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Unit 1

Time - The Importance of Time

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:


1. Use the correct form of the verbs in the simple present, simple past, simple future, present continuous
and past continuous tense.
2. Listen and predict the outcome based on listening texts.
3. Asking for and giving direction.
4. Read texts by using the SQ3R technique.
5. Construct compound sentences by using coordinating conjunction.

GRAMMAR
Simple Tenses – Simple Present, Simple Past and Simple Future
Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: present, past, and
future. Each main tense is divided into simple, continuous tenses.
Simple Present Simple Past Simple Future Present Continuous
... + ed will + ... is/are + ... + ing
... + d shall + ... Past Continuous
irregular verb be + going to + ... was/were + ... + ing
allow allowed allow allowing
break broke break breaking
cut cut cut cutting
do did do doing
eat ate eat eating
fly flew fly flying
go went go going

 For 'I' and 'we' use 'shall' or 'will'.


 For 'He', 'She', 'They', 'Mr. Raju' or etc only use 'will'.

Activity 1

Fill in the blanks with the Simple Present Tense form of the verb in brackets.
1. I usually _go_ (go) to canteen.
2. You _play_ (play) tennis once a week.
3. She always _tell_ (tell) us short story.
4. Shima and Rina _run_ (run) twice a week.
5. Firdaus __traveled__ (travel) to Kedah every Friday.
6. Terengganu ______be____ (be) in Malaysia.
7. Water _boiling_ (boil) at 100 celsius.
8. My mother _speak_ (speak) Mandarin.
9. They __sell___ (sell) vegetables and fruits.
10. His cousin rarely __leave__ (leave) city.

Activity 2

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the Simple Past Tense of the verb in brackets.

Sofia (1) ___failed_____ (fail) in the final examination. She (2) __becomes________ (become) very sad.
She (3) ________goes_________ (go) to the beach because she (4) _wanted_ (want) to forget her sorrow.
There she (5) _____met_____ (meet) an old woman who (6) ________asked_________ (ask) her why she
(7) ____was _____ (be) sad. After listening to Sofia, the old woman (8) ______advised___________
(advise) her to be brave and work hard, and not to give up. Sofia (9) _______was__________ (be) happy.
She (10) _______walk__________ (walk) home, determined to study hard and pass her next examination.
She (11) _______do__________ (do) not want to disappoint her foster parents anymore. They (12)
_______give__________ (give) her all their love and support. She must do well and make them proud.

Activity 3

Fill in the blanks with the Simple Future Tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. Lee Chong ______going_______ (go) to the supermarket.


2. I _______will meet_______ (meet) her there.
3. Hopefully you ______pass___________ (pass) your final examination.
4. My wife and I _______moving__________ (move) to a new house next year.
5. Don’t be shy to ask for directions. Somebody there ________will help____ (help) you.
6. The education system _________will introduce ________ (introduce) a new curriculum next year.
7. We _____shall call______ (call) it a day.
8. They ________going to eat_________ (eat) out tomorrow.
9. No one ____will believe_______ (believe) your sad story.
10. The flowers are very brown. They ____shall fall_____ (fall) soon.

Activity 4
Make sentences in the P resent Continuous Tense .

Example:
(wait/for him/she)
She is waiting for him.

1. (I/in UPSI/learn Spanish/this short semester)

I am learining Spanish in UPSI for this short semester.

2. (in the main street/Shamimi and Roslan/play/at the moment)

Shamimi and Roslan playling in the main street at the moment.

3. (decorate/he/in Tanjong Malim/these day/his apartment)

He is decorating his apartment in Tanjong Malim .

4. (we/look/just)

We just looking.

5. (a shower/Suresh/now/take)

Suresh taking a shower now.

Activity 5
Make sentences in the Past Continuous Tense using the verb given in the brackets.

1. The girl ________were sleeping_________ (sleep).


2. I ___________was reading______ (read) when the fan stop.
3. He ________was washing_________ (wash) the bed sheets.
4. Siti and her mother ________was cooking_________ (cook) dinner when the plumber arrived.
5. Sutha ______was doing___________ (do) her workout at 9 am.
6. Chen Long and Borhan _______was repairing __________ (repair) their motorcycles.
7. Dilla _________was rehearsing________ (rehearse) for the play.
8. Shahril ____was waiting______ (wait) for the train.
9. The monkeys ____were chatter_____ (chatter).
10. The teenagers ___were learning______ (learn) their lesson.

READING

Study Formula SQ3R - Survey, Question, Read, Recite and Review.


SQ3R will help you understand and remember what you’re reading and studying, and help you identify the
information you need. SQ3R includes the following steps:

1. Survey
• Think about the title: “What do I know?” “What do I want to know?”
• Glance over headings and first sentences in paragraphs.
• Look at illustrations and graphic aids.
• Read the first paragraph.
• Read the last paragraph or summary.
2. Question
• Turn the title into a question.
• Write down any questions that some to mind during the survey.
• Turn headings into questions.
• Turn subheadings, illustrations, and graphic aids into questions.
• Write down unfamiliar vocabulary words and determine their meaning.
3. Read
• Read to search for answers to questions.
• Respond to questions and use context clues for unfamiliar words.
• React to unclear passages, confusing terms, and questionable statements by generating additional
questions.
4. Recite
• Look away from the answers and the book to recall what was read.
• Recite answers to questions aloud or in writing.
• Reread text for unanswered questions.
5. Review
• Answer the major purpose question.
• Look over answers and all parts of the chapter to organize information.
• Summarize the information learned by drawing flow charts, writing a summary, participating in a group
discussion, or by studying for a test

(Adapted from http://www.adlit.org/pdfs/strategy-library/SQ3RSurvey.pdf)

Activity 6

Apply the SQ3R formula for the following article.

Make time to save time


1 Clear out the clutter
Constantly negotiating around the clutter in your home wastes time.
 De-cluttering allows you to make space for the things that you do need to keep and makes it
easier to tidy up.
 Identify your clutter problem areas and deal with them one by one. 5
 Don't get overwhelmed. Go into one room and identify a problem area, then work on it, or even
just a section. If the whole wardrobe needs sorting, start with sock drawer. If the kitchen looks
like carnival night at the dumpster, clear one drawer or cupboard at a time. Time yourself and
devote an hour or so per session to the task, until it's done.

