Specifications...................................................... 6-39
6.5.5. Battery Unit ....................................................................... 6-40
6.6. Typical Base Station Configurations ................................................ 6-41
6.6.1. Base Station with Single BSR............................................ 6-41
6.6.2. Multi-Layer Base Station ................................................... 6-42

7. ASWipLL CPE Devices ........................................................................... 7-1


7.1. Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR) ..................................................... 7-3
7.1.1. SPR Models ........................................................................ 7-4
7.1.1.1. SPR with Built-in Antenna ..................................... 7-4
7.1.1.2. SPR with External Antenna................................... 7-6
7.1.2. Standard Accessories.......................................................... 7-6
7.1.3. Hardware Interfaces ............................................................ 7-7
7.1.4. Connector Pinouts............................................................... 7-8
7.1.4.1. SPR-to-SDA Ethernet (15-Pin D-Type Port).......... 7-8
7.1.4.2. SPR-to-PC Serial (15-Pin D-Type Port)............... 7-10
7.1.5. Network Management ....................................................... 7-12
7.1.6. Technical Specifications .................................................... 7-12

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7.2. Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA) ....................................................... 7-15


7.2.1. SDA Models ...................................................................... 7-16
7.2.2. SDA-1 ............................................................................... 7-16
7.2.2.1. Hardware Interfaces............................................ 7-17
7.2.2.2. Connector Pinouts .............................................. 7-18
7.2.2.3. Specifications...................................................... 7-20
7.2.3. SDA-4H............................................................................. 7-21
7.2.3.1. Hardware Interfaces............................................ 7-22
7.2.3.2. Connector Pinouts .............................................. 7-22
7.2.3.3. LED Indicators .................................................... 7-24
7.2.3.4. Specifications...................................................... 7-26
7.2.4. SDA-4S Models................................................................. 7-27
7.2.4.1. Hardware Interfaces............................................ 7-29
7.2.4.2. Connector Pinouts .............................................. 7-29
7.2.4.3. LED Indicators .................................................... 7-31
7.2.4.4. Specifications...................................................... 7-32
7.2.5. SDA-1/DC ......................................................................... 7-33
7.2.5.1. Hardware Interfaces............................................ 7-34
7.2.5.2. Connector Pinouts .............................................. 7-34
7.2.5.3. LED Indicator ...................................................... 7-35
7.2.5.4. Specifications...................................................... 7-36
7.3. RSS LED Plug Adapter.................................................................... 7-36
7.4. Indoor Data Radio (IDR) .................................................................. 7-39
7.4.1. IDR Models ....................................................................... 7-41
7.4.1.1. IDR with a Built-in Antenna ................................. 7-41
7.4.1.2. IDR with an External Antenna ............................. 7-41
7.4.2. Hardware Interfaces .......................................................... 7-42
7.4.3. Connector Pinouts............................................................. 7-42
7.4.3.1. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port (Ethernet)................................. 7-43
7.4.3.2. RJ-11 Port (Serial) .............................................. 7-43
7.4.3.3. 6-Pin Molex Port (Power) .................................... 7-44

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7.4.4. LED Indicators................................................................... 7-44


7.4.5. Technical Specifications .................................................... 7-46

8. ASWipLL Point-to-Point Radio .............................................................. 8-1


8.1. PPR Models and Radio Coverage ..................................................... 8-4
8.2. Standard Accessories ........................................................................ 8-5
8.3. Network Management........................................................................ 8-6
8.4. Hardware Interfaces .......................................................................... 8-6
8.4.1. Connector Pinouts............................................................... 8-6
8.4.1.1. 15-Pin D-Type Connector (Ethernet)..................... 8-7
8.4.1.2. 9-Pin D-Type Connector (Serial) ........................... 8-8
8.5. Technical Specifications .................................................................... 8-8

9. ASWipLL AutoConnect .......................................................................... 9-1


9.1. AutoConnect Process ........................................................................ 9-1
9.1.1. Continual AutoConnect........................................................ 9-2
9.1.2. AutoConnect with Redirection ............................................. 9-3
9.2. Reliability ........................................................................................... 9-6

10. ASWipLL Redundancy ......................................................................... 10-1


10.1. BSR Redundancy .......................................................................... 10-1
10.1.1. Redundancy Based on AutoConnect............................... 10-2
10.1.2. Redundancy Based on Duplicated Air MAC Addresses... 10-4
10.2. Power Redundancy ....................................................................... 10-6
10.2.1. BSPS Unit ....................................................................... 10-6
10.2.1.1. Battery Backup Power....................................... 10-6
10.2.1.2. Rectifier N + 1 Redundancy .............................. 10-7
10.2.2. UPS Unit ......................................................................... 10-7

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11. Management System ............................................................................ 11-1


11.1. Main Features................................................................................ 11-2
11.2. WipManage ................................................................................... 11-3
11.2.1. Network Topology ........................................................... 11-4
11.2.2. Alarm and Event Management ........................................ 11-8
11.2.3. Configuration................................................................. 11-10
11.2.4. Performance Monitoring ................................................ 11-11
11.2.5. Security ......................................................................... 11-12
11.2.6. ASWipLL Database ....................................................... 11-13
11.3. WipConfig .................................................................................... 11-14
11.4. WipConfig PDA............................................................................ 11-15
11.5. WipAD ......................................................................................... 11-17
11.6. WipLL DB Upgrade...................................................................... 11-18

A. Glossary of Terms ..................................................................................A-1

B. ASWipLL Product List............................................................................B-1


B.1. Entities Common to all Frequency Bands .......................................... B-2
B.2. ASWipLL 700 .................................................................................... B-4
B.3. ASWipLL 900 .................................................................................... B-5
B.4. ASWipLL 925 .................................................................................... B-6
B.5. ASWipLL 1.5 ..................................................................................... B-6
B.6. ASWipLL 2.3 ..................................................................................... B-7
B.7. ASWipLL 2.4 ..................................................................................... B-8
B.8. ASWipLL MMDS ............................................................................... B-9
B.9. ASWipLL 2.8 ................................................................................... B-10
B.10. ASWipLL 3.x.................................................................................. B-10
B.11. ASWipLL 5.8 ................................................................................. B-14

C. ASWipLL Feature List ............................................................................C-1

D. TCP/UDP Ports for IP Applications .......................................................D-1

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E. IP Routing and PPPoE Vs. Transparent Bridging................................. E-1

F. ASWipLL MTBF Ratings......................................................................... F-1

G. ASWipLL Internal Antenna Patterns..................................................... G-1


G.1. ASWipLL 2.4.................................................................................... G-2
G.2. ASWipLL MMDS (2.6 GHz).............................................................. G-3
G.3. ASWipLL 2.8.................................................................................... G-5
G.4. ASWipLL 3.5.................................................................................... G-7
G.5. ASWipLL 5.8.................................................................................... G-8

H. External Antenna Specifications ...........................................................H-1


H.1. ASWipLL 900 MHz............................................................................H-1
H.1.1. BSR (at Base Station).........................................................H-1
H.1.1.1. Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi...............................................H-2
H.1.1.2. Panel 120°/16 dBi.................................................H-4
H.1.1.3. Panel 62°/16 dBi...................................................H-6
H.1.1.4. Panel 90°/17 dBi...................................................H-8
H.1.1.5. Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt) ........H-10
H.1.1.6. Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt) ........H-12
H.1.1.7. Sector Antenna (65°/15.5 dBi) ............................H-14
H.1.1.8. Omni-Directional Antenna (11 dBi) .....................H-16
H.1.2. IDR (Subscriber Site) ........................................................H-18
H.1.2.1. 10 dBi Panel.......................................................H-18
H.1.2.2. 6.5 dBi Panel......................................................H-20
H.2. ASWipLL 700 ..................................................................................H-22
H.2.1. Antenna Specifications .....................................................H-22
H.2.2. RF Planning Guidelines for Band C in FCC Markets.........H-24

xiv Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


1
Introduction
Airspan’s AS WipLL system provides a low-cost, high-performance point-to-
multipoint IP-based Broadband Fixed Wireless (BFW) Access solution. AS WipLL
provides wireless local-loop (last-mile) connectivity designed to deliver high-speed
data, Voice over IP (VoIP), and multimedia services to residential, SOHO (small
office/home office), and SME (small medium enterprise). AS WipLL offers service
providers an integrated access solution, providing quick-to-market deployment and
low-market entry cost for broadband services.
ASWipLL operates in the licensed band (700 MHz, 925 MHz, 1.5 GHz, 2.3 GHz,
2.5 GHz Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services - MMDS, 2.8 GHz, and 3.x
GHz - ranging from 3.3 to 3.8 GHz), and unlicensed band (900 MHz, 2.4 GHz ISM,
and 5.8 GHz).
Each AS WipLL Base Station, at maximum configuration, supports up to 3,024
subscribers, providing connectivity speeds of up to 4 Mbps.
AS WipLL enables interconnection with the Public Switched Telephone Network
(PSTN) by the use of an IP-to-PSTN gateway. AS WipLL provides VoIP by its
interoperability with a wide range of third-party products such as residential
gateways (RGW), access gateways, gatekeepers, and softswitches.
AS WipLL utilizes air protocol technology for wireless packet switching using
Frequency Hopping technology. AS WipLL's in-house Preemptive Polling Multiple
Access (PPMA) Air MAC protocol technology, which recognizes transmission type
and allocates bandwidth, is highly efficient—80% throughput (e.g., 80% of 4 Mbps
= 3.2 Mbps net capacity)—allowing multiple concurrent subscribers to utilize
bandwidth.

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AS WipLL provides bandwidth management by supporting both asymmetric and


aggregated Committed Information Rate (CIR) and Maximum Information Rate
(MIR), guaranteeing bandwidth levels to subscribers. In asymmetric CIR/MIR,
different values are defined for uplink and downlink traffic: in aggregated CIR/MIR,
values are defined as the sum of the uplink and downlink traffic.
AS WipLL supports VLANs and VPNs based on IEEE 802.1Q/p. AS WipLL
supports IP routing and PPPoE bridging, as well as transparent bridging.
AS WipLL provides embedded security features such as IP (packet) filtering based
on addresses, protocols, and applications.
The AS WipLL system provides SNMP-based management, allowing remote and
local management, configuration, and monitoring of AS WipLL equipment.

1.1. Main Features


The AS WipLL system provides the following main features:
! Low initial investment, maximum return on investment (ROI)
! Packet-based air interface supporting high speed data, VoIP, and multimedia
services
! Modular architecture with flexible deployment architectures
! 4 Mbps (3.2 Mbps net) per sector—up to 24 sectors per Base Station
! Compact, integrated design allowing easy and quick deployment
! Advanced Quality of Service (QoS)
! Simultaneous support of IP routing and PPPoE bridging
! Supports transparent bridging, allowing easy IP addressing schemes
! Bandwidth management: aggregated and asymmetric CIR and MIR
! Supports 802.1Q/p for VLANs/VPNs and end-to-end QoS

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! Provides automatic connection and configuration of first-time powered-on,


unconfigured subscriber devices
! Allows redirecting subscriber devices to connect to a different Base Station radio
! Supports configuration files, allowing the same configuration settings to be
applied to multiple AS WipLL devices
! Base Station (i.e., BSR) redundancy using AS WipLL’s AutoConnect feature
! Power redundancy when using the BSPS unit
! Supports local and remote SNMP-based management, providing an intuitive
GUI for easy management

1.2. Customer Benefits


The AS WipLL system offers the following customer benefits and advantages over
competitors:
! No IF or RF cables required for indoor unit-to-outdoor unit (IDU-to-ODU)
connectivity. Instead of IF/RF cables, AS WipLL uses standard CAT-5 Ethernet
cables, providing cost-effective and easy installation.
! Scalability and modular Base Station architecture, allowing customers to add
equipment when needed, thereby, allowing low initial cost entry and pay-as-you-
grow strategy. Unlike competitors, the AS WipLL Base Station is not a chassis-
based design, and, therefore, provides flexibility and space-saving at Base
Stations.
! AS WipLL's open architecture allows interoperability with multi-vendor
products such as residential gateways (RGW), access gateways, gatekeepers, and
softswitches, thereby, operating seamlessly in multi-vendor environments.
! AS WipLL’s proprietary PPMA Air MAC protocol is highly efficient—80%
throughput—allowing multiple concurrent subscribers to utilize bandwidth
without network degradation (from collisions and high BER).
! Long-distance radio coverage.
! AS WipLL is both an IP router and a PPPoE bridge.

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! Supports transparent bridging for easy implementation of IP addressing schemes.


! AS WipLL’s IP routing provides efficiency and eliminates the need for
additional hardware.
! Enhanced QoS based on IP addresses, protocols, and applications.
! End-to-end QoS based on DiffServ/TOS and 802.1p.
! Quick-and-easy installation and configuration using AS WipLL's AutoConnect
feature.
! Embedded security features such as IP (packet) filtering based on addresses,
protocols, and applications.
! Rich networking packages such as 802.1Q/p VLANs/VPNs.

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1.3. System Architecture


The AS WipLL system architecture is composed of the following three basic areas:
! Base Station site: consists of AS WipLL access units that interface between the
provider’s backbone and the AS WipLL subscriber sites.
! Subscriber site: consists of AS WipLL customer premises equipment (CPE)
that interfaces between the Base Station and the subscriber’s network.
! Network management tools: consists mainly of Windows- and SNMP-based
programs, providing fault, configuration, performance, and security
management.
Figure 1-1 displays a block diagram of the main areas of the AS WipLL system.

Figure 1-1: AS WipLL System Architecture

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1.3.1. Base Station Site


The AS WipLL Base Station interfaces between the subscriber sites and the service
provider's backbone, providing subscribers with high-speed data, Internet, and VoIP
services.
The AS WipLL Base Station is comprised of the following units (some optional):
! Base Station Radio (BSR):
The BSR is an outdoor radio unit, typically mounted on a pole or wall, involved
in providing a wireless link between the Base Station and subscribers. The
standard BSR provides 60-degree radio coverage, serving up to 126 subscribers
in a sector.
The BSR is available in various models that either provide built-in antennas or
N-type ports for attaching a third-party antenna(s) for increasing radio coverage
or providing dual antenna diversity.
For Base Stations consisting of multiple BSRs, the BSRs connect to the AS
WipLL Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU), which provides the interface to
the provider’s backbone, and power. For a Base Station consisting of a single
BSR, the BSR is typically powered and connected to the provider’s backbone by
the AS WipLL Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA).
! Point-to-Point Radio (PPR):
The PPR is similar to the BSR, but implemented in a point-to-point radio
application, providing wireless communication with a single remote subscriber
(i.e. AS WipLL Subscriber Premises Radio).

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! Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU):


The BSDU is an Ethernet switch implemented at Base Stations consisting of
multiple BSRs. The BSDU provides 100Base-T interface between the BSRs and
the provider's backbone. The BSDU is also responsible for providing BSRs with
–48 VDC power supply and frequency hop synchronization for multiple BSDUs
and BSRs.
The BSDU is installed indoors in a standard 19-inch cabinet, connecting to the
BSRs by standard CAT-5 cables. Each BSDU can service a maximum of six
BSRs. In addition, up to four BSDUs can be daisy-chained at a Base Station,
supporting up to 24 BSRs. Therefore, a Base Station at maximum configuration
can serve up to 3,024 subscribers (i.e. 24 BSRs * 126 subscribers).
! Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA):
The SDA is typically implemented at the subscriber site; however, it is also
implemented at Base Stations consisting of a single BSR. The SDA provides the
BSR with -48 VDC power supply and Ethernet interface to the provider's
backbone.
The SDA is installed indoors and connected to the BSR by a CAT-5 cable.
! SDA-1/48V:
Designed for use when available voltage is 48VDC rather than AC power,
providing –48VDC power output, and used when no synchronization is needed
(i.e. in licensed bands). It also provides Ethernet connectivity between BSR/PPR
radio and the indoor LAN switch or router.
! Base Station Power Supply (BSPS):
The BSPS is an optional unit that provides the AS WipLL Base Station with –48
VDC power supply and power redundancy. The BSPS is installed at the Base
Station site in a standard 19-inch cabinet. The BSPS connects to, and services a
maximum of four BSDUs.

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! Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna:


The GPS antenna is a rugged, self-contained GPS receiver and antenna that
receives a universal GPS satellite clock signal. The GPS is an optional unit that
connects to the BSDU. The GPS synchronizes frequency hopping of multiple
Base Stations ensuring that the entire AS WipLL network operates with the same
clock based on a universal satellite clock signal, and, thereby, eliminating radio
frequency ghosting effects.
Figure 1-2 shows a fully populated AS WipLL Base Station at maximum
configuration (i.e. 24 BSRs, 4 BSDUs, 1 BSPS, and 1 GPS).

BSR BSR BSR


BSR BSR BSR
BSR BSR BSR
BSR BSR BSR
BSR BSR BSR
BSR BSR BSR
BSR BSR BSR
BSR BS
S R BSR
BSDU
BSDU -48 VDC
BSDU
GPS BSDU

100B
100BaseT BSPS
Interface unit
(e.g. router, switch)
switch)

Backbone
(IP, ATM,FR, MPLS)
MPLS)

Figure 1-2: AS WipLL Base Station at maximum configuration

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1.3.2. Subscriber Site


The AS WipLL subscriber site is located at the subscriber's premises. The AS
WipLL subscriber site consists of a radio transceiver that receives and transmits
signals from and to the Base Station. The radio transceiver provides the subscriber
with high-speed data access, Internet access, and VoIP at up to 4 Mbps. The AS
WipLL radios interface to the subscriber's Ethernet network either through a hub or
switch, or directly, depending on the AS WipLL radio model.

Note: For VoIP support, Airspan can provide a third-party residential gateway
(RGW). The RGW typically provides two POTS ports for telephony, a 10BaseT
LAN port for subscriber PC/network, and a 10BaseT port for connecting to the
SDA or IDR (depending on subscriber site configuration).

The AS WipLL system provides two different subscriber site configurations:


! Outdoor radio with indoor Ethernet switch/hub
! Indoor radio only

1.3.2.1. Outdoor Radio with Indoor Ethernet Switch/Hub


The outdoor radio with indoor Ethernet switch/hub configuration consists of the AS
WipLL Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR) and the AS WipLL Subscriber Data
Adapter (SDA), respectively. These two devices are described below:
! Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR):
The SPR is the outdoor radio transceiver that provides a wireless link between
the subscriber’s network and the Base Station.
The SPR connects to the subscriber’s network through the AS WipLL SDA, an
Ethernet hub or switch (depending on SDA model). The SDA provides the SPR
with DC power, lightening protection, and Ethernet (10Base-T and/or 100Base-
T) interface to the subscriber’s PCs/network (up to four PCs depending on SDA
model). The SPR connects to the SDA by a standard CAT-5 cable.
The SPR is mounted outside, typically on an external wall or on a pole to
provide a clear line-of-site with the Base Station.

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The SPR is available in various models that either provide built-in antennas or
N-type ports for attaching a third-party antenna for increasing radio coverage
(antenna gain).
! Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA):
The SDA is a switch or hub (depending on model), providing the SPR with -48
VDC power supply (from AC power outlet), lightening protection, and
10/100Base-T interface to the subscriber’s PCs/network.
The SDA is installed indoors and can be mounted on a wall or simply placed on
a desktop. The SDA connects to the SPR by a standard CAT-5 cable.
The SDA is available in the following models:
! SDA-1: hub that provides one 10BaseT interface to the subscriber’s
computer or LAN network if connected to another hub or a switch.
! SDA-1/DC: adapter that provides Ethernet (one 10BaseT) and regulated
–48 VDC power to the SPR. This model can be powered from a voltage of
10 – 52 VDC (e.g. from a solar panel that typically provides 12 VDC). This
model is typically implemented in mobile wireless applications, e.g. in a car
or truck.
! SDA-4H: hub that provides four 10BaseT interfaces to the subscriber’s
computers and/or networks. One of the 10BaseT ports provides crossover
cabling for interfacing to another hub or LAN switch. Alternatively, it may
be connected to another PC via a crossed Ethernet cable.
! SDA-4S: integrated LAN switches, providing four 10/100BaseT interfaces to
the subscriber’s PCs/network. The ports of the SDA-4S models support Auto
Negotiation, allowing automatic configuration for the highest possible speed
link: 10BaseT or 100BaseT, and Full Duplex or Half Duplex mode. In other
words, the speed of the connected device (e.g., a PC) determines the speed at
which packets are transmitted through the SDA-4S port. For example, if the
device to which the port is connected is running at 100 Mbps, the port
connection will transmit packets at 100 Mbps. If the device to which the port
is connected is running at 10 Mbps, the port connection will transmit packets
at 10 Mbps.

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The SDA-4S ports also support automatic MDI/MDI-X crossover detection,


allowing connection of straight-through or crossover CAT-5 cables to any
port.
The SDA-4S is available in the following models:
− SDA-4S (standard): standard integrated LAN switch, providing four
10/100BaseT interfaces to the subscriber’s computers. This model is
ideal for SOHO implementation.
− SDA-4S/VL: provides VLANs between ports and the SPR, ensuring
privacy between LAN users of the different ports. For example, all users
connected to Port 1 do not “see” users connected to Port 2. This model is
ideal for multi-tenant (VLAN security) implementation.
− SDA-4S/VLtag: ideal for multi-tenant applications where traffic
engineering and privacy is required. SDA-4S/VLtag assigns a specific
VLAN ID to traffic, based on the SDA-4S/Vltag port at which the traffic
arrives. The VLAN IDs are fixed (since SDA-4S/VLtag is not user
configurable). SPR converts the four VLAN IDs tagged by SDA-
4S/VLtag to four VLAN IDs configured through AS WipLL’s network
management system (WipManage). The tag conversion is performed by
SPR before sending the traffic to the air and vice versa when coming
from the air.
− SDA-4S/1H3L: provides a high priority port (left-most port) for VoIP
traffic.
− SDA-4S/VL/1H3L: combines the functionality of the SDA-4S/VL and
SDA-4S/1H3L models (i.e., VLAN for each port and a high priority port
for VoIP).

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Figure 1-3 displays a typical setup at a susbcriber site implementing a AS WipLL


outdoor radio unit (SPR) and a AS WipLL indoor Ethernet switch /hub (SDA).

Figure 1-3: Subscriber site with SPR and SDA units (optional RGW)

1.3.2.2. Indoor Radio Unit Only


The indoor radio unit configuration consists of the AS WipLL Indoor Data Radio
(IDR). The IDR combines the functionality of the SPR and SDA, functioning as a
transceiver and a hub. The IDR provides one 10Base-T Ethernet interface to the
subscriber's network. The IDR receives its power from a separate power supply unit
(AC-DC power adapter).
The IDR provides a built-in antenna and a TNC-type port for attaching a third-party
antenna for increasing radio coverage (antenna gain) and ensuring line-of-site with
the Base Station.
The IDR with a built-in antenna is typically mounted on an interior wall or on a
desktop with line-of-site with the Base Station. The antenna of the IDR model with
an external antenna is typically mounted outdoors to provide line-of-site with the
Base Station.

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The IDR can be used for data and voice transmissions. In the case of voice, the IDR
uses a third-party RGW to interface with the subscriber’s IP phone. Figure 1-4
displays a typical setup for data and voice at a susbcriber site implementing a the
IDR.

Figure 1-4: Subscriber site with IDR (optional third-party external antenna and RGW)

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1.3.3. Network Management Tools


Airspan’s AS WipLL system provides comprehensive set of state-of-the-art, use-
friendly configuration and management tools for the AS WipLL system. These
management tools provide fault, configuration, performance, and security
management for the AS WipLL system.
The AS WipLL system provides the following management tools:
! WipManage™: Windows-based program, functioning as the AS WipLL
network (element) management system (NMS) providing fault, configuration,
performance, and security management.
WipManage is based on Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),
providing both local and remote network management.
! WipConfig™: Windows-based program, providing serial initial configuration
(e.g. IP addresses) of the AS WipLL devices, used typically at the factory, or
during installation. WipConfig also provides received signal strength indication
(RSSI) for subscriber radios allowing accurate device orientation and positioning
for optimal reception with Base Station. In addition, WipConfig provides a
license-dependant Spectrum Analyzer that scans a user-defined frequency range,
measuring RSSI values for each frequency, and therefore, allowing the operator
to choose “clean” frequencies for operating the AS WipLL system.
! WipConfig PDA™: designed to run on a personal digital assistant (PDA),
providing an alternative tool to WipConfig (described above) for performing
initial configuration.
! WipAD™: Windows-based program, providing quick-and-easy automatic
simultaneous downloading of software version files to multiple AS WipLL
devices.

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1.4. Applications
The following subsections provide examples of typical AS WipLL applications.

1.4.1. Broadband Data Access


In a non-AS WipLL environment, using a standard PSTN modem in circuit-
switched networks, subscribers are limited to 56 Kbps of throughput, and in most
cases, to 28.8 Kbps. From the provider's perspective, once a subscriber has dialed up
with a PSTN modem, a full channel is occupied for as long as the session lasts.
In contrast, AS WipLL subscribers are limited only by their own configuration, with
a maximum of 4 Mbps—70 times faster than the fastest PSTN modem. In addition,
subscribers do not necessarily consume more bandwidth from the provider, since
bandwidth is used only when a data packet is transmitted.
These characteristics of AS WipLL make it suitable for providing data access to
subscribers while maintaining best usage of bandwidth and capacity.

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1.4.2. High Speed Internet Access


One of the advantages of AS WipLL is the fact that subscribers are "always on"
Internet. This means that there is no dialing process and no need for the hassle
involved with dialup access. Subscribers need only to open their Web browser or e-
mail to be instantly connected.
AS WipLL can also distinguish between applications and subscribers, thus, enabling
the provider to provide different class of service to subscribers. For example, it can
provide different services to Web browsing and e-mail by prioritizing Web browsing
for ensuring best "Internet experience".
Figure 1-5 shows a typical AS WipLL application for high-speed Internet access.

Figure 1-5: Typical AS WipLL Application for High-Speed Internet Access

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1.4.3. Voice over IP


The AS WipLL system enables providers the flexibility of migration from a data-
only network to an integrated Voice-over-IP and data network. The AS WipLL
voice solution provides interoperability with any IP-to-PSTN network gateway. The
use of the IP-to-PSTN gateway allows providers seamless PSTN connectivity such
as SS7 (signaling network), G3-303, and V5.2 over E1, allowing deployment in
multi-national markets.
Figure 1-6 shows a typical AS WipLL application for VoIP.

Figure 1-6: Typical AS WipLL Application for VoIP

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1.4.4. Traffic Engineering in Multi-Tenant Application


The AS WipLL system provides high-speed wireless broadband (e.g., Internet)
access for multiple-tenant units (MTU). AS WipLL provides a dedicated high-speed
connection to the building, and then distributes that bandwidth among the tenants,
providing them with a private, secure connection. AS WipLL’s MTU solution
supports both data and VoIP. When VoIP is required, a third-party VoIP gateway is
implemented.

1.4.4.1. VLAN Tagging


The AS WipLL system provides VLAN tagging and traffic engineering in MTU
applications in networks that connect to MPLS, ATM, or Frame Relay backbones.
The AS WipLL hardware responsible for providing these MTU solutions is the
SDA-4S/VLtag Ethernet switch serving up to four tenants, or an external integrated
LAN switch (connected to the SDA-4S/VLtag) serving more than four tenants (e.g.,
24 ports).
AS WipLL's SDA-4S/VLtag assigns a different VLAN ID (fixed) to traffic from
each of its four ports. AS WipLL’s SPR converts these four VLAN IDs, tagged by
SDA-4S/VLtag, to four VLAN IDs configured by AS WipLL’s NMS (WipManage).
SPR performs this tag conversion before sending traffic to the air, and when
receiving traffic from the air. This VLAN conversion is applicable only when SPR is
used as a transparent bridge.

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Figure 1-7 shows an example of how MTU works in an ATM environment.

Figure 1-7: Multi-tenant solution (i.e., multiple VLANs) in an ATM environment

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1.4.4.2. Without VLAN Tagging


The AS WipLL system also provides regular VLAN support (without VLAN
tagging), providing privacy between tenants in MTU applications. The AS WipLL
hardware responsible for providing these MTU solutions is the SDA-4S/VL Ethernet
switch serving up to four tenants, or an external third-party integrated LAN switch
(connected to the SDA-4S/VL) serving more than four tenants (e.g., 24 ports). The
SDA-4S/VL provides VLANs between its ports and the SPR, ensuring privacy
between users of different ports. For example, all users connected to Port 1 do not
“see” users connected to Port 2.

Figure 1-8: Multi-tenant solution without VLAN tagging, but ensuring privacy
between tenants

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1.4.5. Repeater Solution


AS WipLL units can be used to provide repeater functionality. This is implemented
in scenarios where the BSR needs to be “extended” to remote subscriber sites that
are blocked by obstacles such as trees, hills, and other typical line-of-sight
obstructions or that the BSR-SPR (or BSR-IDR) transmission is out-of-range.
Back-to-back Ethernet connectivity of a BSR with an SPR/IDR provides the repeater
capability, as illustrated in Figure 1-9.

Figure 1-9: AS WipLL repeater solution

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In Figure 1-9, BSR A is part of a AS WipLL Base Station connected to the service
provider’s backbone. BSR A serves multiple SPRs, marked as SPR Ai. Two SPRs—
SPR B1 and SPR B2—cannot communicate directly with the Base Station.
Therefore, an SPR acts as a repeater by connecting back-to-back with BSR B (SPR
B1 and B2 are served by BSR B).

Notes:
- Careful planning is required to cope with issues such as interferences and
delay that are introduced by the repeater solution. For example, if the system is
used as a frequency hopping system, GPS may be required at each base
station.
- Space and frequency isolation between the “repeater SPR” and BSR B is
required.
- Bandwidth management should be calculated to support the “repeater
bandwidth”.
- IP addressing and routing tables should be configured to support the
repeater solution.

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2
ASWipLL Radio Technology:
Physical Layer
The ASWipLL system provides wireless, local-loop connectivity between the
provider’s IP-based backbone and the subscriber. This radio link is established using
ASWipLL transceivers located at the Base Station and subscriber sites.
This chapter discusses the following radio frequency (RF) physical layer issues on
which the ASWipLL system is based:
! Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
! Modulation
! Frequency Bands
! Standards Compliance
! ASWipLL RF Antennas
! Radio Planning

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2.1. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


The ASWipLL system implements frequency-hopping code division multiple access
(FH-CDMA) spread spectrum modulation for digital signal transmission over the
air between the Base Station and the subscriber site. The ASWipLL system’s
frequency hopping supports a channel bandwidth of 1 MHz or 1.33 MHz, and
channel spacing of 1 MHz (or 1.75 MHz if operating in the 3.5 GHz band).
Frequency hopping is a basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal
transmission. Spread spectrum enables a signal to be transmitted across a frequency
band that is much wider than the minimum bandwidth required by the information
signal. The transmitter "spreads" the energy, originally concentrated in narrowband,
across a number of frequency band channels on a wider electromagnetic spectrum.
In an FH-CDMA system, a transmitter "hops" between available frequencies
according to a specified algorithm, which can either be random or predefined (see
Figure 2-1). The transmitter operates in synchronization with a receiver, which
remains tuned to the same center frequency as the transmitter. A short burst of data
is transmitted on a narrowband signal. The transmitter then tunes to another
frequency, and transmits again.
The receiver is capable of hopping its frequency over a given bandwidth several
times a second (20 hops per second in the ASWipLL system), transmitting on one
frequency for a certain period of time, then hopping to another frequency and
transmitting again. The ASWipLL system supports a hopping speed of 50 msec
hopping intervals.

f5
f4
f3 Frequency
f2
f1 Each channel
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 is 1 MHz wide
TIME

Figure 2-1: An example of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

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Implementing FH-CDMA in the ASWipLL system provides the following


advantages:
! Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) is based on interference
avoidance. Narrow band interference that does not meet the signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR) blocks only a few hops, decreasing the throughput only partially.
! The required spectrum for an FHSS system is flexible in that it does not have to
be contiguous.
! FHSS can coexist with other systems in the same spectrum band.
! FHSS ensures security as to intercept transmission; a receiver must "know" the
hopping sequence.
! Frequency diversity copes with the frequency selective fading and multipath.
The RF channel obtained by the ASWipLL operator is divided into n 1-MHz sub-
channels, with center frequencies located at integer multiples of 1 MHz (see Figure
2-2). These sub-channels are organized into a set of orthogonal hopping sequences.
Several methodologies are available for creating these sequences, depending on
available spectrum and local regulations.

Sub-channel RF channel

Assigned band

Figure 2-2: Relationship between "sub-channel", "RF channel", and "assigned


channel"

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Table 2-1 shows an example of six orthogonal sequences that can be derived from
seven sub-channels.

Table 2-1: Example of six orthogonal FH sequences


Sequence No. Sub-channels (frequencies)
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
2 0 2 4 6 1 3 5
3 0 3 6 2 5 1 4
4 0 4 1 5 2 6 3
5 0 5 3 1 6 4 2
6 0 6 5 4 3 2 1

Up to 32 such sequences, each with up to 99 sub-channels can be pre-configured in


the ASWipLL ROM. An additional 32 sequences can be configured by the
ASWipLL operator in the RAM to provide further flexibility.

2.2. Modulation
The ASWipLL system is based on Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying
(CPFSK) modulation. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) uses m different frequencies
for m symbols. The simplest FSK is binary FSK, where 0 and 1 correspond to
different frequencies:

Figure 2-3: Graph displaying different frequencies for 0 and 1 bits

FSK is similar to non-linear analogue FM, but with digital modulation.

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FSK provides the following benefits:


! Non-coherent detection is possible - no carrier synchronization is required.
! Immunities to non-linearity - the envelope contains no information and,
therefore, can be hard-limited; information is carried by zero crossings:
! Can be used with non-linear power amplifiers
! Better efficiency
The FSK phase can be discontinuous or continuous (i.e. CPFSK), as displayed
below.

Figure 2-4: FSK phase: discontinuous (left wave); continuous (right wave)

Continuous wave is more natural than discontinuous and provides the following
advantages:
! Smaller bandwidth (discontinuous wave causes high frequency components)
! Operates better when transmission link has non-linearities

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2.3. Frequency Bands


ASWipLL operates in the following frequency bands:
! Licensed bands:
! 700 MHz (698 - 746 MHz; TDD)
! 925 MHz (910 – 940 MHz; TDD)
! 1.5 GHz (1427 – 1525 MHz; FDD; 49 MHz duplex separation)
! 2.3 GHz (2300 – 2400 MHz; TDD)
! 2.5 GHz MMDS (2500 – 2686 MHz; TDD)
! 2.8 GHz (2700 – 2900 MHz; TDD)
! 3.x (3.3 to 3.8 GHz TDD or FDD; 50 or 100 MHz duplex separation for
FDD)
! Unlicensed bands:
! ISM 900 MHz (902 - 928 MHz; TDD)
! ISM 2.4 GHz (2400 – 2500 MHz; TDD)
! 5.8 GHz (5725 – 5875 MHz; TDD)

Notes:
1) ASWipLL provides a range of products in the 3 GHz band, ranging from
3.3 to 3.8 GHz.
2) For a list of ASWipLL products, see Appendix B, "ASWipLL Product List".

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2.4. Standards Compliance


Table 2-2 lists standards to which ASWipLL complies.

Table 2-2: ASWipLL standards compliance


Standard Compliance
EMC • 700 MHz: FCC part 27
• 900 MHz: FCC part 15
• 2.4 GHz: ETS 300 826; FCC part 15
• MMDS: FCC part 21
• 3.x GHz: EN 300 385; EN 300 386-2; ETS 300 132-2
• 5.8 GHz: FCC part 15
Radio • 700 MHz: FCC part 27
• 900 MHz: FCC part 15
• 2.4 GHz: EN 300 328-1; FCC part 15; RSS 139; Telec
• MMDS: FCC part 21
• 3.5 GHz: EN 301 253
• 5.8 GHz: FCC part 15
Safety UL 1950, EN 60950
Environmental ETS 300 019

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2.5. ASWipLL RF Antennas


ASWipLL provides a variety of internal antenna types as well as an option for
connecting off-the-shelf, third-party external antennas. Table 2-3 provides a general
description of the ASWipLL RF antenna parameters.

