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# TKS 3245 PERANCANGAN ALAT PROSES

## Evelyn, ST., MSc., MEng., PhD.

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Riau-Indonesia
evelyn@unri.ac.id
2018
Materi kuliah Perancangan Alat Proses (TKS 3245)

## Disain mekanik menara/kolom.

Disain cylone dan hydrocyclone.

## Buku yang bisa digunakan:

Disain mekanik menara/kolom/bejana bertekanan
Coulson Vol. 6. 4th edition (2005), Chapter 13 Mechanical Design of Process
Equipment.
Brownell and Young (1959), Process Equipment Design, Chapter 9 Design
Tall Vertical Vessel.
James R. Couper, W. Roy Penney, James R. Fair, Stanley M. Walas (2005),
Chemical Process Equipment – Selection and Design.

Joshi (1976). Process Equipment Design (Chapter 14 Agitator)
McCabe et al, 5th edition (1993), Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering, Chapter
9 Agitation and Mixing of Liquid

## Disain hydrocyclone dan cyclone

Coulson Volume 6, 4th edition (2005), page 422 to 426 for hydrocyclone (liquid
cyclone) and page 450 to 457 for cyclone separator (gas cyclone).
EXAMPLE 1 (COULSON OR SINNOT)
Estimate the thickness required for the component parts of the vessel shown in the
diagram. The vessel is to operate at a pressure of 14 bar (absolute) and temperature of
260°C. The material of construction will be plain carbon steel. Welds will be fully
radiographed. A corrosion allowance of 2 mm should be used.
MINIMUM PRACTICAL WALL THICKNESS

As a general guide the wall thickness of any vessel should not be less
than the values given below; the values include a corrosion allowance
of 2 mm:
EXAMPLE 2

400°F

## (Check Table 5.6 Brownell & Young)

FROM APPENDIX D BROWNELL & YOUNG
EXAMPLE 2 CONT.

## B & Y stands for Brownell and Young

The equation used if icr is around 6% of the crown radius (rc)
For Torispherical head, if icr is greater than 6%: Use Equation 7.76 & 7.77 Brownell and Young
pp. 258.

## W is stress intensification for torispherical dished head.

EXAMPLE 2 CONT.

Digunakan sf standar = 2 in
EXAMPLE 2 CONT.
EXAMPLE 2 CONT.

## V tangki = Vsilinder + Vtotal satu head

-No general rule for H/D, generally depends on processing requirements, available land
area, and height limitation.
-D and H of standard steel tanks for storage at atmospheric pressure usually range from
10-220 ft and 6-64 ft, respectively.
-Commonly (simplified cases): H=D; H=2D; H=3D or 4D (also the most common)

## Maka: tinggi total tangki/kolom = OA+H

TUGAS
1. This is an example of design of a reactor pressure vessel. The vessel shell
has an inside shell radius of 2 m with a thickness of 200 mm. The vessel is
required to contain an internal pressure of 17 MPa. The object is to
determine whether there is enough vessel thickness to contain the internal
pressure. The material of the vessel is SA 533, in which maximum
allowable stress is 184 MPa (ASME). The welded joint efficiency is 1.
2. The inside diameter of a boiler made of alloy steel is 2 m. The internal
pressure is 0.75 MPa. The allowable stress is 140 MPa and the joint
efficiency is 70 percent. What thickness is to be used?
3. Determine the thickness of a carbon steel SA 283 Grade C pressure vessel
(diameter of 516 in) subjected to an internal pressure of 29.515 psi using a
joint efficiency of 75 percent and a corrosion allowance of 0.25 in. The
allowable stress (S) of the material is can be found for this material in
Brownell & Young (Table 13.1). Determine and calculate the thickness,
height and volume of the head for this purpose.
TUGAS
4. A horizontal, cylindrical, tank, with hemispherical ends, is used to
store liquid chlorine at 10 bar. The vessel is 4 m internal diameter
and 20 m long. Estimate the minimum wall thickness required to
resist this pressure, for the cylindrical section and the heads. Take
the design pressure as 12 bar and the allowable design stress for the
material as 110 MN/m2.
FROM BROWNELL & YOUNG:
DESIGN SHELL COURSES FOR FLAT BOTTOMED CYLINDRICAL VESSEL
B & Y, App E Item 1: D = 100 ft V = 50.360 bbl
H = 40 ft Number of shell courses = 40/8=5
E = 0,85 (double weld butt) Length of standard plate: 96 in (8 ft)
f = 21.000 psi ; assume c = 0
= 0.568 in

## Length of standard plate: 96 in (8 ft)

Basically will obtain this information:

## Courses H (ft) L (ft) ts (in)

1 40 34.5 0.568
2 32 31.0 0.460
3 24 … …
… … … …
5 … … …
DESIGN NOZZLE AND OPENINGS

All process vessels will have openings for connections, manways, and
instrument fittings. Openings in pressure vessels in the regions of shells or
heads are required to serve the following purposes:

Manways for letting personnel in and out of the vessel to perform routine
maintenance and repair.
Holes for draining or cleaning the vessel.
Hand hole openings for inspecting the vessel from outside.
Nozzles attached to pipes to convey the working fluid inside and outside
of the vessel.

The presence of an opening weakens the shell, and gives rise to stress
concentrations. Thus, sufficient reinforcement must be provided to
compensate for the weakening effect of the opening.
UKURAN PIPA MASUKAN DAN KELUARAN

## (Carbon steel, for stainless steel

see Coulson OR see equation and
Table 13 in Peter Timmerhaus)
COLUMN/TANK ATTACHMENT: MANHOLE
COMPENSATION FOR OPENINGS AND BRANCHES

## To minimize: openings and branches are preferable circular in shape or elliptical or

obround (two parallel sides and two semi-circular ends). Others are permissible by
testing. Reinforcement (penguatan) must be provided to compensate for the weakening
effect of the opening, however over-reinforcement will reduce the flexibility of the wall.
Reinforcement is not needed for: small size openings or connection diameters below 3
in (89mm).

## For preliminary design: Equal-area method of compensation (a) (in B & Y)

For example:
The available reinforcement (8280 mm2) therefore exceeds the required
reinforcement (6420 mm2) and is acceptable.
VESSEL SUPPORTS
The vessel support is intended to support the pressure
vessel on the support base.
Should be able to:
❑ withstand the dead weight, bending moments, seismic
contained fluid, without causing deformation.
❑ and to limit the heat flow from the vessel wall to the
base.
VESSEL SUPPORTS
Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two Saddle supports:
consideration of the vessel as a beam.

## Other authors: A/L = 0.25.

VESSEL SUPPORTS
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs (Coulson):
VESSEL SUPPORTS
Most vertical vessels are supported by Skirts, which consists of a
cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. Need also
to withstand wind loads. Skirt thickness (t) must higher than 6 mm.

## (a). Straight skirt (b). Conical skirt.

A = Dt
DESIGN SKIRT SUPPORT
DESIGN SKIRT SUPPORT

5. Norton, R.L., Machine Design: An Integrated Approach, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall,
2000.
VESSEL SUPPORTS
Brackets, or lugs, can be used to support vertical vessels. The
bracket may rest on the building structural steel work, or the vessel
may be supported on legs. If the bending moment is likely to be
significant skirt supports should be considered in preference to
bracket supports.

## (a). Supported on legs (b) Supported from steel-work.

BRACKETS OR LUG DESIGN
(a) Single-gusset plate design