2 Tackle the hot spots 10


Clutter can sneak up on you - one folded newspaper in the corner quickly becomes ten.
 If paperwork is your weakness, get a filing system and create a separate folder for bills due,
bills paid, banking, tax documents, receipts, warranties etc, and file them each day.
 Try to be realistic about recyclables: keep a few takeaway food containers or empty jars, not
hundreds; one or two carrier bags or padded envelopes, not piles of them. 15
 Not all clutter is obvious. It can be hidden in storerooms and cupboards. Recognise clutter hot
spots and give them regular attention.
 If you're a collector, get organised about your storage and display systems, so that what you
keep is not filling up your living space.
 Once you've got your clutter reduced, stay on top of it. All you need to do is spend a few
20
minutes every day returning things to their proper place - this is now simple tidying, rather than
de-cluttering.

3
Sort, store and toss
Sort clutter into labeled cardboard boxes. Try this:
25
 Box 1 - Everyday things that need to be put back in their place.
 Box 2 - Things to be given away or recycled.
 Box 3 - Items that you don't need every day, but need to store.
 Box 4 - Anything that can be categorised as "absolute rubbish".
 Box 5 - Items you simply can't decide what to do with.

Put everything in Box 1 back where it belongs, take Box 2 to a charity shop, label and decide where 30
to store Box 3 and dispose of the contents of Box 4. Now go back to the contents of Box 5 with a
newfound passion and make a decision.

(Adapted from Reader’s Digest- October, 2008)

Survey - What have I found from the article?

Article talking about how to handle clutter and step to tidy way.

Activity 7
Question - Generate questions based on the title and the subtitles that you have found during
your survey.
How to clear up clutter?
How you tidy something?
Step should be to neat?

Activity 8

Read - Read the article. Try to find out the answers for your questions that you had generate
earlier.
How to clear up clutter?

Constantly negotiating around the clutter in your home wastes time.

• De-cluttering allows you to make space for the things that you do need to keep and
makes it easier to tidy up.

• Identify your clutter problem areas and deal with them one by one.
• Don't get overwhelmed. Go into one room and identify a problem area, then work on it, or
even just a section. If the whole wardrobe needs sorting, start with sock drawer. If the kitchen
looks like carnival night at the dumpster, clear one drawer or cupboard at a time. Time yourself
and devote an hour or so per session to the task, until it's done.

How you tidy something?

Clutter can sneak up on you - one folded newspaper in the corner quickly becomes ten.

• If paperwork is your weakness, get a filing system and create a separate folder for bills
due, bills paid, banking, tax documents, receipts, warranties etc, and file them each day.

• Try to be realistic about recyclables: keep a few takeaway food containers or empty jars,
not hundreds; one or two carrier bags or padded envelopes, not piles of them.

• Not all clutter is obvious. It can be hidden in storerooms and cupboards. Recognise
clutter hot spots and give them regular attention.

• If you're a collector, get organised about your storage and display systems, so that what
you keep is not filling up your living space.
• Once you've got your clutter reduced, stay on top of it. All you need to do is spend a few
minutes every day returning things to their proper place - this is now simple tidying, rather than
de-cluttering.

Step should be to neat?

Sort, store and toss


Sort clutter into labeled cardboard boxes. Try this:

• Box 1 - Everyday things that need to be put back in their place.

• Box 2 - Things to be given away or recycled.

• Box 3 - Items that you don't need every day, but need to store.

• Box 4 - Anything that can be categorised as "absolute rubbish".


• Box 5 - Items you simply can't decide what to do with.

Activity 9
Recite - After reading, recall or recite what you have just read without looking at the text or your
notes.

Everyday things that need to be put back in their place & things to be given away or recycled.
Activity 10

Review - After recite, you should review the text to answer remaining questions and recite the
questions you previously answered. You can summaries the article using your own words.

A very helpful way of home improvement in the best possible way.

Activity 11

Read the text on Activity 6 carefully. Then answer the questions that follow.

1. De-cluttering allows you __________________.

A. to makes it hard to tidy up


B. to makes it difficult to tidy up
C. to make space for the things that you do need to keep
D. to make space for the things that you don’t need to keep

2. The word clutter (line 2) means __________________.

A. tidy
A. space
B. untidy
C. in order

3. Time yourself and devote __________________ or so per session to the task, until it's done.

A. an hour
B. two hours
C. three hours
D. half an hour
4. How would you do if paperwork is your weakness?

A. get a box to put all the paperwork


B. throw all the paperwork out from your house
C. clean your drawer and put all the paperwork in it
D. create a filing system, create a separate folder and file it every day

5. Which of following statement is true about how to sort clutter into labeled cardboard boxes?

i. Box 1 - Everyday things that need to be put back in their place


ii. Box 2 - Things to be given away to your neighbor.
iii. Box 3 - Items that you need every day
iv. Box 4 - Anything that can be categorised as "absolute rubbish".
v. Box 5 - Items you simply can’t decide what to do with.

A. i and ii
B. i, ii and iii
C. i, iv and v
D. i, ii, iii, iv and v

LISTENING

Predicting Outcomes

Predicting outcome is telling the possible event to happen next or results base on the given idea, sentence
or phrase.

Activity 12

Listen to each situation. What do you think happened next?

Situation 1
What might happen to Zahid?
Prediction:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Situation 2
What do you think Suhaila told her mom?
Prediction:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Situation 3
What do you think will happen next?
Prediction:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Situation 4
What happen to the vase?
Prediction:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Situation 5
What do you think will happen to Ayob and Samad?
Prediction:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

SPEAKING

Asking for and giving direction

The following expressions are useful when asking or giving directions to places.

Asking for directions

 Where is the … from here?


 Excuse me Sir, I am looking for … How do/can I get there?
 Do you know the directions to …?
 Pardon me. What are the directions to …?
 Can/could you help me? I want to go to …
 Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the …
 Excuse me, do you know where the …

Giving directions

 Go straight ahead.
 Go up/down … to …
 Turn right/left at/on …
 At the intersection/traffic lights, turn right/left
 It’s on your right/left
 Go under/over the bridge
 At the roundabout, take the … exit
Activity 13

Draw pictures of the directions.

Activity 14

Look at the map. Write the directions of the places in the blanks.
Main Street

Barber Shop

1. Excuse me, how can I go to the bus station?


Hello, you may go straight ahead at Najib street and turn right you will get to main street. Pass the
supermarket, you will see bus station. Bus station is between the supermarket dan taxi station.
2. Madam, can you tell me the way to the stadium?
Sure can. You should be at Najib street go straight until Abdullah street then you turn right pass by
hospital and you will see stadium. Stadium between hospital and hotel.
3. Can you help me, please? I want to go to the hypermarket?
Yes can. You must be stay at najib street until food court you turn left. You will see hypermarket at
opposite food court.
4. Excuse me Miss, is there a mosque near here?
Hello, you should stay at second avenue the go straight ahead at road Hussein Onn. And Mosque
between Babber Shop and tennis court.
5. Sir, how can I go to the market?
You have to straight ahead by najib street untul Abdullah street. Market beside Pharmacy.
6. Sir, can you tell me the way to the cyber cafe?
Sure, you should go straight ahead until main street turn right then you can see cybercafe between
book store and train station.