Table 2-3: General description of ASWipLL RF antennas


Parameter Description
Integral (internal) • Integral flat-printed antenna: for BSR, PPR, SPR, and IDR devices. No
antenna types RF cable is involved in the outdoor radio unit-to-indoor switch/hub unit
(ODU-to-IDU) connection. Instead, a CAT-5 cable is used.
• Integral narrow-beam antenna: for the BSR device operating in the 3.5
GHz band.
• Integral high-gain antenna: for SPR and PPR devices operating in the
3.5 GHz and 2.4 GHz bands.
Polarization Vertical (Horizontal polarization is optional for SPR at 3.5 GHz)
ETSI compliant EN 302 085, Class CS1 for the BSR, and TS2 for the SPR
Receive diversity Supported in single BSR through dual integral antennas and external
antennas.
Optional third- Provides further flexibility for the ASWipLL operator to improve link budget
party external and cost-effectiveness of the Base Station. For example, an omni-directional
antennas antenna for 360º coverage can be used by a BSR.
External antennas connect to BSR, PPR, and SPR using an N-type connector:
connect to IDR using a TNC connector.
For BSRs operating in the 700 MHz or 900 MHz bands, two N-type
connectors are provided for attaching two external antennas for dual antenna
diversity at the ASWipLL Base Station. When operating in the 700 MHz
band, the BSR is supplied with a panel-type antenna; the SPR model with a
yagi-type antenna

Note: Devices with ports for connecting external antennas do not contain
built-in (internal) antennas.

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2.5.1. ASWipLL Internal Antenna Specifications


Table 2-4, Table 2-6, and Table 2-7 list the internal antenna specifications of the
BSR, PPR, SPR, and IDR devices, respectively.
Table 2-4: BSR (Base Station) antenna specifications
Parameter
Freq. Gain Beam Polarization VSWR Impe- Front
BSR range (dBi) width dance -to-
type (MHz) HxV (ohm) back
(degree) ratio
(dB)
700 710 - 716 8 60 x 60 Vertical 1:1.6 50 20
MHz and
740- 746
900 902 - 928 8 60 x 60 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
MHz
2.4 GHz 2,400 - 11 60 x 25 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
2,500
MMDS 2,500 - 11 65 x 22 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
2,690
2.8 GHz 2,700 - 11 60 x 23 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
2,900
3.x GHz 3,300 - 12 60 x 17 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
3,800
Narrow- 3,400 - 18 16 x 18 Vertical 1:1.5 50 30
beam 3,700
3.x GHz
5.8 GHz 5,725 - 12 60 x 15 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
5,875

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Table 2-5: PPR (Base Station) antenna specifications


Parameter
Freq. Gain Beam Polarization VSWR Impe- Front
PPR range (dBi) width dance -to-
type (MHz) HxV (ohm) back
(degree) ratio
(dB)
2.4 GHz 2,400 - 18 19 x 25 Vertical 1:1.6 50 28
2,500
2.8 GHz 2,700 - 11 60 x 23 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
2,900
3.x GHz 3,400 - 18 16 x 18 Vertical 1:1.5 50 30
3,700
5.8 GHz 5,725 - 12 60 x 15 Vertical 1:1.5 50 25
5,875

Table 2-6: SPR (CPE – outdoor unit) antenna specifications


Parameter
Freq. Gain Beam Polarization VSWR Impe- Front
SPR range (dBi) width dance -to-
type (MHz) HxV (ohm) back
(degree) ratio
(dB)
700 710 - 716 8 60 x 60 Vertical 1:1.6 50 20
MHz and
740- 746
900 902 - 928 8 60 x 60 Vertical 1:1.9 50 23
MHz
2.4 GHz 2,400 - 15 24 x 33 Vertical 1:1.6 50 28
2,500
High- 2,400 - 18 19 x 25 Vertical 1:1.6 50 28
gain 2.4 2,500
GHz
MMDS 2,500 - 15 21 x 29 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
2,690
2.8 GHz 2,700 - 15 21 x 30 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
2,900

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Parameter
Freq. Gain Beam Polarization VSWR Impe- Front
SPR range (dBi) width dance -to-
type (MHz) HxV (ohm) back
(degree) ratio
(dB)
3.5 GHz 3,400 - 15 18 x 28 Vertical / 1:1.6 50 25
3,600 Horizontal
High- 3,400 - 18 16 x 18 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
gain 3.5 3,600
GHz
5.8 GHz 5,725 - 16 12 X 21 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
5,875

Notes:
1) The SPR 700 MHz and SPR 900 MHz units have larger dimensions than
the standard SPR models. Their dimensions are the same as that of the BSR.
2) The SPR 3.5 GHz and SPR 2.4 GHz models are available in large and
standard (smaller) dimensions. The dimensions affect the antenna gain (i.e.
greater the dimension, the higher the gain).
3) The 700 MHz internal antenna covers only 710 to 716 MHz and 740 to 746
MHz (i.e. Band-C). To cover the entire band of 698 to 746 MHz, an external
antenna is used (see Section 2.5.3, "RF Planning Considerations for Band-C in
FCC Markets").

Table 2-7: IDR (CPE - indoor unit) antenna specifications


Parameter
Freq. Gain Beam Polarization VSWR Impe- Front
IDR range (dBi) width dance -to-
type (MHz) HxV (ohm) back
(degree) ratio
(dB)
900 902 - 928 8 67 x 93 Vertical 1:1.9 50 -17
MHz
2.4 GHz 2,400 - 10 65 x 32 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
2,500
3.5 GHz 3,400 - 10 65 x 32 Vertical 1:1.6 50 25
3,600

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2.5.2. ASWipLL External Antennas


For various frequency bands, ASWipLL products provide ports for attaching third-
party external antennas. The BSR/PPR and SPR devices provide an N-type port(s),
while the IDR device provides a TNC-type port.

Notes:
1) For external antenna specifications, see Appendix H, "External Antenna
Specifications".
2) Devices with ports for connecting external antennas do not contain built-in
(internal) antennas.
3) The IDR is not applicable for 5.8 GHz.

2.5.2.1. ASWipLL 900 MHz


The BSR and IDR devices operating in the 900 MHz band provide receptacles for
attaching external antennas. The BSR provides two N-type receptacles (for dual
antenna diversity), and the IDR provides one TNC-type receptacle.

2.5.2.2. ASWipLL 700 MHz


Except for ASWipLL 700, the integral antenna of all the other ASWipLL products
covers their entire respective frequency bands. ASWipLL 700’s integral antenna
covers only Band-C (i.e. 710 to 716 MHz, and 740 to 746 MHz) frequency band.
Therefore, for ASWipLL 700, Airspan provides an external antenna, allowing
coverage in the entire 700 MHz band (698 to 746 MHz), including the licensed A
and B bands used in USA.
For most ASWipLL products a wide variety of external antennas can be used.
However, ASWipLL 700 allows connection to a limited variation of external
antennas, including, among others, the following:
! BSR: 90° panel or omni-directional antenna
! SPR: 14-element yagi antenna
Airspan can supply these external antennas. The external antennas connect to these
ASWipLL devices by an N-type connector.

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2.5.3. RF Planning Considerations for Band-C in FCC


Markets
Some operators (e.g. in the USA) have licenses for Band-C (710 – 716 MHz and 740
– 746 MHz). A maximum of four BSRs operating in Band-C are allowed at a Base
Station (in accordance with FCC regulations). This regulation ensures minimum RF
interference with other radio devices that may be operating in nearby frequencies.
In the 1 megasymbols per second (Msps) mode, the center frequencies are 711.5,
712.5, 713.5, 714.5, 741.5, 742.5, 743.5, and 744.5. Thus, the frequency allocation
for four BSRs is 711.5, 741.5, 714.5, and 744.5.
In the 1.33 Msps mode, the center frequencies are 712, 713, 714, 742, 743, and 744.
Thus, the frequency allocation for four BSRs is 712, 742, 714, and 744.

Figure 2-5: Frequency allocation in a four-sector Base Station

Radio interference may occur between the BSRs operating in the upper frequency
range (i.e. 742 MHz and 744 MHz) and the lower frequency range (i.e. 712 MHz
and 714 MHz). To overcome this interference, a 1-meter vertical separation is
recommended between the BSRs operating in the upper frequency and the BSRs
operating in the lower frequency.

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2.6. Radio Planning


ASWipLL radio planning can be divided into the following areas:
! Main technical parameters
! Coverage analysis
! Interference analysis: FDD vs. TDD
! Frequency allocation: Synchronized vs. Unsynchronized operation
! Capacity considerations
! Selecting appropriate mode of operation
! Radio planning software tool

2.6.1. Main Technical Parameters


The main technical parameters required for RF planning in the ASWipLL system are
summarized in Table 2-8.

Table 2-8: ASWipLL parameters required for RF planning


Parameter Value
Radio Technology FH-CDMA
Multiple Access Method Proprietary Adaptive TDMA protocol (PPMA)
Output Power 27 dBm for all models, except for the following:
• ASWipLL 700: 32 dBm
• ASWipLL 900: 30 dBm (but, when operating in
countries complying with FCC, max. is 23 dBm)
Sub-Channel Spacing 1 MHz (1.75 MHz for devices in 3.5 GHz band)
Symbols per second (Msps) • Two modes supported: 1 Msps or 1.33 Msps
Sub-Channel bandwidth (measured at 20 dB 1 MHz or 1.33 MHz (depending on selected mode)
attenuation point)
Modulation Multilevel 2-, 4-, or 8-level CPFSK1

1
The intermediate 4-FSK modulation is not supported when 1.33 Msps mode is
selected

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Parameter Value
Receiver Sensitivity (BER 1E-6 at 2/4/8 FSK) -90/ -83/ -75 dBm
SNR Thresholds (BER 1E-6 at 2/4/8 FSK) 12/ 20/ 28 dB
Interference Rejection Factor for 1.33 Msps
mode (1 Msps mode):
• ± 1 MHz • 5 dB (7 dB)
• ± 2 MHz • 30 dB (40 dB)
• ± 3 MHz • 52 dB (53 dB)
• ± 4 MHz • 58 dB (60 dB)
• ± 5 MHz • 63 dB (64 dB)
Receiver Noise Figure 10 dB

2.6.2. System Coverage


System coverage includes the following:
! Line of sight
! Link Budget

2.6.2.1. Line of Sight


Generally, ASWipLL requires the existence of a line of sight (LOS) between the
Base Station transmitter and the subscriber’s receiver (near line of sight [NLOS]
may be possible to a limited extent for ranges of a few hundred meters). Therefore,
the availability of LOS (clear first Fresnel Zone) should be estimated during CPE
installation or preferably during network planning.
Recommended propagation models used in coverage analysis are based on free-
space propagation with compensation for ground and irregular terrain reflections and
diffraction. Specific propagation model names vary between different software tools.
The model should also include a certain level of fade margin, as discussed in the
next section.

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2.6.2.2. Link Budget


The coverage analysis of ASWipLL includes the analysis of the power balance
between the transmitter and the receiver, threshold considerations, margins, reserves,
and certain system statistics. Therefore, the lead-in reception level is measured by
the following equation:
Rx = Tx – LossTx + AntGainTx – PathLoss + AntGainRx – LossRx

Where,
Rx = reception level in dBm
Tx = transmitter power in dBm (27 dBm in the ASWipLL system)
LossTx = transmitter losses in dB (0 dB in the ASWipLL system)
LossRx = terminal receiver losses in dB (0 dB in the ASWipLL system)
AntGainTx = transmitter antenna gain
AntGainRx = receiver antenna gain in dBi (decibels referenced to isotropic
radiator)
PathLoss = propagation loss in dB

Note: Both the Base Station and the subscriber site can serve as transmitter
and receiver. For downlink budget, the transmitter is the Base Station and the
receiver is the subscriber; and vice versa for the uplink budget.

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2.6.2.2.1. Propagation loss

Propagation is the dispersal of the signal into space as it leaves the antenna. The loss
of this propagation depends on the signal path between the transmitter and the
receiver. Obstructions in the signal path such as trees and buildings can cause signal
degradation. Several models simulate signal attenuation along this path.
Propagation loss should incorporate fading margins to compensate different
phenomenon such as multipath shadowing and climatic behavior of the waves.
Based on this, the parameter path loss can be calculated by the following equation:
PathLoss = L + Fade Margin

! Free Space model:


Free space propagation loss is valid when the first Fresnel Zone is clear. In this
case, free space propagation loss is given by the following equation:
LFS = 32.44 + 20logd[km] + 20logf[MHz]

! Fade Margin:
Fade margin further introduces fading factor to the propagation loss to cover the
different signal fading and shadow effects, as well as the degradation caused by
interferences. The fading factor depends on the time availability parameter
defined by the operator, and should be calculated according to the ITU 530
model for 99.9% availability.
For simplicity purposes, the ITU model can be replaced by a 10 dB Flat fade
margin as a rough estimation.
! Rainfall:
Radio signals are attenuated by moisture in the atmosphere. The level of
attenuation varies with carrier frequency, the quantity of rainfall, and the
distance from the transmitter to the receiver. The variation of attenuation with
frequency is particularly strong and highly non-linear. At 3 GHz, the highest
attenuation is about 0.06 dB/km; for a typical WLL path of, for example, 6 km,
the attenuation is only 0.36 dB. Therefore, for the purpose of link budget, we can
assume that the impact of rainfall is negligible.

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2.6.2.2.2. Link Budget Calculations and Fresnel Zone

Link budget calculations depend on whether the first Fresnel Zone is clear or not.
When using the free space model to calculate path loss, it is assumed that line of
sight (LOS) exists. Thus, if the first Fresnel Zone is not clear, it is inappropriate to
use the free space model.
One method for clearing the Fresnel Zone (in order to use the free space model to
calculate link budget) is by changing the antenna height to improve received signal
strength (RSS) levels.
The first Fresenel Zone radius is calculated by

where f is the frequency (in MHz) and d is the distance (in meters).
For example, using the formula above, a link of 4 km at 700 MHz produces a first
Fresnel Zone radius clearance of about 20 meters. This implies that to ensure the
ground does not enter into the first Fresnel Zone, both antennas (i.e. at Base Station
and subscriber) must be mounted at least 20 meters above ground level (or clutter
level).
Typically, at least 60% clearance of the first Fresnel Zone is considered as LOS.
Therefore, in the above example, a height of at least 12 meters (i.e. 60% of 20
meters) above ground level is sufficient for LOS.
In scenarios where the Fresnel Zone can not be cleared, other standard propagation
models (e.g. Hata model) can be used to calculate link budget. The appropriate
model to use depends on the environment (e.g. open area, urban, and suburban) in
which the ASWipLL system is operating. When using RF planning software and
GIS databases, the software generally chooses the appropriate model automatically.

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For example, when operating in open areas, it is possible to use the following Hata
open formula:

In this example, if the antenna height is increased sufficiently, the Hata open
coincides with the free space propagation model. The difference between using the
Hata formula and the free space formula may be substantial in scenarios where the
Fresnel Zone is not clear.

Figure 2-6: Fresnel Zone partially blocked

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2.6.2.2.3. Link Budget Results

Based on the previous equations mentioned in the above sections, Table 2-9 shows
the link budget results obtained for 99.9% availability.

Table 2-9: Link budget results


Modulation Rate Range (in km)
(Mbps) 2.4 MMDS 3.5 5.8 900 700
GHz2 (2.5 GHz) GHz GHz MHz MHz
8 FSK 3 or 4 8 8 7 6 8 15
4 FSK 2 11 11 10 8 11 22
2 FSK 1 or 1.33 14 14 13 11 15 28

Note: Link budget is calculated for the standard integrated ASWipLL


antennas. Where required, the range can be increased by implementing
external antennas.

2.6.3. Interference Analysis


Interference analysis should be based on parameters defined in Section 2.6.1, "Main
Technical Parameters" to determine the downlink and uplink carrier-to-interference
ratio (C/I). The C/I is a key factor in determining the supported modulation for each
link. Thresholds for C/I for the different modulations are mentioned in Section 2.6.1,
"Main Technical Parameters".
Interference analysis depends on the duplex scheme implemented in the system.
Since ASWipLL supports both FDD and TDD, different considerations should be
applied.

2
Although the transmitter is capable of transmitting 27 dBm, in most cases the EIRP
in the ISM band is limited by local regulations. For example, ETSI limits the EIRP
to 20 dBm, FCC to 36 dBm, and TELEC to 27 dBm. The link budget calculated
here assumes no limit.

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2.6.3.1. FDD versus TDD


Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) interference analysis is relatively simple. The
frequency separation between downlink and uplink (50 to 100 MHz) enables
Airspan to conduct downlink and uplink interference analysis independently.
However, in Time Division Duplex (TDD), since Tx and Rx are not synchronized,
cross-link interference may result, for example, between a transmitting BSR and an
adjacent receiving BSR. It is expected that these interferences will be dominant in
the TDD mode.
The major consequence of this is the different limitations imposed on frequency
separation between adjacent BSRs:
! FDD: 2-MHz frequency separation
! TDD: 4-MHz frequency separation
The required separation is a function of the isolation between co-located antennas.
The 4-MHz separation is based on 60 dB isolation. Based on this, a simple
frequency allocation for a stand-alone cell is presented in Figure 2-7.

11 3

9 5

Frequency Allocation Frequency Allocation


Single Cell (FDD) Single Cell (TDD)

Figure 2-7: Frequency allocation for a stand-alone cell: FDD (left) vs. TDD (right)

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2.6.4. Frequency Allocation


Frequency allocation includes the following issues:
! Synchronized vs. Unsynchronized operation
! Frequency Reuse
! Frequency Allocation template

2.6.4.1. Synchronized versus Unsynchronized Operation


The frequency allocation scheme in ASWipLL depends on the mode of operation.
Three main options exist:
! Unsynchronized Frequency Hopping
! Synchronized Frequency Hopping
! Fix Sub-Channel Assignment

2.6.4.1.1. Unsynchronized Frequency Hopping

A scenario may exist whereby the operator does not want to synchronize Base
Stations due to cost or regulatory issues. For example, the FCC prohibits
synchronization between Base Stations when operating in the unlicensed band. In
such a scenario, the BSRs (and SPRs) are assigned pseudo-random frequency tables,
and, therefore, collisions between transceivers are possible, resulting in some level
of retransmissions. However, implementing orthogonal frequency tables (hopping
sequences) reduces collisions.
In this mode of operation, the available set of sub-channels, which must include a
prime number of sub-channels, is organized into several different hopping sequences
that are orthogonal to each other. Each BSR in the coverage area is assigned a
different sequence (until there is a need to start reusing the tables). The degradation
level in performance due to collisions will be a random number, depending on the
length of the frequency tables (the number of available sub-channels).

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Figure 2-2-8 displays a graph depicting the hit or blocking probability as a function
of number of interferers for different table lengths (7, 23, and 79).

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

N= 7 N = 23 N = 79

Figure 2-2-8: Hit probability as a function of active interferers

Note: The probability of collisions with 20 interferers and 79 sub-channels is


only 20%.

2.6.4.1.2. Synchronized Frequency Hopping

In most scenarios, the operator synchronizes between ASWipLL Base Stations


located in the same coverage area. This option provides the best control over intra-
system interferences.
In this mode of operation, the available set of sub-channels is arranged in a single
hopping sequence, common to all transceivers (BSRs and SPRs) in the coverage
area. Since the table ID is identical to all radios, the only parameter that needs to be
assigned is the phase, that is, the starting point within the sequence.
By selecting the sequence appropriately, the relative frequency separation between
the transceivers remains constant over time, so that interference analysis is quite
similar to any Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) system.

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2.6.4.1.3. Fix Sub-Channel Assignment

In some scenarios—mainly licensed bands in which available spectrum is limited—


it is possible to create a set of "hopping" tables, each based on a single sub-channel.
Using this approach, the hopping nature of the system is actually disabled, so that
synchronization is not required. The trade-off of this approach is loss of frequency
diversity, discussed previously as a means to overcome frequency-selective fading.
Interference analysis in this mode is identical to any FDMA system.

2.6.4.2. Frequency Allocation


Figure 2-9 presents frequency allocation for three adjacent cells for the FDD and
TDD schemes. This frequency allocation is relevant only for synchronized
frequency hopping or fix sub-channel assignment options. For the unsynchronized
frequency hopping option described previously, orthogonal frequency tables are
assigned instead of specific sub-channels (or phases). As described in Section 2.6.3,
"Interference Analysis", 60-dB isolation between co-located BSRs is assumed for
the TDD allocation.

Figure 2-9: Frequency allocation (FDD - left and TDD - right)

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2.6.5. Capacity Considerations


This section provides high-level guidelines for evaluating ASWipLL capacity. This
capacity relates to the number of subscribers supported by a single BSR according to
a certain service mix. The methodology presented here provides a simplified
approach for evaluating ASWipLL capacity capabilities. It can be used as an initial
estimation; however, it cannot replace a more accurate capacity analysis performed
by an RF planning team.

2.6.5.1. General
The general concept for determining the number of subscribers per BSR is presented
in Figure 2-10.

Aggregate CIR / Over Subscription Factor

BSR Limit (Kbps)

Voice Calls * Call BW

Figure 2-10: Determining number of subscribers per BSR

The BSR limit is 4 Mbps; therefore, the total voice and data bandwidth must be
lower or equal to 4 Mbps.
The number of voice calls should be derived from Erlang B tables according to
voice traffic per subscriber (in erlangs), and expected blocking probability (typically
1%) parameters. The VoIP bandwidth depends on the specific codec that will be
used. Typical values are specified in the next section.
The data portion of the aggregated traffic is based on the sum of the committed
information rate (CIR) for all subscribers assigned to the BSR, divided by the
appropriate over subscription rate.

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Since voice and data services differ by their packet size and their sensitivity to delay,
their protocol efficiency can be substantially different. Therefore, when calculating
bandwidth for different applications, the gross bandwidth should be used, which
takes into account the protocol efficiency.

2.6.5.2. VoIP Bandwidth and Simultaneous Calls


The VoIP bandwidth and the number of supported simultaneous calls are a function
of the selected codec and the sample interval. Assuming a 4 Mbps gross rate, the
following numbers can be used:

Table 2-10: VoIP simultaneous calls for 4 Mbps gross rate


Codec Sample Interval Simultaneous Calls
(msec)
20 10
G.711 (64 Kbps)
40 15
20 14
G.729 (8 Kbps)
40 28
30 22
G.723.1 (5.3 Kbps)
60 42

If silence suppression is used, a factor of 65% should be applied on the call


bandwidth.

Note: The selection of the appropriate codec should be based on a balance


between the occupied bandwidth and the voice quality.

2.6.5.3. Data Bandwidth


It is assumed that packet size for data applications is relatively large (about 1,500
bytes), resulting in a protocol efficiency of 80%. Taking this into account, the sum
of all data bandwidth should be divided by 80% to obtain the bandwidth over the air.

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2.6.5.4. Calculation Example


This example assumes that the required services are based on voice traffic of 100
merlangs per subscriber and a CIR of 256 Kbps. In addition, in this example, a 1%
blocking is expected for voice calls, and 1:10 over subscription is expected for data.
The number of subscribers that can be supported by a single BSR (N) is equal to
4,000 Kbps 10% ⋅ N ⋅ 256 Kbps
Calls (traffic, Gos) ⋅ + ≤ 4,000 Kbps
Sim _ Calls (Codec) 80%

Assume that N = 40. Therefore, the aggregate voice traffic is equal to 4 erlangs.
Using Erlang B tables with 1% blocking, 10 voice channels (calls) are required. For
G.729 with 40 msec sample interval and silence suppression, the total capacity set
for voice is obtained by 10*143 Kbps*65% = 930 Kbps. The total capacity set for
data is obtained by 40*256 Kbps*10%/80% = 1,280 Kbps. This implies that more
subscribers can be supported, since the aggregated capacity (2,210 Kbps) is lower
than the 4 Mbps limit. If N (BSRs) increases, the limit of 4 Mbps will be reached for
N = 80. (The process of finding N can be simplified by using an electronic
spreadsheet).

2.6.6. Selecting an Appropriate Operation Mode


ASWipLL enables the operator the flexibility to choose between several modes of
operation according to the operator’s needs. One of the optional modes relates to the
symbol rate of the modem. This section presents the main issues that should be
considered when selecting an operation mode when deploying the ASWipLL
system.

2.6.6.1. ASWipLL Multiple Modes


ASWipLL offers the capability to select between two operating modes in terms of
symbol rate. The modem can operate in either 1 megasymbols per second (Msps) or
1.33 Msps. The operating mode is software selectable for each BSR. The differences
between the modes of operation are related to the bit rate and the channel bandwidth.

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2.6.6.1.1. Bit Rate

The 1 Msps mode supports three levels of modulation, as presented in Table 2-11.

Table 2-11: ASWipLL bit rate at 1 Msps


Modulation Bit/Symbol Bit rate (Mbps)
8-level FSK 3 3
4-level FSK 2 2
2-level FSK 1 1

The 1.33 Msps mode supports two levels of modulation according to Table 2-12.

Table 2-12: ASWipLL bit rate at 1.33 Msps


Modulation Bit/Symbol Bit rate (Mbps)
8-level FSK 3 4
2-level FSK 1 1.33

Note: The differences in sensitivity and SNR values between the two modes
are negligible.

2.6.6.1.2. Channel Bandwidth

The 1.33 Msps is based on shorter symbols, with the trade-off of a wider channel
bandwidth. The 20 dB attenuation point for the 1 Msps mode and the 1.33 Msps
mode is 1 MHz and 1.33 MHz, respectively.

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2.6.6.2. System Range Considerations


System range depends on the maximum output power of the system. Different
approaches exist, depending on region and frequency band.

2.6.6.2.1. Unlicensed Bands

FCC part 15 (paragraph 247) differentiates between three types of systems:


! Digital modulated
! Frequency hopping
! Hybrid
Limitations on Tx (transmit) power and EIRP differ on this basis. Table 2-13
summarizes the limitations for the different ASWipLL products.

Table 2-13: Tx power and EIRP limitations for ASWipLL products


Frequency Mode Tx power EIRP System type
band
900 MHz 1 Msps 17.5 dBm 36 dBm Hybrid
1.33 Msps 23 dBm 36 dBm Hybrid
2.4 GHz 1 Msps -- 36 dBm Frequency hopping
1.33 Msps -- 27 dBm Frequency hopping
5.8 GHz 1 Msps -- 36 dBm Frequency hopping
1.33 Msps 18 dBm 36 dBm Hybrid
Note: For ASWipLL 900, the BSR’s external antenna must have a minimum cable
loss of 2.5 dB to comply with FCC’s EIRP limit of 36 dBm. EIRP is calculated as:
Max. Power Output + Antenna Gain - Cable Loss ≤ 36 dBm (EIRP)

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The table below lists examples of cable loss per cable for maximum antenna gains
for ASWipLL 900, based on the formula above. Note that the EIRP is either equal to
or less than 36 dBm.

Table 2-14: Example of cable loss per cable for maximum antenna gains
Cable type Cable Tx power Cable loss Max. Max. EIRP
length (dBm) (dB) Antenna (dBm)
(ft) gain (dBi)
BELDEN - 9913 10 21.1 0.6 15.5 36
30 22 1.5 15.5 36
100 23 4.4 15.5 34.1
BELDEN - 89907 10 22.4 1.9 15.5 36
30 23 5.2 15.5 33.3
100 23 16.3 15.5 22.2

Table 2-15, Table 2-16, and Table 2-17 present system ranges (in kilometers) for the
different frequency bands (900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz, respectively) and
modes of operation (i.e. 1 Msps and 1.33 Msps).

Table 2-15: ASWipLL range at FCC limits for 900 MHz


Mode Modulation Rate (Mbps) Range (km)
8 FSK 3 4
1 Msps 4 FSK 2 10
2 FSK 1 24
8 FSK 4 6
1.33 Msps
2 FSK 1.33 35

Table 2-16: ASWipLL range at FCC limits for 2.4 GHz


Mode Modulation Rate (Mbps) Range (km)
8 FSK 3 4
1 Msps 4 FSK 2 10
2 FSK 1 22
8 FSK 4 1
1.33 Msps
2 FSK 1.33 8

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Table 2-17: ASWipLL range at FCC limits for 5.8 GHz


Mode Modulation Rate (Mbps) Range (km)
8 FSK 3 2
1 Msps 4 FSK 2 5
2 FSK 1 10
8 FSK 4 1
1.33 Msps
2 FSK 1.33 8

Note: Link budget is calculated for the uplink assuming free space
propagation standard integrated antenna and 10 dB fade margin.

As shown in the tables, the system range for the 1 Msps mode is approximately three
times higher than for the 1.33 Msps mode due to the 9 dB differences in Tx
(transmit) power.

2.6.6.2.2. Licensed Bands (3.5 GHz)

No distinction exists between the two modes in terms of system range.

2.6.6.3. Interference Rejection


Two types of interference should be considered:
! Intra-system interference: caused by multiple ASWipLL transmitters
! Inter-system interference: caused by external transmitters, mainly in the
unlicensed bands

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2.6.6.3.1. Intra-system Interference

As mentioned previously, 1.33 Msps mode is achieved by using wider channel


bandwidth. This results in a higher bit rate at the expense of increasing adjacent
channel interference. This difference can become critical mainly for licensed bands
in which the available spectrum might be very limited. It is beyond the scope of this
document to provide specific rules regarding the preferred mode as a function of the
available spectrum. This is due to the fact that such analysis depends on many
parameters such as the cell layout and the topography of the coverage area.
However, it should be evaluated during radio planning.

2.6.6.3.2. Inter-system Interference

The immunity of the ASWipLL system to external interference is due to its spread
spectrum system. Exposure to external interference is highest when operating in the
unlicensed band. Both FCC and ETSI set limits on the spreading level that is
required by a frequency hopping spread spectrum system.
! ETSI:
According to EN 300 328, FHSS modulation must use at least 20 well-defined,
non-overlapping channels separated by the channel bandwidth as measured at 20
dB below peak power.
Since ASWipLL’s carriers must be located at integer multiples of megahertz
(MHz), the above statement limits the channel spacing to 1 MHz for the 1 Msps
mode, and 2 MHz for the 1.33 Msps mode. This limits the number of possible
hops in the ASWipLL system when operating under ETSI regulations to between
20 and 80 for the 1 Msps mode, and between 20 and 40 for the 1.33 Msps mode.

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! FCC:
Part 15 of the FCC sets the same requirement for non-overlapping channels.
For frequency hopping systems operating in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz band with
a channel bandwidth greater than 250 KHz, the system shall use at least 25
hopping frequencies.
For frequency hopping systems operating in the 5725 MHz to 5850 MHz band,
the system shall use at least 75 hopping frequencies.
For frequency hopping systems operating in the 2400 MHz to 2483.5 MHz band,
the system shall use at least 15 non-overlapping channels.
In general, since the number of different hops is substantially lower, the capability of
ASWipLL to overcome interferences is reduced. In practice, ETSI allows the
operator the flexibility not to use the entire spectrum, in case, for example, a
constant interference is identified in a portion of the spectrum. This makes the
problem much less critical than in the FCC case, where the entire spectrum must be
used.

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2.6.6.4. System Capacity


The modulation for each link in the ASWipLL system is adaptively determined
according to the signal strength and the BER. When evaluating system capacity, it
should be taken into account that the intermediate 4-FSK modulation is not
supported when operating at 1.33 Msps.
Assume an ASWipLL deployment where subscribers are located at various distances
from the Base Stations. In general, three coverage circles can be expected around
each Base Station:
! Inner circle: supporting 8-level FSK
! Intermediate circle: supporting 4-level FSK
! Outer circle: supporting 2-level FSK
Let pi, pm, and po represent the percentages of subscribers located at the inner,
intermediate, and outer coverage circles, respectively. The average capacity of the
system (without taking into account advanced features like fairness) for each of the
possible modes can be given by the following formulas:
Capacity1Msps [ Mbps] = pi ⋅ 3 + p m ⋅ 2 + p o ⋅ 1
Capacity1.33Msps [ Mbps] = pi ⋅ 4 + ( p m + po ) ⋅ 1.33

Radio planning can provide estimations for pi, pm, and po so that the ASWipLL
operator can determine which option provides the highest system capacity.

2.6.6.5. Conclusion
The 1.33 Msps mode provides superior bit rate, but at the expense of a possible
reduction in radio coverage (FCC), and/or increase in interference. A certain amount
of radio planning is required to determine the preferable mode to maximize the
overall capacity of the access network.

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2.6.7. Radio Planning Software Tool


To design an optimal fixed wireless broadband network, the operator requires an RF
design tool that includes features of a geographic information system (GIS) module,
a propagation prediction module, and a fixed wireless module.
The GIS module should map data that contain or can be assigned geographic
coordinates, for example, terrain elevation, land-use classification, site locations,
design area boundaries, roads, and highways.
The propagation prediction module should provide RF propagation analysis and
predictions. This module must support features that allow the propagation model to
be calibrated using drive test measurements.
The fixed wireless module should support directional CPE antennas for coverage,
capacity and interference analysis in LOS and NLOS conditions, and adaptive
modulation.
In addition, to enable detailed and accurate propagation prediction, terrain
information must be supplemented by a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
database. Clutter databases are typically based on Satellite or Aerial photography,
depending on the resolution of the planning. Clutter databases should include
Definition of Clutter Types and Clutter Height relative to the underlying DEM.
The resolution of data varies depending on the environment at which the planning is
targeted. Airspan recommends the following:
! Rural: 10 to30 meters
! Urban: 5 to 20 meters
The specific format of the database depends on the planning tool. The planning
software provider or user’s manual should be consulted to obtain the appropriate
format.

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3
ASWipLL’s Air MAC Protocol
The ASWipLL system implements Airspan’s proprietary Preemptive Polling
Multiple Access (PPMA) technology for multiple access control between its
wireless units. This technology specifies media access control (MAC) and physical
layers for its units.

3.1. MAC Protocol Features


ASWipLL’s MAC protocol, provided by PPMA, offers the following features:
! Supports up to 126 subscriber sites (SPRs/IDRs) per BSR, and up to 3,024
subscriber sites per Base Station
! High throughput efficiency - 80% of the bit rate
! Automatic rate control to maximize throughput under high bit error rate (BER)
! Re-transmission of lost packets - reliable operation in a high BER environment
! Centrally coordinated air protocol - designed for point-to-multipoint (PMP)
environments
! No transmission collisions
! Real-time assessments on required and available bandwidth resources to control
data flow
! Intelligent polling of customer premises equipment (SPRs and IDRs)

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3.2. Preemptive Polling Multiple Access


Protocol
The ASWipLL system implements Airspan’s proprietary Preemptive Polling
Multiple Access (PPMA) technology. PPMA is an "adaptive" Time Division
Multiple Access (TDMA) protocol, i.e. the same RF channel is used for multiple
subscribers, and the time interval for subscriber transmission is adaptive to the
subscriber’s resource requirements (based on QoS). PPMA is designed specifically
for point-to-multipoint wireless local loop (WLL) applications to provide best
effective throughput.
PPMA has many advantages over competing solutions such as the IEEE 802.11
Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) protocol. For a list of advantages over
802.11 CSMA, see Section 3.2.4, "PPMA vs. CSMA"
The PPMA technology is implemented at OSI’s Layer 2 (Data Link layer). Layer 2
builds up Ethernet packets, sends them to the channel via the Physical layer, receives
packets, checks if these packets are error free, and then delivers error-free packets to
the Network layer.
Preemptive Polling Multiple Access is a centrally coordinated protocol that controls
packet transmissions between the BSR and SPRs/IDRs. The BSR coordinates
transmission over the air, constantly gathering information from SPRs/IDRs
regarding resource requirements. Resource requirement is rated according to QoS,
number of packets in the SPR’s/IDR’s queues, and the maximum delay allowed for
the first packet in the queue (represented by a Time To Live [TTL] value).
Once the BSR has determined the SPRs’/IDRs’ resource requirements, it polls the
SPRs/IDRs for the next few milliseconds. The SPRs/IDRs with the higher resource
requirement rates are polled first.
The following sub-sections describe the PPMA mechanism.

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3.2.1. Slotted Aloha Process


The constant gathering of SPRs’/IDRs’ required resources information is performed
using the Slotted Aloha process. Slotted Aloha divides the channel into time slots,
requiring the subscriber to send messages only at the beginning of a time slot.
At specific time intervals (not exceeding 100 msec), the BSR sends a "Channel
Clear" message inviting SPRs/IDRs to send the score of their resource requirements.
The BSR then waits a specific time and receives these requirements. This waiting
time is called Slotted Aloha. The BSR waits for a time that is equivalent to 16
"Request to Send" (RTS) messages. The messages are synchronized so that an
SPR/IDR transmits a message only after the previous message has ended. The
timing of each RTS message is represented as a "slot".
SPRs/IDRs can choose which time slots to use for sending their requirements.
Occasionally, a collision between SPRs\IDRs can occur in a slot, resulting in a lost
RTS. Each SPR/IDR can use more than one slot to send its RTS. An SPR/IDR that
is denied transmission can retry during the next Slotted Aloha process.
The Slotted Aloha process ensures that all SPRs/IDRs receive equal opportunities to
transmit their RTS message.

3.2.2. Packet Transmission


Once the BSR has received the RTS messages from the SPRs\IDRs and determined
their priorities, it sends a "Clear to Send" (CTS) message to the first SPR/IDR. The
SPR/IDR then transmits its packet.
In the header of each packet, additional information regarding the status of the
queues is included. This eliminates the need for the SPR/IDR to participate in the
next Slotted Aloha process.
The data packet is divided into fragments. To each fragment is added a cyclic
redundancy check (CRC). Once the packet has been received, the BSR sends an
"Acknowledge" (ACK) message that includes information about all fragments that
were reported as errors. The SPR/IDR can re-transmit these fragments several times
until the entire message is successfully transmitted.

