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 BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

1.1 Latar Belakang


Istilah guru pada saat ini mengalami penciutan makna. Guru adalah orang yang
mengajar di sekolah. Orang yang bertindak seperti guru seandainya di berada di suatu
lembaga kursus atau pelatihan tidak disebut guru, tetapi tutor atau pelatih. Padahal mereka itu
tetap saja bertindak seperti guru. Mengajarkan hal-hal baru pada peserta didik.Terlepas dari
penciutan makna, peran guru dari dulu sampai sekarang tetap sangat diperlukan. Dialah yang
membantu manusia untuk menemukan siapa dirinya, ke mana manusia akan pergi dan apa
yang harus manusia lakukan di dunia. Manusia adalah makhluk lemah, yang dalam
perkembangannya memerlukan bantuan orang lain, sejak lahir sampai meninggal. Orang tua
mendaftarkan anaknya ke sekolah dengan harapan guru dapat mendidiknya menjadi manusia
yang dapat berkembang optimal. Minat, bakat, kemampuan, dan potensi-potensi yang
dimiliki peserta didik tidak akan berkembang secara optimal tanpa bantuan guru. Dalam
kaitan ini guru perlu memperhatikan peserta didik secara individu, karena antara satu perserta
didik dengan yang lain memiliki perbedaan yang sangat mendasar.

Mungkin kita masih ingat ketika masih duduk di kelas I SD, gurulah yang pertama
kali membantu memegang pensil untuk menulis, ia memegang satu persatu tangan siswanya
dan membantu menulis secara benar. Guru pula yang memberi dorongan agar peserta didik
berani berbuat benar, dan membiasakan mereka untuk bertanggungjawab terhadap setiap
perbuatannya. Guru juga bertindak bagai pembantu ketika ada peserta didik yang buang air
kecil, atau muntah di kelas, bahkan ketika ada yang buang air besar di celana. Guru-lah yang
menggendong peserta didik ketika jatuh atau berkelahi dengan temannya, menjadi perawat,
dan lain-lain yang sangat menuntut kesabaran, kreatifitas dan profesionalisme.Memahami
uraian di atas, betapa besar jasa guru dalam membantu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan para
peserta didik. Mereka memiliki peran dan fungsi yang sangat penting dalam membentuk
kepribadian anak, guna menyiapkan dan mengembangkan sumber daya manusia (SDM), serta
mensejahterakan masyarakat, kemajuan Negara dan bangsa.

1.2 Tujuan Penulisan CBR


2. Memberikan informasi
3. Media pembelajaran menulis
4. Bahan perbandingan karya
5. Bahan pembelajran bagi penulis buku yang di review

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1.3 Manfaat CBR
2. Untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah critical book review.
3. Untuk menambah pengetahuan tentang bagaimana me-riview buku.
4. Sebagai media pembelajaran tentang Profesi Pendidikan.

1.4 Identitas Buku Yang Dilaporkan


Buku Utama (buku satu)
1. Judul buku : Professional Development In School
2. Pengarang : Joan Dean.
3. Penerbit : Great Britain
4. Tahun terbit : 1991
5. Tebal Buku : 216 halaman
6. ISBN : 0-335-09591-7

Buku Pembanding (buku dua)


1. Judul buku : Profesi Pendidikan
2. Pengarang : Dr. Yasaratodo, M.Pd
3. Penerbit : Unimed Press, MEDAN
4. Tahun terbit : 2016
5. Tebal Buku : 353 halaman
6. ISBN : 978-602-7938-05-2

Buku Pembanding (buku tiga)


1. Judul buku : Pengantar Pendidikan
2. Pengarang :
3. Penerbit :
4. Tahun terbit : 2015
5. Tebal Buku : 194 halaman
6. ISBN : 978-979-796-360-6

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BAB II
RINGKASAN MATERI
Bab 1
What Is Professional Development ?
Professional development and change
We are currently in the midst of unprecedented change in education. Almost
everything is apparently changing and the rate of change is accelerating. The role of the LEA,
school governors, headteachers and teachers will all be different in the future from what they
have been in the past and everything is happening at a very fast rate, which leaves us little
time to become aclimatized to new ways of looking at things .