7. Can you help me, please? I'm lost. I want to go to the car wash?
You go second avenue and then go straight ahead, hussein onn street and Mahathir until you see
police station and up by is car wash.
8. Excuse me, is there a hospital near here?
There hace hospital. You should be on road Najib street until Abdullah street straight ahead after
thaht turn right and than you will see hospital next to stadium and hotel

WRITING

Compound Sentence: Coordinating Conjunction


Coordinating conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of
speech which are of the same syntactic importance. You can join two simple sentences together with a
comma and a coordinating conjunction to make one compound sentence. Remember, there are only
seven coordinating conjunctions. This list contains all of them (FANBOYS) :

No Coordinating Conjunction Function Sample Sentences


.
1 For Shows reason I drank some water, for I was thirsty
2 And Shows addition Both of them are tall, and smart
3 Nor Join negative ideas He is neither fat, nor tall
4 But Shows contrast or opposite Dayah likes durian, but hates
ideas watermelon
5 Or Shows alternative or choice You can drink coffee, or tea
6 Yet Shows an unexpected outcome; The shirt is lovely, yet a little short
despite something
7 So Shows result The drawer is locked, so we could
not open it

Activity 15

Fill in the blanks by using any one of the following coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

1. I did my best to pass my MUET exam _______but______ I failed.


2. I will get my motorcycle service ______but_______ there is something wrong with the brakes.
3. She overslept herself _______so______ thus missed the bus to Johor Bahru.
4. I've just eaten lunch ____not______ I'm not hungry.
5. We went fishing last Sunday _____nor________ we didn't catch anything.
6. We can go to a Malay restaurant ________or _____ an Italian, I don't really mind.
7. I don't like theater ______but_______ do I like rock music.
8. My sister ________and_____ I will retire soon and go backpacking around Malaysia.
9. They can speak Mandarin and Japanese fluently _______yet____ their English are not so good.
10. The jacket cannot be mine _______yet______ it is too small for me.

Activity 16

Use coordinating conjunctions to write one compound sentences.

1. Zainal loves kiwi but his wife, Sofia, hates kiwi.


______________________________________________________________________

2. Jargit has a Histroy test on Tuesday so Jarjit needs to study.


__________________________________________________________________________________

3. Sue Lin is typing an email to her friend and Her sister, Sue Lan is reading the magazine.
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Seri woke up late yet Seri made it to university on time.
__________________________________________________________________________________

5. Salleh jogs three miles every morning and then he get ready for work.
__________________________________________________________________________________

6. These teenagers do not respect the feelings of others not they don’t seem to respect themselves.
__________________________________________________________________________________

7. Recycle bins have been placed all over school but Students still throw garbage on the floor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

8. He could not go to the cinema and He did not have enough money.
__________________________________________________________________________________

9. Shiela didn’t have enough money to fly to Terengganu so she took the bus.
__________________________________________________________________________________

10. You can take a train to Ipoh and You can travel to Padang Besar.
__________________________________________________________________________________

Unit 2
Sport
At the end of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Construct reflexive pronoun and compound words (noun + noun)
2. Construct compound sentences by using coordinating conjunction.
3. Listen and predict the outcome based on listening texts.
4. Read texts by using the SQ3R technique.
5. Describing experiences, events or places.
Grammar

Reflexive Pronoun

A reflexive pronoun is a type of pronoun that is preceded by the adverb, adjective, pronoun, or noun. We
use a reflexive pronoun as a direct object when the object is the same as the subject of the verb.

Subjec Reflexive Pronoun


t
Singula myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself
r
Plural ourselves - yourselves – themselves

In the following examples of reflexive pronouns, the reflexive pronoun in each sentence is bold.

1. I was in a hurry, so I washed the sport jersey myself.


2. Be careful with that scissor. You might cut yourself.
3. John bought himself a ticket for 29th Sea Games Opening Ceremony.

Here are the reflexive pronouns and their matching personal pronoun:

 “myself” goes with “I,”


 “yourself” goes with the singular “you”
 “yourselves” goes with the plural form of “you”
 “himself” goes with “he”
 “herself” goes with “she”
 “itself” goes with “it”
 “ourselves” goes with “we”
 “themselves” goes with them

Activity 1

Write the correct reflexive pronouns for each of sentences.

1. They managed ____________________ very well as members of the football club.


2. If you don’t know what is wrong with ____________________ , then ask our badminton coach.
3. Dad and I painted the rugby lines on the field ____________________.
4. Sofea, you shouldn't blame ____________________ for the lost in the match.
5. Rahman often talks to ____________________ when he is upset.
6. My laptop often crashes and turns off by ____________________.
7. She hurt ____________________ while doing the stretching.
8. I told her about the bad news ____________________.
9. Did the two of you do this homework by ____________________?
10. I enjoyed ____________________ at the 29th Sea Games Opening Ceremony.

Activity 2

Make your own sentences by using these reflexive pronouns: herself, himself, themselves, ourselves,
yourself, yourselves and itself.

1. __________________________________________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________________________________
4. __________________________________________________________________________________
5. __________________________________________________________________________________
6. __________________________________________________________________________________
7. __________________________________________________________________________________

Compound word: Noun + Noun

Words can be combined to form compound word. Compound word is words for people, animals, places,
things, or ideas, made up of two or more words. These are very common, and new combinations are
invented almost daily. They normally have two parts: Noun + Noun. The compound word can be written
either as a single word, as a word with a hyphen, or as two words. The first part tells us what kind of object
or person it is, or what its purpose is. The second part identifies the object or person in question.

types or purpose what or who compound word


fire man fireman
girl friend girlfriend
water tank water tank
dining table dining-table

Activity 3

Form as many compound words (Noun+Noun) as you can using the noun provided.

1. ball
__________________________________________________________________________________

2. school
__________________________________________________________________________________

3. sport
__________________________________________________________________________________

4. board
__________________________________________________________________________________

5. motor
__________________________________________________________________________________

6. water
__________________________________________________________________________________

7. home
__________________________________________________________________________________

8. ice
__________________________________________________________________________________

9. book
__________________________________________________________________________________

10. life
__________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 4

Form five (5) simple sentences using any of the compound words formed in Activity 3.

1. ___________________________________________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________________________________________
4. ___________________________________________________________________________________
5. ___________________________________________________________________________________

Reading

SQ3R (enrichment)

In Unit 1, you have learned how to use SQ3R method in understanding reading materials. Do you still
remember the formula of SQ3R?

Activity 5

Apply the SQ3R formula for the following article.