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3.2.3. Polling Sequence


Polling of an SPR/IDR occurs each time the BSR sends a CTS message to an
SPR/IDR. Polling of SPRs/IDRs can occur according to the information gathered
during the Slotted Aloha process, or periodically—every few milliseconds—
regardless of the Slotted Aloha process, depending on the application transmitting
data at the time.
The polling sequence of data applications is controlled by the BSR based on the
information gathered during the Slotted Aloha process. Data applications can sustain
relatively long delays before expecting a response. Therefore, their packets can be
delayed within the SPRs/IDRs before being sent to the BSR and on to the
customer’s backbone. Applications that require shorter packet delays are polled first.
Some applications are configured to transmit a burst of several packets in raw,
before expecting any response from the other party. In such a case, the polling
mechanism supports several pollings of an SPR/IDR, one after the other.

3.2.4. PPMA vs. CSMA


The PPMA technology, implemented in the ASWipLL system, outweighs the IEEE
802.11 CSMA protocol used by many BWA products.
The CSMA protocol "listens" to the transmission media before transmitting data. If
"noise" is detected, then no data is transmitted. This mechanism is called "Collision
Avoidance" (CA). However, if after a certain time, "noise" is still detected, the
packet is transmitted regardless, with a chance of data collisions with concurrent
users. Therefore, the more users the lower the network efficiency and performance
due to a high BER.
In the 802.11 CSMA protocol, each network device performs CSMA locally.
Therefore, there is no central control of granting bandwidth, controlling delays, and
prioritizing different applications.

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The graph in Figure 3-1 compares PPMA with CSMA in regard to network
efficiency related to number of subscribers.
Channel
Utilization

85%
80%
75%

CSMA

PPMA
20%

4 5 6 7 8 9 40 Number Of
Subscribers

Figure 3-1: PPMA vs. 802.11 (CSMA) in network efficiency as the number of
subscribers increase

As depicted in the figure, CSMA depends on the number of subscribers, while


PPMA is not affected at all. In CSMA, as the number of subscribers increase, so the
channel utilization decreases.

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Table 3-1 lists the advantages of PPMA over 802.11.

Table 3-1: Advantages of Airspan’s PPMA over 802.11 CSMA


802.11 CSMA PPMA
Access method Carrier Sense Centrally Coordinated

Maximum number of 4 to 7: More sessions degrade 50: The traffic is manageable


concurrent transmitting the performance of the by the base station
stations network

Modes of operation Collision Avoidance Preemptive Polling Multiple


Access or adaptive Time
Division Multiple Access
(adaptive TDMA)
Support for Quality of No Embedded in the protocol
Service
Operation under Reduced performance due to None
interference delay added to packets, and the
BER

Originally designed for Wireless LAN systems, and Point-to-multipoint wireless


indoor use. local loop (WLL) systems

Near/far phenomenon Yes. Subscribers near the base No. Subscribers receive the
station receive better same service quality regardless
performance than subscribers of their distance from the base
far away. station.

Re-transmission of No Yes
packets

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4
ASWipLL Networking
The ASWipLL system provides extensive networking capabilities, supporting the
following main networking features:
! IP Routing
! PPPoE Bridging
! 802.1Q/p
! Transparent Bridging
! Quality of Service
! Bandwidth Management
! Security

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4.1. IP Routing
ASWipLL can operate in one of the following two modes:
! IP routing and point-to-point over Ethernet (PPPoE)
! Transparent bridging
When ordering the ASWipLL system, the required mode must be specified.
However, it is possible to later change modes by local configuration.
ASWipLL provides IP routing based on layer 3 of the Open System Interconnection
(OSI) standard (see Table 4-1). ASWipLL’s BSR, PPR, SPR, and IDR devices route
IP traffic according to routing algorithms, routing tables, and routing considerations.
IP routing allows for easy, logical network segmentation, since each LAN is
assigned a different IP subnet address. Therefore, all users on a subscriber’s LAN
have IP addresses that belong to the same IP subnet. The subscriber's default router
(often referred to as the default gateway) is the SPR/IDR.

Table 4-1: ASWipLL hardware - OSI model perspective


ASWipLL device Description OSI Layer
BSR, PPR • IP router and PPPoE bridge, or 2 and 3
• Transparent bridge
SPR, IDR • IP router and PPPoE bridge, or 2 and 3
• Transparent bridge
BSDU Layer 2 switch 2
SDA-4S Ethernet switch 2
SDA-4H, SDA-1 Ethernet hub 1

The BSR, PPR, SPR, and IDR devices implement static IP routing. The
BSR’s/PPR’s routing table consists of up to 200 routing entries, supporting up to
200 IP networks or IP subnets in its routing table. The SPR’s/IDR’s routing table
consists of up to 16 routing entries.

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The following subsections discuss the features and advantages supported by


ASWipLL’s IP routing.

4.1.1. Multiple IP Subnets


ASWipLL’s SPRs/IDRs can contain numerous IP addresses on each LAN port,
allowing multiple IP subnets. This is useful for defining multiple groups of users on
the same physical LAN, or when using a second layer LAN switch that supports
Virtual LANs (VLANs). Each VLAN can be assigned its own IP subnet, and traffic
among VLANs is enabled through the SPR/IDR. In such scenarios, the SPR/IDR
provides "one-leg routing" on its LAN port. The SPR/IDR can also use IP filters as a
security mechanism between IP hosts in the LAN.

4.1.2. Increased Network Efficiency - No Broadcast


Packets
IP routing increases the network efficiency by eliminating the need to send
broadcast packets over the wireless network. Therefore, ASWipLL’s support for IP
routing is a key differentiator over competing fixed broadband wireless systems that
are based on bridging.

4.1.3. DHCP Relay Agent Support


ASWipLL, as an IP router, also supports Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) relay agent functionality, by transferring DHCP packets over the network.
DHCP protocol allows dynamic allocation of IP addresses and other IP host
parameters to hosts such as Windows-based PCs.

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4.1.4. Eliminates Need for External Routers


Since ASWipLL’s SPR/IDR is also an IP router, an additional third-party IP router
at the subscriber’s site is not required. In contrast, competing fixed broadband
wireless solutions based on bridging, either suffer from the typical disadvantages of
bridges, or require an additional third-party dual-LAN IP router at the subscriber’s
site. This need for an additional IP router increases the cost of the solution, and
makes network management more complex.

4.1.5. Interoperability with Third-Party IP Routers


The ASWipLL system, as an IP router, is interoperable with third-party IP routers.
ASWipLL Base Station equipment provides easy connectivity to third-party IP
routers to provide, for example, E1 connections to the backbone. This connection is
via ASWipLL’s 10BaseT or Fast Ethernet ports. ASWipLL provides quick-and-easy
configuration for ASWipLL IP routing and third-party IP routing.

4.1.6. Efficient Air IP Subnet Addressing


An IP router has each of its ports assigned to a different IP network or subnet. The
BSR, PPR, SPR, and IDR ports that interface on the wireless side (i.e. air) must be
assigned IP subnet addresses. The ASWipLL operator can define these "air" ports in
one of two ways:
! Non-economical: IP addresses of the Air subnet ports are fixed ranging from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (see RFC 1918). Therefore, this mode provides
Class C subnetting for all BSRs. This means that 254 addresses are available to
choose for one BSR. Thus, many addresses are "wasted" (not used).
! Economical: IP addresses of the Air subnet ports of BSRs and SPRs are user-
defined. This mode increases the flexibility of ASWipLL. It permits more
efficient use of IP addresses in the user’s network and often avoids a need for
changing IP addresses in a pre-existing network. A user with private IP
addresses from the range of 192.168.0.0 does not have to change IP addresses in
the network when installing ASWipLL.

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The Economical mode provides the subnet address 255.255.255.252, thereby,


providing a total of four IP addresses, where only two of the addresses can be
used for ASWipLL devices: one for the BSR and one for the SPR.
The Economical addressing is as follows:
BSR side SPR side
192.168.x.1 192.168.x.2
where x is the SPR index number associated with the BSR in the ASWipLL
database.
In the example in Figure 4-1, the air subnet addresses are automatically defined as
192.168.x.1 at the BSR side, and 192.168.x.2 at the SPR/IDR side. The WAN router
requires static entries in its routing table for the different remote networks (for
70.x.x.x and 80.x.x.x).

Figure 4-1: IP Air subnet addressing in a typical ASWipLL configuration

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Figure 4-1 illustrates the following IP addressing configurations:


! Each subscriber’s LAN contains a different IP network or subnet (in the
example, 80.x.x.x and 70.x.x.x for SPR 1, and SPR 2, respectively).
! The SPR/IDR is the default gateway for the PCs on the SPR’s/IDR’s LAN. In
the case of an RGW, the SPR/IDR is also the default gateway for the RGW.
! The SPR’s/IDR’s default gateway is the BSR/PPR.
! The BSR’s default gateway is the WAN router
! Air addresses of BSR, PPR, SPR, and IDR are configured by the operator or
defined automatically.

4.1.7. RFC 1918


Address allocation permits full network layer connectivity among all hosts inside an
enterprise as well as among all public hosts of different enterprises. Using private
Internet address space is costly due to the need to renumber hosts and networks
between public and private.
The industry standard is that whenever possible, users of unregistered (or "dirty")
networks use the reserved addresses in RFC 1918 on any networks inside the
firewall.
The RFC 1918 addresses that can be used are:
! Class A: 10.x.x.x
! Class B range: 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
! Class C range: 192.168.x.y
The advantages of using these addresses inside the firewall are twofold:
! Internal IP networks can "grow" without fear of running out of addresses
! There is no longer a risk of inadvertently using other networks’ legitimate
addresses

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For example, if PCs use the Class C range of 192.31.7.0 for network addresses
inside a firewall, the PCs will be unable to connect to other devices with a legitimate
IP address such as 192.31.7.31. This is because the PC attempts to connect to a
device inside your firewall that does not exist.

4.2. PPPoE Bridging


ASWipLL supports Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) bridging. PPPoE
is a standard specification for connecting subscribers on an Ethernet connection to
the Internet through a common broadband medium (e.g. wireless).
ASWipLL’s PPPoE solution assumes that the PPPoE clients are located behind the
SPRs/IDRs—single or multiple clients—and that the PPPoE server—Broadband
Remote Access Server (BRAS)—is located behind the BSR.
ASWipLL bridges PPPoE traffic as follows:
! SPR/IDR forwards upstream and downstream PPPoE unicast packets
! SPR/IDR forwards upstream broadcast PPPoE packets
! SPR/IDR contains a MAC table for PPPoE sessions:
! The BSR tracks the PPPoE sessions. Once a PPPoE session ends
successfully, the relevant entry is erased from the MAC table to permit new
sessions.
! When a PPPoE session terminates unsuccessfully, the MAC table invokes an
aging mechanism. By default, aging is 60 minutes—but this is configurable.
! BSR is an OSI Layer 2, PPPoE aware, and learning bridge
! BSR forwards all upstream PPPoE packets, and forwards all downstream PPPoE
unicast packets

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Figure 4-2 displays ASWipLL’s implementation of PPPoE for Internet access and
VoIP.

Figure 4-2: ASWipLL’s PPPoE for Internet access and VoIP

4.2.1. PPPoE Limitations


The limitations of PPPoE in the ASWipLL system includes the following:
! PPPoE software runs only over ASWipLL 4M hardware
! BSR supports a maximum of 128 simultaneous PPPoE sessions
! IP filters and PPPoE are not supported simultaneously

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4.2.2. PPPoE Bridging and IP Routing Support


ASWipLL can be configured to support PPPoE bridging, IP routing, or both PPPoE
and IP routing. This configuration is performed using ASWipLL’s management
tool—WipManage. When ASWipLL is configured for both PPPoE and IP routing,
ASWipLL operates as a router/bridge (or "brouter").
ASWipLL’s Quality of Service (QoS) includes PPPoE as an application or protocol.
This enables PPPoE to be prioritized in relation to other applications and protocols
such as VoIP, TCP, UDP, FTP, and TFTP.
When ASWipLL is configured for both PPPoE and IP routing, ASWipLL performs
the following:
! Bridges PPPoE
! Routes IP packets (for example, FTP, TFTP, Web, e-mail, and SNMP)

4.3. 802.1Q/p Support


ASWipLL is an IP routing system that also bridges PPPoE packets. As such, it
employs mechanisms such as IP subnetting, IP routing, and IP filters to group
subscribers. As an enhanced IP routing platform, ASWipLL provides all the
necessary services without the need for 802.1Q/p. The 802.1Q standard creates a
trunk between VLANs by adding tags; the 802.1p standard provides Quality of
Service (QoS). ASWipLL provides enhanced QoS based on IP addresses, protocols
(such as TCP, UDP, and ICMP), and applications (such as Web, Telnet, and
SNMP).
However, ASWipLL also supports 802.1Q and 802.1p in an IP routing environment
to support networks with the following configurations:
! Existing equipment in the customer’s network that supports 802.1Q
! ATM and FR switches using 802.1Q for mapping VLANs to virtual circuits
(VC)

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! Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) routers using 802.1Q tags


! Creating Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) using 802.1Q (although IPSec is the
leading technology for secured VPNs in IP environments)
Figure 4-3 displays the ASWipLL system’s 802.1Q VLAN support.

Figure 4-3: ATM switch using VLAN tag assignment for SPRs/IDRs

Table 4-2 compares ASWipLL’s IP routing to 802.1Q/p.

Table 4-2: IP Routing vs. 802.1Q/p


Feature IP routing 802.1Q/p
Creating groups of users IP subnets VLANs
Allowing connectivity between IP routing Using the same VLAN ID in the tag
groups of users
Forbidding connectivity IP filters Using different VLAN IDs in the tags
between groups of users
Quality of Service IP-based QoS 802.1p
End-to-end QoS DiffServ / TOS 802.1p

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4.3.1. IP Routing
ASWipLL supports 802.1Q in an IP routing environment. Despite ASWipLL being
an IP router, it also allows the routed IP packets to be tagged by 802.1Q tags. In
addition, BSR and SPR/IDR prioritize packets based on 802.1p, and SPRs/IDRs can
even tag and untag routed IP packets.
ASWipLL handles IEEE 802.1Q-based packets as they pass through the system, in
one of the following ways:
! Transfers the IEEE 802.1Q tagged IP frames through the system—this is useful
when different elements in the network (e.g. LAN switches in the CPE) tag and
untag the packets permitted by ASWipLL.
! Adds/removes a single IEEE 802.1Q tag to the outgoing/incoming packets – this
is useful when ASWipLL is requested to create tags, and untag them. SPR/IDR
tags packets when they leave towards the BSR. When packets arrive at the
SPR/IDR from the BSR, the SPR/IDR verifies that they have the correct tag, and
if so, untags them and allows the packets entry.
ASWipLL also allows the user to configure rules to map 802.1p into ASWipLL’s
QoS feature, thereby allowing end-to-end QoS.

4.3.2. PPPoE
ASWipLL also supports 802.1Q in a PPPoE environment. Both the BSR and
SPR/IDR can prioritize packets based on 802.1p. 802.1Q allows PPPoE packets to
be tagged (and untagged) by the SPR/IDR. Each SPR/IDR can create two different
tags: one for IP, the other for PPPoE. This is useful when using IP for voice (VoIP)
and PPPoE for data. This allows the ATM, FR, or MPLS routers/switches to use the
VLAN tags to easily distinguish voice from data traffic.

Notes:
1) 802.1Q/p for PPPoE is supported only over "4 Mbps hardware" BSRs and
SPRs (similar to PPPoE bridging).
2) 802.1Q/p for PPPoE is supported only when IP filters are not used.

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4.4. Transparent Bridging


ASWipLL supports transparent bridging, where all devices may share the same IP
subnet address.
The ASWipLL system is a "learning" transparent bridge providing up to 512 MAC
addresses per BSR/PPR (including MAC addresses of SPRs/IDRs), and up to 128
MAC addresses per SPR/IDR. The ASWipLL BSR/PPR devices need only to
"learn" MAC addresses on its air port, and does not need to learn MAC addresses on
its LAN port. This is made possible by the BSR’s/PPR’s connectivity to
ASWipLL’s Ethernet LAN switch (BSDU or SDA-4S) or a router, which "learns"
the MAC addresses of ASWipLL radio devices.

Figure 4-4: Simplistic example of ASWipLL’s transparent bridging

In Figure 4-4, all the ASWipLL devices belong to the same subnet, a fundamental
characteristics of transparent bridging. SPR/IDR in tag/untag mode, tags transmitted
packets over-the-air with a VLAN ID, and untags received traffic from over-the-air,
if the packets contain the correct VLAN ID.

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ASWipLL’s transparent bridging provides the following advantages:


! Fully transparent, connectionless network (one logical network)
! Self-learning mechanism of MAC addresses of all devices
! Simple and easy IP address schemes for ASWipLL’s subscriber devices (i.e.
SPRs/IDRs)
! Reduces complexity of IP addressing (as all devices are in the same subnet)
! Reduces traffic and improves network response time

Note: Transparent bridging does not support IP filtering.

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4.5. Quality of Service


ASWipLL’s Quality of Service (QoS) feature allows the operator to define priorities
for each service type to ensure that each service is handled efficiently.
Quality of Service setup for the SPR/IDR and BSR/PPR is similar. The only
difference is that BSR's QoS is pertinent to downlinks (traffic from the BSR to all
SPRs associated with the BSR); SPR's QoS is pertinent to uplinks (traffic from the
SPR to the BSR.
ASWipLL QoS are governed by the following:
! Network type:
! IP: all IP packets
! PPPoE Discovery: broadcast packets concerned with PPPoE
! PPPoE Session: PPPoE data packets
! Others: all packets except the above.
! Transport protocols:
! TCP
! UDP
! ICMP
! Applications: based on transport protocol (e.g. TCP) and port number. For
example, FTP (Transport = TCP; port = 21).
! IP addresses: packets originating from specific IP addresses
ASWipLL prioritizes this traffic based on the following two parameters:
! Class (traffic priority): Range 0 through 6. Class determines the relevant
importance of a packet, the higher the value, the higher the importance. Highest
class is typically assigned to VoIP and video packets.

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! Stamp: Stamp refers to the Time-To-Live (TTL) assigned to the packet. The
lower the TTL, the higher the priority. After expiration, the packet is discarded.
When a packet arrives from the Ethernet network the system recognizes the type
of packet and assigns it with an ASWipLL Time-To-Live (TTL) value. TTL
determines which packets go first, where packets share the same priority. Higher
priority packets always go first regardless of the TTL of lower priority packets.
The stamp range is from 3 through 4,000 milliseconds.
In addition, ASWipLL allows you to cross-map (or customize) 802.1p and
DiffServ/TOS prioritization levels. For example, you can define that for
DiffServ/TOS priority level 1, ASWipLL will assign its own priority level of 2.
Figure 4-5 shows the concept of QoS, where certain applications require more
network resources than others.

Figure 4-5: ASWipLL QoS Concept

When a packet arrives from the Ethernet network to an SPR/IDR, ASWipLL


identifies the packet type and assigns it a TTL value. TTL determines which packets
go first when packets have the same priority level. Each packet is marked whether
critical or not, to determine if it should be sent or dropped when TTL expires.
Higher priority packets are always sent first, regardless of the TTL of lower priority
packets.

Note: When setting priority for a specific IP address, QoS for BSR is
according to source; QoS for SPR is according to destination.

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4.5.1. ASWipLL End-to-End QoS


In the world of IP, there are two conceptual methods for QoS:
! Guaranteed QoS
! Differentiated QoS (DiffServ)
In guaranteed QoS, parameters of each flow have explicit values to guarantee QoS
parameters. IP Integrated Services (IntServ) and Recourse Reservation Protocol
(RSVP) provide guaranteed QoS solutions, but they are not scalable. They waste
bandwidth, require new hardware and software in routers, and require that
applications be QoS aware.
A more practical approach is provided by DiffServ, where:
! Traffic is classified in "classes" (as opposed to specific, independent "flows")
! Relative priorities are defined
If all elements in the network support DiffServ/TOS, then end-to-end QoS is
available. This is the reason for using DiffServ/TOS in IP phones, Residential
Gateways (RGWs), routers, and head-end gateways. These network elements either
mark DiffServ/TOS bits and prioritize packets based on them, or simply prioritize
packets based on DiffServ/TOS.
MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) provides an ideal solution for forwarding
packets in the backbone, and providing QoS and VPN services. MPLS differs from
standard routing in that it relates not only to IP addresses, but also to other criteria
such as DiffServ/TOS marking. Thus, DiffServ/TOS is useful for both traffic
engineering as well as criteria for MPLS rules.

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4.5.1.1. DiffServ/TOS
ASWipLL provides a solution for voice and data with an enhanced QoS mechanism.
ASWipLL’s DiffServ/TOS provides end-to-end QoS. Elements in the network of
different vendors mark DiffServ/TOS bits and use DiffServ/TOS bits as another
criterion for QoS. The BSR/PPR and SPR/IDR can map specific DiffServ/TOS bits
into ASWipLL’s QoS priorities.
By using the ASWipLL management tool (i.e. WipManage), the operator can map
DiffServ/TOS markings to ASWipLL’s QoS. As shown in Figure 4-6, ASWipLL is
linked to the IP/MPLS/ATM backbone via a router/switch. The backbone router,
like ASWipLL, can use DiffServ/TOS bits for QoS. For MPLS, the backbone router
can use DiffServ/TOS bits as the criteria for its rules.

Figure 4-6: ASWipLL DiffServ/TOS links

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4.5.1.2. 802.1p
ASWipLL handles the IEEE 802.1Q/p-based packets as they go through the system
in one of two ways:
! Transfers the IEEE 802.1Q/p tagged IP frames through the system. This is useful
when different elements in the network (for example, RGWs and LAN switches
in the CPE) tag and untag the IP packets permitted by ASWipLL. It translates
the priorities of 802.1p into ASWipLL’s QoS so that ASWipLL can provide
end-to-end QoS.
! Adds/removes a single IEEE 802.1Q/p tag to the outgoing/incoming packets.
This is useful when ASWipLL is requested to create tags, and untag them.
SPR/IDR tags packets when they leave towards the BSR. When packets arrive at
the SPR/IDR from the BSR, the SPR/IDR verifies that they have the correct tag,
and if so, untags them and allows the packets entry.
In IP routing mode, the SPR/IDR can tag/untag IP packets with one VLAN ID, and
tag/untag PPPoE with another VLAN ID. In transparent bridging mode, the
SPR/IDR can tag/untag all packets with one VLAN ID.

4.6. Bandwidth Management


ASWipLL provides enhanced bandwidth management mechanisms by implementing
the following functionality:
! Committed Information Rate CIR)
! Maximum Information Rate (MIR)
! VoIP bandwidth priority
! CIR proportional degradation
! Fairness

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4.6.1. MIR and CIR


The ASWipLL system allows operators to manage the bandwidth policy allocated to
their subscribers, assuring optimal network performance. ASWipLL allows
operators to provide a maximum amount of bandwidth to a subscriber, referred as
maximum information rate (MIR). In addition, ASWipLL allows operators to
provide a guaranteed bandwidth, referred as committed information rate (CIR), to a
subscriber even when the network is loaded. Typically, subscribers pay different
rates for the levels of desired bandwidth commitment. Different levels of CIR and
MIR can be sold as different services (for example, Platinum, Gold, Silver, and
Bronze) at different prices.
ASWipLL allows the operator to implement CIR and MIR in the following two
modes:
! Asymmetric CIR/MIR: different CIR and MIR values for uplink (i.e. traffic
from subscriber to Base Station) than for CIR and MIR downlink. This is useful
in applications such as cable TV (CATV), where a higher downlink bandwidth is
needed than in uplink.
! Aggregated CIR/MIR: values defined for the sum of the uplink and downlink
traffic. This is useful when there exists varying bandwidth demands on the
network, different applications, or different user types.

4.6.1.1. MIR
ASWipLL’s MIR feature allows the operator to define a maximum bandwidth for
the subscriber, which cannot be exceeded (see Figure 4-7).
Non-conforming MIR - not allowed
Subscriber Traffic

MIR

Time

Figure 4-7: MIR for a subscriber

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ASWipLL’s MIR feature includes the following:


! Operators use MIR to limit the subscriber’s bandwidth for the following reasons:
! To sell different levels of service
! To avoid unreasonable customer expectations in a network that is being
gradually developed and populated—when the number of subscribers in a
cell increases, bandwidth per subscriber decrease.
! BSR, as the cell coordinator, is responsible for the assignment of bandwidth for
the SPRs/IDRs. Therefore, MIR definitions are part of BSR’s configuration.
! BSR calculates and allocates the bandwidth to the SPRs/IDRs every eight
milliseconds (however, a packet transmission is completed even if it takes
longer). Bandwidth allocation every eight milliseconds compensates for the
previous time period.
! MIR values are set as n*64 kbps, where n is an integer number (n = 1, 2, 3,…
and so on).
! MIR values are defined per SPR/IDR.
! Bandwidth cannot exceed the MIR.
! Bandwidth limitation is applied to the sum of the uplink and downlink or
separate values for uplink and downlink.

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4.6.1.2. CIR
ASWipLL’s CIR feature allows the operator to define a guaranteed bandwidth to a
subscriber, even when the network is loaded (see Figure 4-8).

CIR and MIR


Non-conforming MIR - not allowed
Traffic

MIR

CIR
Non conforming CI R - allowed

Time

• Bandwidth up to CIR limit is expected by the user


• Bandwidth may exceed the CIR limit
• Bandwidth never exceeds the MIR limit
• CIR and MIR are defined per SPR

Figure 4-8: ASWipLL’s Committed Information Rate (CIR)

The CIR features include the following:


! If the subscriber’s bandwidth requirement is less than or equal to the CIR, then
ASWipLL aspires to meet this bandwidth requirement.
! Bandwidth may exceed the CIR limit. If the subscriber’s bandwidth requirement
is greater than the CIR, and available bandwidth exists, the ASWipLL system
can provide more bandwidth than the CIR level.
! Subscribers often understand CIR as being "guaranteed bandwidth", but
sometimes the system cannot guarantee this bandwidth. Therefore, operators
declare that CIR is guaranteed at an x percentage of the time.

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! BSR, as the cell coordinator, is responsible for bandwidth assignment to the


SPRs/IDRs. Therefore, CIR definitions are part of BSR’s configuration.
! BSR calculates and allocates the bandwidth to the SPRs/IDRs every eight
milliseconds (however, a packet transmission is completed even if it takes
longer). Bandwidth allocation every eight milliseconds compensates for the
previous time period.
! CIR values are set as n*64 kbps, where n is an integer number or zero (n = 0, 1,
2, …and so on)
! CIR values are defined per SPR/IDR.

4.6.2. CIR Proportional Degradation


When the total CIR of active SPRs and IDRs is greater than the available bandwidth
for data (CIR overbooking), ASWipLL implements its CIR Proportional
Degradation feature.
CIR overbooking can derive from the following:
! Large number of active SPRs/IDRs (running data)
! Large number of VoIP calls
! Modem rate decreases to an unexpected value
! Poor RF conditions (this may be relevant even in a, for example, fixed modem
rate)
In the event of CIR overbooking, the CIR decreases in proportion to the configured
CIR of the SPRs/IDRs. In other words, each SPR/IDR receives bandwidth that
equals to k*configured CIR, where 0<k<1 (k is referred to as the proportion factor).
Therefore, the proportion between CIR bandwidth values of all SPRs/IDRs is
maintained.

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Table 4-3 shows an example of CIR proportional degradation for three active
subscribers (SPRs) where the modem rate is 3 Mbps and data packets are used.

Table 4-3: Example of CIR Proportional Degradation


3.2 Mbps 2.4 Mbps due to 80% efficiency (80%*3 Mbps)
SPR CIR (Mbps) CIR Proportional Degradation (Mbps) k = 2.4/3.2
A 1.28 2.4/3.2 * 1.28 = 0.96
B 1.28 2.4/3.2 * 1.28 = 0.96
C 0.64 2.4/3.2 * 0.64 = 0.48

4.6.3. ASWipLL CIR/MIR and VoIP


ASWipLL supports voice and data. Voice is provided by Voice-over-IP (VoIP)
gateways or residential gateways (RGW) located at subscribers and central locations
in the network. VoIP sessions consume bandwidth that depends on the codec (e.g.
G.711, G.723. G.729).
ASWipLL provides as much bandwidth as required for VoIP calls, regardless of
MIR. For standard data, however, ASWipLL provides bandwidth based on the
CIR/MIR definitions (see Section 4.6.1, "MIR and CIR"). Even if the subscriber
utilizes maximum bandwidth for standard data applications, according to the defined
MIR (e.g. 128 Kbps), the subscriber can still make VoIP calls (e.g. 128 Kbps for
data, plus x Kbps for VoIP). Therefore, the bandwidth allocated for VoIP calls is not
at the expense of the bandwidth for the standard data.
ASWipLL assigns a higher bandwidth priority for VoIP calls than bandwidth for
data applications. In other words, allocating bandwidth for VoIP calls has higher
priority than meeting the CIR/MIR settings. Therefore, in a cell that is loaded with
VoIP calls, meeting the CIR/MIR requirements may be difficult. In such a scenario,
CIR proportional degradation occurs (see Section 4.6.2, "CIR Proportional
Degradation"). However, careful network and capacity planning minimizes the
occurrences of such a scenario.
The ASWipLL operator may prefer a different approach by configuring ASWipLL
to include VoIP bandwidth within the CIR/MIR definitions.

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4.6.4. ASWipLL CIR/MIR and Modem Rate


The ASWipLL BSR may automatically decrease the modem rate for communicating
with each of the SPRs/IDRs. The changes in modem rate are according to the
following schemes:
! 4 Mbps / 1.33 Mbps
! 3 Mbps / 2 Mbps / 1 Mbps
Subscribers’ MIR and CIR are maintained despite modem rate decreases. However,
if CIR overbooking occurs, CIR proportional degradation occurs (see Section 4.6.2,
"CIR Proportional Degradation").

4.6.5. Fairness
For certain IP applications such as FTP, a subscriber that demands high bandwidth
(due to, for example, possessing many PCs) can cause bandwidth reduction to other
subscribers who are less active.
Some operators or service providers prefer to divide available bandwidth equally
among subscribers, irrespective of the subscribers’ number of active PCs and
applications. ASWipLL’s Fairness feature achieves this bandwidth division, by
allocating equal bandwidth to all active subscribers. Figure 4-9 shows a typical
implementation of ASWipLL’s Fairness feature. In the example, Subscriber #1,
despite requiring more bandwidth, receives the same bandwidth (i.e. 1.2 Mbps) as
Subscriber #2.

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Figure 4-9: Example of ASWipLL’s Fairness Feature

ASWipLL implements Fairness in the following way:


! The BSR divides the available effective throughput equally among the active
SPRs/IDRs at a given time
! If there are n SPRs/IDRs, each device is allocated with 1/n of the available
bandwidth. For example, a 3 Mbps BSR with 3 subscribers is 3/3 = 1.
! The number of active users is calculated every four milliseconds.

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4.7. Security
The ASWipLL system provides extensive security features to ensure security on all
levels of the OSI Model. Figure 4-10 displays ASWipLL’s security features for the
various OSI layers.
OSI Model WipLL Security
IP filters, Intracom,
Application
SNMP Security
Session

Presentation

Transport IP filters, Intracom


IP filters, IP routing,
Network
Intracom
Intracom, 802.1Q
PPMA, Authentication,
PPMA, Authentication ,
Data Link
PPPoE bridging
PPPoE bridging, 802.1Q

Physical Frequency Hopping

Figure 4-10: ASWipLL Security features for the OSI layers

4.7.1. Layer 1: Frequency Hopping


ASWipLL’s implementation of the Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
technology provides security at OSI’s Layer 1. In FHSS, the carrier wave frequency
at which the information signal is transmitted is continuously changing. Therefore, it
is very difficult to detect the transmission frequency at any given time; and if
detected, the frequency changes within a few milliseconds, rendering external
interceptions almost impossible.
ASWipLL’s BSR stores up to 64 frequency tables: each table storing up to 96
frequencies. The BSR centrally coordinates the entire cell.

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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum provides the following security features:


! Multiple access capability
! Interference rejection (relevant in unlicensed band only)
! Protection against multipath interference
! Anti-jamming
! Low probability of interception (LPI)
! Privacy

4.7.2. Layer 2
The ASWipLL system provides OSI Layer 2 security, with regards to the following:
! Preemptive Polling Multiple Access (PPMA)
! Authentication
! Encryption
! PPPoE bridging (authentication)
! 802.1Q (VLAN security)

4.7.2.1. PPMA
ASWipLL implements a proprietary MAC protocol called Preemptive Polling
Multiple Access (PPMA), which provides high-level security (see Chapter 3,
"ASWipLL’s Air MAC Protocol").

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4.7.2.2. Authentication (PPMA)


To receive service from the BSR, the SPR/IDR must be registered with the BSR.
This registration is based on the SPR’s/IDR’s index number and the BSR’s unique
air MAC address, configured by the ASWipLL management tool (WipManage).
ASWipLL’s authentication operates in the following manner:
1. When an SPR/IDR attempts to register with the BSR, the SPR/IDR sends a
"Request to Send" message.
2. The BSR then checks if the SPR’s/IDR’s address is listed in the BSR’s "Allowed
SPRs/IDRs" list. This list is maintained by ASWipLL’s network management
system.
3. If the SPR/IDR is listed, then an "Association" message is sent to the SPR/IDR.
If the SPR/IDR is not included in the "Allowed SPRs/IDRs" list, or the address it
provides the BSR is incorrect, then no message is sent to the SPR/IDR, and the
association process is terminated.
4. After the SPR/IDR receives the BSR's "Association" message, the SPR/IDR then
sends its own information to the BSR, and is now considered "associated" and
can start sending and receiving messages.

4.7.2.3. Encryption
ASWipLL’s PPMA supports key-encrypted authentication based on a public key
(defined in each BSR) and a private key (defined in each SPR/IDR).

4.7.2.4. PPPoE Bridging


The PPPoE standard allows authentication and billing for data applications. It is
exported to broadband technologies from dial-up networks (that use PPP for
authentication).
The PPPoE clients communicate with a PPPoE server (BRAS) that is connected to
the Internet. The PPPoE server typically terminates the PPPoE sessions. The PPPoE
server performs authentication. ASWipLL bridges PPPoE traffic (running on

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ASWipLL 4M only, and without IP filters), thereby providing the ASWipLL


operator with a powerful security tool.
ASWipLL also provides 802.1Q support for the bridged PPPoE traffic.

4.7.2.5. 802.1Q
ASWipLL implements the 802.1Q standard for VLAN security. ASWipLL allows
the creation of VLANs and trunks between VLANs. Subscribers belonging to a
specific VLAN are not allowed to communicate with subscribers in a different
VLAN.
ASWipLL handles the IEEE 802.1Q-based packets in one of the following ways:
! Transfers the IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames through the system. This is useful
when different elements in the network (e.g. LAN switches in the CPE) tag and
untag the packets permitted by ASWipLL.
! Adds and removes an IEEE 802.1Q tag to and from the outgoing and incoming
packets, respectively. This is useful when ASWipLL is requested to tag and
untag the packets. SPR/IDR tags the packets when they leave toward the
BSR/PPR. When packets arrive at the SPR/IDR from the BSR/PPR, the
SPR/IDR verifies that they contain the correct tags. If they contain the correct
tags, the SPR/IDR untags them, and then allows them to pass through.
In the IP routing mode, each SPR/IDR can support a VLAN tag for routed IP traffic,
and a VLAN tag for bridged PPPoE traffic. ASWipLL is always an IP router for
tagged and untagged packets, and a PPPoE bridge for tagged and untagged packets.
In transparent bridging mode, SPR/IDR tag/untag all packets with only one VLAN
ID. When combined with SDA-4S/VLtag it can tag/untag packets with four VLAN
IDs.

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4.7.3. Layers 3 to 7
ASWipLL’s BSR and SPR/IDR devices are IP routers, and also provide network
security by supporting IP filtering and Intracom features. In addition, ASWipLL
provides 802.1Q support for routed IP traffic or any bridged traffic (layer 2).

4.7.3.1. IP Filtering
Using IP filtering1, the ASWipLL operator can specify traffic based on IP addresses,
protocols, and applications to permit or deny through ASWipLL. IP filtering relates
to downlink and uplink traffic. This provides efficient use of bandwidth as well as
security.
IP filters are based on a combination of the following criteria:
! Destination IP address
! Source IP address
! Destination IP subnet
! Source IP subnet
! Protocol type (TCP, UDP, and ICMP)
! Port number: defines the application (For example, Telnet, e-mail, and Web)
ASWipLL’s IP filtering reduces the need for an external firewall, or firewall
capabilities in a central router.
IP filters are defined using ASWipLL’s user-friendly SNMP-based NMS
(WipManage). For a detailed description on defining IP filters, please refer to the
WipManage User’s Guide.