BAB 2
Teachers Learning
The school as a learning place for teachers
Michael Eraut15 makes the point that we can only foster the natural process of teacher
development, but that the rate and direction of development depend upon three things :
1. The knowledge;experience and personality of the teacher
2. The school context; and
3. Professional contact and discussion outside the school

We saw in Chapter 1 that the school a teacher works in affects his or her development.
We can put this more positively and say that the school is the major learning plae for teachers
as well as children. We also need to consider the way in which the development of the school
and the development of teachers interact.
McCormick and James16 state that ‘effective change depends upon the genuine
commitment of those required to implement it’. They suggest that commitment can only be
achieved if those involved feel they have control of the process... Teachers will readily seek
to improve their performance if thet regard it as part of their professional accountability,
whereas they will resist change that is forced upon them.

BAB 3
The school and professional development
Schools vary considerably in the extent to which they provide a climate in which the
professional development of individuals can take place. This is related to various features of
the school. In the first instance it depends upon whether the school is developing as an
organization with a clear sense of overall direction. It is in this context that the development
of individuals is most likely to take place.
This emphasizes the need for teachers to be involved with the whole process of
professional development. It is not something ‘done to’ teachers but a process of which they

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are vital part at every stage. They need to be involved in the planning as well as the
implementation of programmes of professional development.

BAB 4
The individual teacher and professional development
The emphasis in teaching tends to be on caring for pupils rahter than caring for the
adults in the community yet it is essential that the aduls develop in their work if the pupils are
to achieve their potential.
We have already noted that we are in period of unprecedented change and the process
of staff development is part of the process of change. Most of the changes coming to schools
from outside are requiring a change in teaching style, particularly where the secondary school
is concerned. GCSE, TVEI are all demanding a different teaching style from that of former
years. Although the National Curriculum is described in subjects at a tie when there is a move
to work across the curriculum, what is emerging from the working parties and the National
Curriculum council requires the same kinds of changes in teaching style as other
developments. The changes involve more active learning on the part of the pupils and there is
greater emphasis on the relationship between teacher input and pupil outcome.
In many respects teachers have moved a long way in a shory time in accommodating
themselves to the changes but there are nevertheless many constraints which affect their
readiness and ability to change which must be taken into account in planning professional
development within the school.

BAB 5
The professional development programme
Organization
If school is to provide for the development of all staf and also for the school as a
whole, a complex plan and programme is needed, which demands very careful organization.
We have already noted the importance of making everyone feel involved in the process of
professional development and this means that there must be consultation at every stage .
It follows from this that the professional development programme is most likely to be
success in a school where there is an open style of management and trust between colleagus,
where it is usual to ask questions and seek answers and where professional development is
seen as normal practice which is built into the timetable and overall organization of the
school.
If staff are to be involved in a large school, it will be necessary to from a professional
development committee represeting the staff which will act as a steering group for the
programme. Such a committee should involve teachers at every level including those newly
qualified. It may be formed by inviting particular teachers to take part, by election or by open
invitation to anyone interested. In the latter two cases, it will be important to co-opt members
if the committee isnot fully representative of the staff. In small secondary school and in most
primary schools, the whole staff may be involved.

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BAB 6
Planning a training event
The professional development programme is likely to be partly made up of a series of
training vents, which themselves include a number of different activities . this chapter is
concerned with the planning of training event and the activities from which they are built up.
Training events require very careful preparation using the sort of pattern shown in figure5.
(the material which follows is adapted from my book Teachers Learning.)50
State aims
The first question to consider when planning learning for other people, whether
teachers or children, is ‘what kind of outcome is required?’if the planning cycle described in
Chapter 5 is followed those planning aparticular activity are likely to be given the aims of the
activity although they may wish to expand the statement given them.
Collect information
In planning a course a certain amount of information must be collected. Some of this
is already decided, for axemple the date in planning for a day’s closure; other pieces of
information may come from negotiation by those planning the overall professional
development programme, for axemple the money available. There will then be large areas in
which those responsible for the course are free to plan as they wish. The list which follows
can serve as a check-list of information required.

BAB 7
The role of management in professional development
Professional development is a whole-school activity. Everyone in a management role
in a school therefore has responsibility for developing the work of the teachers for whom he
or she is responsible. In the case of the small primary school, the responsibility is normally
that of the headteacher, with the deputy and with heads of year or curriculum co-ordinators.
In a secondary school it is widely shared, with a part played by the deputies, the heads of
faculty, department and year and possibly some others.
In addition it has now become common practice to appoint someone to take
responsibilty overall for staff development. This is a key role for co-ordinating what is
happening, but not asubstitute for professional development work by other managers. It is
important that the boundaries between the roles are clearly drawn.