Germany Wins 2014 FIFA World Cup

1 The 2014 football World Cup ended in Brazil with a German victory over Argentina in the final
match. The tournament was played in several stadiums across Brazil and attracted media attention
from around the world. Brazil hosted the World Cup for the first time since 1950, where they lost in
the final game to Uruguay.

2 The tournament had many surprises. In the group stage, former World Champions Italy and 5
England failed to qualify. Defending World Cup holder Spain was eliminated after two opening
defeats to the Netherlands and Chile. Host country and World Cup favourite Brazil disappointed
many fans. They did not play as well as they had in the 2013 Confederations Cup. After average
performances in the group stage, the “selecao” lost their wunderkind Neymar after a foul by a
Columbian defender in the quarterfinals. In the semi-finals, they Germany rolled over the Brazilians 10
7-1. Three days later the hosts lost third place to the Netherlands 0-3.

3 Costa Rica won their group and eliminated Greece in the first knock-out round. In the quarterfinals,
they lost to the Netherlands in a breath-taking penalty shoot-out and had to leave Brazil without
losing a match.

4 A few scandals accompanied the tournament. The biggest one happened when Uruguay’s striker 15
Luis Suarez bit the shoulder of Italian defender Chiellini. After examining video footage, FIFA
banned Suarez for the rest of the tournament and for a further four months. Referees were also
criticized after making several wrong decisions.

5 The 2014 FIFA World Cup saw the introduction of a new goal-line technology. However, it was only
needed once. For the first time FIFA allowed referees to call out breaks during the game in which 20
players could drink, due to the high temperatures and humidity.

6 In the end, Germany proved to be the most stable team of the tournament. After crushing Portugal
4:0 in the opening game, the Germans went on to win their group. In the knockout phase, they had
many problems with underdog Algeria but won after extra time. Victories against France and Brazil
gave the Germans their eighth final in football history. Argentina was a tough match in a fairly even 25
game. Mario Götze scored the only goal in the 113th minute of the final, giving Germany the fourth
World Cup in history.

The Europeans arguably had the best team in the World Cup. Goalkeeper Manuel Neuer was the
7 centrepiece of German defence. Even without an outstanding superstar, like Brazil’s Neymar or
Argentina’s Messi, a good mixture of offensive and defensive players allowed the Germans to vary 30
the speed of the game. In the end, the substitutes made the difference and won matches for
Germany.

(Adapted from http://www.english-online.at/news-articles/sports/2014-fifa-world-cup-brazil.htm)

Survey - What have I found from the article?


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Question - Generate questions based on the title and the subtitles that you have found during
your survey.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Read - Read the article. Try to find out the answers for your questions that you had generate
earlier.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Recite - After reading, recall or recite what you have just read without looking at the text or your
notes.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Review - After recite, you should review the text to answer remaining questions and recite the
questions you previously answered. You can summaries the article using your own words.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking
Describing experiences, event or places.
When describing certain experiences, events or places; you can use some adjectives to explain more
about it. Here are some suggested adjectives that you use.
Adjectives Examples
Experience exhilarating, unforgettable, formal, rewarding, bizarre, humbling, memorable
Event jaw-dropping, mind-blowing, hilarious, appalling, exquisite, livid, amazing
Places hot, crowded, expensive, big, cheap, traditional, quiet, cheap, clean, enormous

Activity 6
Look at the pictures below. Describe the pictures by using appropriate adjective for experience, event or
places. You may include your own experience if you have visited some of these places.
1. Movie Animation Park Studios (MAPS), Perak
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

2. Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC), Kuala Lumpur

_____________________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

3. Legoland Malaysia Resort, Johor


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

4. Maritime Museum, Melaka

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

5. Penang Hill, Penang


_____________________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________________

Listening

Predicting Outcomes

Predicting outcomes is essentially being able to foretell what will happen in the future. You can predict
outcomes by looking clues given in the picture, audio or story and experiences (what you already know).

Activity 7

Watch the movies thriller and predict what will be the ending of the movies.

1. Movies thriller 1
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
2. Movies thriller 2
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Movies thriller 3
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Movies thriller 4
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Movies thriller 5
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Writing
Compound Sentence: Coordinating Conjunction (enrichment)

A compound sentence contains two separate subject and verb pairs. You can combine two simple
sentences together with a comma and a coordinating conjunction to make one compound sentence.

Activity 8

Fill in the blanks by using any one of the following coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

1. He put on a sweater, _________________ it was cold outside.


2. Halim was thirsty, _________________ he drank some mineral water.
3. She can buy the newspaper, _________________ she can borrow it from the library.
4. Razif didn’t study last night, _________________ did he read his note.
5. Siti was tired, _________________ she had a migraine.
6. Faizal studied a lot, _________________ he didn’t pass the final exam.
7. Sutha studied a lot, _________________ she didn’t pass the placement test.
8. Julie bought chilies, tomatoes, cucumbers, chicken _________________ eggs from the market.
9. Jalil and Rosli decided not to go out from their house _________________ it was raining heavily.
10. Jamilah didn't have enough butter and icing sugar for the cupcake _________________ she went to
the supermarket.

Activity 9

Write five sentences using the following coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

1. _________________________________________________________________________________

2. _________________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________________

4. _________________________________________________________________________________

5. _________________________________________________________________________________

Unit 3

Travel

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Construct adverbial phrases and compound words (noun + verb)


2. Read a paragraphs and determine the topic of a paragraph
3. Applying a concept to a new situation
4. Talk about the family
5. Develop ideas for writing through free-writing, questioning, making a list and drawing a mind map.

GRAMMAR
Adverbial Phrases – manner, time and place
An adverb is a word that adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb in a sentence. It
also answer the questions, “When?”, “How?”, “Where?” an action is done.
Example:
He went yesterday . (went=verb; yesterday=adverb)
She is very beautiful. (beautiful=adjective; very=adverb)
The storm stopped quite suddenly . (suddenly=adverb; quite=adverb)
Adverb of Manner
An adverb of manner tells us how something is done or happens. Most adverbs of manner end in
–ly
Adverb Examples
loudly The baby girl cried loudly.
sweetly Celine Dion sang sweetly.
slowly Rashid walks slowly.

Adverb of Time

An adverb of time tells us when the actions are done or happens. It may give sharp or rough idea about the
time of occurrence of an action.
Adverb Examples
yesterday Mr. Nasrul bought a new tennis racket yesterday.
tomorrow She will go to the gym tomorrow
last week Last week, Malaysia won the 29th Sea Games.

Adverb of Place

An adverb of place tells us where something is done or happens. These adverbs express the place of the
occurrence of an action or regarding an action.

Adverb Examples
here Bring those travel magazines here.
somewhere They travel somewhere in Malaysia
nowhere The girls are nowhere to be found.