Note: The IP filters feature is applicable only when the ASWipLL system
operates in the IP routing mode.

1
Note: IP Filtering is supported only by BSRs and SPRs with 4 Mbps hardware, and where PPPoE is
not implemented.

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4.7.3.2. Intracom
Intracom provides ASWipLL security for layers 3 to 7. Typically, traffic among
ASWipLL subscribers (SPR/IDR to SPR/IDR) is sent via the BSR.
The Intracom feature allows two routing modes:
! Regular: traffic among SPRs/IDRs is routed through the BSR.
! Centralized: traffic among SPRs/IDRs is routed through the BSR to a central
router or firewall that is connected to the BSR (or BSDU) via Ethernet (or Fast
Ethernet). The central router or firewall includes security definitions based on,
for example, IP addresses, IP subnets, UDP, TCP, and ICMP ports. If traffic is
allowed according to these definitions, it is routed back to the BSR, which then
routes it to the relevant SPR/IDR.
By using ASWipLL’s WipManage management tool, the operator can define
Intracom.

Note: The Intracom feature is applicable only when the ASWipLL system
operates in the IP routing mode.

4.7.3.3. Management (SNMP)


ASWipLL’s WipManage NMS can be used to Get and Set ASWipLL’s
configuration parameters, traps, and statistics. To avoid unauthorized use of
WipManage, the following security measurements are provided:
! Management of ASWipLL can be restricted to NMS stations with specific IP
addresses (up to five) that are configured for the ASWipLL devices.
! Password login ensures only authorized operators. Access rights include Read
and/or Write login passwords.
! If an incorrect password is entered, an authentication trap is sent to WipManage.

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5
ASWipLL Voice
Voice-- over-
over - IP
Solution
The ASWipLL system enables customers the flexibility of migration from a data-
only network to an integrated Voice-over-IP and data network. The ASWipLL
system's VoIP feature provides interoperability with almost any vendor or platform.

5.1. Main Features


The ASWipLL VoIP feature supports the following:
! Interoperability with third-party products such as residential gateways (RGW),
access gateways, gatekeepers, and softswitches.
! Standard VoIP protocols such as H.323, SIP, MGCP, and MEGACO.
! G.711, G.723.1 and G.729a/b speech codec standards.
! Different network interfaces such as SS7, GR-303, and V5.2 over E1, allowing
deployment in multi-national markets.
! Enhanced Quality of Service (QoS) mechanism to ensure voice is prioritized
over data. The SPR/IDR prioritizes the transmission of voice packets over data
packets. In addition, the BSR, which centrally co-ordinates the SPRs/IDRs,
provides higher priority to SPRs/IDRs with voice packets than SPRs/IDRs with
data packets.

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5.2. Interconnection with PSTN


The ASWipLL voice solution provides interoperability with any third-party IP-to-
PSTN network gateway. The use of the IP-to-PSTN gateway allows ASWipLL
operators seamless PSTN connectivity such as SS7, GR-303, and V5.2 over E1,
allowing deployment in multi-national markets.

5.3. Number of Supported VoIP Calls


The number of VoIP calls supported by a BSR depends on the following:
! Type of VoIP equipment
! Speech codec (e.g. G.711, G.723, or G.729)
! Use (or lack) of silence suppression
! Sampling interval configured in the VoIP products (e.g. 20 msec, 30 msec, 40
msec, other)
! RF conditions

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Table 5-1 shows the number of simultaneous calls supported by a BSR, dependant
on various parameters.
Table 5-1: Number of simultaneous calls supported by a BSR
Codec Rate Sampling Simultaneous calls supported
interval
Silence suppression Silence suppression
disabled enabled
G.711 64 Kbps 20 msec 10 15
30 msec 13 19
40 msec 15 22
G.729B 8 Kbps 20 msec 14 21
30 msec 21 30
40 msec 28 40
G.723.1 5.3 Kbps 30 msec 22 31
60 msec 42 60
Notes:
! All numbers refer to a 4 Mbps modem and are based on mathematical analysis.
! Silence suppression figures are based on a conservative assumption of 30%
efficiency of the silence suppression implementation.

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5.4. VoIP Related Capabilities


The ASWipLL system provides different VoIP related capabilities:
! ASWipLL can be configured to support QoS based on DiffServ/TOS,
802.1Q/p, UDP/TCP port numbers, or IP addresses:
! If the residential gateway (RGW) supports Type Of Service (TOS), then
ASWipLL’s QoS can be based on TOS.
! If the RGW supports 802.1p, then ASWipLL’s QoS can be based on 802.1p.
! If the RGW does not support TOS and 802.1p, then UDP/TCP port numbers
or IP addresses can be used for QoS to prioritize VoIP over data, and ensure
reasonable delay and jitter.
! Bandwidth Management (CIR and MIR) providing highest priority of
bandwidth for VoIP:
If more VoIP calls occur than is expected, CIR proportional degradation
occurs—every subscriber receives less of its CIR, but CIR proportions between
subscribers are maintained. For example, subscriber A has a CIR of 128 Kbps,
and subscriber B has a CIR of 64 Kbps. However, due to too many VoIP calls,
insufficient bandwidth occurs to meet the CIR requirements. Subsequently,
proportional degradation in CIR occurs: subscriber A receives k*128 Kbps, and
subscriber B receives k*64 Kbps, where k is the degradation factor.
! Different VLAN tagging for VoIP and data:
In the IP routing mode, SPRs/IDRs at the subscriber sites use separate VLAN
tags for VoIP and for data (PPPoE network). The VoIP tag is later mapped by an
ATM switch, MPLS switch, or FR access device to a certain VC/path dedicated
for voice. The data (PPPoE) tag is later mapped by ATM/MPLS switch, or
FRAD to another VC.
! Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)-based solutions for the subscriber site
can be provided (voice and data subscriber often require battery backup).
! Base Station Power System (BSPS) provides N+1 or N+2 power charger
redundancy and connectivity for Backup Batteries.

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6
ASWipLL Base Station
Devices
The ASWipLL Base Station is comprised of several devices (some optional) that
provide the following functionalities:
! Radio communication with subscriber sites
! Interface with provider's Internet backbone
! Internal traffic switching
! Synchronization
! Power supply and power redundancy
The above functionalities are provided by the following devices (some optional and
third-party devices):
! Base Station Radio (BSR): ASWipLL outdoor radio transceiver that provides
radio communication with the subscriber sites. The BSR interfaces with the
service provider's backbone through the Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU)
or Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA), depending on the amount of BSRs at the
Base Station.
! Point-to-Point Radio (PPR): ASWipLL outdoor radio transceiver similar to the
BSR, but implemented in a point-to-point radio configuration, providing
wireless communication with a single remote ASWipLL radio device (i.e.
Subscriber Premises Radio - SPR).

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! Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU): ASWipLL device that interfaces


between BSRs and the service provider’s backbone. The BSDU also provides
local switching, frequency hopping-based synchronization for BSRs, BSDUs,
and Base Stations, and power to BSRs. A BSDU can serve up to six BSRs, and
up to four BSDUs can be daisy-chained at a Base Station to support up to 24
BSRs.
! SDA-1/48V: ASWipLL device designed for use when available voltage is
48VDC (i.e. not AC power), and when no synchronization is needed (i.e. in
licensed bands). It also provides Ethernet connectivity between the BSR/PPR
radio and the indoor LAN switch or router.
In some scenarios such as repeater applications, it may be implemented to power
the SPR.
! GPS: optional third-party Global Positioning System antenna that provides a
satellite clock signal for synchronizing BSDUs, BSRs, and Base Stations.
! Base Station Power System (BSPS): optional third-party device that provides
multiple BSDUs with –48 VDC power supply and power redundancy.
The area covered by a Base Station is divided into sectors. Each sector is covered by
a BSR, the central coordinator of the sector. Each Base Station provides a wireless
link to all subscribers in the Base Station's sector. For full coverage, several Base
Stations can be set up over an extended area.
ASWipLL operates in accordance with the service provider’s backbone. ASWipLL
uses the provider's backbone to connect between Base Stations, and to connect to the
ASWipLL management station and other resources on the network.

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6.1. Base Station Radio (BSR)


The BSR is an outdoor radio transceiver providing the last-mile wireless link
between the service provider’s backbone and the subscribers (i.e. SPRs/IDRs).
The BSR has several roles in the following OSI layers:
! MAC layer: responsible for synchronizing the SPRs/IDRs in terms of timing,
frequency hopping sequence, authentication, and control—allowing (or refusing)
data transmission in the sector.
! Network layer: performs routing between the Base Station's Ethernet network
(i.e. service provider’s backbone) and the SPRs. The BSR contains a routing
table that can support up to 126 subscribers. BSR supports two modes of
operation: IP routing and PPPoE bridging, and transparent bridging.
! Transport layer: determines how to support an application regarding bandwidth,
delays, and modes of operation.
The BSRs are typically connected to the service provider’s wired backbone through
the BSDU’s Fast Ethernet port. However, a Base Station comprised of a single BSR
can be connected to the backbone through ASWipLL’s SDA device. The BSRs
connect to the BSDU (or SDA) through a standard CAT-5 cable (maximum length
of 100 meters), thereby, eliminating the need for expensive RF/IF cables.
A typical ASWipLL Base Station contains multiple BSRs. With internal antennas,
each BSR can cover a sector with an azimuth angle (yaw) of 60 degrees. Therefore,
six BSRs can provide a 360-degree coverage of the entire sector, as shown below.
o
60 sector

Area covered by
the base station

= Base Station Radio (BSR)

Figure 6-1: Base Station with six BSRs covering 360 degrees

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Not all six sectors need be covered by BSRs. For example, at a housing development
that faces open farmland, one could configure a Base Station to cover only 180
degrees to provide facilities only to a housing development.
The maximum number of BSRs that can be connected depends mainly on the radio
bandwidth allocated to the system. Each BSR delivers up to 4 Mbps (net throughput
of 3.2 Mbps) to subscribers located in its sector. Six BSRs at a Base Station can
provide as much as 18 Mbps to be shared among the remote subscribers. As capacity
demand grows, more BSRs can be added to a maximum of 24 BSRs per Base
Station, providing approximately 96 Mbps throughput to up to 3,024 discrete
subscriber sites.
The BSR is typically pole mounted (see figure below), but can be wall mounted as
well, allowing optimal positioning for best reception with the subscriber sites.

Figure 6-2: Pole-mounted BSR

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6.1.1. BSR Models


The BSR is available in various models, differing mainly in antenna-beam span:

6.1.1.1. BSR with Built-in Antennas


This BSR model contains two built-in (internal) flat-plate antennas for antenna
diversity. Incoming signals are received by the antenna which provides the strongest
radio frequency (RF) signal (i.e. RSSI).
The front panel of the BSR model containing built-in antennas is displayed below.

Serial port
(9-pin D-type)

Ethernet port
(15-pin D-type)
Figure 6-3: BSR model with internal antennas (front panel)

The BSR with built-in antenna models are available in the following variations:
! Standard BSR: provides 11 or 12 dBi antenna gain. This model contains two
internal, high-gain, flat-plate antennas to support antenna diversity to overcome
multi-path effects.
! BSR with Narrow-Beam Antenna: provides an 18-dBi antenna gain. This
model is only for the ASWipLL 3.5 GHz system.

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6.1.1.2. BSR with External Antenna


Airspan provides BSR models that provide either one or two N-type connectors for
attaching third-party external antenna. These models are available when operating in
the 700 MHz, 900 MHz, 925 MHz, 1.5 GHz, 2.3 GHz, 2.4 GHz, MMDS, 2.8 GHz,
3.x GHz, and 5.8 GHz bands.
The BSR with external antenna models are available in the following variations:
! BSR with One External Antenna: provides one N-type connector for attaching
a third-party external antenna, as displayed below.

N-type port for


external third-
party antenna

Figure 6-4: BSR model with one N-type connector for external antenna

! BSR with Dual External Antenna: when operating in the 900 MHz or 700
MHz band, the BSR model provides two N-type connectors (labeled Primary
for transmit and receive, and Secondary for receive only) for attaching two
external antennas for dual antenna diversity. For the 700 MHz band, Airspan
supplies either a 90° (14 dBi) or omni-directional (7 dBi) antenna.

N-type port for


second (receiving)
external antenna

N-type port for main


external antenna
Figure 6-5: BSR model with two N-type connectors for external antennas

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Notes:
1) It is recommended that third-party external antennas provide 50-ohm
impedance and a VSWR of less than 1:1.5.
2) BSR models with a port(s) to attach an external antenna(s) do not have
built-in antennas.
3) An external antenna may have a gain of 5 to 15 dBi. Compliance is the
responsibility of the customer.

6.1.2. Standard Accessories


The following accessories are provided with each BSR kit:
! Mounting kit for wall or pole mounting, with tilting options
! 15-pin D-type data connector for Etherent interface
! N-type connector for attaching a third-party external antenna (for the BSR
model without a built-in antenna)

6.1.3. Hardware Interfaces


The BSR's hardware interfaces are described in the table below.

Table 6-1: BSR hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • Ethernet (10BaseT) with the BSDU (or SDA)
• Synchronization (controlled by BSDU)
• Power (supplied by BSDU or SDA)
9-pin D-type Serial (RS-232) local initial configuration (using WipConfig tool) during
installation
N-type port Attaching third-party external antennas. BSR models for the 700 and 900 MHz
bands provide two N-type ports. BSR models with built-in antennas do not
provide N-type ports

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6.1.4. Connector Pinouts


This section describes the connector pinouts for the following connectors:
! 15-pin D-type (Ethernet, synchronization, power interface)
! 9-pin D-type (serial interface)

6.1.4.1. 15-pin D-type Connector (Ethernet)


The BSR's 15-pin D-type port interfaces with the BSDU's/SDA's 15-pin D-type port
through a CAT 5 cable with 15-pin D-type connectors on each side. Table 6-2
describes these connector pinouts.

Table 6-2: 15-pin D-type connector pinouts for BSR-to-BSDU cabling


Straight-through CAT-5 UTP PVC 4 Pair 24 AWG cables
15-pin BSR Wire color Wire BSDU 15-pin
D-type Pin Function pair Pin Function D-type
male male
1 +48 VDC Blue / White 1 +48 VDC
1
2 48 RTN Blue 2 48 RTN
3 Orange / 3
Tx+ Rx+
White 2
4 Tx- Orange 4 Rx-
5 Green / 5
Rx+ Tx+
White 3
6 Rx- Green 6 Tx-
7 Brown / 7
Sync.+ Sync.+
White 4
8 Sync.- Brown 8 Sync.-

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Notes:
1) A CAT 5 cable connects to the 15-pin D-type port, therefore, only eight pins
are used (i.e. pins 9 through 15 are not used).
2) The wire color-coding described in the table is ASWipLL's standard for wire
color-coding. However, if you implement your company's wire color-coding
scheme, ensure that the wires are paired and twisted according to the pin
functions (e.g. Rx+ with Rx-).
3) When the BSR is connected to the SDA, pins 7 and 8 are not used (i.e. no
synchronization).

Airspan uses the following wire color-coding standards for CAT 5 cables that
connect between ASWipLL outdoor radios and indoor Ethernet hubs/switches (8
wires used):

Figure 6-6: ASWipLL wire color-coding for 15-pin D-type connectors

Note: The wires are twisted together in pairs, for example, blue/white with
blue, and orange/white with orange. This prevents electrical interference
between the transmitter pins. For example, pin 3 (Tx+; orange / white) is paired
and twisted with pin 4 (Tx-; orange).

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6.1.4.2. 9-pin D-type Connector (Serial)


For BSR serial configuration, the BSR’s 9-pin D-type port (labeled SERIAL)
interfaces with the PC’s serial COM port. The following table describes the 9-pin D-
type connector pinouts for BSR serial cabling.

Table 6-3: BSR connector pinouts for BSR-to-PC serial connection


Crossover cable
BSR PC
9-pin D-type Pin Function Pin Function 9-pin D-type
male female
2 RS232 Rx 3 Tx
3 RS232 Tx 2 Rx
5 GND 5 GND

Note: For BSR serial configuration, the BSR must remain connected to the
BSDU/SDA (i.e. the BSR’s 15-pin D-type port remains connected to the
BSDU’s/SDA’s 15-pin D-type port).

6.1.5. Network Management


The BSR is managed remotely by ASWipLL's NMS program (i.e. WipManage)
from anywhere that provides IP connectivity to the BSR. ASWipLL’s SNMP-based
WipManage program uses standard proprietary MIBs for configuring and managing
the BSR. WipManage provides the BSR with fault, configuration, performance, and
security management. For a detailed description on WipManage, see Chapter 11,
“Management System”.

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6.1.6. Technical Specifications


Table 6-4: BSR and MAC specifications
Parameter Value Comment
Operating frequency range • 5.8 GHz • Unlicensed
• 2.4 GHz • Unlicensed ISM
• 900 MHz • Unlicensed
• 3.x GHz, MMDS, 2.8 • Licensed
• 925 MHz • Licensed
• 700 MHz • Licensed
• 1.5 GHz • Licensed
• 2.3 GHz • Licensed
*Other ranges available for
trial
Spectrum spreading method Frequency hopping Per ETSI EN301 253
Duplex method • Time Division Duplex
(TDD): 2.3 GHz, 2.4 GHz,
2.8 GHz, 3.x GHz, MMDS,
900 MHz, 925 MHz, 700
MHz, and 5.8 GHz
• Frequency Division Duplex
(FDD): 3.x GHz, 1.5 GHz
Transmit bit rates Up to 4 Mbps BER and distance dependent
Channel spacing 1 MHz For 3.5 GHz the channel
spacing can be 1 MHz or 1.75
MHz
Output power from the BSR • 900 MHz and 700 MHz: up Depending on local
to 30 dBm regulations, maximum output
power can be configured at the
• Other bands: up to 27 dBm
factory
Modulation method 8-level CPFSK
Channel access method PPMA / Adaptive TDMA
Protocol efficiency Up to 80% For large data packets
Number of SPR/IDR per BSR Up to 126

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Table 6-5: BSR EMC and radio standards compliance


Parameter Value
Radio Standards Compliance • ETSI EN 300 328-1
• ETSI EN 301 253
• FCC part 15
• RSS139
• Telec
EMC • ETSI ETS 300 826
• ETSI EN 300 385
• ETSI EN 300 386-2
• ETSI ETS 300 132-2
• FCC part 15

Table 6-6: BSR agency certification


Parameter Value
Emissions / Immunity EN 300 339 EN 300 386-2 ETS 300 328
Safety EN / IEC 60950
Environmental ETS 300 019-2-x

Table 6-7: BSR network specifications


Parameter Value Comment
Filtering Rate 10,500 frames/sec At 64 byte packets
Forwarding Rate 1,300 frames/sec At 64 byte packets
Routing table length 200 networks, including
subnets

Table 6-8: BSR power requirements


Parameter Value Comment
Voltage 48 VDC nominal Voltage is received from the
• Minimum: • 30 VDC BSDU or SDA, depending on
Base Station setup
• Maximum: • 55 VDC
Maximum Amperes: 500 mA

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Table 6-9: BSR environmental conditions


Parameter Value Comment
Operating temperature of -30ºC to +60ºC Optional range of -40ºC to
outdoor units (BSR and SPR) +70ºC
Storage temperature -40ºC to +80ºC

Table 6-10: BSR network interface


Parameter Value Comment
Ethernet Network UTP EIA/TIA Category 5
Standards Compliance ANSI/IEEE 802.3 and
ISO/IEC 8802-3 10Base-T
compliant
Serial Port RS-232

Table 6-11: BSR physical dimensions


Parameter Value Comment
Height 400 mm (15.74 inches) Excluding mounting kit
Width 317 mm (12.48 inches)
Depth 65.5 mm (2.58 inches)
Weight 4.7 kg

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6.2. Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU)


The ASWipLL Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU) provides an interface
between multiple BSRs and the service provider’s backbone (Wide Area Network -
WAN). The BSDU provides the following functionalities:
! Data switching: between up to six BSRs and two 100Base-T Ethernet ports (i.e.
backbone)
! Frequency Hopping Synchronization: between daisy-chained BSDUs and
between BSRs (some regulations prohibit synchronization, for example, FCC at
2.4 GHz)
! Power distribution: provides DC power from a single –48 VDC source to six
BSRs
The BSDU is designed to be installed in a standard 19-inch cabinet, and provides
built-in mounting bracket flanges for mounting the BSDU into the cabinet.
Figure 6-7 and Figure 6-8 display the front and rear panels of the BSDU
respectively.

Status LEDs Power receptacle


100Base-T LEDs BSPS power
BSR’s LEDs management port

100BaseT ports 10BaseT ports


Synchronization ports Serial port
Figure 6-7: BSDU front panel

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15-pin D-type ports for BSRs

15-pin D-type for GPS


Grounding lug
Figure 6-8: BSDU rear panel

6.2.1. Hardware Interfaces


Table 6-12 describes the BSDU ports and interfaces.

Table 6-12: BSDU hardware interfaces


Panel Port/ Label Interface Description
side connector
Front 8-pin RJ-45 100Base-T 100Base-T Interface with provider's backbone;
(two) local IP management for daisy-
chained BSDUs and BSRs if
10Base-T 1 and 10Base-T 2 ports
looped
8-pin RJ-45 SYNC 10Base-T Hopping synchronization between
(two) daisy-chained BSDUs
9-pin D-type Monitor RS-232 BSDU serial initial configuration
female
8-pin RJ-45 10Base-T 1 10Base-T Local IP network management (by
WipManage) of all BSRs
connected to BSDU
8-pin RJ-45 10Base-T 2 10Base-T Local IP network management (by
WipManage) of the BSDU
9-pin D-type Management RS-232 BSPS IP network management
male
DC power input -48 VDC Power –48 VDC supply from BSPS
Rear 15-pin D-type BSR 10Base-T Ethernet, synchronization, and pow
(six) interface with BSR
15-pin D-type GPS GPS sync. Interface with GPS for ASWipLL
clock synchronization

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6.2.2. Network Management


The BSDU can be managed remotely by ASWipLL's NMS program (i.e.
WipManage) from anywhere that provides IP connectivity to the BSDU.
ASWipLL’s SNMP-based WipManage program uses standard proprietary MIBs and
ASWipLL proprietary MIBS for managing the hop synchronization and other
specific parameters. WipManage provides the BSR with fault, configuration,
performance, and security management. For a detailed description of WipManage,
see Chapter 11, “Management System”.

6.2.3. LED Indicators


The BSDU provides LED indicators located on the BSDU’s front panel
(see Figure 6-7). These LEDs are grouped under the following labels:
! BSR’s
! 100Base-T
! Status

6.2.3.1. BSR’s LEDs


The BSDU’s BSR’s LED indicators include three LEDs for each of the six BSR
ports. These LEDs are described in Table 6-13.

Table 6-13: Description of BSR’s LEDs


LED Color Status Meaning
Act Yellow On Ethernet activity is detected on the BSR port
Off No Ethernet activity is detected on the BSR port
Link Yellow On Physical link exists between the BSDU and BSR
Off No physical link exists between the BSDU and BSR
PWR Yellow On Power is supplied to the BSDU’s BSR port
Off The BSDU’s BSR port is disabled by software, or port failure
has occurred

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6.2.3.2. 100Base-T LEDs


The BSDU’s 100Base-T LED indicators include three LEDs for each of the two
100Base-T ports. These LEDs are described in Table 6-14.

Table 6-14: Description of 100Base-T LEDs


LED Color Status Meaning
Rx Yellow On Data is received through the 100Base-T port
Off No data is received through the 100Base-T port
Link Yellow On Viable physical link between the 100Base-T port and the
external device to which this port connects
Off No physical link between the 100Base-T port and the external
device to which this port connects
10/100 Yellow On Power is supplied to the 100Base-T port
Off No power at the 100Base-T port

6.2.3.3. Status LEDs


The BSDU’s Status LED indicators display the status of various synchronization
signals. These LEDs are described in Table 6-15.

Table 6-15: Description of Status LEDs


LED Color Status Meaning
HSP (Hop Green On BSDU synchronization process is
Synchronization active
Process)
State (two LEDs) Green Only right LED is on Synchronization process is starting
Both LEDs are on BSDU is the master (i.e. controler)
in the synchronization ring
Only left LED is on BSDU is a slave device
Both LEDs are off BSDU sync pulse lost
GPS (Global Green On GPS is connected to the BSDU
Positioning Satellite) Blinking Receiving a satellite signal
HSP P (Hop Green On Change state for the HSP pulse
Synchronization
Process Pulse)

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6.2.4. Technical Specifications


Table 6-16: BSDU network specifications
Parameter Value
Filtering rate 105,000 frames/sec
Forwarding rate 62,500 frames/sec

Table 6-17: BSDU power requirements


Parameter Value Comment
Voltage -48 VDC nominal
Power consumption Maximum 300W Including the feeding of six
BSRs

Table 6-18: BSDU environmental conditions


Parameter Value
Operating temperature 0ºC to +50ºC
Storage temperature -40ºC to +80ºC
Humidity 90% at 30ºC

Table 6-19: BSDU network interface


Parameter Value Comment
Ethernet Network – RJ-45 UTP EIA/TIA Category 5
Standards Compliance - ANSI/IEEE 802.3, ISO/IEC
8802-3, 10/100BaseT
compliant
Serial port RS-232

Table 6-20: BSDU physical dimensions


Parameter Value
Height 4.32 cm (1.7 inches)
Width 48.26 cm (19 inches)
Depth 22.86 cm (9 inches)
Weight 2.9 kg

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6.3. SDA-1/48V
The SDA-1/48V is a small indoor adapter especially designed for use when
available power source is 48VDC (i.e. no AC power supply), and no synchronization
is required (i.e. in licensed bands). The SDA-1/48V is impemented at a Base Station
consisting of a single BSR, to which it connects through a standard CAT 5 cable.
This device is also ideally suited for "repeater solutions" with a BSR.
The SDA-1/48V provides the BSR with the following :
! –48VDC power supply
! Ethernet connectivity with the indoor LAN switch or router
15-pin D-type port
(Radio)

Power LED

RJ-45 Ethernet port

RJ-11 DC power port

Figure 6-9: SDA-1/48V

Note: The SDA-1/48V does not regulate the voltage, i.e. voltage that enters
SDA-1/48V is the voltage that exits SDA-1/48V.

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6.3.1. Standard Accessories


The following accessories are provided with each SDA-1/48V kit:
! CAT 5 Ethernet cable for attaching to BSR
! 15-pin D-type connector
! 6-pin RJ-11 connector for power

6.3.2. Hardware Interfaces


The SDA-1/48V provides hardware interfaces for communication and power, as
described in the following table.

Table 6-21: SDA-1/48V hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type Interfaces with ASWipLL outdoor radio (i.e. BSR, PPR, or SPR) by a CAT 5
cable
RJ-45 10BaseT interface with, for example, a router, backhaul solutions, a LAN
switch, a PC
RJ-11 VDC Power (including power LED)

6.3.3. Connector Pinouts


The following sections describe the connector pinouts for the following:
! 15-pin D-type (Ethernet)
! RJ-45 (Ethernet LAN)
! RJ-11 (power)

6.3.3.1. 15-pin D-type Connector (Ethernet)


Table 6-22 describes the 15-pin D-type connector pinouts used in the cable
connection between the SDA-1/48V and the BSR/SPR.

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Table 6-22: SDA-1/48V 15-pin D-type connector pinouts


Straight-through CAT-5 UTP PVC 4 Pair 24 AWG cables
15-pin BSR Wire color Wire SDA-1/48V 15-pin
D-type Pin Function pair Pin Function D-type
male male
1 +48 VDC Blue / White 1 +48 VDC
1
2 48 RTN Blue 2 48 RTN
3 Orange / 3
Tx+ Rx+
White 2
4 Tx- Orange 4 Rx-
5 Green / 5
Rx+ Tx+
White 3
6 Rx- Green 6 Tx-

Notes:
1) Only pins 1 to 6 are used in the 15-pin D-type port.
2) The wire color-coding described in the table is ASWipLL's standard for wire
color-coding. However, if you implement your company's wire color-coding
scheme, ensure that the wires are paired and twisted according to the pin
functions (e.g., Rx+ with Rx-).

6.3.3.2. RJ-45 (Ethernet)


Table 6-23 describes the SDA-1/48V connector pinouts for the RJ-45 connector.

Table 6-23: SDA-1/48V connector pinouts for 8-pin RJ-45

RJ-45
Straight-through cable
Pin Function
1 +Rx
2 -Rx
3 +Tx
6 -Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

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6.3.3.3. RJ-11 (Power)


Table 6-23 describes the SDA-1/48V connector pinouts for the RJ-11 connector.
6-pin RJ-11
Straight-through cable
Pin Function
2 +48VDC
3 +48VDC
4 48 RTN
5 48 RTN

Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

6.3.4. Technical Specifications


The following table lists the SDA-1/48V technical specifications.

Table 6-24: SDA-1/48 technical specifications


Parameter Value
Ports • 15-pin D-type port: for connection to the outdoor BSR, PPR or SPR
• RJ-45 Ethernet: for interface to a LAN switch, router, or PC
• RJ-11 DC power connector: for connection to 48VDC power source
Operating temperature -40ºC to +60ºC
Power supply 30 – 55 VDC
Output Voltage 30 – 55 VDC (not regulated)
LED Power on/off

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6.4. Global Positioning Satellite Antenna


To synchronize between Base Stations implementing frequency hopping, and avoid
radio frequency ghosting effects, it is crucial that the entire ASWipLL network
operates with the same clock. To achieve this, each ASWipLL Base Station can be
equipped with a GPS antenna that receives a universal Global Positioning System
(GPS) satellite clock signal.
The GPS is a rugged, self-contained GPS receiver and antenna, which connects to
the BSDU's 15-pin D-type port. This completely sealed unit is designed to meet and
exceed MIL-STD 810E standards.

Figure 6-10: Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna

Note: GPS is required only for Base Stations implementing frequency


hopping. However, FCC prohibits synchronization at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz;
therefore, at such a frequency, the GPS is not implemented in FCC markets.

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6.4.1. Configurations and Optional Hardware


The GPS is available in a variety of configurations to suit the integration
requirements: RS-232 for use with cables up to 15 meters, DGPS input, 1 pulse-per-
second output, 7- or 12-pin connectors, direct or cable mount, and 1-14 UNS thread
or 3 screw 10-32 UNF mounting.
The ASWipLL GPS feature provides the following optional GPS hardware:
! Magnet mount
! 5/8-inch adaptor
! 5, 15, or 50-meter mating cable
The optional ASWipLL GPS features include:
! WAAS DGPS accuracy
! RTCM-104 DGPS corrections output derived from the WAAS DGPS system
! T-RAIM for timing applications
! Carrier phase measurements at 1 Hz

6.4.2. Connector Pinouts


The GPS connects to the BSDU's 15-pin D-type port labeled GPS, located on the
rear BSDU panel. The cable uses a single 12-pin cable connector. Connector pinouts
are shown in Figure 6-11 and described in Table 6-25.

Figure 6-11: GPS connector – underside view

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Table 6-25: GPS connector pinouts


12-pin female (GPS) 15-pin D-type male (BSDU)
Pin Pin name Cable color Pin Lead
1 POWER Red 9
2 RX_DATA_1- Blue 5 TD+ (after R5)
3 RX_DATA_1+ Black 6 TD-
4 TX_DATA_1- Yellow 4 RD-
5 TX_DATA_1+ Black 3 RD+ (after R3)
6 RX_DATA_2- Brown x
7 RX_DATA_2+ Black x
9 GND Black 10
11 1PPS+ Green 8 1PPS-
12 1PPS- Black 7 1PPS+ (After R7)

6.4.3. Technical Specifications


The following table describes the GPS technical specifications.

Table 6-26: GPS specifications


Parameter Description
Environmental conditions Operating temperature: -30ºC to +75ºC
Power requirements • 36 VDC from BSDU (Note: AC/DC adapter is available for
previous BSDU models)
• 1.8 Watts
Dimensions • Diameter: 4.5" (115 mm)
• Height: 3.6" (90 mm)
Weight 0.454 kg (2 lb)

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6.5. Base Station Power System (BSPS)


The Base Station Power System (BSPS) is a thrid-party full-redundancy 48 VDC
power system that provides the following:
! 48 VDC power to an ASWipLL Base Station (i.e. the BSDUs and BSRs).
! Backup power during a mains failure by providing a battery bank, which it
charges. Thus, the BSPS is essentially a DC-UPS with a battery connected to it.
The size of the battery determines the backup and charging time. Since the
system is current limited, the maximum battery size is based on this limit.
! Full (remote) management by ASWipLL's WipManage NMS application.
The BSPS is supplied in a standard 19” x 11U rack, providing available space for
additional equipment (i.e. BSDUs, which require 1U each). The total weight of the
rack including the BSPS is 100 kg.
The BSPS power requirements without load (i.e. not connected to BSDUs) or
batteries is less than 0.5A.

6.5.1. Features
The BSPS offers the following main features:
! Two to four parallel rectifiers
! Universal input voltage (90 VAC to 270 VAC continuous, no selectors or
switches)
! A built-in dual low voltage battery disconnect (LVD) protects the battery (two
branches are protected) by disconnecting the battery from the load
! Remote BSPS power management (WipManage) using an RJ-45 terminal
connected to the ASWipLL BSDU device
! Dual battery management (two branches) including battery test
! Boost or float charge, managed by the BSPS System Controller
! Battery terminals are protected by a dedicated thermal-magnetic circuit breaker

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! Load terminals are protected by a dedicated thermal-magnetic circuit breaker


! Fine system voltage adjustment on the front panel of the BSPS Main unit
! Active current sharing among all rectifiers in the system for optimal performance
! An output diode on each rectifier averts a system breakdown when a rectifier
short circuits
! Provides measurement of AC, DC, battery, temperature, and other parameters

6.5.2. System Description


Figure 6-12 provides a block diagram of the general system description of the BSPS.
-48V

c.sharing
MAINS Rectifier

Rectifier

Rectifier

V-Control
ALARM

LOAD
VOUT
DUAL - LVD
POWER SYSTEM
CONTROLLER I - LOAD
I - SUPPLY

SUPPLY LOAD
SHUNT SHUNT
RS232 DRY CONTACT- IN
TEMPERATURE

Figure 6-12: BSPS block diagram

As shown in Figure 6-12, three BSPS rectifiers (up to four) are chained in parallel to
provide the required current capacity. The output voltage of the rectifiers feeds the
load and charges the batteries through the dual LVD.

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A dedicated bus that connects the BSPS rectifiers performs current sharing
autonomously.
The rectifiers share a voltage control bus (V-CONTROL) controlled by the BSPS
System Controller, which allows the changing of the output DC voltage of the
system.
Another bus (ALARM) sends the information of a faulty rectifier to the System
Controller.
Two accurate shunt-resistors monitor the load and the total current. The battery
current is then calculated by the System Controller to be the difference between the
two.
Two temperature sensors are connected to measure the battery temperature.
The status of the various circuit breakers (CB's) is monitored constantly by using
their auxiliary switches. The opening of a CB will result in an audio/visual alarm.
When the cause of the alarm is resolved, the alarm clears and stops.
The BSPS is composed of the following units:
! Main
! DC Distribution
! Battery

6.5.3. Main Unit


The BSPS Main unit is the core of the Full-Redundancy 48 VDC-power system. The
Main unit consists of the following components (see Figure 6-13):
! Rectifier modules: between two to four rectifiers can be housed in the Main unit
! System Controller
! Low Voltage Detector (LVD): managed by the System Controller
! Load and battery circuit breakers for DC protection and distribution
Figure 6-13 illustrates the front panel of the BSPS Main unit.

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Figure 6-13: BSPS main unit - front panel

Legend:
1 = Adjustable 19-inch mounting flange
2 = Rectifier module (four rectifiers shown)
3 = Load breaker
4 = Battery breaker
5 = Line breaker
6 = System Controller

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Figure 6-14 illustrates the rear panel of the BSPS Main unit:

Figure 6-14: BSPS main rack - rear view

Legend:
1 = AC connection
2 = Comm-to-DC Distribution
3 = Temperature Sensor
4 = Comm to power system
5 = LVD connection
6 = Ground

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6.5.3.1. Rectifier Module


The BSPS Rectifier module is the heart of the Full-Redundancy 48 VDC power
system. It is a plugged-in module designed specifically for modular systems. Up to
four rectifiers can be housed in the Main unit. The rectifiers can be "hot plugged".
This enables the user to define an N+1 or N+2 redundant system.
The power factor correction (PFC) device at the input enables clean, stable,
sinusoidal current consumption from the mains. This converter produces a 382 VDC
output, which is then converted to the 50 VDC output. The rectifier can be calibrated
to adjust the output voltage.