BAB 8
Teacher appraisal
Background
The idea that every teacher should have his or her work appraised every so often has
gradually gained adherents in the last few years. Expresions of interest in this approach have
come from a number of different quarters and schools are now in the process of introducing

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it. One of the first indications from government that this would eventually be a requirement
was in the white Paper Teaching Quality,62 which stated:
The government welcome recent moves towards self-assessment by schools and
teachers, and believe these should help to improve school standards and curricula. But
employers can manage their teachers only if they have accurate knowledge of each teacher’s
performance. The Government believe that for this purpose formal assessment of teacher
perfomance is necessary and should be based on classroom visiting by the teacher’s head or
head or head of department, and an appraisal of both the pupils’ work and of the teacher’s
contribution to the life of the school. They therefore welcome the interest currently shown
among employers and the teachers’ associations about the career development of teachers. . .
The government believe that those responsible for managing the school teachers force have a
clear responsibility to establish, in consultation with their teachers, a policy for staff
development and training based on a systematic assessment of every teacher’s performance
and related to their policy for the school curriculum.

BAB 9
Appraisal : Observing teachers at work
The person responsible for appraising another teacher’s work is likely in many
schools to be the person who has line responsibility for that teacher. In this role the appraiser
is therefore responsible for supporting and encouraging the teacher concerned and should
know a great deal about his or her work already.
Criteria for an appraisal
If judgements about the work of individual teachers are to be acceptable to them, a
shared set of criteria is required which has been worked out by the staff a school. There
should be agreed statements about the following criteria.
What constitutes good teaching
While it is appreciated that there are many successful ways of teaching, there should
be some agreement about many aspects. The discussion of this topic in itself is a valuable
professional development exercise.
What constitutes effective behaviour in a management role
This needs to be discussed and decided upon by those teachers in management roles
in the school. It may be helpful to include in the group discussing this some teachers who are
among the managed, since they will have a view about what constitutes good management
from their angle.
Effective performance as a form tutor or class teacher
Although this mainly concerns secondary schools, primary school class teachers also
have a pastoral role which needs to be considerred.
What should be included about other aspects of a teacher’s work

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Teachers do many things in school besides teaching. There should be discussion of
these and agreement about how far and in what way they should contribute to the information
gathered for appraisal.

BAB 10
Appraisal: interview
What is involved in the appraisal interview ?
The appraisal interview is a key feature of any appraisal system and the skill with
which it is managed is crucial to the success of the scheme. It should be a positive
expperience and a chance for the teacher concerned to talk at some length with a senior
colleague, demonstrating the areas of work which he or she feels to be successful. It should
also be an opportunity to discuss areas of concern, career possibilities and to agree some
plans and goals for the next year. The appraisal interview is also an opportunity for a teacher
to say if the management of the work poses problems and to discuss this.
There is a great deal involved in successful apparisal interviewing and it depends in the
first place upon the sensitivity with which an appraiser discusses work with his or her
colleagues and the trust which has been engendered over the period they have worked
together. The appraiser also needs the self-discipline to hold back for much of the time and
encourage the teacher to talk. The teacher being appraised should do much more of the
talking than the appraiser. This doesn’t mean that the teacher should take control of the
interview or that the talk should wander. It is the appraiser’s task gently to guide the
conversation so that important points are discussed, including any which are delicate. Day,
Whitaker and Wren26 suggest that a teacher asking the question ‘What’s in it for me?’ should
be able to answer that question in the following way:
1. I should have a clear understanding of my job and how well i am doing it and what is
exppected of me
2. I should feel secure in the knowledge that my talents are knowledge that my talents are
known, appreciated and exploited and that my weaknesses have been identified
constructive help has been offered to improve them.
3. I should have discussed my future, including my ambitions and career propects, and have
received guidance in achieving these ambitions.
4. I should feel satisfied that all aspects of my work in and around the school have been
discussed in a professional way.
5. I should feel happy that everything discussed will be treated in confidence and any
writtern note will be owned by myself and my interviewer alone.

BAB 11
Teacher records
The records a school keeps of the works of its staff are an important part of the
professional development plan and should be used in considering the development of each
individual.