Activity 1
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the word in the brackets.
1. We should purchase products made _____________________ (local).
2. Sharifah sang _____________________ (sweet) at the karaoke contest.
3. The girl writes _____________________ (clear).
4. Those children ate _____________________ (greed).
5. The foreign workers went on strike _____________________ (immediate).
6. You came _____________________ (late) for the seminar.
7. She performed _____________________ (well) in the quiz.
8. The baby boy slept _____________________ (sound) right through the storm.

Activity 2
Re-write the adverbs in brackets in the correct places.

1. My family and friends have stayed at the Palace of Golden Horses Hotel in Seri Kembangan. (often)
_________________________________________________________________________________

2. His wife was there whenever he needed her. (never)


_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Everyone is welcome to attend our Chinese New Year open house. (most)
_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Father is in the emergency room. (now)


_________________________________________________________________________________

5. She hit me when we are playing hockey yesterday. (accident)


_________________________________________________________________________________

6. My wife is working in Johor. (temporary)


_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Grandfather is sleeping. (downstairs)


_________________________________________________________________________________
8. We search it but the document was nowhere to be found. (everywhere)
_________________________________________________________________________________

Compound word: Noun + Verb

Words can be combined to form compound word. Compound word is words for people, animals, places,
things, or ideas, made up of two or more words. These are very common, and new combinations are
invented almost daily. They normally have two parts: Noun + Verb. The compound word can be written
either as a single word, as a word with a hyphen, or as two words.

Activity 3
Use a online dictionary to learn the meaning or definition of these words.

1. Bathroom
_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Crossfire
_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Drive inn
_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Fireplace
_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Guidebook
_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Handle Bar
_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Passport
_________________________________________________________________________________

8. Payday
_________________________________________________________________________________

9. Postman
_________________________________________________________________________________

10. Rest house


_________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 4
Fill in the blanks with the correct compound word (Noun + Verb).

1. He always gets up before sun______________.


2. I really could use an updated hair______________.
3. The cleaner clean up the show______________.
4. Syakila went to the post______________ to buy some stamps.
5. The immigration officer will stamp your pass______________ when you arrived at the airport.
6. Shamsul went to the barbershop for his hair______________.
7. The girls did not get any invitation, so they gate______________ the open house instead.
8. Tanjong Malim is very dry. It has the lowest rain______________ in Perak.
9. The Japanese tourists visit Kampung Kuantan, Selangor to watch the fire______________.
10. Sleep______________ is a disease that made the patients tends to walk while sleeping.

Reading

Topic Sentence

Generally, the main idea of a paragraph is stated in the topic sentence. The topic sentence is the most
important sentence of a paragraph. It states the main idea and introduces the reader to the topic. A topic
sentence should not contain supporting details.

Activity 5
Read the paragraphs. Underline the topic sentences.
1. I would like to tell you about my aunt. Her name is Normala and she is fifty-nine years old. She is my
father’s youngest sister. I really like Aunt Normala because she is very kind and very helpful. She also
tells us her experiences and interesting stories about the places she visits.
2. I love Malaysia football club! I loved football since I was a small boy, and I love it now. My favourite
football club is Johor Darul Takzim (JDT). I go to stadium to see my football club team practice every
weekend, and now I play for the school four times a week.
3. My sisters all have jobs. My oldest sister, Shiela, is a dentist at the hospital in the centre of the city,
and the second oldest, Shima, is a bank accountant in a bank near our home. My youngest sister is a
custom officer. I am the only brother who is still at secondary school.
4. I like most types of magazine. However, the magazine I enjoy the most are travel magazine. I like
reading about different countries and the famous local restaurants there. When I go on holiday, I
always buy lots of magazine about the place I am visiting. Travel magazines help you to understand a
place.
5. Papaya trees can be seen everywhere in Malaysia. Its fruit is cheap but it is very tasty. A papaya is
rich in Vitamin C, so it good for our health. In fact it has more Vitamin C than oranges. Some papaya
trees have no fruit. They are ‘male’ tree. The ‘female’ trees, however, can bear fruit.
6. Silat is a Malay art of self-defence. There are different types of silat. They are the Kebatinan, the Silat
Seni, the Beladiri and the Warrior Dance. Silat Olahraga is a special kind of silat performed during
sports event. Silat is a sport like karate and taekwondo that can be practiced by people of all races.
7. The kite-flying season is one of the most colourful and interesting events in Thailand. It takes place in
April when the strong monsoon winds blow. The Thais, whether young or old, enjoy kite-flying. Kite-
flying was already a favorite sport in Thailand as far back as the fourteenth century.
8. MSC Malaysia, formerly known as Multimedia Super Corridor, is testament to the government’s
determined drive to achieve developed nation status by 2020. This dynamic information and
communications technology (ICT) hub has put Malaysia on the world map as a country committed to
creating a knowledge-based economy. Its core initiatives include building up the ICT industry, boosting
ICT capabilities and using ICT to spur socioeconomic development.
9. Civilization is built on salt. The discoveries of its power to preserve food enable wandering tribes to put
down roots. Men and women could hunt and gather today and eat tomorrow. A life that was no longer
hand to mouth allowed time to sit and think. Salt, which became as precious as any metal, was traded
between nations and offered as gifts.
10. Sleepwalking occurs in approximately 15% of the population. However, adult sleepwalking affects only
one percent and most adult sleepwalkers began the disorder during childhood. In some cases,
sleepwalking in adults can result in violent behavior.

Listening

Activity 6

Listen to the audio on “4 reasons why you should Travel Alone at least once” and fill in the blanks with
the appropriate information.

Tip 1: Tip 2:
_____________________________________ _____________________________________
Tip 3:
_____________________________________ Tip 4:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
Details: _____________________________________
Details:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________ _____________________________________
_____________________________________
Details:
_____________________________________ Details:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________ _____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________ _____________________________________
_____________________________________ _____________________________________
Speaking

Activity 7

Please take the time to answer Yes or No for these seven statements on your relationship with your family
members. Give a reason to each of your responses.

1. You can pick your friends-but you cannot pick your family.
_________________________________________________________________________________

2. There is never a need to be a team player with family members.


_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Each member of the family has a role that they play.


_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Families should always maintain open communication.


_________________________________________________________________________________

5. In a family rules should be inflexible.


_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Families need to argue to maintain good communication.


_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Family members should respect each other’s feelings.


_________________________________________________________________________________

(Adapted from: http://www.allthetests.com/quiz13/quiz/1114313379/Family-Relationships)


Activity 8

Have you ever think about your future family? Share your plan for your future family by writing a narrative
paragraph. You may use the following points to assists you:

a) How many kids do you want?


b) Do you want boys, girls or both?
c) Do you want to adopt?
d) Where do you want to live?
e) Where do you want to meet your husband or wife?
f) Do you want pets?
g) What is your ideal family vacation?
h) What is your ideal husband or wife?