Load LEDs
for indicating
output current

Figure 6-15: BSPS Rectifier module (front panel)

A current sharing circuit is responsible for current sharing among the rectifiers. This
enables each one of the rectifiers to slightly increase its output voltage. The rectifiers

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follow the highest output voltage of the rectifiers that are used. For example, assume
a BSPS has two rectifiers, and one of the rectifiers has an output voltage that is
greater than the other rectifier. The rectifier with the higher output voltage becomes
the master and dictates the output voltage of the BSPS system. The second rectifier
raises its voltage slightly until its output current equals the output current of the
master rectifier. Thus, one rectifier in the system is the master and the other
rectifiers are slaves.
When the master rectifier fails to operate, the rectifier with the next highest initial
output automatically becomes the new master of the system.

Note: The sharing mechanism tends to raise the BSPS’s output voltage. A
limit of approximately one-volt of correction is applied to the system.

The output current indication is indicated by the LED bar graph shown on the front
panel (see Figure 6-15). This bar graph is used to verify current sharing operation,
and to indicate the percentage of the full load.
An RFI input filter built into the input stage suppresses the generated noise traveling
to the line.

6.5.3.1.1. Block Diagram

Figure 6-16 displays a block diagram of the BSPS Rectifier.

Figure 6-16: BSPS Rectifier - simplified block diagram

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6.5.3.1.2. Specifications

The following table lists the BSPS Rectifier specifications:

Table 6-27: BSPS Rectifier specifications


Parameter Value
Input Voltage 90VAC to 270VAC
Current (nominal) 3.2A @ 230V / 4.3A @ 115V
Frequency 47Hz to 63Hz
Power factor (nominal line/load) Greater or equal to 0.993
Output Voltage (default) 53.5VDC
Regulation (line & load) ±0.4%
Adjustable range 47 to 58 VDC
Current 12A @ 54V
Ripple & noise 50mVp-p
Efficiency (nominal load) 85% @ 230V / 82% @ 115V
Overload current <12A
Over-voltage protection 60 VDC
Over-temperature protection (measured • 80±5°C rectifier stops
on case, upper panel corner)
• 72±5°C rectifier recovers
Walk-in time < 0.5 sec
Hold-up time 40 ms
General Withstand voltage (1 min) • 4230VDC INPUT/OUTPUT
• 2120VDC INPUT/GND
• 1700VDC OUTPUT/GND

Working temperature -10 to 45°C


Storage temperature -50 to 80°C
Dimensions (mm) 235 x 150 x 50 (L x W x H)
Weight 1100g
EMC Refer to system specifications
Safety According to: IEC950

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6.5.3.2. System Controller


The System Controller is a hot-swappable unit that manages the BSPS. The Figure
6-17 displays the front panel of the BSPS System Controller module.

Figure 6-17: System controller front panel

The System Controller front panel provides the following:


! AC: input AC voltage is normal (green)
! DC: output DC voltage is normal (green)
! LVD: Low Voltage Disconnect circuit is open (battery is disconnected = red)

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! BATT: battery test passed (green)


! FAULT: general alarm fault (red-continuous), faulty rectifier (red-blinks)
! BATT TEST: manual battery test (use a pencil tip to initiate)
! ALARM OFF: silences the internal buzzer (use a pencil tip)
! RESET: resets the controller (use a pencil tip)
! RS232: connector to the BSDU for BSPS power management

6.5.3.2.1. Main Functions

The BSPS System Controller provides the following main functions:


! RS232 communication with a host (i.e. through the BSDU to the ASWipLL
NMS - WipManage)
! Controlling dual-LVD for managing two branches of batteries. LVD voltages are
settable and nonvolatile
! Boost/Float charging, voltages are settable and nonvolatile
! Battery test for two branches
! Three dry-contacts for alarm, user-defined
! Audio-visual alarm
! LED indicators for AC, DC, LVD, battery, and general fault
! Optional: 2 x 3 digits display for system voltage/current metering
! Faulty rectifier detection
! Open breakers detection (any of them)
! LVD bypass activation alarm
! Abnormal condition detection (AC, DC, battery, over-temperature etc.)

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6.5.3.2.2. Power Management through the BSDU

Connecting the BSPS’s System Controller module to the ASWipLL BSDU provides
the user with the ability to control the BSPS power system operating parameters, and
retrieve system data and status information.
The BSPS System Controller connects to the BSDU(s) via an RJ-45 port located on
the front panel of the System Controller. This is connected to the BSDU’s 9-pin D-
type port, labeled POWER Management.
The BSPS to BSDU connection cable is shown in Figure 6-18.

Figure 6-18: BSDU-to-BSPS management connectors

Table 6-28 shows the connector pinouts for the 9-pin D-type connector.

Table 6-28: BSPS-to-BSDU connector pinouts for BSPS management


Straight-through cable
BSDU BSPS
9-pin D-type Pin Function Pin Function 8-pin RJ-45
female
2 Rx 3 Rx
3 Tx 6 Tx

5 GND 5 GND

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6.5.4. DC Distribution Unit


The BSPS DC Distribution unit is an optional unit that provides more circuit
breakers (CB's) for distributing the output current to multiple BSDUs.
The DC Distribution contains a bypass switch to bypass the LVD. When this switch
is activated, the battery is no longer protected against deep discharge and the System
Controller alarm is activated.
The DC Distribution also provides terminations for connecting to other units of the
BSPS (namely, to the Main unit and extension racks).
Figure 6-19 displays the front panel of the BSPS DC Distribution unit.

Figure 6-19: BSPS DC Distribution unit - front panel

Legend:
! LOAD: DC connection to BSDUs
! DC EXT: extension rack DC power input connection
! BATT IN: battery input connection
! LVD BYPASS: bypass circuit breakers
! LOAD: load circuit breakers

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Figure 6-20 displays the rear panel of the BSPS DC Distribution unit.

LVD BYPASS
-
+
COMM

Figure 6-20: BSPS DC Distribution Unit - Rear Panel

Legend:
! LVD BYPASS: LVD bypass input connection from the BSPS Main unit
! COMM: Main/Extension unit communication port

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6.5.4.1. Specifications
The following table lists the BSPS DC Distribution specifications:

Table 6-29: BSPS DC Distribution Specifications


Group Parameter Value
Input Voltage 90VAC to 270VAC
Current (at full load) • N*3.2A @ 230V
N =Number of rectifier modules
• N*4.3A @ 115V

Frequency 47Hz to 63Hz


Power factor (at full load) Greater or equal to 0.993
Voltage (programmable) 42 to 60VDC ± 0.5VDC
Output Default float and boost voltage 54 and 57VDC respectively
Regulation (line, load, sharing) ±1%
Current N*12A (48A max.)
Psophometric noise -52 dBm (over 600 Ω)
Ripple & noise 50mVp-p
Efficiency (nominal load) 85% @ 230V / 82% @ 115V
Overload current < N*12A
Over-voltage protection 60VDC
Walk-in time < 1 sec
Hold-up time 40 ms
Output current indication 10 LED’s bar-graph
Active current sharing ±10% accuracy at full load
Withstand voltage (1 min) 2120VDC INPUT/GND
General Working temperature -10 to 45°C
Storage temperature -50 to 80°C
Dimensions (19” X 3U) Depth is 320 mm W/O terminals, 360
mm with terminals
Weight 13 kg (main unit + 3 rectifiers)
RS232 Communication 9600 bps, no-parity, 1 stop-bit

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Group Parameter Value


EMC According to:
• EN300-386-2 SUB 7.2.3
• EN55022 class B
• IEC1000-4-2
• IEC1000-4-3
• IEC1000-4-4
• IEC1000-4-5
• IEC1000-4-6
• IEC1000-4-11
• IEC1000-3-2
• IEC1000-3-3
Safety According to: IEC950
Maximum current withstand 2x70A
LVLD Trip voltage level Disconnect default: 43± 0.5 VDC, user
(optional) programmable Re-connect: with AC
recovery

6.5.5. Battery Unit


To provide ASWipLL system back-up power during a mains failure, two battery
circuits can be connected to the BSPS. The BSPS supports up to two sets of
4x38Ah 12VDC batteries. The BSPS provides power redundancy by charging the
battery bank. Thus, the BSPS is essentially a DC-UPS with a battery connected to it.
The size of the battery determines the backup and charging time. Since the system is
current limited, the maximum battery size is based on this limit.
Batteries are located on two shelves fitted in the lower sections of the Airspan
cabinet. These batteries are connected to the BSPS DC Distribution unit.

Note: Airspan does not supply batteries.

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6.6. Typical Base Station Configurations


The following subsections describe typical ASWipLL Base Station configurations.

6.6.1. Base Station with Single BSR


The ASWipLL Base Station can consist of a single BSR. In such a scenario, the
BSR connects to the provider's backbone via ASWipLL’s Subscriber Data Adapter
(SDA). The SDA provides the BSR with an interface to the customer’s backbone, as
well as power supply.
In certain scenarios, such as when the BSR is used as a transparent bridge,
ASWipLL’s SDA-4S (with a built-in LAN switch) is used. In such a case, the BSR
requires a LAN switch or router on its LAN port. Thus, if no external switch or
router exists, the SDA-4S must be implemented. (See Figure 6-21.)

Figure 6-21: Base station with a single BSR

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6.6.2. Multi-Layer Base Station


To support a large number of subscriber sites, multiple BSRs can be installed at a
Base Station (see Figure 6-22). In such a scenario, the BSRs connect to the
customer’s backbone via the ASWipLL BSDU.
The BSDU can support up to six BSRs. In addition, up to four BSDUs can be daisy-
chained to support a maximum of 24 BSRs at one Base Station. The BSDU not only
interfaces between the BSR and the customer’s backbone, but also provides power
and frequency hop synchronization between BSRs.

Figure 6-22: Base Station with multiple BSRs

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7
ASWipLL CPE Devices
The subscriber site consists of the following ASWipLL customer premises
equipment (CPE), depending on configuration:
! Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR): outdoor radio transceiver that receives and
transmits data from and to the ASWipLL Base Station (i.e. BSR) respectively
! Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA): Ethernet hub or switch connected to SPR1
! Indoor Data Radio (IDR)2: indoor radio that combines functionality of a radio
transceiver and Ethernet hub (i.e. replaces the SPR and SDA)
ASWipLL’s CPE devices perform traffic routing between the subscriber sites and
the Base Station. The devices also provide local Quality of Service (QoS) such as re-
ordering of packets and assigning Time-to-Live (TTL) values.

1
The IDR does not require an SDA. However, the IDR may be connected to the SDA-4S model
for specific configuration setups.
2
Functionally identical to the SPR, but typical antenna gain is less than the SPR, and therefore, the
IDR is used for shorter ranges.

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Figure 7-1 and Figure 7-2 show typical ASWipLL subscriber site configurations.

Figure 7-1: Typical data subscriber configurations (SPR and SDA, and IDR)

Figure 7-2: Typical voice and data subscriber configuration (SPR, SDA, and RGW)

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7.1. Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR)


The ASWipLL Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR) is an outdoor radio transceiver that
transmits and receives traffic to and from the Base Station (i.e. BSR), respectively.
The SPR provides subscribers with "always-on" Internet, high-speed data-only, or
data and voice (VoIP) services. Each SPR provides an access capacity of up to 4
Mbps.
The SPR interfaces with the subscriber's network (LAN) through the SDA Ethernet
hub or switch. The SPR connects to the SDA's 10Base-T interface port by a standard
CAT-5 cable (i.e. no RF cable required). The connection cable length can be up to
100 meters.
Each SPR is configured with a unique BSR reference number, preventing
unauthorized relocation of the SPR to another subscriber premises.
For VoIP, the subscriber site includes a third-party residential gateway (RGW) that
is connected to the SDA.
The SPR can be pole or wall mounted, allowing optimal positioning for best
reception with the Base Station The SPR is typically mounted on the roof or external
wall of the subscriber’s premises. Figure 7-3 show an SPR mounted outdoors on a
pole at the subscriber’s premises.

Figure 7-3: Typical SPR mounted outdoors on a pole

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7.1.1. SPR Models


The SPR is available in various models, differing mainly in antenna configurations.

7.1.1.1. SPR with Built-in Antenna


This SPR model contains a single built-in (internal) flat-plate antenna. The front
panel of this model is displayed below.

Figure 7-4: SPR with built-in antenna - front panel

Note: In addition to a 15-pin D-type port, previous SPR models provide a


9-pin D-type serial port. Latest SPR models provide only a 15-pin D-type
port, providing both Ethernet and serial interface.

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The SPR with built-in antenna models are available in the following variations:
! Standard SPR: provides an internal antenna with a 15-dBi antenna gain,
covering an area of 23 degrees (see Figure 7-6). These models are generally used
for MMDS, 2.4 GHz, 2.8 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 5.8 GHz frequency bands. (For
5.8 GHz, the antenna gain is 16 dBi.)

Figure 7-5: SPR with standard antenna

! Large SPR (SPR-L): larger dimensions (same dimensions as the BSR) than the
standard SPR, allowing the use of a high-gain internal antenna.
For the 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz frequency bands, this model provides an 18-dBi
antenna gain, covering 15 degrees. For the 900 MHz and 700 MHz frequency
bands, this model provides an 8-dBi antenna gain and a 60-degree coverage. For
the 1.5 GHz band, this model provides a 13-dBi antenna gain.

Figure 7-6: SPR with high-gain antenna

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7.1.1.2. SPR with External Antenna


This SPR model provides an N-type connector (see Figure 7-7) for attaching a third-
party external antenna. These models are available when operating in the 700 MHz,
900 MHz, 925 MHz, 1.5 GHz, 2.3 GHz, 2.4 GHz, MMDS, 2.8 GHz, 3.x GHz, and
5.8 GHz bands. When operating in the 700 MHz band, a Yagi-type antenna (15-dBi
antenna gain) is supplied.

N-type port for


external antenna

Figure 7-7: SPR model with N-type port for third-party external antenna

Notes:
1) It is recommended that third-party external antennas provide 50-ohm
impedance and a VSWR of less than 1:1.5.
2) SPR models with a port to attach an external antenna do not have built-in
antennas.

7.1.2. Standard Accessories


The following accessories are provided with each SPR kit:
! Mounting kit for wall mounting the SPR
! 15-pin D-type connector (with waterproof covering) for data and power
interface
! N-type connector for attaching a third-party external antenna (for SPR model
without a built-in antenna)

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7.1.3. Hardware Interfaces


The SPR's hardware interfaces are described in the table below.

Table 7-1: SPR hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • Ethernet (10BaseT) with SDA
• Power supplied by SDA
• Serial (RS-232) local initial configuration (using WipConfig tool) during
installation using a Y-cable (see Note 1)
N-type Attaching third-party external antenna (see Note 2)
Notes:
1. For previous SPR models that provide a 9-pin D-type serial port, serial interface
is provided by using a crossover cable between this port and the computer's
serial port.
2. SPR models with built-in antennas do not provide an N-type port.

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7.1.4. Connector Pinouts


This section describes the connector pinouts for the following cable connections:
! SPR-to-SDA Ethernet (15-pin D-type port)
! SPR-to-PC serial (15-pin D-type port)

7.1.4.1. SPR-to-SDA Ethernet (15-Pin D-Type Port)


Table 7-2 describes the 15-pin D-type connector pinouts for the SPR-to-SDA
interface, which provides Ethernet and power interfaces.

Table 7-2: SPR’s 15-pin D-type connector pinouts for interfacing with SDA
Straight-through cable
15-pin SPR Wire color Wire SDA 15-pin
D-type Pin Function pair Pin Function D-type
male male
1 +48 VDC Blue / White 1 +48 VDC
1
2 48 RTN Blue 2 48 RTN
3 Orange / 3
Tx+ Rx+
White 2
4 Tx- Orange 4 Rx-
5 Green / 5
Rx+ Tx+
White 3
6 Rx- Green 6 Tx-

Notes:
1) Only pins 1 to 6 are used in the 15-pin D-type port.
2) The wire color-coding described in the table is ASWipLL's standard for wire
color-coding. However, if you implement your company's wire color-coding
scheme, ensure that the wires are paired and twisted according to the pin
functions listed in Table 7-2 (e.g. Rx+ with Rx-).

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ASWipLL uses the following wire color-coding standards for CAT-5 cables with
15-pin D-type to 15-pin D-type connectors on either ends (8 wires used):

Figure 7-8: ASWipLL wire color-coding for 15-pin D-type connectors

Note: The wires are twisted together in pairs, for example, blue/white with
blue, and orange/white with orange. This prevents electrical interference
between the transmitter pins. For example, pin 3 (Tx+; orange / white) is paired
and twisted with pin 4 (Tx-; orange).

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7.1.4.2. SPR-to-PC Serial (15-Pin D-Type Port)


For SPR serial configuration, a Y-cable (splitter cable) is used for connecting SPR's
15-pin D-type port to the management station (i.e. PC running WipConfig) and to
the SDA, as displayed in Figure 7-9. This is to ensure that the SPR receives power
from the SDA.

Figure 7-9: Y-cable for SPR serial configuration

Table 7-3 describes the 15-pin D-type connector pinouts for SPR serial
configuration using a Y-cable.

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Table 7-3: Y-cable connector pinouts for SPR-to-SDA side


Straight-through Y-cable
SPR SDA
15-pin D-type Pin Function Pin Function 15-pin D-type
male male
1 +48 VDC 1 +48 VDC
2 48 RTN 2 48 RTN
3 Ethernet Tx+ 3 Rx+
4 Ethernet Tx- 4 Rx-
5 Ethernet Rx+ 5 Tx+
6 Ethernet Rx- 6 Tx-
SPR PC
Pin Pin 9-pin D-type
Function Function
female
12 GND 5 GND
14 RS232 Rx 3 Rx

15 RS232 Tx 2 Tx

The Y-cable connector pin assignments are displayed schematically in Figure 7-10.

Figure 7-10: Y-cable connector pin assignment

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7.1.5. Network Management


The SPR is managed remotely by ASWipLL's NMS program (i.e. WipManage)
from anywhere that provides IP connectivity to the SPR. ASWipLL’s SNMP-based
WipManage program uses standard and ASWipLL proprietary Management
Information Bases (MIB) for configuring and managing the SPR. WipManage
provides the SPR with fault, configuration, performance, and security management.
For a detailed description on WipManage, see Chapter 11, “Management System”.

7.1.6. Technical Specifications


Table 7-4: SPR and MAC specifications
Parameter Value Comment
Operating frequency • 2.4 GHz • ISM band
• 5.8 GHz, 900 MHz • Unlicensed
• 700 MHz, 925 MHz, 1.5 GHz, • Licensed
2.3 GHz, MMDS, 2.8 GHz,
3.x GHz
Spectrum spreading method Frequency hopping Per ETSI EN 301 253
Duplexing Method • Time Division Duplex (TDD):
2.3 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 2.8 GHz, 3.x
GHz, MMDS, 900 MHz, 925
MHz, 700 MHz, and 5.8 GHz
• Frequency Division Duplex
(FDD): 3.x GHz, 1.5 GHz
Transmit Bit Rates Up to 4 Mbps BER and distance dependent
Channel spacing • 1 MHz
• 1 MHz or 1.75 MHz when
operating in the 3.5 GHz band
Output power from the radio • 900 MHz and 700 MHz: up to Depending on local
30 dBm regulations. Maximum
power output can be set at
• Other bands: up to 27 dBm
the factory.
Modulation method 8-level CPFSK
Channel access method PPMA / Adaptive TDMA
Protocol efficiency Up to 80% For large data packets

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Table 7-5: SPR EMC and radio standards compliance


Parameter Value
Radio Standards Compliance • ETSI EN 300 328-1
• ETSI EN 301 253
• FCC part 15
• RSS139
• Telec
EMC • ETSI ETS 300 826
• ETSI EN 300 385
• ETSI EN 300 386-2
• ETSI ETS 300 132-2
• FCC part 15

Table 7-6: SPR agency certification


Parameter Value
Emissions / Immunity EN 300 339, EN 300 386-2, ETS 300 328
Safety EN/IEC 60950
Environmental ETS 300 019-2-x

Table 7-7: SPR network specifications


Parameter Value Comment
Filtering rate 10,500 frames / sec At 64 bytes
Forwarding rate 1,300 frames / sec At 64 bytes
Routing table length 16

Table 7-8: SPR power requirements


Parameter Value Comment
• Voltage • 48VDC nominal Power supplied by the SDA
• Minimum • 30VDC
• Maximum • 55VDC
Consumption Maximum 500 mA

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Table 7-9: Environmental considerations


Parameter Value
Operating temperature -30ºC to +60ºC
Storage temperature -40ºC to +80ºC

Table 7-10: Network interface


Parameter Value Comment
Ethernet Network UTP EIA / TIA Category 5
Standards Compliance ANSI/IEEE 802.3 and
ISO/IEC 8802-3; 10BaseT
compliant
Serial Port RS-232

Table 7-11: SPR physical dimensions (without high-gain antenna)


Parameter Value Comment
Height 311 mm (12.24 inches) Excluding mounting kit
Width 244 mm (9.6 inches)
Depth 65.5 mm (2.57 inches)
Weight 2.5 kg

Table 7-12: SPR physical dimensions (with high-gain antenna)


Parameter Value Comment
Height 400 mm (15.74 inches) Excluding mounting kit
Width 317 mm (12.48 inches)
Depth 65.5 mm (2.57 inches)
Weight 4.7 kg

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7.2. Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA)


The ASWipLL Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA) is an indoor Ethernet hub or switch
(depending on SDA model). The SDA interfaces between the SPR and the
subscriber’s peripheral devices (i.e. subscriber’s network). The SDA can support
10BaseT or 100BaseT networks, depending on the SDA model.
The SDA is typically installed at the subscriber’s site. However, it can be installed at
a Base Station that consists of only one BSR/PPR. In such a scenario, the SDA
provides Ethernet interface between the BSR/PPR and the service provider’s
backbone.
The SDA also supplies power to the SPR over the CAT 5 cable. In addition, the
SDA provides lightning protection to the SPR as well as to the subscriber’s local
network. The SDA is either powered by an external power adapter (110-240 VAC),
or by a 10 to 52 VDC power source, depending on SDA model.
The SDA is installed indoors, typically mounted on a wall or placed on a shelf or
desktop. The location of the mounted SDA must ensure that the CAT-5 cable
connecting the SDA to SPR is less than 100 meters.
A third-party residential gateway (RGW) can be connected to the SDA to provide
VoIP services to the subscriber.

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7.2.1. SDA Models


The ASWipLL system provides various SDA models, differing by number and type
of ports for interfacing with the subscriber’s local network.
The SDA models include the following:
! SDA-1
! SDA-4H
! SDA-4S models:
! SDA-4S (standard)
! SDA-4S/VL
! SDA-4S/VLtag
! SDA-4S/1H3L
! SDA-4S/VL/1H3L
! SDA-1/DC

7.2.2. SDA-1
The SDA-1 is a hub that provides one 10BaseT interface (RJ-45 port) with the
subscriber’s PC or network. In the case of a LAN network, the SDA-1 needs to
connect to another hub or to a LAN switch.

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Power port

RJ-45 (10BaseT) port


15-pin D-type port

Figure 7-11: SDA-1 model

7.2.2.1. Hardware Interfaces


The SDA-1 provides various hardware interfaces, as listed in the following table.

Table 7-13: SDA-1 hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • Ethernet (10BaseT) with SPR
• Power supplied to SPR
RJ-45 Ethernet with subscriber’s PC or network
Power Power supplied by AC-DC power adapter

Note: The power cable must be a UL/CE approved 3-core 0.7mm² cable, with a
maximum length of 1.5 meters.

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7.2.2.2. Connector Pinouts


This section describes the connector pinouts for the following:
! 15-pin D-type port (Ethernet)
! 8-pin RJ-45 port (subscriber’s Ethernet)

7.2.2.2.1. 15-Pin D-Type Port (Ethernet)

Table 7-14 describes the SDA-1’s connector pinouts for the 15-pin D-type port,
which connects to the SPR's 15-pin D-type port through a CAT 5.

Table 7-14: SDA-1 connector pinouts for 15-pin D-type

15-pin D-type
Pin Function
1 +48v
2 48 RTN
3 +Rx
4 –Rx
5 +Tx
6 –Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Note: The CAT 5 cable to the outdoor radio device complies with VW-1
insulation standards.

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7.2.2.2.2. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port (Subscriber’s Ethernet)

Table 7-15 describes the SDA-1’s connector pinouts for the RJ-45 port, which
interfaces with the subscriber's Ethernet network.

Table 7-15: SDA-1 connector pinouts for 8-pin RJ-45


RJ-45 (straight-through cable)
Pin Function
1 +Rx
2 -Rx
3 +Tx
6 -Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Notes:
1) The SDA must be connected to a PC network device or Ethernet hub that
complies with ANSI/IEEE 802.3 standards.
2) A standard pin-to-pin cable must be used to connect to a PC; crossed
Ethernet cable must be used to connect to a hub/LAN switch.

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7.2.2.3. Specifications
The following table lists the SDA-1 specifications.

Table 7-16: SDA-1 specifications


Parameter Description
Interfaces • 10BaseT Ethernet (SPR and subscriber side)
• Power
Ports • 15-pin D-type port: connects to SPR (or BSR)
• RJ-45: PC interface
• AC power connector: connects to external power adapter
Environmental conditions Temperature: 0ºC to +50ºC
Power supply • 110-240 VAC
• 50/60 Hz
• 0.3 to 0.7A
Output voltage 48 VDC
Weight 0.47 kg
Dimensions (H x W x D) 200 mm (7.87 inches) x 150 mm (5.9 inches) x 40 mm (1.57 inches)

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7.2.3. SDA-4H
The SDA-4H model is a hub that provides four 10BaseT ports for interfacing with
the subscriber’s network. In addition, one of the 10BaseT ports provides a crossover
configuration for crossover-cable connection for interfacing with, for example,
another hub.

Power port
15-pin
D-type

RJ-45 (J5) crossover


RJ-45 (J4)
RJ-45 (J3)
RJ-45 (J2)
Figure 7-12: SDA-4H model

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7.2.3.1. Hardware Interfaces


The SDA-4H provides various hardware interfaces, as listed in the following table.

Table 7-17: SDA-4H hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • Ethernet (10BaseT) with SPR
• Power supplied to SPR
RJ-45 (x 3) Ethernet with subscriber’s PC or network
RJ-45 Ethernet crossover port with hub or switch
AC Power Power supplied by AC-DC power adapter

Note: The power cable must be a UL/CE approved 3-core 0.7mm² cable, with
a maximum length of 1.5 meters.

7.2.3.2. Connector Pinouts


This section describes the connector pinouts for the following ports:
! 15-pin D-type (to SPR)
! 8-pin RJ-45 (to subscriber’s PCs/LAN)
! 8-pin RJ-45 (to subscriber’s hub/switch)

7.2.3.2.1. 15-Pin D-Type Port (to SPR)

The following table describes the SDA-4H’s data connector pinouts for the 15-pin
D-type port that connects to the SPR through a CAT 5 cable.

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Table 7-18: SDA-4H connector pinouts for 15-pin D-type port

15-pin D-type
Pin Function
1 +48v
2 48 RTN
3 +Rx
4 –Rx
5 +Tx
6 –Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Note: The cable to the outdoor radio device complies with VW-1 insulation
standards.

7.2.3.2.2. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port (to Subscriber’s PCs/LAN)

The following table describes the SDA-4H’s connector pinouts for the RJ-45 ports
(J2 to J4), which interface with the subscriber's PCs/LAN.

Table 7-19: SDA-4H connector pinouts for straight-through RJ-45

Straight through cable


8-pin RJ-45 (J2, J3, J4)
Pin Function
1 +Rx
2 -Rx
3 +Tx
6 -Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Note: The SDA must be connected to a PC network device or Ethernet hub


that complies with ANSI/IEEE 802.3 standards.

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7.2.3.2.3. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port (to Subscriber’s Hub/Switch)

The following table describes the SDA-4H’s connector pinouts for the RJ-45
crossover port (J5), which interfaces with the subscriber's hub or switch.

Table 7-20: SDA-4H connector pinouts for crossover RJ-45 (for hub)
Crossover cable
8-pin RJ-45 (J5)
Pin Function
1 +Tx
2 -Tx
3 +Rx
6 -Rx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Notes:
1) The SDA must be connected to a device or Ethernet hub that complies with
ANSI/IEEE 802.3 standards.
2) A straight-through cable must be used to connect RJ-45 port J5 to an
external hub/LAN switch, or a crossover cable to connect to a PC.

7.2.3.3. LED Indicators


The SDA-4H provides LEDs that are located on the top panel. The LEDs are
described in Table 7-21.

Table 7-21: Description of the SDA-4H LEDs


LED Color Status Meaning
1 (UPLINK) Yellow On Physical link between SDA-4H and SPR
Blinking Traffic flow between SDA-4H and SPR
Off No link between SDA-4H and SPR
2, 3, and 4 Yellow On Physical link between SDA-4H and Ethernet network
Blinking Traffic flow between SDA-4H and Ethernet network
Off No link between SDA-4H and Ethernet network

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LED Color Status Meaning


5 (CROSS) Yellow On Physical link between SDA-4H and crossover Ethernet
port connection
Blinking Traffic flow between SDA-4H and crossover Ethernet
port network
Off No link between SDA-4H and crossover Ethernet port
connection
POWER Green On Power received by the SDA-4H.
Off No power received by SDA-4H

The figure below displays the location of the SDA-4H LED indicators.
Power LED
Crossover Ethernet Uplink (SPR to BSR)
LED (port 5) LED

Ethernet straight-through LEDs (ports 2, 3, and 4)

Figure 7-13: SDA-4H LEDs

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7.2.3.4. Specifications
The following table describes the SDA-4H specifications.

Table 7-22: SDA-4H specifications


Parameter Description
Interfaces • Four 10Base-T Ethernet (subscriber side – one can be used for
crossover to hub)
• Power
Ports • 15-pin D-type port: connects to SPR (or BSR)
• Three RJ-45 (J2, J3, and J4): connection to PCs/network
• One crossover RJ-45 (J5): connection to additional hub
• AC power connector: connects to external power adapter
Environmental conditions Temperature: 0ºC to +50ºC
Power supply • 110-240 VAC
• 50/60 Hz
• 0.3 to 0.7A
Output voltage 48 VDC
Weight 0.53 kg
Dimensions (H x W x D) 200 mm (7.87 inches) x 150 mm (5.9 inches) x 40 mm (1.57 inches)

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7.2.4. SDA-4S Models


The SDA-4S models are integrated LAN switches, providing four 10/100BaseT
ports for interfacing with the subscriber’s PCs/network.
Figure 7-14 displays the SDA-4S model.

Power port
15-pin
D-type

10/100BaseT ports (Auto Negotiation; MDI/MDI-X)


Figure 7-14: SDA-4S model

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The SDA-4S models include the following:


! SDA-4S (standard): Standard integrated LAN switch, providing four
10/100BaseT interfaces to the subscriber’s computers. (Ideal for SOHO
implementation.)
! SDA-4S/VL: Provides VLANs between its ports and the SPR, ensuring privacy
between users of different ports. For example, all users connected to Port 1 do
not “see” users connected to Port 2. (Ideal for Multi Tenant implementation.)
! SDA-4S/VLtag: This model is ideal for multi-tenant applications where traffic
engineering and privacy is required. SDA-4S/VLtag assigns traffic from each of
its four ports with a different VLAN ID. The VLAN IDs are fixed (since SDA-
4S/VLtag is not user configurable). SPR converts the four VLAN IDs tagged by
SDA-4S/VLtag to four VLAN IDs configured via ASWipLL’s NMS. The tag
conversion is performed by SPR before sending the traffic to the air and the
other way around when coming from the air.
! SDA-4S/1H3L: Provides a high priority port (left-most port) for VoIP traffic.
! SDA-4S/VL/1H3L: Combines the functionality of the SDA-4S/VL and SDA-
4S/1H3L models (VLAN for each port and a high priority port for VoIP).
The ports of the SDA-4S models support Auto Negotiation, allowing automatic
configuration for the highest possible speed link: 10BaseT or 100BaseT, and Full
Duplex or Half Duplex mode. In other words, the speed of the connected device
(PC) determines the speed at which packets are transmitted through the specific port.
For example, if the device (i.e. PC) to which the port is connected is running at 100
Mbps, the port connection will transmit packets at 100 Mbps. If the device (i.e. PC)
to which the port is connected is running at 10 Mbps, the port connection will
transmit packets at 10 Mbps
In addition, the SDA-4S ports support MDI/MDI-X automatic crossover, allowing
connection to straight-through or crossover CAT-5 cables.
Typically the SDA powers the SPR or BSR/PPR (in a Base Station comprised of a
single BSR/PPR). If the VLAN capabilities of the SDA-4S model are required, an
IDR can be connected to the SDA-4S model.

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7.2.4.1. Hardware Interfaces


The SDA-4S models provide various hardware interfaces, as listed in the following
table.

Table 7-23: SDA-4S hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • 10BaseT with SPR
• Power supplied to SPR
RJ-45 (x 4) • 10/100BaseT with subscriber’s PC or network
• VoIP 10/100BaseT: left-most port for VoIP interface (assigns high priority
to VoIP) -- only for SDA-4S/1H3L and SDA-4S/VL/1H3L models
AC Power Power supplied by external AC-DC power adapter

7.2.4.2. Connector Pinouts


This section describes the connector pinouts for the following:
! 15-pin D-type ports (to SPR)
! 8-pin RJ-45 ports (to subscriber’s PCs/LAN/switch/VoIP)

7.2.4.2.1. 15-Pin D-Type Port (to SPR)

Table 7-24 describes the SDA-4S’s 15-pin D-type connector pinouts.

Table 7-24: SDA-4S connector pinouts for 15-pin D-type

15-pin D-type
Pin Function
1 +48v
2 48 RTN
3 +Rx
4 –Rx
5 +Tx
6 –Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

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7.2.4.2.2. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port (to Subscriber’s PCs/LAN/Switch/VoIP)

The tables below describe the SDA-4S’s connector pinouts for the RJ-45 ports for
SDA-4S to subscriber PCs/LAN/VoIP cabling.
! Straight-through cabling:

Table 7-25: SDA-4S connector pinouts for RJ-45 straight through


RJ-45
(straight-through cable)
Pin Function
1 +Rx
2 -Rx
3 +Tx
6 -Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.
! Crossover cabling:

Table 7-26: SDA-4S connector pinouts for RJ-45 crossover


RJ-45
(crossover cable)
Pin Function
1 +Tx
2 -Tx
3 +Rx
6 -Rx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Note: The SDA-4S RJ-45 ports support MDI/MDI-X automatic crossover. This
means that straight-through or crossover CAT-5 cables can be connected to
these ports.

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7.2.4.3. LED Indicators


The SDA-4S models provide LEDs for indicating traffic and power. The LED lights
are located on the top panel. Table 7-27 describes the SDA-4S model’s LED
indicators.

Ethernet LEDs
Uplink (SPR to BSR) LED
Power LED
Table 7-27: Description of SDA-4S model’s LED indicators
LED Color Status Meaning
1 Orange On Physical link (10BaseT) between SDA-4S and SPR
Blinking Traffic flow between SDA-4S and SPR
Off No link between SDA-4S and SPR
2, 3, 4, Green On 100BaseT physical link between SDA-4H and Ethernet
and 5 network
Blinking 100BaseT traffic flow between SDA-4H and Ethernet
Off No traffic flow between SDA-4S and Ethernet network
Orange On 10BaseT physical link between SDA-4H and Ethernet
network
Blinking 10BaseT traffic flow between SDA-4H and Ethernet
network
Off No traffic flow between SDA-4S and Ethernet network
POWER Green On Power received by the SDA-4S model.
Off No power received by SDA-4S model.

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7.2.4.4. Specifications
The following lists the specifications of the SDA-4S models:

Table 7-28: SDA-4S specifications


Parameter Description
Interfaces • Four 10/100Base-T ports
• Power
Ports • 15-pin D-type port: connects to SPR (or BSR)
• Four RJ-45: connection to subscriber's PCs/network. Ports support
10/100 Mbps Auto Negotiation, and MDI/MDI-X automatic
crossover detection
• AC power connector: connects to external power adapter
Networking features • SDA-4S (standard): regular 10/100BaseT LAN switch (no
VLANs and no traffic prioritization).
• SDA-4S/VL: VLAN between each port and SPR, providing multi-
tenant VLAN security. For example, all users connected to Port 1
do not “see” users connected to Port 2.
• SDA-4S/VLtag: VLAN between each port and the SPR, providing
multi-tenant VLAN security. In addition, allows tagging of traffic
exiting and entering the SPR.
• SDA-4S/1H3L: high priority port (left-most port) for VoIP traffic.
This port provides connectivity to the VoIP network; the remaining
ports connect to the subscriber’s PCs, providing lower priority.
• SDA-4S/VL/1H3L: combines the functionality of the SDA-4S/VL
and SDA-4S/1H3L models (VLAN for each port and a high
priority port for VoIP).
Environmental conditions Temperature: 0ºC to +50ºC
Power supply • 110-240 VAC
• 50/60 Hz
• 0.3 to 0.7A
Output voltage 48 VDC
Weight 0.53 kg
Dimensions (H x W x D) 200 mm (7.87 inches) x 150 mm (5.9 inches) x 40 mm (1.57 inches)

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7.2.5. SDA-1/DC
The SDA-1/DC device provides Ethernet and–48 VDC power to the SPR. This
model is unique in that it can be powered from a 10 to 52 VDC power source. The
SDA-1/DC consists of a built-in DC-to-DC converter that ensures the input voltage
is regulated to provide a –48 VDC output to the SPR.
The SDA-1/DC's low input voltage requirements allows this device to be
implemented in applications where the power source (i.e. DC) is less than –48VDC.
For example, the SDA-1/DC can be powered from a solar panel, which typically
provides 12 VDC output. In addition, this model can be implemented in mobile
wireless applications, e.g. installed in a car or truck where it receives power from the
vehicle's standard cigarette lighter plug, which provides 12 VDC power output.