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A teacher’s file my contain material of various kinds. Some of the material will be
permanent or semi-permanent, e.g. information about appointment salary, grading, and so
on. Other material will be relevant for a period only, letters or other written material from or
about the teacher. The easiest way to keep these separate is to use plastic files, possibly of
different colours, for each of the semi-permanent topics and to leave temporary material
loose in the file. If a coloured sheet in inserted in each summer, it becomes easy to remove
outdated material after a given period, possibly two years.
The materials within the file should include sub-files on the teacher’s appointment
and service materials, together with records of work undertaken, in-service training and
appraisals.
a. Appointment and service material
b. Record of work undertaken
c. Record of in-service training
d. Appraisal record

BAB 12
In-service providers
The school in-service programme should not only make use of opportunities for
teacher to attend outside courses, but also consider whether the various in-service providers
in the neighbor hood can offer what the school requires. This will to some extent be governed
by the cost of the provision, but some provision, for example that offered by the advisory
service, may will be free. Most the local providers are likely to be offering courses of their
own designing, perhaps at the instigation of the local authority, and teacher may well wish to
make use of these but most of them will also be prepared to provide courses or other in-
service activities to meet the needs of individual school or groups of schools.
Providers who might contribute
A. Higher education staff
1. Lectures
2.courses leading to a certificate, diploma or degree
3. Consultancy over particular aspect of the school’s work
4. Evaluation
5. Action research
6. Classroom observation
7. Exchange arrangements and involvement of students
8. Problems in using higher education staff
B. Advisers and inspectors
1. Advice on practice
2. Advice on organization and management
3. Advice on forms of in-services provision for school-based work
4. A contribution to an in-service programme
5. Problems in using advisers

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C. Advisory teacher
1. Advice on classroom practice
2. Advice on materials, equipment and classroom organization
3. Works with pupils in the classroom
4. Lecture on classroom practice
5. Problems in using advisory teacher
D. Teacher from other school
1. Specific training in particular areas of work
2. Lectures on particular classroom works
3. Problems in using practicing teacher
E. Local industry
1. The provision of place on the firm’s own courses
2. The provision of work experience for teacher
3. Information about the firm’s staff development programme
4. Problems in using local firms

BAB 13
Evaluation
One of the major change in in-service training is in the emphasis currently being
placed upon evaluating what is happening. Leas are now required to demonstrate that they are
evaluating the programme they offer and it is aqually important for school to evaluate their
own programme.
Evaluation is not something to be left to the end of a programme of professional
development. An element of evaluation is required in the beginning in assessing needs. It is
also required as a part of appraisal. Then there is value in formative evaluation while the
course is running. Evaluation of the effects of any particular programme should be planned as
the programme is planned and time resources allowed for it.
Definitions of evaluation as follows : the proses of conceiving, obtaining, analyzing
and communicating information and forming judgements for the guidance of educational
decision-making with regard to specified aspects of education.

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BAB III
PEMBAHASAN/ANALISIS
3.1 Pembahasan Isi Ketiga Buku
Ketiga buku tersebut sama-sama membahas tentang Profesi pendidikan. Dan
dalam stiap bab pertama dari ketiga buku tersebut membahas tentang “Profesi
Pendidikan”. Akan tetapi pembahasan tentang Profesi Pendidikan pada buku utama lebih
banyak. Buku ini lebih banyak membahas tentang pengembangan profesionalisasi di
sekolah. Pengembangan ini mengacu pada cara seorang guru dalam mengajar.
Dibandingkan dengan kedua buku pembanding, pembahasan materi dalam buku
utama ini lebih sedikit. Selain materi di atas, dalam buku utama juga membahas tentang :
1. Sekolah dan pengembangan professional di sekolah.
2. Guru individu dan pengembangannya.
3. Program pengembangan professional dilingkungan sekolah
4. Peran manajemen dalam pengembangan professional di sekolah
5. Pengamatan pekerjaan guru
6. Evaluasi pekerjaan guru

Cara penyajian ketiga buku ini cukup berbeda. Pada penyajian materi pada buku
utama, lebih menekankan pada pendekatan Profesi Pendidikan Secara umum. Sedangkan
penyajian materi pada buku pembanding, lebih menekankan pada penjesalan tantang
profesi pendidikan yang dapat digunakan sebagai media belajar. Meskipun penyajiannya
berbeda, akan tetapi apabila kita mengamati ketiga buku ini, materi yang disampaikan
tentang Profesi Pendidikan adalah sama. Karena pembahasan materi pada ketiga buku ini
sangat berhubungan tentang profesi pendidikan yang sering disebut sebagai GURU.