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Writing

Developing ideas for writing your essay

For many people, the toughest part of any writing task is getting started. Here are some exercises that help
with "blank page syndrome" or "writer's block." There are many ways to develop an argument and to sort
out your ideas. While there are rules for formal essays, there are no fixed rules for the “writing process,” so
you’ll have to develop your own personal approach. Here are some suggestions for getting some words on
paper and organizing your thoughts once you’ve been given a prompt.
1. Free-writing:
Free-writing simply means writing without stopping for a set amount of time. Start with shorter amounts
of time (2-5 minutes). Again, as in listing, it's important not to censor ideas at this point; simply write
down anything that comes to mind. Sometimes, if you keep your hand moving, you'll come up with
details and connections that never occurred to you until you wrote them down. The subject matter
doesn’t even have to be related to your topic. After you write something, look at the words and sense
whether or not they really say what you are trying to express.

Activity 9

Using free-writing technique, write about a country that you want to go for your backpacking holiday. Write
whatever that comes to your mind for five minutes.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

2. Questioning:

Construct and write the five "Wh" questions (who, what, where, when, why) across your paper. List as
many questions as you can think of that a reader might ask about your topic in those categories. Write
down answers or features of your topic that might address those concerns.

Activity 10

Try to formulate questions about backpacking holiday as many questions as possible.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

3. Making a list:

Making a list means just what it says, recording ideas that relate directly to a certain subject. Listing is
more directed than brainstorming or free-writing.You may end up expanding or deleting from your list
as you work with it, and that's to be expected. A list is a means of capturing all aspects that you can
think of that relate to your focus on the subject.

Activity 11

List the ideas that you can generate about tips of backpacking holiday in Malaysia that you are going to
write about.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

4. Mind mapping:

This technique can help you generate ideas and connect them together. Place individual ideas in
boxes and connect them together with lines. You might start with writing your topic in the middle of the
page and draw a circle around it. Add additional boxes with ideas that are related to your main topic
and connect them to the center circle with lines. Repeat this process for each of the new circles.

(Adapted from: https://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/rst/pop5a.cfm and


https://sociology.ucsd.edu/_files/graduate/DevelopingIdeasforYourEssay.pdf)

Activity 12

Draw a mind map on the tips for backpacking holiday in Malaysia.

Unit 4

Health

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Construct active and passive sentences


2. Read paragraphs and identify the topic of a paragraph
3. Listen and apply a concept to a new situation
4. Speak about languages spoken, nationalities and describe your feelings and emotions.
5. Know about parts of essay writing
Grammar

Active and passive sentences.

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms."

Active sentences
A sentence is in the active voice when the subject or the doer of the action is at the beginning of a
sentence. An active sentence also tells what a person or thing does.

Example:
He gave me some mangosteens.
Grandfather told us an interesting family history.

Passive sentences
A sentence is in the passive voice when the object or receiver of the action is at the beginning of a
sentence. Sometimes, the subject may be left out if it is not important or not known. A passive sentence
also tells what is done to someone or something.

Example:

The entire room was painted by Salwa.


This house was bought by Rahmat.

Tenses Active Passive


Simple Present Father washes the car every weekend. The car is washed by father every
am/is/are + weekend.
past participle

Simple Past Saiful wrote this book. This book was written by Saiful
was/were +
past participle

Simple Future Dr. Roslan will attend to you. You will be attended by Dr. Roslan.
will be +
past participle

Activity 1
Write out the following sentences into the passive sentences.

1. Mr. Elias scolded the girl for shouting in class.


_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Elfira helped us with our Geography assignment.


_________________________________________________________________________________

3. The custom officer caught the smuggler.


_________________________________________________________________________________

4. We will choose a new group leader.


_________________________________________________________________________________

5. We buy many newspapers every weekend.


_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Zara bought this car on last Sunday.


_________________________________________________________________________________

7. An enemy of the state will be shot by the soldier.


_________________________________________________________________________________

8. Someone broke our glass table.


_________________________________________________________________________________
9. His mother takes him to school.
_________________________________________________________________________________

10. The teacher congratulated him.


_________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 2
Write out the following sentences into the active sentences.

1. The cakes were eaten by the hungry students.


_________________________________________________________________________________
2. Two girls were caught playing card by the class teacher.
_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Will we be invited to Raju’s birthday party?


_________________________________________________________________________________

4. The cheese cake was baked by my sister yesterday.


_________________________________________________________________________________

5. We were reminded to do our work carefully.


_________________________________________________________________________________

6. The technician cleans the computer lab.


_________________________________________________________________________________

7. The song was sung by Bob.


_________________________________________________________________________________

8. We are taught grammar by Ms Khatijah.


_________________________________________________________________________________

9. The roses were watered by Jefry.


_________________________________________________________________________________

10. This house was built by John Mathews in 1991.


_________________________________________________________________________________

Reading

Topic Sentence

A topic sentence:
 at or near the start of the paragraph.
 at the end of the paragraph.
 the main idea of the paragraph.
 a small detail from the paragraph.
 one or two words.
 a complete sentence.
Activity 3
Read the paragraphs. Underline the topic sentences.
1. Nutrilite is the world’s leading brand of health supplements with a 70-year track record. It has been
available in Malaysia since 1976. Its line-up of 32 supplements range from vitamins and minerals to
products that address specific needs like weight management and circulatory health.

2. From humble beginnings as a single rice mill in the northern state of Kedah almost 50 years ago,
Jasmine Food Corporation is now one of the nation’s leading rice suppliers, distributing 29 brands of
homegrown and imported rice through some 7,500 retail outlets. Some 160,000 metric tonnes of
Jasmine rice are consumed each year.

3. Research in Europe studying hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol) conducted a survey and
found that patients who were on lipid-lowering therapy had been sub-optimally treated. The CEPHUES
study involving 15,199 patients found that 45 percent did not achieve LDL-cholesterol (the ‘bad’
cholesterol) goals in spite of treatment.

4. Scientists are now certain omega-3 fats are beneficial for heart disease. They reduce blood clotting
and lower the risk of heart attacks; if an attack does occur, there’s less chance it will be fatal. The
lower the level of blood triglycerides (a type of stored fat associated with increased blood clots),
reduce abnormal heart rhythms and strokes, slow the build-up of atherosclerotic plaques (hardening of
the arteries) and lower blood pressure.