15-pin D-type
DC Anderson
port
Powerpole
RJ-45 port
receptacles

Figure 7-15: SDA-1/DC model

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7.2.5.1. Hardware Interfaces


The SDA-1/DC device provides various hardware interfaces, as described in the
following table.

Table 7-29: SDA-1/DC hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • 10BaseT with SPR
• Power - supplied to SPR (over CAT 5 cable)
RJ-45 10BaseT with subscriber’s PC, router, LAN switch
DC Powerpole power receptacles Power supplied by 10 – 52 VDC power source

7.2.5.2. Connector Pinouts


This section describes connector pinouts for the following SDA-1/DC ports:
! 15-pin D-type
! 8-pin RJ-45

7.2.5.2.1. 15-pin D-Type Port

The 15-pin D-type port interfaces with the SPR using a CAT 5 cable. The table
below describes the 15-pin D-type connector pinouts for SDA-1/DC-to-SPR cabling.

Table 7-30: SDA-1/DC connector pinouts for 15-pin D-type connector

15-pin D-type
Pin Function
1 +48VDC
2 48RTN
3 +Rx
4 –Rx
5 +Tx
6 –Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

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7.2.5.2.2. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port

The 8-pin RJ-45 port interfaces with the subscriber's/provider's Ethernet network.
The table below describes the RJ-45 port connector pinouts for the SDA-1/DC-to-
Ethernet cabling.

Table 7-31: SDA-1/DC connector pinouts for RJ-45 connector


Straight-through cable
RJ-45
Pin Function
1 +Rx
2 -Rx
3 +Tx
6 -Tx
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

7.2.5.3. LED Indicator


The SDA-1/DC provides a LED for indicating power. The LED is located on the top
panel. The table below describes the SDA-4S model’s LED indicator.

Table 7-32: Description of SDA-1/DC LED indicator


LED Color Status Meaning
POWER Green On Power received by SDA-1/DC
Off No power received SDA-1/DC

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7.2.5.4. Specifications
The following table lists the SDA-1/DC specifications.

Table 7-33: SDA-1/DC specifications


Parameter Description
Interfaces • 10BaseT (SPR and subscriber side)
• Power
Ports • 15-pin D-type port: connects to SPR (or BSR)
• RJ-45: PC, router, or LAN switch interface
• DC Anderson Powerpole-type power connector: connects to
external DC power source
Environmental conditions Temperature: -10ºC to +60ºC
Power supply • 10-52 VDC
• 15W (max. if connected to SPR); 20W (max. if connected to BSR)
Output voltage -48 VDC (regulated)
Weight 0.47 kg
Dimensions (H x W x D) 200 mm (7.87 inches) x 150 mm (5.9 inches) x 40 mm (1.57 inches)

7.3. RSS LED Plug Adapter


The RSS LED Plug adapter provides a means for measuring received signal strength
(RSS) at the SPR. This allows precise positioning of the SPR during installation for
optimal radio frequency signal reception with the Base Station (i.e. BSR).
The RSS LED adapter connects between the SPR and SDA. The RSS LED adapter
provides two 15-pin D-type ports on either end for connecting to the SPR and SDA.
The RSS LED adapter can be connected in one of the following manners:
! One end connects directly to the SPR’s 15-pin D-type port, while the other end
connects to the SDA through a CAT 5 cable.
! Both ends (i.e. 15-pin D-type ports) connect to the SPR and SDA through a
CAT 5 cable.

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15-pin D-type male


connects to SPR side

RSSI LED 8

RSSI LED 1

POWER LED

15-pin D-type female


connects to SDA side
Figure 7-16: RSS LED adapter

The following table lists the RSS LED Plug adapter dimensions:
Table 7-34: RSS LED Plug adapter dimensions

Parameter Dimensions
Height 123 mm (4.84 inches)
Width 68 mm (2.68 inches)
Depth 30 mm (1.18 inches)
Weight 85g

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Table 7-40 describes the LEDs on the RSS LED adapter.


Table 7-35: LED description of the RSS LED adapter

LED Color Status Description


Power Red On SPR receives power from the
SDA

Off No power is supplied to the


SPR by the SDA

Blinking Data transmission is occurring


on the Ethernet LAN

RSS LEDs Green All LEDs ON RSS ≥ -65 dBm


(LEDs 1 to 8) LEDs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 ON -69 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -66 dBm
LEDs1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ON -73 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -70 dBm
LEDs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ON -77 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -74 dBm
LEDs 1, 2, 3, and 4 ON -81 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -78 dBm
LEDs 1, 2, and 3 ON -85 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -82 dBm
LEDs 1 and 2 ON -89 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -86 dBm
LED 1 ON -93 dBm ≤ RSS ≤ -90 dBm
LED 1 blinking RSS ≤ -94 dBm

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7.4. Indoor Data Radio (IDR)


The ASWipLL Indoor Data Radio (IDR) is a stand-alone indoor radio, incorporating
the functionalities of both the SPR and SDA devices. In other words, the IDR is both
a radio transceiver and an Ethernet hub interfacing between the Base Station and the
subscriber’s network. An external AC-to-DC power adapter powers the IDR.

LEDs when cover closed

RJ-45 10BaseT port Molex 6 pin power port


LEDs RJ-11 serial port
TNC-type connector for
Front cover bolt
3rd party external antenna
Figure 7-17: IDR front panel (removed cover) exposing ports

The IDR offers the following subscriber benefits:


! Quick and easy installation, requiring minimum expertise
! Cost-effective and affordable, without sacrificing ASWipLL's extensive features
and technological advantages

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The IDR is fully compatible with the SPR and SDA devices, and can be
interchanged readily with them in a typical ASWipLL system deployment.
However, IDR is typically installed at subscriber sites that are at short distances
from the Base Station (i.e. BSR). The SPR supports a longer radio range than the
IDR, and, thus, the SPRs are implemented when long distances exist between the
BSR and subscriber site.
The IDR can be used for data and voice transmissions. For voice, the IDR connects
to a third-party residential gateway (RGW) that interfaces with the subscriber’s IP
phone. The figure below displays a typical IDR configuration for data as well as for
voice.

Figure 7-18: IDR used for data and VoIP

The IDR can be mounted on a wall, pole, or simply placed on a desktop (as
displayed in Figure 7-19).

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Figure 7-19: IDR mounted on a desktop

7.4.1. IDR Models


Airspan provides two IDR models, differing by their antenna configurations:
! IDR with a built-in antenna
! IDR with an external antenna

7.4.1.1. IDR with a Built-in Antenna


The IDR with a built-in antenna model is fitted with an internal antenna for radio
transmission with the Base Station. This IDR model is installed indoors in a location
ensuring line of site (LOS) with the Base Station.

7.4.1.2. IDR with an External Antenna


The IDR with an external antenna model provides a TNC-type connector for
attaching a third-party external antenna for radio transmissions with the Base
Station. The external antenna can be mounted outside, and is connected to the IDR
by an RF cable (TNC).

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Warning: When operating in the 900 MHz band, this IDR model must not be
co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.

7.4.2. Hardware Interfaces


Table 7-36 describes the IDR hardware interfaces.

Table 7-36: IDR interfaces


Connector
Interface IDR Built-in Antenna IDR External Antenna
Ethernet 10BaseT 1 x RJ-45 1 x RJ-45
Serial RJ-11 RJ-11
Power Molex 6 pin Molex 6 pin
External Antenna N/A TNC-type connector for third-party
external antenna selected by the customer

7.4.3. Connector Pinouts


The following sections describe the connector pinouts for the following:
! 8-pin RJ-45 port (Ethernet)
! RJ-11 port (serial)
! 6-pin Molex port (power)

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7.4.3.1. 8-Pin RJ-45 Port (Ethernet)


The table below describes the IDR connector pinouts for the RJ-45 connector that
interfaces with the subscriber's PC.

Table 7-37: RJ-45 connector pinouts


Straight-through cable
8-pin RJ-45
Pin Function
1 Rx+
2 Rx-
3 Tx+
6 Tx-
Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

7.4.3.2. RJ-11 Port (Serial)


Serial interface between IDR and PC is performed by connecting the IDR's RJ-11
port to the PC's serial port (9-pin D-type), using a crossover cable.

Table 7-38: IDR serial configuration connector pinouts


Crossover cable
IDR PC
6-pin RJ-11 Pin Function Pin Function 9-pin D-type
female
1 Rx 3 Tx
5 GND 5 GND

6 Tx 2 Rx

Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

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7.4.3.3. 6-Pin Molex Port (Power)


Table 7-39 describes the 6-pin Molex cable connector pinouts for connecting to an
AC/DC power adapter.

Table 7-39: 6-pin Molex power connector pinouts


6-pin power connector
Pin Function
1 +6.5V
2 +5V
3 3.3V
4 GND
5 NC
6 NC

7.4.4. LED Indicators


The IDR provides LED indicators, as displayed in Figure 7-20.

Figure 7-20: IDR LED indicators

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Table 7-40 describes the IDR LED indicators.


Table 7-40: IDR LED descriptions

LED Color Function Status Description


Power/Air Red Power and Off Power off
Link status of
BSR-to-IDR
air link Blinking Power on and IDR is in acquisition mode

On Power on and the IDR is connected to BSR


over the air

Ethernet Orange Ethernet On The IDR is connected to the Ethernet LAN


connectivity
and activity

Off No physical link between IDR and Ethernet


network

Blinking Data transmission is occurring on the


Ethernet LAN

RSSI Green RSSI level Previous Releases From Release


LEDs 4.2B
(LO, All LEDs RSSI ≥ -60 dBm RSSI ≥ -60 dBm
MED, On
and HI)
Only LO -65 dBm ≤ RSSI ≤ -70 dBm ≤ RSSI <
and -61 dBm -60 dBm
MED On
Only LO -70 dBm ≤ RSSI ≤ -80 dBm ≤ RSSI <
On -66 dBm -70 dBm
LO -76 dBm ≤ RSSI ≤ -90 dBm ≤ RSSI <
Blinking -71 dBm -80 dBm
All LEDs RSSI ≤ -77 dBm RSSI < -90 dBm
Off

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7.4.5. Technical Specifications


Table 7-41: IDR radio and MAC specifications
Parameter Value Comment
Operating frequency • 2.4 GHz
• 3.45 GHz
• 3.5 GHz, 3.45 GHz,
3.55 GHz, 3.7 GHz
• 900 MHz
• 700 MHz
Spectrum spreading method Frequency hopping (Per ETSI ETS 300 328)
ARIB-STD-T66
Duplex Method • Time Division Duplex (TDD)
at 2.4 GHz, 700 MHz, and
900 MHz
• Frequency Division Duplex
(FDD) at 3.5 GHz and
3.45 GHz
Transmit Bit Rates Up to 4 Mbps Depending on BER
Channel spacing 1 MHz In 3.5 GHz, spacing can be
either 1 MHz or 1.75 MHz
Output power from the radio • 900 MHz and 700 MHz: up to Depending on local
30 dBm regulations. Maximum
power output can be set at
• Other bands: up to 27 dBm
the factory.
Channel access method PPMA
Protocol efficiency Up to 80% At BER = 10-5, depending
on the application

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Table 7-42: IDR EMC and radio standards compliance


Parameter Value
Radio Standards Compliance • ETSI EN 300 328-1
• ETSI EN 301 253
• FCC part 15
• RSS139
• Telec
EMC • ETSI ETS 300 826
• ETSI EN 300 385
• ETSI EN 300 386-2
• ETSI ETS 300 132-2
• FCC part 15

Table 7-43: IDR agency certification


Parameter Value Comment
Emissions / Immunity • FCC Class B
• ARIB-STD-T66
• ETSI 300 386-2
Safety EN/IEC 60950
Environmental ETS 300 019-2-x

Table 7-44: IDR network specifications


Parameter Value Comment
Filtering rate 10,500 frames/sec At 64 bytes
Forwarding rate 1,300 frames/sec At 64 bytes

Table 7-45: IDR power requirements


Parameter Value Comment
External Power Supply Voltage • Minimum: 100 VAC
• Maximum: 240VAC
Operating Frequency Range 50 to 60 Hz
Maximum Power consumption Less than 15W

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Table 7-46: IDR environmental considerations


Parameter Value Comment
Operating temperature 0 to 50ºC
Operating Humidity +30ºC, 93% Maximum humidity
Storage temperature -40 to 70ºC

Table 7-47: IDR network interface


Parameter Value Comment
Ethernet Network UTP EIA / TIA Category 5
Standards Compliance ANSI/IEEE 802.3 and
ISO/IEC 8802-3 10Base-T
compliant
Serial Port RJ-11

Table 7-48: IDR physical dimensions


Parameter Value Comment
Weight 1,430 g
Dimensions (H x W x D) • 155 mm (6.1 inches) x 233 • IDR with built-in antenna
mm (9.17 inches) x 74.5
mm (2.93 inches)
• 120.5 mm (4.74 inches) x • IDR with an external
61mm (2.4 inches) x 35 antenna
mm (1.37 inches)
Note: Dimensions exclude the
external power adapter.

Table 7-49: IDR pole mounting dimensions


Parameter Value
Minimum pole diameter 35 mm (1.37 inches)
Maximum pole diameter 50 mm (1.97 inches)

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8
ASWipLL Point-
Point - to-
to - Point
Radio
ASWipLL’s Point-to-Point Radio (PPR) device is an outdoor radio, providing a
point-to-point radio (PPR) link in the 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 2.8 GHz, 3.3 to 3.8 GHz,
and 5.8 GHz frequency bands. The PPR provides a secure and reliable point-to-point
wireless link with a single remote ASWipLL device (i.e. SPR). PPR provides real-
time adaptive modulation (2-, 4-, and 8-level FSK) and Auto Retransmission
Request (ARQ)—features that offer high quality connectivity whilst maximizing
spectrum utilization.

Figure 8-1: PPR device – front panel

The PPR can deliver up to 4 Mbps using a 1.33 MHz channel, and is fully packet-
based. If more than 4 Mbps bandwidth is required between two end points, two or
more links can be installed in parallel. For two links, ASWipLL uses IP routing: one
link routes IP traffic in the uplink and another link routes IP traffic in the downlink.
A third link can be added to bridge mainly point-to-point over Ethernet (PPPoE)
traffic in the uplink and downlink.

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ASWipLL’s PPR is an attractive alternative to leased lines and dedicated fiber-optic


connections. The PPR is ideal for short-haul digital transmissions in high-density
networks such as the following:
! LAN-to-LAN connectivity for enterprises
! Building-to-building enterprise networking
! Backhaul for ISP/ASP/WISP
! Backhauling small ASWipLL Base Stations
! Backhauling 802.11b hotspots
! Transparent LAN services
! Business park networking
! Campus networking
Figure 8-2 displays a typical point-to-point radio application using ASWipLL's PPR
and SPR devices.

Figure 8-2: PPR in a building-to-building application

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The PPR device is similar to the BSR in that it performs both IP routing and PPPoE
bridging, and transparent bridging as well as all the other BSR software features.
The only difference between the PPR’s and BSR’s software features is that the PPR
is part of a point-to-point link.
The PPR is typically connected to the service provider’s wired backbone through the
ASWipLL’s Subscriber Data Adapter (SDA) 10BaseT Ethernet connection, which
allows a cable length of up to 100 meters between the PPR and the SDA. However,
the PPR can also be connected to a BSDU when multiple BSRs are located at the
same site (i.e. Base Station) as the PPR. In this scenario, the BSRs service multiple
sectors of SPRs, while the PPR participates in a point-to-point service with a single
remote SPR.
When used as a bridge, the PPR must be connected to a LAN switch (such as
ASWipLL’s SDA-4S Ethernet switch).

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8.1. PPR Models and Radio Coverage


The PPR is available in the following models, differing by antenna configuration:
! PPR with built-in antenna:
This PPR contains a built-in (internal) flat-plate antenna with a high-gain.
According to supported frequency band, these models provide the following
radio coverage:
! Standard 2.4 GHz: 18 dBi antenna gain, covering an area of 19 degrees.
The radio coverage using 18 dBi internal antennas is described below:
Modulation Range
8-level (3/4Mbps) 12 km (7.5 mi)
4-Level (2Mbps) 16 km (10 mi)
2-Level (1Mbps) 21 km (13 mi)

! Standard 3.5 GHz: 18 dBi antenna gain, covering an area of 16 degrees.


The radio coverage using 18 dBi internal antennas is described below:
Modulation Range
8-level (3/4Mbps) 8 km (5 mi)
4-Level (2Mbps) 11 km (7 mi)
2-Level (1Mbps) 15 km (9 mi)

! Standard 5.8 GHz: 16 dBi antenna gain, covering an area of 23 degrees.


The radio coverage using 16 dBi internal antennas is described below:
Modulation Range
8-level (3/4Mbps) 7 km (4.4 mi)
4-Level (2Mbps) 9 km (5.6 mi)
2-Level (1Mbps) 12 km (7.5 mi)

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System Description AS W i p L L P o i n t - t o - P o i n t R a d i o

! PPR with external antenna:


Instead of an internal antenna, the PPR provides an N-type connector for
attaching a third-party external antenna. The PPR models that implement
external antennas operate in the 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 3.4 to 3.7 GHz, and 5.8
GHz bands.
With 21 dBi flat panel directional external antennas at both ends, the radio
coverage for PPR with external antennas is described in the following table:
Modulation Range
8-level (3/4Mbps) 10 km (6.5 mi)
4-Level (2Mbps) 14 km (9 mi)
2-Level (1Mbps) 19 km (12 mi)

Note: When external antennas are used there will be losses incurred over the
RF cable connecting the antenna to the radio unit. Therefore, the distance
between the antenna and the RF unit should be kept to a minimum. The loss
over a 3-meter LMR400 cable is about 1 dB (0.32 dB for a 1-meter cable).

8.2. Standard Accessories


For implementing a point-to-point radio link, the following accessories are required:
! PPR: on the one end of the link, connected to the backhaul
! SPR: at the other end of the link, connected to the subscriber's (e.g. enterprise)
network
! Two indoor data adaptors (i.e. SDAs)
! Cat 5 cables for indoor-to-outdoor connectivity
! Mounting kit for mounting the device on a pole with tilting options
! For the PPR model without a built-in antenna, an N-type connector is provided
for attaching a third-party external antenna

Note: For a point-to-point radio link, Airspan recommends using the SPR
model with the high-antenna gain.

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8.3. Network Management


The PPR is managed remotely by ASWipLL's NMS program (i.e. WipManage)
from anywhere that provides IP connectivity to the PPR. ASWipLL’s SNMP-based
WipManage program uses standard proprietary MIBs for configuring and managing
the PPR. WipManage provides the PPR with fault, configuration, performance, and
security management. For a detailed description on WipManage, see Chapter 11,
“Management System”.

8.4. Hardware Interfaces


The table below describes the PPR's hardware interfaces.

Table 8-1: PPR hardware interfaces


Port Interface
15-pin D-type • Ethernet (10BaseT) with SDA (or BSDU when multiple BSRs co-located with
PPR)
• Power supplied by SDA (or BSDU)
9-pin D-type Serial (RS-232) local initial configuration (using WipConfig tool) during
installation

8.4.1. Connector Pinouts


This section describes the connector pinouts for the following cable connections:
! PPR-to-SDA (15-pin D-type connector)
! PPR-to-PC (9-pin D-type connector -- serial)

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8.4.1.1. 15-Pin D-Type Connector (Ethernet)


Table 8-2 describes the PPR's 15-pin D-type connector pinouts for PPR-to-SDA
cabling.

Table 8-2: BSR's 15-pin D-type connector pinouts


Straight-through CAT 5 cable
15-pin D- PPR Wire color Wire SDA
type male Pin Function pair Pin Function
1 +48 VDC Blue / white 1 1 +48 VDC
2 48 RTN Blue 2 48 RTN
3 Tx+ Orange / white 2 3 Rx+
4 Tx- Orange 4 Rx-
5 Rx+ Green / white 3 5 Tx+
6 Rx- Green 6 Tx-

Notes:
1) If the PPR connects to a BSDU, pins 7 and 8 are used for hopping
synchronization (+) and hopping synchronization (-), respectively.
2) The 15-pin D-type port is connected to a CAT 5 cable, therefore, only eight
pins are used.
2) ASWipLL's wire color-coding is described in the table. However, if you
implement your company's wire color-coding scheme, ensure that the wires are
paired and twisted according to pin functions (e.g. Rx+ with Rx-).

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8.4.1.2. 9-Pin D-Type Connector (Serial)


The table below describes the PPR-to-PC serial cable connector pinouts that include
the PPR's 9-pin D-type port (labeled SERIAL).

Table 8-3: 9-Pin D-type connector pinouts for PPR-to-PC serial connection
Crossover serial cable
PPR PC
9-pin D-type Pin Function Pin Function 9-pin D-type
male female
2 RS232 Rx 3 Tx
3 RS232 Tx 2 Rx
5 GND 5 GND

Note: Pins not mentioned are not used.

Note: For PPR serial configuration, the PPR must remain connected to the
SDA.

8.5. Technical Specifications


Table 8-4: PPR radio specifications
Parameter Value
Operating frequency bands • 902 to 928 MHz
• 2,400 to 2,500 MHz
• 2,700 to 2,900 MHz
• 3,400 to 3,800 MHz
• 5,725 to 5,875 MHz
Duplex method • Time Division Duplex (TDD) for all bands
• Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) for 3.4 to 3.8 GHz
Radio Technology FH-CDMA

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Parameter Value
Multiple Access Method PPMA
Output power • 900 MHz and 700 MHz: up to 30 dBm
• Other bands: up to 27 dBm
Antenna type (built-in)
• PPR • 18 dBi / 16 dBi / External
• SPR • 18 dBi / 16 dBi / External
Sub-Channel Spacing 1 MHz
Modulation Multilevel (2, 4, or 8) CPFSK
Receiver Sensitivity (BER 1E- -90/ -83/ -75 dBm
6 at 2/4/8 FSK)
Throughput Up to 4 Mbps per PPR-SPR link
Radio Standards Compliance • ETSI EN 300 328-1
• ETSI EN 301 253
• FCC part 15
• RSS139
• Telec
EMC • ETSI ETS 300 826
• ETSI EN 300 385
• ETSI EN 300 386-2
• ETSI ETS 300 132-2
• FCC part 15

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Table 8-5: PPR network specifications


Parameter Value
Protocols • IP Routing
• PPPoE bridging
• Transparent bridging
• 802.1Q/p
• DHCP relay
QoS Based on 802.1p, DiffServ/TOS, IP addresses, protocols or
applications
Security Authentication, Encryption, VPNs and IP filters based on IP
addresses, protocols or applications
Service Classes CIR, MIR
RFCs 768, 783, 791, 792, 826, 894, 903, 950, 1009, 1027, 1042, 1157,
1213, 1284, 1350, 1878

Table 8-6: PPR management


Parameter Value
Remote Management • SNMP
• Standard and Private MIBs
Local Management RS-232 (including Personal Digital Assistance - PDA) or SNMP
Software Upgrade Local or remote via TFTP, online
Management Tools GUI-based Element Manager, Data Base (ODBC)

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Table 8-7: PPR mechanical and electrical dimensions


Device Parameter Outdoor unit Indoor unit
PPR Interfaces • DB15, 10 Base-T • DB15, 10 Base-T
• RF: N-Type (optional) • 1 RJ-45 10 Base-T (SDA-1 /
SDA-4S)
• 4 RJ-45 10 Base-T (SDA-4H
/ SDA-4S)
Power Requirements 30-55 VDC, 12W max. 90 – 264 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 50W
max.
Dimensions H/W/D 317 mm (12.48 inches) x 200 mm (7.87 inches) x 150
400 mm (15.74 inches) x mm (5.9 inches) x 40 mm (1.57
65.5 (2.58 inches) inches)
Weight 4.7 kg • 0.47 kg (SDA-1)
• 0.53 kg (SDA-4H / SDA-4S)
SPR Interfaces • DB15, 10 Base-T • DB15, 10 Base-T
• N-type Female (optional) • 1 RJ-45 10 Base-T (SDA-1)
• 4 RJ-45 10 Base-T (SDA-4H
/ SDA-4S)
Power Requirements 30-55 VDC, 12W max. 90 – 264 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 50W
max.
Dimensions H/W/D 317 mm (12.48 inches) x 200 mm (7.87 inches) x 150
400 mm (15.74 inches) x mm (5.9 inches) x 40 mm (1.57
65.5 (2.58 inches) inches)
Weight 4.7 kg 0.47 kg (SDA-1), 0.53 kg
(SDA-4H)

Table 8-8: PPR environmental conditions


Parameter Outdoor unit Indoor unit
Operating Temperature -30ºC to 60ºC 0ºC to 50ºC

Table 8-9: PPR general standards compliance


Parameter Value
Safety EN 60950, UL 1950
Environmental ETS 300 019

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9
ASWipLL AutoConnect
ASWipLL’s AutoConnect feature enables initially powered-on and unconfigured
SPRs/IDRs to automatically connect to BSRs. These SPRs connect to BSRs with the
strongest RF signal, and thereafter, can be redirected to connect to specific BSRs.
AutoConnect also allows SPRs that are currently connected to BSRs, to undergo
AutoConnect, and then be redirected to connect to specific BSRs.
ASWipLL’s AutoConnect feature offers the following customer benefits:
! Eliminates the need for pre-configuration of subscriber devices
! Reduces installation costs by eliminating the need to send a technician for onsite
configuration during installation
! Allows remote redirecting of subscriber devices to connect to specific BSRs
! Allows implementation of BSR redundancy (see Chapter 10, “ASWipLL
Redundancy)

9.1. AutoConnect Process


When an SPR/IDR configured for AutoConnect is powered on or reset, one or both
of the following can occur, depending on configuration:
! SPR/IDR connects to a BSR with which it has the best RF signal
! SPR/IDR connects to a BSR with which it has the best RF signal, and thereafter,
disconnects and reconnects (i.e. is redirected) to a specific BSR.

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9.1.1. Continual AutoConnect


Each time SPRs/IDRs configured for AutoConnect (and not listed in the ASWipLL
database) are powered off and then on, or reset, they undergo the AutoConnect
process and connect to BSRs with which they have the strongest RF signals. Thus,
these SPRs/IDRs undergo continual AutoConnect every time they are cold started or
reset.
The following lists the chronological process of continual AutoConnect:
1. Once an unconfigured SPR/IDR is installed at the subscriber’s site and then
powered on, it automatically establishes a link to a BSR with which it has the
strongest RF reception.
2. The BSR provides the SPR/IDR with a temporary IP address (for
communication and configuration).
3. The SPR/IDR sends an SNMP trap to WipManage notifying that the SPR/IDR
has performed AutoConnect.
4. WipManage searches in the ASWipLL database for a BSR to which the
SPR/IDR should be connected. But, because the SPR/IDR is not listed in the
database, the management system allows the SPR/IDR to continue its link with
the BSR.
5. The SPR/IDR continuously sends Config Request traps (up to 10) to the
management station until the management station acknowledges these traps.
Once the management station acknowledges these traps, the AutoConnect
process ends. The BSR-SPR/IDR link is sustained until the SPR/IDR is turned
off or reset. When the SPR/IDR is turned on again, the SPR/IDR undergoes the
AutoConnect process once again, connecting to the BSR with the strongest RF
signal.

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Figure 9-1 displays the continual AutoConnect process.

Figure 9-1: AutoConnect without Redirecting to a specific BSR

9.1.2. AutoConnect with Redirection


An unconfigured and newly installed AutoConnect SPR/IDR whose Ethernet MAC
address appears in the ASWipLL management database defined for a specific BSR,
first connects to a BSR with the best RF signal using AutoConnect, and thereafter, is
redirected to a specific BSR as defined in the database. Once an SPR/IDR has been
redirected to a specific BSR, it will always connect with this BSR even if powered
off and then on, or reset. Only if factory defaults are applied to the SPR/IDR (and
AutoConnect is default in device's ROM) will it return to AutoConnect mode and
connect to the BSR with which it has the best RF signal.
The following lists the chronological process of the AutoConnect feature with
redirecting SPRs/IDRs to a specific BSR:
1. Once an unconfigured SPR/IDR is installed at the subscriber’s site, and then
powered on, it automatically establishes a link with a BSR (e.g. BSR #1) with
which it has the strongest RF reception.
2. The BSR (BSR #1) provides the SPR/IDR with a temporary IP address (for
communication and configuration).

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3. The SPR/IDR sends an SNMP trap to the ASWipLL management station (i.e.
WipManage) notifying WipManage that the SPR/IDR has undergone
AutoConnect.
4. WipManage checks the database and identifies a different BSR (e.g. BSR #2) to
which the SPR/IDR should be associated and connected.
5. WipManage requests and receives from this BSR (BSR #2) the following
parameters:
! BSR's (BSR #2) Air MAC address
! SPR's subnet mask
! BSR's (BSR #2) transmission rate (3 or 4 Mbps)
6. WipManage sends the configuration parameters to the SPR/IDR. These
parameters include:
! BSR's (BSR #2) Air MAC address (to which the SPR/IDR should be
connected)
! SPR's Air MAC address
! BSR's (BSR #2) IP address (to which the SPR/IDR should be connected)
! SPR's IP and subnet mask addresses
! SPR's transmission rate ((3 or 4 Mbps)
! SNMP and TFTP QoS class
7. The SPR/IDR disconnects from the BSR (BSR #1) with which it initially
connected, and then connects to the correct BSR (BSR #2) according to the
received parameters.
The SPR/IDR continuously sends Config Request traps (up to 10) to the
management station until the management station acknowledges these traps.
Once the management station acknowledges these traps, the AutoConnect
process ends.

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The SPR/IDR does not undergo AutoConnect in the future, even if switched off
and then on again. From now on, the SPR/IDR will always establish a link with
the "new" BSR (BSR #2).
Figure 9-2 and Figure 9-3 display the AutoConnect process where the SPR is
redirected to a different BSR (BSR #2).

Figure 9-2: AutoConnect before redirecting SPR to a different BSR

Figure 9-3: AutoConnect after redirecting SPR to a different BSR

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9.2. Reliability
ASWipLL’s AutoConnect feature provides proven reliability, preventing SPRs/IDRs
from being redirected to the wrong BSR. When an SPR/IDR restarts with the new
configuration parameters, the SPR/IDR continuously sends Config Request traps to
the management station until the management station acknowledges these traps. If
these traps are not acknowledged, the SPR/IDR starts the AutoConnect process once
again. Thus, the SPR/IDR is prevented from connecting to an incorrect BSR.

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10
ASWipLL Redundancy
The ASWipLL system provides BSR and Base Station power redundancy. The BSR
redundancy can be based on either ASWipLL’s AutoConnect feature or on operating
frequencies. ASWipLL’s optional Base Station power redundancy includes full 48
VDC power redundancy, battery back-up, and uninterrupted power system (UPS)
based solutions.

10.1. BSR Redundancy


The ASWipLL system provides BSR redundancy (regardless of Base Station size)
when operating in the bridge mode. BSR redundancy occurs in the event of the
following:
! BSR failure
! Link failure between the BSR and the subscriber device(s)
! BSDU failure
! SDA failure at the Base Station
The ASWipLL system provides one of two types of BSR redundancy methods,
based on the following:
! ASWipLL’s AutoConnect feature
! Operating frequency (and duplicated Air MAC addresses)

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10.1.1. Redundancy Based on AutoConnect


BSR redundancy at Base Stations can be implemented using ASWipLL’s
AutoConnect feature. This type of BSR redundancy is used when subscriber devices
are configured for AutoConnect. If the BSR fails or the link between the BSR and
the subscriber devices fails, the subscriber devices (i.e. SPRs/IDRs) that were
connected by AutoConnect to the working BSR, automatically connect to a standby
BSR covering (or overlapping) the same radio area (typically at the same Base
Station).
In this BSR redundancy method, the standby BSR may also be active, in that
subscriber devices may connect to it through AutoConnect despite no failure in a
working BSR. However, when the working BSR fails or the link fails, all the
subscriber devices connected to the working BSR now connect to the standby BSR.
A precondition for this method is for the BSRs to be configured beforehand to
enable the connection of additional subscriber devices through AutoConnect.

Figure 10-1: BSR redundancy based on AutoConnect – before working BSR failure

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Figure 10-2: BSR redundancy based on AutoConnect – after working BSR failure

The BSR redundancy method using AutoConnect, assigns identical services to all
involved subscriber devices. These services include bandwidth and Quality of
Service settings.

Note: For a detailed description of AutoConnect, see Chapter 9, “ASWipLL


AutoConnect”.

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10.1.2. Redundancy Based on Duplicated Air MAC


Addresses
BSR redundancy at Base Stations can be implemented by configuring a different
operating frequency between working BSRs and standby BSRs. This redundancy
method is ideally suited for ASWipLL devices operating in licensed bands, where
each BSR typically uses a single frequency (i.e. no frequency hopping). However, it
can also be implemented in unlicensed bands.
In this method, working and standby BSRs must have identical configuration
settings, e.g. identical Air MAC addresses, but different operating frequencies. For
each BSR, the operating frequency must have a different frequency table ID. This
allows the subscriber device to contain two frequency tables: one corresponding to
the working BSR, and the other to the standby BSR.
If the working BSR fails or the link between the BSR and the subscriber devices fail,
the subscriber devices (i.e. SPRs) sweep (scan) the frequencies to locate the standby
BSR (i.e. acquisition) with an Air MAC address identical to the working BSR.
When the subscriber devices locate the standby BSR, they connect to the standby
BSR and communicate with the standby BSR in the operating frequency defined for
the standby BSR.
Figure 10-3 and Figure 10-4 illustrate BSR redundancy based on operating
frequencies. Figure 10-3 illustrates a functioning working BSR operating in the 3501
MHz frequency band. Figure 10-4 illustrates a failure in the working BSR, resulting
in the reconnection of all subscriber devices to the standby BSR operating in the
3503 MHz frequency band.

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Figure 10-3: BSR redundancy based on frequency – before working BSR failure

Figure 10-4: BSR redundancy based on frequency – after BSR failure

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The advantage of BSR redundancy based on frequencies is that each subscriber


device is assured its unique services (i.e. bandwidth and QoS). In addition, this
method eliminates the need for implementing AutoConnect.

Note: To implement the BSR redundancy method based on different operating


frequencies in the unlicensed band, please contact an Airspan representative.

10.2. Power Redundancy


The ASWipLL system provides optional power redundancy to Base Stations and
subscriber devices. The optional devices providing power redundancy include the
following:
! BSPS for Base Station power redundancy (for a detailed description, see Chapter
6, “ASWipLL Base Station Devices”)
! UPS for subscriber site power redundancy (2, 4, or 8 backup hours)

10.2.1. BSPS Unit


Full power redundancy at the Base Station is provided by an optional unit called the
BSPS. The BSPS provides the following power redundancy functionality:
! Backup power during mains failure
! Full -48VDC power redundancy during rectifier failure

10.2.1.1. Battery Backup Power


To provide the ASWipLL Base Station with back-up power during a mains failure,
two battery circuits are provided in the BSPS. The BSPS provides power
redundancy by charging the battery bank. Thus, the ASWipLL BSPS is essentially a
DC-UPS (direct current-uninterruptible power supply) with a battery connected to it.
The size of the battery determines the backup and charging time. Since the system is
current limited, the maximum battery size is based on this limit.

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10.2.1.2. Rectifier N + 1 Redundancy


The BSPS’s Rectifier module is the heart of the full-redundancy 48VDC power
system. The rectifier is a plug-in module designed specifically for modular systems.
Rectifier redundancy occurs when a rectifier fails, e.g. short circuits.
Up to four rectifiers can be added to the BSPS. These rectifiers are chained in
parallel to provide the required current capacity. The output voltage of the rectifiers
feeds the load and charges the batteries through the dual LVD. The rectifiers can be
"hot-plugged". This enables the user to define an N+1 or N+2 redundant system.
A current sharing circuit is responsible for current sharing among the rectifiers. This
enables each one of the rectifiers to slightly increase its output voltage. The rectifiers
follow the highest output voltage of the rectifiers that are used.
For example: Assume a BSPS has two rectifiers, and one of the rectifiers has an
output voltage that is greater than the other rectifier. The rectifier with the higher
output voltage becomes the master and dictates the output voltage of the BSPS
system. The second rectifier raises its voltage slightly until its output current equals
the output current of the master rectifier. Thus, one rectifier in the system is the
master and the other rectifiers are slaves. When the master rectifier fails to operate,
the rectifier with the next highest initial output automatically becomes the new
master of the system.