3.2 Kelebihan Buku Utama

Setiap materi yang dibahas dalam buku utama ini sudah bagus. Dalam buku utama ini
juga terdapat beberapa kata kunci yang dapat digunakan oleh pembaca apabila pembaca tidak
menegerti tentang suatu kata. Di dalam buku utama juga dijelaskan tentang tahapan-tahapan
yang dapat digunakan oleh seorang untuk menilai sejauh mana evaluasi seorang guru. Dan di

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buku juga diutarakan bagaimana cara-cara yang dapat diambil untuk mengamati pekerjaan
seorang guru
Menurut saya, buku ini sudah bagus. Salah satu keunikan dari bab ini disertai juga dengan
peta konsep ataupun diagaram yang dapat memperjelas pembahasan tentang langkah kerja
yang akan dilaksanakan. Buku ini cocok digunakan untuk pembaca sebagai panduan untuk
menambah pengetahuan tentang Profesi Pendidikan.

3.3 Kekurangan Bab dari Buku Utama

Apabila dibandingkan dengan buku pembanding, buku utama ini masih memiliki
kekurangan. Salah satu diantarnya adalah pembahasan materi dalam buku utama cukup sulit
karena menggunakna bahasa inggris. Selain itu dalam buku utama tidak memiliki soal
latihan, yang dapat digunakan oleh pembaca untuk melatih sejauh mana pembaca telah
memahami materi yang ada dalam buku tersebut. Selain itu, apabila dibandingkan dengan
buku pembanding Profesi Pendidikan (diktat), buku utama ini tidak memiliki gambar.
Padahal gambar dapat digunakan oleh pembaca untuk lebih memahami materi yang ada
dalam buku.

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BAB IV
PENUTUP
4.1. Kesimpulan

Seorang guru mempunyai tiga tugas pokok yaitu tugas profesional, tugas manusiawi,
dan tugas kemasyarakatan (sivic mission). Jika dikaitkan pembahasan tentang kebudayaan,
maka tugas pertama berkaitan dengar logika dan estetika, tugas kedua dan ketiga berkaitan
dengan etika.Ketiga tugas ini jika dipandang dari segi anak didik maka guru harus
memberikan nilainilai yang berisi pengetahuan masa lalu, masa sekarang dan masa yang akan
datang, pilihan nilai hidup dan praktek-praktek komunikasi. Kita mengetahui cara manusia
berkomunikasi dengan orang lain tidak hanya melalui bahasa tetapi dapat juga melalui gerak,
berupa taritarian, melalui suara (lagu, nyanyian), dapat melalui warna dan garis-garis
(lukisan-lukisan), melalui bentuk berupa ukiran, atau melalui simbul-simbul dan tanda tanda
yang biasanya disebut rumus-rumus.Salah satu dari sekian banyak dampak ketika tidak
terlaksananya peran dan fungsi guru secara maksimal misalnya, tidak terbinanya akhlak dan
moral siswa. Beberapa kebiasaan buruk siswa seperti tidak berlaku disiplin dari berbagai
peraturan yang telah disepakati bersama, malas, kurang berlaku sopan dan sebagainya, hal itu
berarti tugas guru sebagai pendidik belum maksimal.
Tugas mengajar mungkin sudah terlaksana dengan baik, tapi tugas mendidik? Karena
itu, beberapa peran dan tugas guru di atas merupakan sebuah keharusan untuk
diimplementasikan walaupun memerlukan pemikiran dan pengorbanan yang lebih banyak.
Dengan cara ini barangkali barulah guru dapat dikatakan sebagai sebuah profesi, dimana guru
mampu memberikan solusi terbaik dari berbagai masalah yang dialami
kliennya.Hubungannya dengan sertifikasi guru, yaitu dengan adanya peningkatan kualitas
dan kesejahteraan guru maka beberapa peran dan tugas guru yang telah diuraikan di atas
kemungkinan dapat diimplementasikan Dulu, salah satu alasan guru tidak mampu
melaksanakan peran dan tugasnya secara masimal karena persoalan kurangnya
pendapatan/gaji. Maka dengan kebijakan baru pemerintah yakni sertifikasi guru, maka
harapan kita ke depan guru mau dan mampu memaksimalkan peran dan tugasnya.

4.2 Kritik dan saran

Semoga makalah Critical Book Report ini dapat berguna bagi para pembaca yang
budiman. Penulis masih menyadari bahwa makalah ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan yang
seharusnya, untuk itulah penulis mengharapkan kritik dan saran yang membangun dalam
proses pembuatan makalah dikemudian hari.

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Daftar Pustaka

Dean, Joan. 1991. Professional Development In School. England : Great Britian.


Yasaratodo. 2016. Profesi Pendidikan. Medan : Unimed Press.
. 2015. Pengantar Pendidikan. Bandung : .

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