(Adapted from Reader’s Digest, October 2008)

5. In the last ten years, medical researchers have determined that our bodies contain cells that almost
certainly can repair and regenerate damaged and diseased tissue. These cells are called adult stem
cells. The term “stem cell” was coined 100 years ago by the Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov
who postulated the existence of haematopoietic stem cells, or cells which build all the blood cell types.

6. Mould, pollen and bad smells lurk in our home environment. Then there’s dust mite allergen, a
common component of household dust, which can cause havoc with our throat and nose causing
allergic reactions like coughs, sneezes and snivels. To combat these invisible irritants, Sharp’s
Plasmacluster air purifier vacuum-cleans your air.

7. Yakult is a probiotic drink from Japan. Its story goes back more than 70 years to a Japanese
microbiologist and physician, Dr. Minoru Shirota of Kyoto University, who was convinced that a natural
method of boosting intestinal health and protecting people from disease must exist, and set out to find
it.

8. Malaysians tend to think about flu only when they are getting ready for an overseas trip to more
temperate climates. They have a notion that flu only manifests itself during the winter season.
However, studies from tropical countries like Singapore and Thailand show that flu very much exists,
with high economic costs.

9. Brand’s product range has a rich history, dating back more than 170 years to London’s Buckingham
Palace. It was in these opulent kitchens in 1835 that the royal chef Henderson William Brand created a
fat-free and easily digestible chicken consommé for King George IV – a recipe we know today as
Brand’s Essence of Chicken.

10. Vitagen is a cultured milk drink fortified with probiotic cultures. Probiotics are health-promoting, good
bacteria and have been used for centuries to keep immune and digestive systems healthy. Unlike
cultures in some other probiotic drinks and yogurts, Vitagen’s unique culture has been proven to
survive passage through the digestive tract and reach the gut in high quantities.

(Adapted from Reader’s Digest, November 2008)

Listening

Activity 4

What do these words mean? Search for the meaning of the following words online.

No. Words Meaning


1 Perfume

2 Neutralize

3 Odour

4 Irritation

5 Allergy

Activity 5

Listen to an audio about perfumes. Based on the article, answer the following questions.

1. How perfumes are harming your skin?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

2. When should you not use deodorants?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. Which is better for the skin - roll-ons or sprays?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

4. What you should do if you suffer from atopic dermatitis?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

5. Why people suffering from asthma should be extra cautious while using deodorants?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Speaking

Talking about languages and nationality.

One big vocabulary and pronunciation problem in English is knowing how to pronounce the English names
of nationalities and languages. All languages and nationalities are always capitalized in English. The
word 'Nationality' is not often used in spoken English. It is a formal and official word and it appears more
frequently in written English. You will find the word 'Nationality' is used a lot in the travel industry and for
immigration.

Example - Languages
a) Mark speaks fluent Cambodian.
b) I wonder if he speaks Chinese.

Example - Nationalities
a) She drives a Malaysian car.
b) The Singaporeans prime minister is coming next week.

Notes:
We almost never ask: What is your nationality?
We usually ask: Where are you from? OR Where do you come from?
To tell someone your nationality you DON'T say: My nationality is Malaysian.
You say: I'm Malaysian
Activity 6

Complete the list of nationality and languages based on the correct country.

No. Country Nationality Language


1 Australia English
2 Bolivian
3 Brazil
4 Estonia Estonian
5 Indonesia
6 Syria
7 Afghan
8 Kenya Kenyan
9 Norwegian
10 Russian
11 Venezuela
12 England English
13 Finland Finnish
14 Denmark Danish
15 Dutch Dutch
16 Japanese
17 Taiwan Taiwanese
18 Iceland Icelander
19 Pakistani
20 Filipino Tagalog/Filipino

Activity 7
Write four sentences, each using a different nationality. Then, write four more sentences with a different
language.

1. ___________________________________________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________________________________________
4. ___________________________________________________________________________________
5. ___________________________________________________________________________________
6. ___________________________________________________________________________________
7. ___________________________________________________________________________________
8. ___________________________________________________________________________________

Describing feelings and emotions.

We tend to use the words feelings and emotions interchangeably. Of course they are closely related, but
there is a difference and understanding it is important. Nobody can help having feelings, for they are part of
everyone. We feel different things all day long as different things happen to us. Sometimes we feel sad,
happy, scared, angrily, etc. It is important not to be ashamed of having feelings. A feeling is the side product
of your brain perceiving an emotion and assigning a certain meaning to it. While emotion happen when we
are having neurological reactions to an emotional stimulus or chemicals are released into our brains. These
can make us feel happy, sad, angry etc.
The differences between emotions and feelings.

Feelings Emotions
Feelings tell us “how to live.” Emotions tell us what we “like” and “dislike.”

Feelings state: “There is a right and wrong way to


Emotions state: “There are good and bad actions.”
be.”

Feelings state: “Your emotions matter.“ Emotions state: “The external world matters.“

Feelings establish our long term attitude toward Emotions establish our initial attitude toward
reality. reality.

Happiness is a feeling. Joy is an emotion.


Worry is a feeling. Fear is an emotion.

(Adapted from: http://www.laughteronlineuniversity.com/feelings-vs-emotions/)

Activity 8
Read the questions given. Provide your response accordingly to the questions.

1. Are you a sensitive person? Are you more or less emotional than other people? What makes you think
so?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

2. Can you control your emotions well? How?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

3. Are you generally a positive person or a negative person?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

4. Do you find it easy to explain your feelings to another person? If not, why is it difficult?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

5. What makes you feel best? Why?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

6. Is sadness always a bad feeling? Are there good types of sadness and bad types of sadness? Give an
example if you can.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

7. If you’re feeling down, how can you make yourself feel better?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

8. What is the saddest movie, song, or story that you know?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

9. What makes you feel nervous? How can you calm your nerves?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
10. Are you excited about anything coming up in the near future?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

11. What do you do to stay awake when you feel very sleepy?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

12. Do people know how you feel by looking at your face? Are you good at hiding your emotions?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

13. What is the best way to deal with feelings of anger?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

14. Have you been in love? What is it like to be in love?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

15. Are women more emotional than men? Or is that just a stereotype?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 9

Have you ever had a happy time in your life? Share your experience by writing it in a paragraph.

You may use the following questions to guide you:

a) How old were you?


b) Where were you?
c) What was special about that time that made you feel happy?

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Writing

Components of an essay; introductory, body and concluding.

An essay is a piece of writing that is written to convince someone of something or to simply inform the
reader about a particular topic. In order for the reader to be convinced or adequately informed, the essay
must include several important components to make it flow in a logical way. The main parts (or sections) to
an essay are the intro, body, and conclusion. In a standard short essay, five paragraphs can provide the
reader with enough information in a short amount of space.