Note: The sharing mechanism tends to raise the BSPS’s output voltage. A
limit of approximately one-volt of correction is applied to the system.

10.2.2. UPS Unit


The ASWipLL system also offers an optional unit providing uninterruptible power
supply (UPS) to subscriber devices, or to Base Stations consisting of a single BSR.
The UPS includes a battery to maintain power to the ASWipLL device in the event
of a power outage. The UPS unit connects to the BSR or subscriber device (i.e. SPR)
through the SDA.
ASWipLL offers three optional UPS units, each differing in backup time: two hours,
four hours, and eight hours.

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11
Management System
Airspan provides a comprehensive set of configuration and management software
tools for managing the entire ASWipLL system. ASWipLL’s management tools
provide fault, configuration, performance, and security management, and include the
following programs:
! WipManage™: Windows-based network management system (NMS),
providing remote management.
! WipConfig™: Windows-based program, providing initial serial (also remote)
configuration typically during hardware installation.
! WipConfig PDA™: similar to the WipConfig program, but designed to operate
on personal digital assistants (PDA).
! WipAD™: Windows-based program, providing quick-and-easy automatic
download of software versions to multiple ASWipLL devices.
! ASWipLL DB Upgrade™: Windows-based program, providing quick-and-easy
upgrade of the ASWipLL database.
For a detailed description on using these management tools, refer to the WipManage
User’s Guide, WipConfig User’s Guide, WipConfig PDA User’s Guide, WipAD
User's Guide, and ASWipLL Commissioning Manual.

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Management System System Description

11.1. Main Features


The ASWipLL management system provides the following main features:
! Accesses all ASWipLL devices in the network and displays their current statuses
! A single ASWipLL management station can manage all the ASWipLL devices
in the network
! Displays multiple ASWipLL devices concurrently
! Supports simultaneous software upgrades for multiple ASWipLL devices
! Supports simultaneous configuration of multiple ASWipLL devices
! Provides real-time statistical network performance reports and graphs such as bit
error rate (BER), received signal strength indication (RSSI), and traffic
throughput
! Provides control of transmit power for all ASWipLL radio transceivers
! Provides extensive alarm and event management capabilities
! Provides management security such as passwords, Get/Set community read/write
permissions, and management station access rights for specific networks
! Supports configuration files for saving configuration settings and then applying
the same settings to multiple ASWipLL devices
! Supports SNMP and TFTP management protocols
! Windows-based with an intuitive GUI
! Supports standard Microsoft Access database
! Provides serial management for initial configuration during installation

11-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description Management System

11.2. WipManage
WipManage is an SNMP-based application that provides remote management of the
ASWipLL system. WipManage effectively configures, manages, and monitors all
the ASWipLL devices: BSRs/PPRs, BSDUs, BSPS, and SPRs/IDRs.
WipManage is a Windows-based, stand-alone program that provides an intuitive and
user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). WipManage allows the operator to
easily access single or multiple ASWipLL devices, and view, define, and modify
configuration settings. In addition, WipManage provides on-line alarm status
indicators as well as real-time statistical network performance graphs for each
ASWipLL device.
Figure 11-1 shows a typical application of WipManage remotely managing
ASWipLL networks.

Figure 11-1: Typical application of ASWipLL’s WipManage NMS

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. 11-3


Management System System Description

11.2.1. Network Topology


WipManage provides a graphical display of the ASWipLL network topology,
showing the logical relationships between the ASWipLL devices and elements.
WipManage’s Main window provides a hierarchical tree-like structure of the entire
ASWipLL network, providing an overview of all the Base Stations, BSRs, BSDUs,
and SPRs/IDRs in the ASWipLL network. The tree allows easy navigation from one
ASWipLL element to another, by expanding and collapsing the tree’s branches.

Figure 11-2: WipManage Main window showing hierarchical tree-like structure

At the top of the hierarchy are the Base Station groups ("BS Groups") containing
Base Stations ("BS"). The next level is the "BS" branch containing BSDUs. The
next level is the "BSDU" branch containing BSRs, and finally the "BSR" branch
containing SPRs/IDRs (the last and lowest level) associated with the BSR.

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System Description Management System

The tree also provides the operator with an immediate indication of the network
connection status between WipManage and the ASWipLL device. This is depicted
by the color of the element’s icon as represented in the tree. For example, if no
connection exists, the icon appears red in color.
WipManage allows the operator to display the Base Stations on a background map
representing the geographical location (e.g. city map) of the devices. The Base
Stations can be positioned on this map with scaled coordinates to display their actual
location. Figure 11-2 shows a Base Station on such a background map.
In addition to the tree, WipManage provides device-specific windows for managing
specific device types (i.e. BSR/PPR, SPR/IDR, BSDU, BSPS). The figure below
displays the hierarchical topology of these windows.

Figure 11-3: Topology of WipManage windows

The device-specific windows are initially accessed from the WipManage main
window. By double-clicking a BSR, the BSR Zoom window is accessed (see Figure
11-4), displaying SPRs associated with the BSR. By double-clicking one of these
SPRs, the SPR Zoom window is accessed (see Figure 11-5). In the WipManage
main window, by double-clicking a BSDU, the BSDU Zoom window is accessed
(see Figure 11-6). From the BSDU Zoom window, the BSPS Management window
(see Figure 11-7) can be accessed.

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Management System System Description

Figure 11-4: BSR Zoom window

Figure 11-5: SPR Zoom window

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System Description Management System

Figure 11-6: BSDU Zoom window

Figure 11-7: BSPS Management window

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Management System System Description

11.2.2. Alarm and Event Management


WipManage provides alarm and event monitoring of the ASWipLL network. As a
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)-based application, WipManage can
receive traps generated internally by WipManage and generated by ASWipLL
devices.
Each ASWipLL device contains an SNMP agent (residing on the device) that
collects and stores the device's data (e.g. configuration parameters) in a management
database type called Management Information Base (MIBs). WipManage supports
standard Management Information Base II (MIB-II) and private (proprietary)
ASWipLL MIBs. This information can be retrieved or modified by WipManage
using standard SNMP commands:
! read: retrieves data from the device
! write: configures the device
! trap: allows the device to automatically report events by sending traps to
WipManage
Thus, the SNMP trap command allows the device to automatically report events to
WipManage. The SNMP traps indicate malfunctions or events in the ASWipLL
devices. These events are time-stamped and can be stored in WipManage’s database.
ASWipLL replies to SNMP queries.
ASWipLL SNMP traps can be sent unsolicited from WipManage or from ASWipLL
devices to any third-party network management system (NMS) such as HP
OpenView (HPOV).
WipManage displays the severity of each received trap by using the following icons.
! Normal
! Warning
! Major
! Critical
WipManage allows the operator to enable a sound to be played whenever the trap of
a specific severity is received.

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System Description Management System

For each ASWipLL device, up to five different WipManage management stations


(defined by IP address) can be configured for receiving traps. Each ASWipLL
device contains a user-defined SNMP Get and Set community string for device-
access security. In addition, the user can define an SNMP Trap community string for
the management station, allowing only traps pertaining to a specific trap community
string to be received by the management station. This is relevant for third-party
SNMP external management stations such as HP OpenView. However, if
WipManage is defined as a management station for the device, WipManage receives
all community traps.
WipManage allows the operator to view current and historical traps. Historical traps
are stored in the ASWipLL database. The operator can filter trap display, as well as
export selected traps to text files.

Figure 11-8: Example of WipManage traps displaying severity level

WipManage also provides indications of the air link status between the BSR and
SPR devices, and of the IP network link between the WipManage management
station and the SPR. The color of the SPR icon indicates these link statuses (see
Figure 11-9).
BSR-SPR Air link status
WipManage-SPR network status
Figure 11-9: SPR icon indicating BSR-SPR air and network link status

The color of the circle indicates the BSR-SPR Air link status; the color of the
rectangle surrounding the index number indicates the WipManage-SPR network link
status.

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Management System System Description

WipManage also indicates the ASWipLL device’s connection status with


WipManage by using color-coding for the icons representing the ASWipLL element.
The following color-codes are used throughout WipManage for all the elements:

Table 11-1: Example of icon color-coding of WipManage-device connection status


Color Connection status Example
BSR BSDU
Green Connection exits between WipManage and the device

Yellow WipManage is polling the device

Amber WipManage is unable to connect to the device, and then polls


the device another three times
Red No connection exits between WipManage and the device

11.2.3. Configuration
WipManage provides full configuration capabilities for the ASWipLL devices,
allowing the user to define, modify, and delete parameters. WipManage's
configuration capabilities include the following main areas:
! Radio: defining RF parameters such as antenna diversity, frequency tables,
synchronization (based on frequency hopping), and radio transmit (Tx) power.
! Quality of Service (QoS): defining a subscriber’s service level agreement
(SLA) by providing differentiated services. These services can be based on
Quality of Service (QoS) and bandwidth management. WipManage allows the
operator to define QoS for each device based on parameters such as application
(for example, FTP) and IP addresses, and assign these parameters priorities.
! Bandwidth Management: defining bandwidth policy (i.e. CIR and MIR) and
bandwidth.
! Network: defining the ASWipLL network for PPPoE and/or IP routing, or for
transparent bridging. In addition, WipManage provides configuration for routing
tables and DHCP relay agents.

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System Description Management System

! Software upgrades: WipManage supports simultaneous software upgrades of


multiple ASWipLL devices.
! Air Security: WipManage provides security for communication between
devices based on public-key encryptions and frequency hopping (when
implemented).

11.2.4. Performance Monitoring


WipManage provides extensive performance monitoring of the ASWipLL network.
WipManage monitors all traffic transmitted and received by ASWipLL devices, and
RF performances at each location. These performance parameters include bit error
rate (BER), receive signal strength indication (RSSI), and various cell/link traffic
parameters such as number of octets sent/received per second and discarded packets
(see Figure 11-10).

Figure 11-10: Example of air performance monitoring (air traffic parameters)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. 11-11


Management System System Description

WipManage allows the operator to view packets of specific QoS levels. By


providing the ASWipLL operator with a real-time view of the QoS traffic, overall
system efficiency can easily be monitored and controlled.
WipManage allows the operator to view these statistical performance parameters in
graph format, accumulatively (total value) or delta (per second). The operator can
also generate reports of the statistical data, providing a means for further network
analysis and billing. WipManage polls the ASWipLL devices for traffic (voice and
data) in periodic user-defined intervals.
WipManage provides the operator with tools to monitor incoming and outgoing
traffic, and to locate traffic congestions in the network by viewing statistical data
such as the number of discarded packets. Thus, WipManage allows the operator to
take preventative measures before network degradation occurs, thereby, ensuring
subscriber satisfaction.

11.2.5. Security
WipManage provides management security for accessing and operating
WipManage. WipManage provides access rights based on passwords, preventing
unauthorized access to the NMS. Each operator can be assigned read/write
permissions. In addition, WipManage contains a list of managers defined by IP
address, who are authorized to operate the ASWipLL network.

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System Description Management System

11.2.6. ASWipLL Database


The ASWipLL database uses a standard Microsoft Access Database. Open Database
Connectivity (ODBC) or Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) can easily access the
database. Different customer applications may use the database information for
various purposes. The tables and relationships are documented for possible
interfaces.
The ASWipLL database may reside on the PC running WipManage or on a different
PC. Multiple WipManage stations may access and update a single ASWipLL
database.
The ASWipLL database stores information of the ASWipLL network topology and
configuration (of Base Stations, BSDUs, BSRs/PPRs, and SPRs/IDRs). It stores
information such as names, indexes, longitude, latitude, terrain, frequencies, IP
addresses, and synchronization parameters. Traps can also be stored in the
ASWipLL database.
WipManage uses the information stored in the database for various purposes such as
when initializing an ASWipLL system for the first time or during maintenance.
WipManage continually updates the database during the operation of the system.

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. 11-13


Management System System Description

11.3. WipConfig
WipConfig is a Windows-based management tool, offering quick-and-easy initial
configuration (e.g. defining IP address and air MAC address) of ASWipLL devices
during installation. This is typically performed through a serial communication
mode, although an IP network communication mode can be used for advanced
configurations. WipConfig provides a user-friendly GUI, supporting Microsoft™
Windows™ NT, and Windows 2000 platforms.
An advantage of WipConfig is that during installation, it provides real-time
reporting of RSSI and BER data for optimal antenna configuration and positioning.
In addition, WipConfig also provides a Spectrum Analyzer for sweeping frequency
ranges to locate clear frequencies for use in the Base Station-to-subscriber wireless
communication link. This is typically used when installing the Base Station.
WipConfig supports software and configuration file download. WipConfig allows
the operator to save configuration settings to a file, and then later download the
configuration file to a device. This saves time by eliminating the need to redefine
configuration settings each time the operator configures a device.

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System Description Management System

11.4. WipConfig PDA


Airspan’s WipConfig PDA program is designed to run on personal digital assistants
(PDA). WipConfig PDA provides similar features to WipConfig, allowing the
operator to perform initial configurations for ASWipLL devices.

Figure 11-11: Example of WipConfig PDA configuring a BSR

WipConfig PDA can connect to the ASWipLL device through a serial or network
(IP) communication path. The network communication path uses SNMP for Set and
Get processes.

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Management System System Description

WipConfig PDA provides a graph displaying real-time Received Signal Strength


Indicator (RSSI) measurements, allowing the operator to effectively position
ASWipLL devices for optimum radio signal reception.

Figure 11-12: WipConfig PDA displaying RSSI graph

WipConfig PDA allows operators to save configuration settings to a file for later
use. Therefore, operators can quickly apply configuration settings to devices
requiring similar configuration settings.

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System Description Management System

11.5. WipAD
WipAD is a Windows-based program that automatically downloads new software
versions to multiple ASWipLL devices on a cyclic basis. Initially, only downloading
parameters need to be defined, and from then onwards, WipAD automatically
downloads new software versions to devices. Thus, WipAD assures that all
ASWipLL devices in the network contain the latest software version.
WipAD routinely checks the device’s software version. If the device’s software
version is different from the version defined in WipAD’s download parameters,
WipAD automatically downloads the version to the device.
WipAD displays all download event types: successfully downloaded versions, failed
attempts to download versions, and current download processes, as displayed in
Figure 11-13.

Figure 11-13: WipAD window displaying download events

WipAD provides real-time statistical reports of various download parameters. This


information is displayed in table and graph format.

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Management System System Description

11.6. WipLL DB Upgrade


Airspan’s WipLL DB Upgrade is a Windows-based program that provides a user-
friendly GUI for upgrading the ASWipLL database, which WipManage and WipAD
continually access. At start-up, WipManage automatically checks if the current
ASWipLL database version is compatible with the WipManage SW version. If the
ASWipLL database is an old version, WipManage displays a message box
instructing the operator to upgrade the ASWipLL database.
WipLL DB Upgrade is designed to automatically locate the path to, and folder in
which the previous ASWipLL database is located, thereby making the upgrade
process quick and easy. In addition, WipLL DB Upgrade can compact the
ASWipLL database file (.mdb), resulting in the following advantages:
! Reduces the database file size, thereby freeing space on the PC management
station
! Increases the speed of all ASWipLL applications that access the ASWipLL
database (i.e. WipManage and WipAD).
Airspan recommends using WipLL DB Upgrade to compact the ASWipLL database
at least once a month.

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A
Glossary of Terms
Antenna A device for transmitting or receiving a radio frequency (RF).
Antennas are designed for specific frequencies and vary in
design.
Antenna Transmitter consisting of two antennas where the radio
diversity transmitter uses the antenna with the best signal to communicate
with the receiver.
Antenna gain The amount of power radiated (in dBi) by an antenna in a
specific direction relative to an ideal standard (i.e. isotropic
radiator). High-gain antennas have a more focused radiation
pattern in a specific direction.
Antenna Orientation of the electric field vector in the radiated wave
polarization relative to earth. This depends on how antenna is orientated
physically: vertically (electric field is perpendicular to the
ground) or horizontally (electric field is parallel to the ground).
To eliminate polarization mismatch loss, the receiving antenna
must have the same polarization.
AutoConnect ASWipLL's feature for allowing unconfigured subscriber
devices to connect to Base Stations or reconnect to a different
Base Station.
Auto- Speed of the connected device determines the speed at which
Negotiation packets are transmitted through a specific port. For example, if
the device (i.e. PC) to which the port is connected is running at
100 Mbps, the port connection will transmit packets at 100
Mbps.

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Glossary of Terms System Description

Bandwidth Difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available


for network signals. The term also is used to describe the rated
throughput capacity of a given network medium or protocol. The
frequency range necessary to convey a signal measured in units
of hertz (Hz).
BER Bit Error Rate. Percentage of bits with errors divided by the total
number of bits that have been transmitted, received, or processed
over a given time period.
Bit rate This is equal to bits per second and is associated with the speed
of the signal through a given medium.
Boost charge A low voltage that is boosted to a usable voltage level.
BSDU ASWipLL Base Station Distribution Unit.
BSPS Base Station Power System.
BSR ASWipLL Base Station Radio.
CAT 5 Category 5 networks cable that consists of four twisted pairs of
copper wire, typically terminated by RJ-45 connectors.
CIR Committed Information Rate. A specified amount of guaranteed
bandwidth.
CoS Class of service. In an enterprise network, class of service
differentiates high-priority traffic from lower-priority traffic.
Tags may be added to the packets to identify such classes, but
they do not guarantee delivery, as do Quality of Service
functions.
CPE Customer Premises Equipment.
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check.
Data rates The data transmission speed supported by a device, measured in
megabits per second (Mbps).

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System Description Glossary of Terms

dB Decibel. The unit that measures loudness or strength of a signal


in which the ratio of two power values are expressed using a
logarithmic scale usually to base 10. Although the dB is a unit of
comparison it is sometimes useful to have an agreed reference
point. A common reference is 1mW, which is expressed as
0 dBm.
dBi A ratio of decibels to an isotropic antenna that is commonly
used to measure antenna gain. The greater the dBi value, the
higher the gain, and the more narrow the angle of coverage.
dBm An absolute power level (in decibels) referenced to 1 milliwatt,
where 0 dBm is equivalent to 1 mW.
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol available with
many operating systems that automatically issues IP addresses
within a specified range to devices on the network. The device
retains the assigned address for a specific user-defined period.
Diff/Serv Differentiated Services. A scheme originally adopted to replace
the IP “Type of Service” to improve network QoS. A method for
adding quality of service (QoS) to IP networks from the IETF.
DiffServ provides up to 64 possible types of service, e.g.
priorities and this is carried in each IP header to specify which
type of service is desired. Operating at layer 3 only, DiffServ
uses the IP type of service (TOS) field as the DiffServ byte (DS
byte).
DNS Domain Name System
Downlink / Transmission from Base Station to subscriber.
downstream
EIRP Effective Isotropic radiated power. In a given direction, the
relative gain of a transmitting antenna with respect to the
maximum directivity of a half-wave dipole multiplied by the net
power accepted by the antenna from the connected transmitter.
EIRP is the sum of the power sent to the antenna plus antenna
gain.
ELCB Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

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Glossary of Terms System Description

Equalizing An equalizing charge delivered at a voltage higher than the


charge nominal float voltage is used to restore uniform cell voltage to a
battery. Equalizing charge should be provided when individual
cell voltages go below the minimum value.
Ethernet The most widely used wired local area network. Ethernet uses
carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) to enable computers to
share a network and operates at 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps,
depending on the physical layer used.
FDD Frequency Division Duplexing.
FH Frequency hopping. A wireless modulation method that rapidly
changes the center frequency of a transmission. Signal “hops”
from one frequency to another.
Float charge Standby batteries are continuously connected to control circuits,
which must be energized at all times. Connected to a load in
parallel with a continuously operating power supply, these
batteries assure instantaneous support of the load in the event of
a power failure or brownout. In addition to operating the
connected load, the power supply keeps the standby battery fully
charged. This parallel interconnection and operation is called
float service.
Frequency Number of cycles (wavelengths) per second, measured in hertz,
of electromagnetic radiation.
FSK Frequency Shift Keying.
FTP File Transfer Protocol.
Gateway A device that connects two otherwise incompatible networks.
GHz Gigahertz. One billion cycles per second. A unit of measure for
frequency.
GPS Global Positioning System antenna.
H.323 An ITU standard for real-time, interactive voice and
videoconferencing over LANs and the Internet. Widely used for
IP telephony, it allows any combination of voice, video and data
to be transported.

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System Description Glossary of Terms

Hopping Time between switching to another frequency (i.e. in ASWipLL


length it's every 50 msec).
HPBW Half-Power Beam Width.
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol used to
report errors.
IDR ASWipLL Indoor Data Radio.
IP Internet Protocol address of a device.
ISM Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. A part of the radio
spectrum that can be used by anybody without a license in most
countries.
LOS Line of sight. A clear unobstructed physical path must exits
between transmitter and receiver.
LVD Low Voltage Disconnect. The LVD disconnects the battery from
the load, avoiding damage to the battery when it is over-
discharged.
MAC address Media Access Control. A unique 48-bit number used in Ethernet
data packets to identify an Ethernet device.
Mbps Megabits per second.
MCB Main Circuit Breaker.
MDI/MDI-x Port supporting automatic crossover, allowing connection to
straight through or crossover cables.
MEGACO Media Gateway Control. IP telephony protocol that is a
combination of the MGCP and IPDC protocols.
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol. A protocol for IP telephony
from the IETF.
MHz Megahertz. Measure of frequency equal to one million cycles
per second.
MIB Management Information Base. An SNMP structure that allows
you to retrieve and change configuration values. The MIB
describes the particular device being monitored.

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Glossary of Terms System Description

MIR Maximum Information rate. The maximum speed that is


assigned to subscribers.
MMDS Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services. A digital
wireless transmission system that works in the 2.2-2.4 GHz
range. It requires line of sight between transmitter and receiver.
MTBF Mean time between failures.
Multicast A single data message (packet) sent to multiple addresses.
packet
NMS Network Management System.
NOC Network Operations Centre.
ODBC Open Database Connectivity. A database-programming interface
from Microsoft that provides a common language for Windows
applications to access databases on a network.
PMP Point-to-Multipoint.
PPMA Pre-emptive Polling Multiple Access.
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.
PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. A method for running the
PPP protocol commonly used for dial-up Internet connections
over Ethernet. Used by DSL and cable modem providers,
PPPoE supports the protocol layers and authentication widely
used in PPP and enables a point-to-point connection to be
established in the normally multipoint architecture of Ethernet.
PPR ASWipLL Point-to-Point Radio.
PSTN Public switched telephone network.
QoS Quality of Service. The ability to define a level of performance
in a data communications system.
Radio The range of frequencies used for transmission.
Spectrum
Range A linear measure of the distance that a transmitter can send a
signal.

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System Description Glossary of Terms

RCCB Residual Current Circuit Breaker.


RCD Residual Current Device.
Rectifier Converts AC to DC power. Nonlinear circuit component that
allows more current to flow in one direction than the other;
ideally, it allows current to flow in one direction unimpeded but
allows no current to flow in the other direction.
RF Radio frequency.
RGW Residential gateway.
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication. The measured power of a
received signal by the antenna.
RTS Request to Send.
SDA ASWipLL Subscriber Data Adapter.
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP provides a
means to monitor and control TCP/IP network devices, and to
manage configurations, statistics collection, performance, and
security.
SOHO Small Office Home Office.
SPR ASWipLL Subscriber Premises Radio.
Spread A variety of radio transmission methods that continuously
spectrum change frequencies or signal patterns. A radio transmission
technology that spreads the user information over a much wider
bandwidth than otherwise required, to gain benefits such as
improved interference tolerance and unlicensed operation.
Static route Route that is explicitly configured and entered into the routing
table.
Subnet mask The number used to identify the IP subnetwork, indicating
whether the IP address can be recognized on the LAN or if it
must be reached through a gateway. This number is expressed in
a form similar to an IP address, such as 255.255.255.0.
Subscriber A person who is party to a contract with the provider of public
telecommunication services.

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Glossary of Terms System Description

Tag switching High-performance, packet-forwarding technology that integrates


network layer (Layer 3) routing and data link layer (Layer 2)
switching and provides scalable, high-speed switching in the
network core. Tag switching is based on the concept of label
swapping, in which packets or cells are assigned short, fixed-
length labels that tell switching nodes (routers) how data should
be forwarded.
TCP Transmission Control Protocol.
TDD Time Division Multiplexing.
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access.
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Simplified version of FTP that
allows files to be transferred from one computer to another over
a network, usually without the use of client authentication (e.g.
username and password).
ToS Type of Service. A field in an IP packet (IP datagram) that is
used to indicate the quality of service.
Transmit The power level of radio transmission.
Power
Transparent Type of network bridge in which the host stations are unaware
bridge of their existence in the network. A transparent bridge learns
which node is connected to which port through the experience of
examining which node responds to each new station address that
is transmitted.
TTL Time to Live.
UDP User Datagram Protocol. Connectionless transport layer protocol
in the TCP/IP protocol stack. UDP is a simple protocol that
exchanges datagrams without acknowledgments or guaranteed
delivery, requiring that error processing and retransmission be
handled by other protocols.
Uplink / Transmission from subscriber to Base Station.
upstream

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System Description Glossary of Terms

UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply. Backup power used when the


electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level.
V.35 An ITU standard for high-speed synchronous data exchange. In
the U.S., V.35 is the interface standard used by most routers and
DSUs that connect to T-1 carriers. V.35 is a balanced interface
meaning that there are two leads for each data and clock line.
Used for communications between a network access device and
a packet network.
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network. Group of devices on one or more
LANs that are configured (using management software) so that
they can communicate as if they were attached to the same wire,
when in fact they are located on a number of different LAN
segments.
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol.
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. Measures how well the antenna is
matched to the nominal impedance of the transmission line (i.e.
measures the reflected power versus the input power at the
antenna connector). The higher the VSWR, the greater the
mismatch.
X.21 ITU-T standard for serial communications over synchronous
digital lines. The X.21 protocol is used primarily in Europe and
Japan, running full duplex at 9600 bps to 64 Kbps with
subscriber networks. It is a circuit-switching protocol using
Synchronous ASCII with odd parity to connect and disconnect a
subscriber to the public-switching network.

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. A-9


Glossary of Terms System Description

This page is intentionally left blank.

A-10 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


B
ASWipLL Product List
This appendix lists the sellable entities of the ASWipLL system according to
frequency range and duplexing method:
! ASWipLL 700
! ASWipLL 900
! ASWipLL 925
! ASWipLL 1.5
! ASWipLL 2.3
! ASWipLL 2.4
! ASWipLL MMDS
! ASWipLL 2.8
! ASWipLL 3.x:
! ASWipLL 3.5 FDD
! ASWipLL 3.6 FDD
! ASWipLL 3.7 FDD
! ASWipLL 3.45 FDD
! ASWipLL 3.35 TDD
! ASWipLL 3.45 TDD
! ASWipLL 3.55 TDD
! ASWipLL 3.65 TDD
! ASWipLL 3.75 TDD
! ASWipLL 5.8

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-1


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

B.1. Entities Common to all Frequency Bands


The tables below list entities that are common to all the ASWipLL products.

Table B-1: General ASWipLL items


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR Pole Mounting Kit (for spares) 90300007
Base Station Distribution Unit (BSDU) 09300001
GPS 09300002
Base Station Power System (BSPS) 09400005
BSPS Power Charger (add to BSPS for second BSDU 13300017
and up)
AC power supply for a single BSDU (when BSPS is not 13300020
used)
Customer Premise Subscriber Data Adapter – 1 (SDA-1) 09200010
Equipment SDA-1_48: SDA-1 that is powered from 30-55 VDC 09200040
SDA_1_CD: SDA-1 that is powered from 10-50 VDC TBD
Subscriber Data Adapter – 4Hub (SDA-4H) 09200011
SDA-4S: SDA + built in LAN switch - for SOHO, PTP 09200020
and small BS
SDA-4S/VL: SDA-4S with VLANs - for Multi Tenant 09200021
SDA-4S/1H3L: SDA-4S with Port Priorities - for SOHO 09200022
with VoIP and data
SDA-4S/VL/1H3L: SDA-4S w/VLANs & Port Priorities 09200023
- for Multi Tenant with VoIP and data
SDA-4S/VLtag: SDA-4S with VLAN tagging - for Multi 09200024
Tenant + Traffic Engineering
UPS for 2 Hours Back Up – for CPE, PTP and small BS 13700001
UPS for 4 Hours Back Up – for CPE, PTP and small BS 13700002
UPS for 8 Hours Back Up – for CPE, PTP and small BS 13700000
Management and RSSI LEDs Plug 09300006
Configuration Tools Auto Connect License 80000050
Auto Connect License per SPR / IDR 8001Axxx
WipManage License for first BSR (xxx = per Release) 8000Mxxx

B-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t

Site Product Cat. No.


WipManage per additional BSR (xxx = per Release) 8001Mxxx
WipManage per SPR / IDR (xxx = per Release) 8002Mxxx
WipConfig over PC – License (xxx = per Release) 8000Cxxx
WipConfig PDA – License for 10 PDAs 8001Cxxx
WipConfig PDA – License for 50 PDAs 8002Cxxx
WipConfig PDA – License for more than 50 PDAs 8003Cxxx
Spectrum Analyzer license 80000051
WipAD- Auto Download (xxx = per Release) 8000Axxx
WipAD-License per SPR / IDR (xxx = per Release) 8002Axxx
Documentation Customer Documentation on CD-ROM 80110xxx
(xxx = per Release)
Printed Customer Documentation (xxx = per Release) 73000xxx
CAT5 Cables and 100 Meters CAT 5 UTP Cable 68000038
Crimping Tools ITT Crimping Tool for CAT 5 70900009
RF Cables and 10 cables: N – open 30 feet RG58 09900015
Connectors 10 cables: TNC – open 30 feet RG58 09900010
10 cables: N – N 3 feet RG58 09900011
10 cables: N – N 10 feet RG58 09900012
10 connectors TNC plug clamp RG58 09900013
10 connectors N type plug clamp RG58 09900014
IDU/ODU Extender IDU/ODU Extender in case that more than 100 meters are 09200050
required
Surge Arrestor Indoor DB15 Surge Arrestor (Cylix) 09900003

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-3


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

Table B-2: Voice over IP (VoIP) products


Site Product Cat. No.
CPE – VoIP SIP Residential Gateway (2 POTS and 2 LANs) 09600001
Residential H.323 Residential Gateway (2 POTS and 2 LANs) 09600003
Gateways – 1102
(Mediatrix) MGCP Residential Gateway (2 POTS and 2 LANs) 09600004
CPE-VoIP 3502 VoIP RGW with 1 LAN and 2 POTS 09600005
Residential 3502A VoIP RGW with 2 LAN and 2 POTS 09600006
Gateways –
Wellgate (Welltech) 3504A VoIP RGW with 2 LAN and 4 POTS 09600007
CPE-VoIP MTA 3328-1 with 1 POTS 09600015
Residential MTA 3328-2 with 2 POTS 09600016
Gateways – MTA
3328 (Innomedia) MTA 3328-4 with 4 POTS 09600017
MTA 3328-8 with 8 POTS 09600018

Table B-3: TDM over Packet (TDMoP) products


Name Product Cat. No.
Converter (Redux) E1/T1 and fE1/T1 to IP Arranto Converter 09600008
V.35 to IP Arranto Converter 09600009

B.2. ASWipLL 700


ASWipLL 700 supports 698 to 746 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method
(current revision B operates in 704 to 746 MHz). The product list for ASWipLL
700 is listed in the table below.

Table B-4: Products specific to ASWipLL 700


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 700 / Internal 60 degree 8dBi Vertical Antenna, 09100051
including Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 700 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting 09100050
Kit
90 degree 14 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 700 35000006
Omni External Antenna for BSR 700 35000017

B-4 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t

Site Product Cat. No.


Customer Premise IDR 700 / Internal 4 dBi Antenna - including installation 09500060
Equipment kit
Large SPR 700 / Internal 8dBi Vertical Antenna) 09000081
including Mounting Kit
SPR 700 / External Antenna, including Wall Mounting 09000080
Kit
Yagi 15 dBi External Antenna for SPR 700 35000007

B.3. ASWipLL 900


ASWipLL 900 MHz supports 902 to 928 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method.
The product list for ASWipLL 900 is listed in the table below.

Table B-5: Products specific to ASWipLL 900


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 900 / Internal 60 degree 8dBi Vertical Antenna, 09100060
including Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 900 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting 09100062
Kit
65 degree 15.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 35000010
900
Omni 11 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 900 35000012
Customer Premise IDR 900 / External Antenna - including installation kit 09500030
Equipment IDR 900 / Internal 7dBi Vertical Antenna - including 09500031
installation kit
9 dBi Vertical External Antenna for IDR 900 MHz (large 35000008
antenna)
6.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for IDR 900 MHz 35000009
(small antenna)
Large SPR 900 / Internal 8 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09000100
including Pole Mounting Kit
SPR 900 / External antenna, including Wall Mounting Kit 09000101
Point to Point Radio PPR 900 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting 09700010
(PPR) Kit

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-5


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

B.4. ASWipLL 925


ASWipLL 925 supports 910 to 940 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method. The
product list for ASWipLL 925 is listed in the table below.

Table B-6: Products specific to ASWipLL 925


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 925 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting 09100065
Kit
65 degree 15.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 35000010
925
Omni 11 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 925 35000012
Customer Premise SPR 925 MHz TDD / External Antenna, including Wall 09000105
Equipment Mounting Kit

B.5. ASWipLL 1.5


ASWipLL 1.5 supports 1427 to 1525 MHz range, and FDD duplexing method with
49 MHz separation. The product list for ASWipLL 1.5 is listed in the table below.

Table B-7: Products specific to ASWipLL 1.5


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 1.5 / Internal 60 degree 11 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09100070
including Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 1.5 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting Kit 09100071
65 degree 18 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 1.5 35000013
Omni 10 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 1.5 35000014
Customer Premise Large SPR 1.5 / Internal 13 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09000111
Equipment including Pole Mounting Kit
SPR 1.5 / External Antenna, including Wall Mounting 09000112
Kit
Yagi 14 dBi External Antenna for SPR 1.5 / External 35000015

B-6 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t

B.6. ASWipLL 2.3


ASWipLL 2.3 supports 2300 to 2400 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method. The
product list for ASWipLL 2.3 is listed in the table below.

Table B-8: Products specific to ASWipLL 2.3


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 2.3 GHz TDD / Internal Vertical Antenna, including 09100100
Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 2.3 GHz TDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100101
Mounting Kit
60 degree 17 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.3 2118000008
(2300-2480MHz)
180 degree 11 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.3 2118000022
(2300-2500)
Omni 10 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.3 35000021
(2300-2500 MHz)
Customer Premise SPR 2.3 / Internal Vertical Antenna, including Wall 09000150
Equipment Mounting Kit
SPR 2.3 / External antenna, including Wall Mounting Kit 09000151

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-7


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

B.7. ASWipLL 2.4


ASWipLL 2.4 supports 2400 to 2500 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method. The
product list for ASWipLL 2.4 is listed in the table below.

Table B-9: Products specific to ASWipLL 2.4


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 2.4 / Internal 60 degree 11Bi Vertical Antenna, 09100009
including Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 2.4 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting Kit 09100023
60 degree 14 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.4 2118000033
(Antenna: 2400-2700MHz)
90 degree 15 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.4 2118000031
(Antenna: 2400-2700MHz)
180 degree 11 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.4 2118000022
(Antenna: 2300-2500)
Omni 10 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2.3 35000021
(Antenna: 2300-2500 MHz)
Customer Premise IDR 2.4 / Internal 10 dBi Vertical Antenna - including 0950000I
Equipment installation kit
IDR 2.4 / External Antenna – including installation kit 0950000
8.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for IDR 2.4 GHz 35000003
SPR 2.4 / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna, including 09000016
Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 2.4 / External Antenna, including Wall Mounting Kit 09000020
Large SPR 2.4 / Internal 18 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09000017
including Pole Mounting Kit
21 dBi Vertical External Antenna for SPR 2.4 (Ant: 2118000035
2400-2483)
24.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for SPR 2.4 (Ant: 2118000036
2400-2483)
Point to Point Radio PPR 2.4 / Internal 19 degree 18 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09700001
(PPR) including Pole Mounting Kit
PPR 2.4 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting Kit 09700002

B-8 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t

Site Product Cat. No.


