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APA (5th ed.

) Style Guide

How to Create Reference List Entries


and How to Cite Them in a Paper

Business Resources
Overview
• Purpose of a style guide
– standardize
– easier to identify the resources used
– provides validation to the research
• Somewhat arbitrary
– APA does not always “make sense” but …
Overview
• If there is a question about how to do either
a citation or a reference, the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological
Association is the reference source.
• APA has a Web site that can also be useful
http://www.apastyle.org/askexpert.html
ONLINE
RESOURCES
Academic Search Premier

• Can you pick out the pieces?


– Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title?
Volume [issue]? Pages?
ABI/Inform Global

• Can you pick out the pieces?


– Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title?
Volume [issue]? Pages?
Canadian Business
and Current Affairs

The countdown continues Kevin Libin, Jason Kirby, Andy


Holloway. Canadian Business. Toronto: Aug 5-Aug 18, 2003
.Vol.76, Iss. 14/15; pg. 71

• Can you pick out the pieces?


– Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title?
Volume [issue]? Pages?
Structure of a reference:
Online Periodical
• If you use a periodical database to get an
online, full-text version of the article
[HTML, PDF], you need to add some more
information.

Retrieved month, day, year, from source.


– when YOU retrieved it
Structure of a reference:
Online Periodical
Structure of a reference:
Online Periodical
Structure of a reference:
Online Periodical
Leeds, R. (2003). Breach of trust.
Harvard International Review, 25, 76-
83. Retrieved January 9, 2004, from the
Academic Search Premier database.
Structure of a reference:
Periodical [paper copy]
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C.

C. (Year). Title of article. Title of


periodical, xx, yyy-yyy.

• includes items published on a regular basis


– journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters, etc.
• hanging paragraph format
Structure of a reference:
Periodical [paper copy]

Leonard, D., & McAdam, R. (2003).


Corporate social responsibility. Quality
Progress, 36, 27-33.
Structure of a reference:
Nonperiodical

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work.


Location: Publisher.

• items published separately


– books, reports, brochures, manuals, and
audiovisual media
Structure of a reference:
Nonperiodical

Sonnenberg, F. K. (1994). Managing with


a
conscience. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Structure of a reference:
Part of a Nonperiodical
• Special consideration
– initials of editors go BEFORE surname
– insert (Ed.) or (Eds.) after last editor followed by
comma
– book title italicized with initial capital, capital
after colon, and capital for proper nouns
[including abbreviations]
– page number of chapter
Structure of a reference:
Part of a Nonperiodical
Tushman, M. L., Newman, W. H., &
Romanelli, E. (2002). Convergence and
upheaval. In H. Mintzberg & J. B.
Quinn (Eds.), Readings in the strategy
process (pp. 394-400). Upper Saddle
River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Structure of a reference:
Brochure
Structure of a reference:
Brochure

Courtplex Fitness Centre. (2004, Winter).


Group Fitness Schedule [Brochure].
Kelowna, BC: Author.
Structure of a reference:
Brochure
Structure of a reference:
Brochure

Coldwell Banker Commercial - Horizon


Realty. (n.d.). Mill Creek Commerce
Park [Brochure]. Kelowna, BC: Author.
Structure of a reference:
Videotape

Doubletalk Productions ( Producer), &


Shepard, K. (Director). (2001). Who
stole my cheese? [videotape], United
States: Doubletake Productions.
Structure of a reference:
Online Document
Author, A. A. (year) Title of work.
Retrieved month, day, year from source.

• electronic sources include aggregated


databases, Web sites or Web pages,
newsgroups, Web- or e-mail based
discussion groups / newsletters
Structure of a reference:
Online Document
Structure of a reference:
Online Document
MacDonald, C. (n.d.). Creating a code of
ethics for your organization. Retrieved
January 13, 2004, from http://www.
ethicsweb.ca/codes/

– Note that this source has no date [n.d.] and that it


does NOT end with a period
Structure of a reference:
Online Corporate Web Site
Structure of a reference:
Online Corporate Web Site

WestJet. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved


February 8, 2004, from http://c0dsp.
westjet.com/internet/sky/index.jsp
Online database :Hoover’s Company Records
Reference: Database ( Hoover’s)
• Caione,R. ( 2006) General Electric Company.
Retrieved March 1, 2006, from Hoover’s
Company records.
• In text: ( Caione, 2006)
CITING SOURCES IN APA
Citing a source
in the paper
1. One work by one author
• Author’s name given in the body of your
paper:
– Leeds (2003) reported…
• Author’s name not given in the body of your
paper but rather in parentheses:
– In a study on the comparison process
(Leeds, 2003)…
Citing a source
in the paper
2. Citing a secondary source
• In Smith’s 1998 study (as cited in Leonard &
McAdam, 2003)…
• Research (Smith, 1998, as cited in Leonard &
McAdam, 2003) has shown …

– Do NOT include Smith (1998) in the reference


list. DO include Leonard and McAdam (2003).
Citing a source
in the paper
3. Direct quotations
• For direct quotations, include the page
number of the quote

• Stereotypes have been defined as


“generalized and usually value-laden
impressions that one social group uses in
characterizing members of another group”
(Lindgren, 2001, p. 1617).
Citing a source
in the paper
4. Electronic sources without page
numbers
• Use the paragraph number, preceded by the
paragraph symbol - ¶ - or the abbreviation
para. If the paragraph number is not visible,
cite the heading and the paragraph number
following it.
• (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)
• (Butler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)
Citing a source
in the paper
5. Personal communications (e.g., letters,
phone calls, interviews, e-mail messages,
memos, irretrievable documents)
• J. L. Lowther (personal communication, June
12, 2004)
• (J. L. Lowther, personal communication,
June 12, 2004)
– Do NOT include personal communications in
the reference list. Cite them in text only.
Structure of a reference and citation:
Census Material
• Reference:
Statistics Canada. (2002). Survey of household
expenditure, 2002 (62F0026MIE). Ottawa,
Ontario: Author.

• Citation:
(Statistics Canada, 2002)
Structure of a reference and citation:
Legislation

• Reference:
Competition Act, R.S.C. 1985 c.27 s.6

• Citation:
(Competition Act ), 1985
Structure of a reference and citation:
Annual report

• Reference:
WestJet Airlines. (2002). Annual report to
shareholders, Calgary, AB: Author.

• Citation:
(WestJet Airlines, 2002)
Structure of a reference and citation:
Online documents - Same author
Health Canada. (n.d.a). Physical activity in
Canada. Retrieved January 31, 2004,
from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/
fitness/work/activity_e.html
Health Canada. (n.d.b). Supporting material
Retrieved January 31, 2004, from http://
www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/fitness/work/
supp_material_e.html
• Citation:
Health Canada (n.d.a) reported that ...
Conclusions
• Take close look at handout
– pay particular attention to the last page
• reference list of a paper
– hanging paragraph format
– double space entire paper, including reference
list
Conclusions
• Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (5th ed.)
– available in the Reference Collection of Library

• Individual professors may have particular


preferences
– consult with them on how they might want the
references presented
Prepared by
• Garth Homer, Statistics, Data, and
Government Information Librarian, O.C.
• Jan Gattrell, Public Services Librarian,
UBC-O
• Consultant - Jan Cioe, Psychology Dept.
UBC-O
Okanagan College
2005