21 dBi Vertical External Antenna for PPR 2.4 (Ant: 2118000035
2400-2483)
24.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for PPR 2.4 (Ant: 2118000036
2400-2483)

B.8. ASWipLL MMDS


ASWipLL MMDS supports 2500 to 2686 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method.
The product list for ASWipLL MMDS is listed in the table below.

Table B-10: Products specific to ASWipLL MMDS


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR MMDS / Internal 65 degree 11 dBi Vertical 09100022
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR MMDS / External Antenna, including Pole 09100032
Mounting Kit
60 degree 14 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2118000033
MMDS (Ant: 2400-2700MHz)
90 degree 13.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2118000040
MMDS (Ant: 2400-2700MHz)
Customer Premise SPR MMDS / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09000042
Equipment including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR MMDS / External Antenna, including Wall 09000090
Mounting Kit
21 dBi Vertical External Antenna for SPR MMDS 211-8000-
029

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-9


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

B.9. ASWipLL 2.8


ASWipLL 2.8 supports 2700 to 2900 MHz range and TDD duplexing method. The
product list for ASWipLL 2.8 is listed in the table below.

Table B-11: Products specific to ASWipLL 2.8


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 2.8 / Internal 60 degree 11 dBi Vertical Antenna, 09100037
incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 2.8 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting Kit 09100049
Customer Premise SPR 2.8 / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna, including 09000061
Equipment Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 2.8 / External Antenna, including Wall Mounting 09000069
Kit
Point to Point Radio PPR 2.8 GHz TDD / Internal Antenna, including Pole 09700017
(PPR) Mounting Kit

B.10. ASWipLL 3.x


ASWipLL 3.x includes the following ASWipLL products, differentiated according
to frequency range and duplexing method:
! ASWipLL 3.5 FDD: 3400 to 3600 MHz, FDD, 100 MHz separation
! ASWipLL 3.6 FDD: 3500 to 3700 MHz, FDD, 50 or 100 MHz separation
! ASWipLL 3.7 FDD: 3600 to 3800 MHz, FDD, 100 MHz separation
! ASWipLL 3.45 FDD: 3400 to 3500 MHz, FDD, 50 MHz separation
! ASWipLL 3.35 TDD: 3300 to 3400 MHz, TDD
! ASWipLL 3.45 TDD: 3400 to 3500 MHz, TDD
! ASWipLL 3.55 TDD: 3500 to 3600 MHz, TDD
! ASWipLL 3.65 TDD: 3600 to 3700 MHz, TDD
! ASWipLL 3.75 TDD: 3700 to 3810 MHz, TDD

B-10 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t

Table B-12: Products specific to ASWipLL 3.x


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 3.5 GHz FDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100007
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.5 GHz FDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100024
Mounting Kit
Narrow Beam BSR 3.5 GHz FDD / Internal 15 degree 18 dBi 09100038
Vertical Antenna, incl Pole Kit
BSR 3.7 GHz FDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100017
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.7 GHz FDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100025
Mounting Kit
BSR 3.6 GHz FDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100028
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.45 GHz FDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100031
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.45 GHz FDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100033
Mounting Kit
BSR 3.35 GHz TDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100036
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.45 GHz TDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100027
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.45 GHz TDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100029
Mounting Kit
BSR 3.55 GHz TDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100003
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.55 GHz TDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100026
Mounting Kit
BSR 3.65 GHz TDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100019
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 3.65 GHz TDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09100030
Mounting Kit
BSR 3.75 GHz TDD / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Vertical 09100045
Antenna, incl Pole Mounting Kit
30 degree 18 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR at 2118000009
3400-3600 MHz

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-11


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

Site Product Cat. No.


60 degree 16.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR at 2118000002
3400-3700 MHz
60 degree 17 dBi Horizontal External Antenna for BSR at 2118000021
3400-3700 MHz
90 degree 15.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR at 2118000013
3400-3700 MHz
90 degree 14 dBi Horizontal External Antenna for BSR at 2118000020
3400-3700 MHz
120 degree 15 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR at 2118000003
3400-3700 MHz
120 degree 12 dBi Horizontal External Antenna for BSR at 2118000000
3400-3600 MHz
180 degree 14 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR at 2118000001
3400-3700 MHz
Omni Vertical External Antenna for BSR at 3400-3700 MHz 35000002
Customer IDR 3.5 GHz FDD / Internal 10 dBi Vertical Antenna – incl 09500004x
Premise installation kit
Equipment IDR 3.5 GHz FDD / External Antenna – incl installation kit 09500003x
IDR 3.45 GHz FDD / Internal 10 dBi Vertical Antenna – incl 09500014x
installation kit
IDR 3.45 GHz FDD / External Antenna – incl installation kit 09500013x
IDR 3.55 GHz FDD / Internal 10 dBi Vertical Antenna – incl 09500041
installation kit
IDR 3.55 GHz FDD / External Antenna – incl installation kit 09500040
IDR 3.7 GHz FDD / Internal 10 dBi Vertical Antenna – incl 09500051
installation kit
IDR 3.7 GHz FDD / External Antenna – incl installation kit 09500050
9dBi Vertical External Antenna for IDR at 3400-3700 MHz 35000004
SPR 3.5 GHz FDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000041
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.5 GHz FDD / External Antenna including Wall 09000030
Mounting Kit
SPR 3.5 GHz FDD - H / 15 dBi Internal Horizontal Antenna 09000048
including Wall Mounting Kit

B-12 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t

Site Product Cat. No.


Large SPR 3.5 GHz FDD / Internal 18 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000063
including Pole Mounting Kit
SPR 3.7 GHz FDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000028
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.7 GHz FDD / External Antenna including Wall 09000044
Mounting Kit
SPR 3.6 GHz FDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000019
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.35 GHz TDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000053
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.45 GHz FDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000049
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.45 GHz TDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000046
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.55 GHz TDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000045
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.65 GHz TDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000034
including Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 3.75 GHz TDD / Internal 15 dBi Vertical Antenna 09000066
including Wall Mounting Kit
23 dBi Vertical External Antenna for SPR at 3400-3700 2118000030
MHz
Point to Point PPR 3.5 GHz FDD / Internal 16 degree 18 dBi Antenna, 09700003
Radio (PPR) including Pole Mounting Kit
PPR 3.5 GHz FDD / External Antenna, including Pole 09700004
Mounting Kit
PPR 3.45 GHz TDD / Internal 16 degree 18 dBi Antenna, 09700016
including Pole Mounting Kit
PPR 3.55 GHz TDD / Internal 16 degree 18 dBi Antenna, 09700014
including Pole Mounting Kit
PPR 3.7 GHz FDD / Internal 16 degree 18 dBi Antenna, 09700015
including Pole Mounting Kit
23 dBi Vertical External Antenna for PPR at 3400-3700 2118000030
MHz

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. B-13


AS W i p L L P r o d u c t L i s t System Description

B.11. ASWipLL 5.8


ASWipLL 5.8 supports 5725 to 5875 MHz range, and TDD duplexing method. The
product list for ASWipLL 5.8 is listed in the table below.

Table B-13: Products specific to ASWipLL 5.8


Site Product Cat. No.
Base Station BSR 5.8 / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Antenna, including 09100034
Pole Mounting Kit
BSR 5.8 / External Antenna, including Pole Mounting Kit 09100035
60 degree 17 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 5.8 2118000039
90 degree 16 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 5.8 2118000038
120 degree 14.5 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 2118000037
5.8
Omni 9 dBi Vertical External Antenna for BSR 5.8 35000005
Customer Premise SPR 5.8 / Internal 16 dBi Vertical Antenna, including 09000050
Equipment Wall Mounting Kit
SPR 5.8 / External Antenna, including Wall Mounting 09000051
Kit
23 dBi Vertical External Antenna for SPR 5.8 2118000034
Point to Point Radio PPR 5.8 / Internal 60 degree 12 dBi Antenna, including 09700005
(PPR) Pole Mounting Kit
PPR 5.8 / External 60 degree 12 dBi Antenna, including 09700006
Pole Mounting Kit
23 dBi Vertical External Antenna for PPR 5.8 2118000034

B-14 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


C
ASWipLL Feature List
This appendix lists ASWipLL’s main software features for the following BSR and
SPR hardware configurations:
! 3M: supports 3 Mbps transmission rate mode
! 4M: supports either 3 Mbps or 4 Mbps transmission rate mode

The table below lists the software features for these hardware configurations.

Table C-1: ASWipLL BSR and SPR software features


Feature 4M HW 3M HW Comment
RF Frequency Hopping Spread Yes Yes
Spectrum
FSK Modulation Yes Yes
FDD / TDD Yes Yes • FDD: 3.x GHz
• TDD: for all
operating
frequency bands
including
3.x GHz
Two main modes: Yes No 3M HW supports
• 4 Mbps / 1.33 Mbps only 3 Mbps,
2 Mbps, and
• 3 Mbps / 2 Mbps / 1 Mbps 1 Mbps modes
MAC Pre-emptive Polling Multiple Yes Yes
Access
SPR/IDR AutoConnect Yes Yes
SPR/IDR Authentication Yes Yes
Encryption Yes Yes

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. C-1


AS W i p L L F e a t u r e L i s t System Description

Feature 4M HW 3M HW Comment
Networking IP Routing Yes Yes
PPPoE bridging Yes No
Transparent bridging Yes Yes
DiffServ / TOS Yes Yes
802.1Q/p VLANs/de facto VPNs Yes Yes
CIR and MIR Yes Yes
CIR Proportional Degradation Yes Yes
Fairness Yes Yes
Enhanced QoS – based on Yes Yes
addresses, protocols and
applications
IP filters - based on addresses, Yes No
protocols and applications
Management SNMP Yes Yes
TFTP SW upgrade Yes Yes
Serial (RS232) Yes Yes
Via PC Yes Yes
Via PDA Yes Yes
Automatic Download Yes Yes
Configuration File Yes Yes
RSSI LED plug Yes Yes
Notes:
! PPPoE bridging and IP filters cannot operate simultaneously.
! IP filters are not supported in Transparent Bridging mode.
! Changing between IP Routing and PPPoE Bridging mode and Transparent
Bridging mode can only be performed locally (i.e. RS-232 serial interface).
! Implementation of 802.1Q is different between IP Routing and PPPoE Bridging
mode, and Transparent Bridging mode.
! 4M/1.33M mode: PPPoE Bridging and IP filters are not supported in previous
“3M BSR/SPR hardware”.

C-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


D
TCP/UDP Ports for IP
Applications
ASWipLL’s Quality of Service (QoS) and IP filters can be based on IP applications,
which are identified by their TCP or UDP port number. The table below lists various
IP applications and their TCP or UDP port number.

Table D-1: IP applications and corresponding TCP/UDP port number


IP application TCP / UDP Port number
ACCT UDP 702
ACCTDISK UDP 707
ACCTINFO UDP 705
ACCTLOGIN UDP 703
ACCTMASTER UDP 700
ACCTPRINTER UDP 704
ACCTSLAVE UDP 701
ACCTSLAVE2 UDP 706
AUTH (authentication) TCP 113
BIFF UDP 512
BNEWS TCP 10000
BOOTP CLIENT UDP 68
BOOTP SERVER UDP 67
BUSBOY TCP 602
CHARGEN TCP 19
CONFERENCE (CHAT) TCP 531
COURIER TCP 530

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. D-1


T C P / U D P P o r t s f o r I P Ap p l i c a t i o n s System Description

IP application TCP / UDP Port number


CSNET TCP 105
DAYTIME TCP, UDP 13
DHCP CLIENT UDP 68
DHCP SERVER TCP 67
DICTIONARY TCP 103
DISCARD TCP, UDP 9
DNS TCP, UDP 53
ECHO TCP, UDP 7
EFS TCP 520
EKLOGIN TCP 2105
ELCSD UDP 704
EMAIL (SMTP) TCP 25
ERLOGIN TCP 888
EXEC TCP 512
FINGER TCP 79
FTP TCP 21
FTP-DATA TCP 20
GARCON TCP 600
GATEWAY TCP 10003
HOSTNAMES TCP 101
HTTP TCP 80
INGRESLOCK TCP 1524
ISO-TSAP TCP 102
KERBEROS TCP, UDP 750
KERNEROS_MASTER TCP, UDP 751
KLOGIN TCP 543
KPOP TCP 1109
KRB_PROP TCP 754
KSHELL TCP 544
LINK TCP 87
LOAD UDP 315

D-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description T C P / U D P P o r t s f o r I P Ap p l i c a t i o n s

IP application TCP / UDP Port number


LOGIN TCP 513
MAIL (SMTP) TCP 25
MAITRD TCP 601
MAN TCP 9535
MANTST TCP 9537
MAZE UDP 1666
MONITOR UDP 561
MTB TCP 5556
MTP TCP 57
NAME TCP, UDP 42
NAMESERVER TCP, UDP 53
NBDATAGRAM UDP 138
NBNAME UDP 137
NBSESSION TCP 139
NETNEWS TCP 532
NETSTAT TCP 15
NETWALL UDP 533
NEW-RWHO UDP 550
NEWS TCP 144
NFS UDP 2049
NNTP TCP 119
NTALK UDP 518
NTP UDP 123
PASSWD_SERVER UDP 752
PATH TCP 117
PHONE UDP 1167
POKER TCP 10002
POP TCP 109
POP3 TCP 110
PORTMAP TCP 111
PRINTER TCP 515

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. D-3


T C P / U D P P o r t s f o r I P Ap p l i c a t i o n s System Description

IP application TCP / UDP Port number


PRINT-SRV TCP 170
QMASTER TCP, UDP 10012
QOTD TCP 17
QUEUE TCP 10001
REMOTEFS TCP 556
REMP TCP 10004
RJE TCP 77
RLP UDP 39
RMONITOR UDP 560
RMT TCP 5555
ROUTE UDP 520
RSC0 UDP 10000
RSC1 UDP 10001
RSC2 UDP 10002
RSC3 UDP 10003
RSC4 UDP 10004
RSC5 UDP 10005
RSC6 UDP 10006
RSC7 UDP 10007
RSC8 UDP 10008
RSC9 UDP 10009
RSCA UDP 10010
RSCB UDP 10011
RVD-CONTROL UDP 531
SFTP TCP 115
SGMP UDP 153
SHELL TCP 514
SMTP TCP 25
SNMP UDP 161
SNMP-TRAP UDP 162
SUNRPC TCP 111

D-4 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description T C P / U D P P o r t s f o r I P Ap p l i c a t i o n s

IP application TCP / UDP Port number


SUPDUP TCP 95
SYSLOG UDP 514
SYSTAT TCP 11
SYTEK UDP 500
TALK UDP 517
TCPREPO TCP 158
TELNET TCP 23
TEMPO TCP 526
TFTP UDP 69
TIME TCP, UDP 37
TIMED UDP 525
USERREG_SERVER UDP 753
UUCP TCP 540
UUCP-PATH TCP 117
VMNET TCP 175
VMNET0 TCP 400
W TCP 9536
WEB (HTTP) TCP 80
WHO UDP 513
WHOIS TCP 43
WINS UDP 137
X400 TCP 103
X400-SND TCP 104

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. D-5


T C P / U D P P o r t s f o r I P Ap p l i c a t i o n s System Description

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D-6 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


E
IP Routing and PPPoE Vs.
Transparent Bridging
Supported ASWipLL features depend on whether ASWipLL is configured as a
transparent bridge network or as an IP routing network. The table below lists the
supported features for each of these modes.

Table E-1: Supported features for IP routing and transparent bridging


Feature IP Routing Transparent Comment
bridging
IP Routing Yes No In Transparent Bridge mode the following
are not relevant:
• Static routing table
• DHCP relay agent
• Intracom GW
• Air IP addresses
• Default Gateway per VLAN
PPPoE Yes Included When used as a transparent bridge, all
bridging protocols are bridged, including PPPoE.
ASWipLL PPPoE configuration is not
relevant in this mode.
Bridging IP No Yes As a transparent bridge – all protocols are
packets bridged, including IP.
The same IP subnet can be used in a full
ASWipLL setup.
Forwarding No Yes As a transparent bridge – all protocols are
protocols bridged.
other than IP
and PPPoE

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. E-1


IP Routing and PPPoE Vs. Transparent Bridging System Description

Feature IP Routing Transparent Comment


bridging
QoS Yes Yes Based on IP addresses, protocols,
applications, DiffServ/TOS or 802.1p
IP filters Yes No
VLANs Yes: Yes: In transparent Bridge mode, many of the
SPR/IDR in SPR/IDR in tag restrictions on VLAN settings are
tag mode mode supports a removed:
supports single VLAN. Different VLANs can belong to the same
VLAN for IP IP subnet (and in some networks the same
and VLAN for IP addresses can even be used in different
PPPoE. VLANs).
BSR supports No BSR related limitation on the number
up to 16 of VLANs in IP-based environment.
VLANs for
IP.
Support for Yes – without No
old “3 Mbps IP filters and
Hardware” PPPoE
BSRs/SPRs bridging
Bandwidth Yes Yes
Management
Authentication Yes Yes
and
Encryption

E-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


F
ASWipLL MTBF Ratings
Reliability prediction or mean time between failures (MTBF) of the ASWipLL
system was performed according to BELLCORE TR-332 (see ref. 5.1). The
prediction was performed for GF Environment, 25°C ambient temperature for the
indoor subsystem and for GF Environment, 35°C ambient temperature for the
outdoor subsystem.
Table F-1 lists the MTBF (in hours) predictions for each ASWipLL device.

Table F-1: MTBF for the ASWipLL Devices


ASWipLL Device MTBF (hours)
SPR (outdoor) 87,781
BSR (outdoor) 91,778
PPR (outdoor) 91,778
IDR (indoor) 490,890
SDA (indoor) 156,724
BSDU (indoor) 183,238
BSPS (indoor) 150,000

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. F-1


AS W i p L L M T B F R a t i n g s System Description

This page is intentionally left blank.

F-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


G
ASWipLL Internal Antenna
Patterns
This appendix provides descriptions of antenna patterns of ASWipLL radios with
built-in (integral) antennas, operating in the following frequency bands:
! 2.4 GHz (ASWipLL 2.4)
! 2.6 GHz MMDS (ASWipLL 2.6)
! 2.8 GHz (ASWipLL 2.8)
! 3.5 GHz (ASWipLL 3.5)
! 5.8 GHz (ASWipLL 5.8)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. G-1


AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s System Description

G.1. ASWipLL 2.4


The antenna patterns of ASWipLL 2.4 operating in the 2.4 GHz band is as follows:
! BSR (Base Station):

Figure G-1: BSR 2.4 GHz antenna pattern envelope (A – azimuth; E – elevation)

! SPR:

Figure G-2: SPR 2.4 GHz antenna pattern envelope (A – azimuth; E – elevation)

Note: Each ring in the figures above corresponds to a 5-dB attenuation.

G-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s

G.2. ASWipLL MMDS (2.6 GHz)


The antenna patterns of ASWipLL 2.6 operating in the 2.6 GHz band is as follows:
! BSR (Base Station):

Figure G-3: BSR 2.6 GHz antenna pattern – Azimuth plane

Figure G-4: BSR 2.6 GHz antenna pattern – Elevation plane

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. G-3


AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s System Description

! SPR terminal antenna pattern envelope (azimuth and elevation):

Figure G-5: SPR 2.6 GHz antenna pattern – Azimuth plane

Figure G-6: SPR 2.6 GHz antenna pattern - Elevation plane

G-4 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s

G.3. ASWipLL 2.8


The antenna patterns of ASWipLL 2.8 operating in the 2.8 GHz band is as follows:
! BSR (Base Station):

Figure G-7: BSR 2.8 GHz antenna pattern envelope – azimuth

Figure G-8: BSR 2.8 GHz antenna pattern envelope – elevation

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. G-5


AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s System Description

! SPR:

Figure G-9: SPR 2.8 GHz antenna pattern envelope - azimuth

Figure G-10: SPR 2.8 GHz antenna pattern envelope - elevation

G-6 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s

G.4. ASWipLL 3.5


The antenna patterns of ASWipLL 3.5 operating in the 3.5 GHz band is as follows:
! BSR (Base Station) – complies with European Standard EN 302 085 CS1:

Figure G-11: BSR 3.5 GHz antenna pattern envelope (A – azimuth; E – elevation)

! SPR (complies with European Standard EN 302 085 TS2):

Figure G-12: SPR 3.5 GHz antenna pattern envelope (A – azimuth; E – elevation)

Note: Each ring in the figures above corresponds to a 5-dB attenuation.

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. G-7


AS W i p L L I n t e r n a l An t e n n a P a t t e r n s System Description

G.5. ASWipLL 5.8


The antenna patterns of ASWipLL 5.8 operating in the 5.8 GHz band is as follows:
! BSR (Base Station) – complies with European Standard EN 302 085 CS1:

Figure G-13: BSR 5.8 GHz antenna pattern envelope (A – azimuth; E – elevation)

! SPR (complies with European Standard EN 302 085 TS2):

Figure G-14: SPR 5.8 GHz antenna pattern envelope (A – azimuth; E – elevation)

Note: Each ring in the figures above corresponds to a 5-dB attenuation.

G-8 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


H
External Antenna
Specifications
This appendix provides specifications for optional third-party external antennas for
ASWipLL devices operating in the 900 MHz and 700 MHz bands.

H.1. ASWipLL 900 MHz


The following subsections provide specifications for optional third-party external
antennas for ASWipLL devices operating in the 900 MHz band.

H.1.1. BSR (at Base Station)


Airspan offers the following optional third-party external antennas for BSR devices
operating in the 900 MHz band:
! Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi
! Panel 120°/16 dBi
! Panel 62°/16 dBi
! Panel 90°/17 dBi
! Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt)
! Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt)
! Sector (65°/15.5 dBi)
! Omni-directional (11 dBi)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-1


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.1. Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi


The Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi antenna’s radiation pattern and physical design is shown in
the figure below.

Figure H-1: Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi antenna radiation pattern

The table below lists the Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi antenna specifications.

Table H-1: Panel 35°/ 18.6 dBi antenna specifications


Electrical specifications
Frequency range 870 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain (dBd/dBi) 16.5/18.6
Azimuth BW 35°
Elevation BW 14.5°
Beam Tilt 0°
USLS (dB) >18
Front-to-Back Ratio (dB) 25
VSWR <1.33:1

H-2 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

Electrical specifications
IM Suppression – Two 20 -150 dBc
Watt Carriers
Impedance 50 Ω
Max. Input Power 500 Watts
Lightening Protection DC Ground
Mechanical specifications
Weight 17.5 lbs (7.9 kg)
Dimensions (LxWxD) 48.5 x 18.5 x 5 in. (1232 x 470 x 127 mm)
Max. Wind Area 5.3 ft2 (0.49 m2)
Max. Wind Load (at 100 213 lbf (947 N)
mph)
Max. Wind Speed 125 mph (201 km/h)
Radiator Material Aluminum
Radome Material ABS, UV Resistant
Mounting Hardware Galvanized Steel
Material
Connector Type 7/16 DIN (Back)
Color Light gray
Standard Mounting DB380 Pipe Mount Kit, included
Hardware
Downtilt Mounting DB5083, optional
Hardware

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-3


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.2. Panel 120°/16 dBi


The Panel 120°/16 dBi antenna’s radiation pattern and physical design is shown in
the figure below.

Figure H-2: Panel 120°/16 dBi antenna radiation pattern (at mid-band)

H-4 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Panel 120°/16 dBi antenna specifications.

Table H-2: Panel 120°/16 dBi antenna specifications


Electrical specifications
Frequency range 806 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 16 dBi
Half-power beam width • H-plane: 120°
• E-plane: 7°
Impedance 50Ω
VSWR <1.4:1
Max. Power 500 W (limited by connector only)
Lobe Tilt 1.25°
Null Fill 25%
Connector N, NE (elongated N connector), DIN, EDIN (elongated DIN
connector)
Lightning Protection Direct ground
Mechanical specifications
Wind area 0.73 m2 (7.87 ft2)
Weight 14 kg (31 lbs)
Wind load at 50 m/s 1140 N (256 lbs)
Depth 160 mm (6.3 in.)
Width 295 mm (11.6 in.)
Length 2450 mm (96.5 in.)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-5


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.3. Panel 62°/16 dBi


The Panel 62°/16 dBi antenna’s radiation pattern and physical design is shown in the
figure below.

Figure H-3: Panel 62°/16 dBi antenna radiation pattern (at mid-band)

H-6 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Panel 62°/16 dBi antenna specifications.

Table H-3: Panel 62°/16 dBi antenna specifications


Electrical specifications
Frequency range 806 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 16 dBi
Half-power beam width • H-plane: 62°
• E-plane: 14°
Impedance 50Ω
VSWR <1.4:1
Max. Power 500 W (limited by connector only)
Lobe Tilt 1.25°
Null Fill 5%
Connector N, NE (elongated N connector), DIN, EDIN (elongated DIN
connector)
Lightning Protection Direct ground
Mechanical specifications
Wind area 0.36 m2 (3.9 ft2)
Weight 6.5 kg (14.3 lbs)
Wind load at 50 m/s 560 N (126 lbs)
Depth 160 mm (6.3 in.)
Width 295 mm (11.6 in.)
Length 1225 mm (48.2 in.)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-7


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.4. Panel 90°/17 dBi


The Panel 90°/17 dBi antenna’s radiation pattern and physical design is shown in the
figure below.

Figure H-4: Panel 90°/17 dBi antenna radiation pattern (at mid-band)

H-8 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Panel 90°/17 dBi antenna specifications.

Table H-4: Panel 90°/17 dBi antenna specifications


Electrical specifications
Frequency range 806 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 17 dBi
Half-power beam width • H-plane: 90°
• E-plane: 7°
Impedance 50Ω
VSWR <1.4:1
Max. Power 500 W (limited by connector only)
Lobe Tilt 1.25°
Null Fill 25%
Connector N, NE (elongated N connector), DIN, EDIN (elongated DIN
connector)
Lightning Protection Direct ground
Mechanical specifications
Wind area 0.73 m2 (7.87 ft2)
Weight 14 kg (31 lbs)
Wind load at 50 m/s 1140 N (256 lbs)
Depth 160 mm (6.3 in.)
Width 295 mm (11.6 in.)
Length 2450 mm (96.5 in.)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-9


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.5. Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt)


The Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt) antenna’s radiation pattern and
physical design is shown in the figure below.

Figure H-5: Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt) radiation pattern (at mid-band)

H-10 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt) antenna
specifications.

Table H-5: Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (3° Lobe Tilt) antenna specifications
Electrical specifications
Frequency range 870 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 12 dBi
Half-power beam width • H-plane: 360°
• E-plane: 7°
Impedance 50Ω
VSWR <1.43:1
Max. Power 500 W (limited by connector only)
Lobe Tilt 3°
Null Fill 25%
Connector N, NE (elongated N connector), DIN, EDIN (elongated DIN
connector)
Lightning Protection Direct ground
Mechanical specifications
Wind area 0.2 m2 (2.4 ft2)
Weight 12 kg (26.5 lbs)
Wind load at 50 m/s 351 N (79 lbs)
Length:
• Overall • 3393 mm (134 in.)
• Radome • 2893 (114 in.)
Diameter ∅65 mm (2.6 in.)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-11


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.6. Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt)


The Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt) antenna’s radiation pattern and
physical design is shown in the figure below.

Figure H-6: Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt) radiation pattern (at mid-band)

H-12 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt) antenna
specifications.

Table H-6: Omni-Directional 360°/12 dBi (5° Lobe Tilt) antenna specifications
Electrical specifications
Frequency range 870 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 12 dBi
Half-power beam width • H-plane: 360°
• E-plane: 7°
Impedance 50Ω
VSWR <1.43:1
Max. Power 500 W (limited by connector only)
Lobe Tilt 5°
Null Fill 25%
Connector N, NE (elongated N connector), DIN, EDIN (elongated DIN
connector)
Lightning Protection Direct ground
Mechanical specifications
Wind area 0.2 m2 (2.4 ft2)
Weight 12 kg (26.5 lbs)
Wind load at 50 m/s 351 N (79 lbs)
Length:
• Overall • 3393 mm (134 in.)
• Radome • 2893 (114 in.)
Diameter ∅65 mm (2.6 in.)

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-13


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.7. Sector Antenna (65°/15.5 dBi)


This antenna is designed for best non-line of sight performance with Airspan’s BSR
operating in the 900 MHz band. Advanced features include: high gain and
mechanical down tilt.

Figure H-7: Sector antenna radiation pattern

H-14 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Sector antenna specifications.

Table H-7: Sector antenna specifications


Electrical specifications
Frequency range 870 –960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 15.5 dBi
Half-power beam width • H-plane: 65°
• E-plane: 13°
Front-to-back ratio >25 dB
Impedance 50 .
VSWR <1.3
Intermodulation IM3 <–150 dBc
(2 x 43 dBm carrier)
Max. Power 500 W (at 50 °C ambient temperature)
Mechanical specifications
Input 7-16 female
Connector position Bottom
Weight 6 kg
Wind load • Frontal: 220 N (at 150 km/h)
• Lateral: 140 N (at 150 km/h)
• Rear side: 490 N (at 150 km/h)
Max. wind velocity 200 km/h
Packing size 1422 x 272 x 160 mm
Height/width/depth 1294 /258 /103 mm

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-15


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.1.8. Omni-Directional Antenna (11 dBi)


This antenna is designed for best non-line of sight performance with Airspan’s BSR
operating in the 900 MHz band.

Figure H-8: Omni-directional antenna radiation pattern

H-16 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

The table below lists the Omni-directional antenna specifications.

Table H-8: Omni-directional antenna specifications


Electrical specifications
Frequency range 870 – 960 MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 11 dBi
Impedance 50Ω
VSWR <1.5
Intermodulation IM3 <–150 dBc
(2 x 43 dBm carrier)
Max. Power 500W (at 50 °C ambient temperature)
Mechanical specifications
Model Type 736 347 736 348
Input 7-16 female 7-16 female
Connector position Bottom Top
Weight 8 kg
Radome diameter 51 mm
Wind load 210 N (at 150 km/h)
Max. wind velocity 200 km/h
Packing size 3316 x 148 x 112 mm
Height/width/depth 3033 mm 3022 mm

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-17


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.2. IDR (Subscriber Site)


Airspan offers one of the following optional third-party external antennas for the
IDR device operating in the 900 MHz band:
! 10 dBi Panel antenna
! 6.5 dBi Panel antenna

H.1.2.1. 10 dBi Panel


The following table lists the 10-dBi Panel antenna specifications.

Table H-9: 10 dBi Panel antenna specifications


Electrical
Frequency range 902 - 928 MHz
Gain 10 dBi (min)
VSWR 1.5:1 (max)
3 dB Beamwidth • Azimuth: 65 (typ)
(related to vertical
• Elevation: 55 (typ)
polarization)
Polarization Linear (Vertical or Horizontal)
Side lobes level -18dB (max) @ +/-90
Cross polarization -14dB (max)
F/B ratio -20dB (max)
Input impedance 50 (ohm)
Input power 6W (max)
Lightning protection Non
Mechanical
Dimensions (LxWxD) 305x305x25 mm (max)
Weight 1.5 kg (max)
Connector N-Type Female
Radome Plastic
Base plate Aluminum with chemical conversion coating

H-18 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

Mounting kit MT-120018


Environmental
Test Standard Duration Temperature Notes
Low temperature IEC 68-2-1 72 h -55°C -
High temperature IEC 68-2-2 72 h +71°C -
Temp. cycling IEC 68-2-14 1h -45°C +70°C 3 Cycles
Vibration IEC 60721-3-4 30 min/axis - Random 4M3
Shock mechanical IEC 60721-3-4 - - 4M3
Humidity ETSI EN300-2-4 144 h - 95%
T4.1E
Water tightness IEC 529 - - IP67
Solar radiation ASTM G53 1000 h - -
Flammability UL 94 - - CLASS HB
Salt spray IEC 68-2-11 Ka 500 h - -
Ice and snow - - - 25mm radial
Wind speed survival - - - 220 Km/h
Operation 160 Km/h
Wind load (survival): - - -
• Front thrust • 26.8 kg
• Side thrust • 2.2 kg

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-19


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.1.2.2. 6.5 dBi Panel


The following table lists the 6.5 dBi Panel antenna specifications.

Table H-10: 6.5 dBi Panel antenna specifications


Electrical
Frequency range 902-928 MHz
Gain 6.5 dBi (min)
VSWR 1.5:1 (max)
3 dB Beamwidth
• Azimuth • 80° (typ)
• Elevation • 80° (typ)
Polarization Linear (Vertical or Horizontal)
Cross polarization -14dB (max)
F/B ratio -11dB (max)
Input impedance 50 (ohm)
Input power 6W (max)
Lightning protection NON

H-20 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

Mechanical
Dimensions (LxWxD) 190x190x30 mm (max)
Weight 0.7kg (max)
Connector N-Type Female
Radome Plastic
Base plate Aluminum with chemical conversion coating
Outline drawing RD41245600C
Mounting kit MT-120018/A
Environmental
Test Standard Duration Temperature Notes
Low temperature IEC 68-2-1 72 h -55°C -
High temperature IEC 68-2-2 72 h +71°C -
Temp. cycling IEC 68-2-14 1h -45°C +70°C 3 Cycles
Vibration IEC 60721-3-4 30 min/axis - Random
4M3
Shock mechanical IEC 60721-3-4 - - 4M3
Humidity ETSI EN300-2-4 144 h - 95%
T4.1E
Water tightness IEC 529 - - IP67
Solar radiation ASTM G53 1000 h - -
Flammability UL 94 - - Class HB
Salt spray IEC 68-2-11 Ka 500 h - -
Ice and snow - - - 25mm radial
Wind speed survival - - - 220 Km/h
Operation 160 Km/h
Wind load (survival): - - -
• Front thrust • 10 kg
• Side thrust • 1.6 kg

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-21


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.2. ASWipLL 700


The built-in antennas of all ASWipLL radios, except for ASWipLL 700, cover all
frequencies in their respective frequency band. However, ASWipLL 700 built-in
antenna covers only Band C (i.e. 710 to 716 MHz, and 740 to 746 MHz) frequency
band. Therefore, Airspan provides an external antenna for ASWipLL 700, allowing
coverage of the entire 700 MHz band (698 to 746 MHz), including the licensed A
and B bands used in USA.
For most bands, ASWipLL radios are compatible with a large variety of external
antennas. However, ASWipLL 700 provides a limited variation of external antennas
that include the following:
! 90° panel or omni-directional (for BSR)
! 14-element yagi antenna (for SPR)

H.2.1. Antenna Specifications


Table H-11 and Table H-12 list the external antenna specifications for BSR and SPR
devices operating in the 700 MHz band, respectively.

Table H-11: BSR 700 MHz external antennas


External Parameter Value
antenna type
90° panel Frequency Range (MHz) 698 - 746
Gain (dBi) 14
Beam Width H X V (degrees) 90 x 20
Polarization Vertical
VSWR < 1.4
Impedance (ohm) 50
Front-to-Back Ratio (dB) > 25

Omni-directional Frequency Range (MHz) 698 - 746


Gain (dB) 7.5
Beam Width H X V (degrees) 360 x 20

H-22 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08


System Description E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

External Parameter Value


antenna type
Polarization Vertical
VSWR 1.5
Impedance (ohm) 50

Table H-12: SPR 700 MHz external yagi antenna


Parameter SPR 700 MHz
Frequency Range (MHz) 698 - 746
Gain (dBi) 13
Beam Width H X V (degrees) 32 x 32
Polarization Vertical/horizontal
VSWR < 1.8
Impedance (ohm) 50
Front-to-Back Ratio (dB) > 15

25030311-08 Airspan Networks Inc. H-23


E x t e r n a l An t e n n a S p e c i f i c a t i o n s System Description

H.2.2. RF Planning Guidelines for Band C in FCC


Markets
Some operators (e.g. in the USA) have licenses for Band C (710 – 716 MHz and 740
– 746 MHz). When operating in Band C, ASWipLL 700 allows a maximum of four
BSRs at a Base Station (according to FCC regulations). This is to reduce RF
interference with other radio devices that may be operating in nearby frequencies.
With the 1 Msps mode, the center frequencies are 711.5, 712.5, 713.5, 714.5, 741.5,
742.5, 743.5, and 744.5. Thus, the frequency allocation for four BSRs (i.e. sectors)
is 711.5, 741.5, 714.5, and 744.5.
With the 1.33 Msps mode, the center frequencies are 712, 713, 714, 742, 743, and
744. Thus, the frequency allocation for four BSRs (i.e. sectors) is 712, 742, 714, and
744.

Figure H-9: Frequency allocation in a four-sector Base Station

Radio interference may occur between the BSRs operating in the upper frequency
range (i.e. 742 MHz and 744 MHz) and the lower frequency range (i.e. 712 MHz
and 714 MHz). To overcome this interference, a 1-meter vertical separation is
recommended between the BSRs operating in the upper frequency and the BSRs
operating in the lower frequency.

H-24 Airspan Networks Inc. 25030311-08