Component Factor Characteristics

Introduction  serves as a frame within which  presents a general description


the reader reads the rest of the of the context of the topic and
work the thesis statement
 presents the main argument of
the topic or gives an indication
of the writer's position

 gives an indication of the main


points of focus in the rest of
the writing

Body  shows the reader/examiner  discusses theory which is


that you are familiar with issues directly relevant to the issues
and debates pertaining to your
topic  provides evidence for main
points
 leads the reader through your
paper  builds on the main argument
by layering, repeating key
words, adding a new element
to a repeated phrase

Conclusion  draws all arguments and  summarizes main argument /


findings together findings

 leaves the reader with a strong  suggests directions for further


sense of your argument study

 ends on a strong note

(Adapted from:
http://www.education.monash.edu.au/students/current/resources/componentsessay.html)

Checklist for Brief Essays:

Introductory Paragraph
_____ Did I begin with a strong lead-in?
_____ Did I state my thesis?
_____ Did I preview my main points?

Support Paragraphs

Paragraph developing the first main point

_____ Did I begin my first support paragraph with a topic sentence about the first point I previewed in the
thesis sentence?
_____ Did I detail convincing support for the first main point?
_____ Did I effectively conclude the paragraph?

Paragraph developing the second main point

_____ Did I begin my second support paragraph with a topic sentence about the second point I
previewed in the thesis sentence?
_____ Did I detail convincing support for the second main point?
_____ Did I effectively conclude the paragraph?

Paragraph developing the third main point

_____ Did I begin my third support paragraph with a topic sentence about the third point I previewed in
the thesis sentence?
_____ Did I detail convincing support for the third main point?
_____ Did I effectively conclude the paragraph?

Concluding Paragraph

_____ Did I recap my thesis and main points?


_____ Did I finish with a strong clincher?

Whole-document concerns

_____ Did I consider my audience’s need for information?


_____ Did I stay on topic?
_____ Did I organize my points effectively?
_____ Did I maintain appropriate tone?
_____ Did I write coherently?
_____ Did I make sense?
_____ Did I eliminate any redundancy?
_____ Did I proofread carefully to spell and punctuate correctly?
_____ Did I create an appropriate appearance for my document?

(Adapted from: http://scc.losrios.edu/~thomasb/Writing%20Essays%20Excerpt.pdf)

Activity 10

Re-order or rearrange the sentences in such a way that make sense.

1. Text A

No. Sentences
A Its business decisions are made on the timely and accurate flow of information.
B It has 2000 employees in 15 branches and representative offices across the Asia-Pacific
region.
C For employees to maintain a competitive edge in a fast-moving field, they must have quick
access to Johor Bank's proprietary trade related data.
D Johor Bank’s is one of the largest banking institutions in the Malaysia and a premiere
international trading firm.

2. Text B

No. Sentences
A But you can also take full advantage of the flavour by adding it at the end of cooking.
B You can easily buy it from the supermarket, and some organic and health food stores also sell
cold pressed or extra virgin oil.
C Sesame oil has a gorgeous flavour and a higher smoking point than olive oil, making it
excellent for stir-fries.
D There are two kinds: lighter-coloured oils are made from raw sesame seeds; darker varieties
from toasted seeds.

3. Text C

No. Sentences
A Some of the needy places where the rice has been donated include earthquake-devastated
Haiti, as well as Bangladesh, Nepal and Combodia.
B The non-profit FreeRice.com is an online quiz game run by the UN World Food Programme.
C Here's a clever way to tackle world hunger, one grain of rice at a time.
D Visitors to the site answer a series of questions that increase in difficulty, and with every correct
answer the website's sponsor pledge to donate funds to buy ten grains of rice.

4. Text D

No. Sentences
A Eating spicy foods also helps you feel full faster, so you won't overeat, and the chillis, low in
kilojoules, are a good source of Vitamin C.
B The active ingredient in them, capsaicin, also stokes your metabolism for an hour after you
consume them, says US celebrity chef Jennifer Iserloh, who developed recipes for The New
York Times best-selling Joy Bauer's Food Cures.
C Hot chillis do more that just give you a warm and tingly flush.
D Start by sprinkling a few red chili flakes over Italian dishes, Iserloh, suggests or by swapping a
capsicum for a fresh jalapeno in a recipe.

(Adapted from Reader’s Digest, June 2012)

Unit 5
Lifestyles

At the end of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Construct active and passive sentences.


2. Identify stated main idea in a paragraph.
3. Listen and respond to the questions.
4. Giving information about people
5. Write thesis statements.

Grammar

Active and passive sentences:

Present Progressive

Active sentences in the present continuous tense have the following structure:

Subject + is/are/am + -ing form of the verb + object

Passive sentences in the present continuous tense have the following structure:

Object of the active sentence + is/are/am + being + past participle form of the
verb + by + subject of the active sentence.

Example:-
Active: The ICI are questioning the manager
Passive: The manager is being questioned by the ICI

Past Progressive

Active sentences in the past continuous tense have the following structure:

Subject + was/were + -ing form of the verb + object

Passive sentences in the past continuous tense have the following structure:

Object of the active sentence + was/were + being + past participle form of the
verb + by + subject of the active sentence

Example:
Active: The monkeys were eating bananas.
Passive: Bananas were being eaten by the monkeys

Activity 1
Change the following sentences into its passive voice.

1. While mother was sewing a zip, she pricked her finger.


_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Steven is singing a song.


_________________________________________________________________________________

3. The barber is cutting the hair.


_________________________________________________________________________________

4. He was writing an essay.


_________________________________________________________________________________

5. The Tahfiz students were saying their prayers.


_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Dr. Faizal was giving a tutorial.


_________________________________________________________________________________

7. He was not preparing lunch.


_________________________________________________________________________________

8. He is not writing a song.


_________________________________________________________________________________

9. Why was she beating the boy?


_________________________________________________________________________________

10. Are the carpenters building the garage?


_________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 2

Choose the best passive voice based on the sentences given.

1. We were talking about Firdaus.


A. Firdaus has being talked about by us
B. Firdaus was being talked about by us
C. Firdaus was being talking about by us
D. Firdaus were being talked about by us
2. They are putting the magazines in the wrong place.
A. The magazines is being put in the wrong place
B. The magazines are being put in the wrong place
C. The magazines were being put in the wrong place
D. The magazines are being putted in the wrong place

3. He is counseling his daughter


A. His daughter is being counseled by him
B. His daughter are being counseled by him
C. His daughter was being counseled by him
D. His daughter were being counseled by him

4. Was he reading these lines?


A. Were these line being read by him?
B. Was these lines being read by him?
C. Were these lines being read by him?
D. Were these lines being reads by him?

5. She is not wearing a jacket.


A. A jacket is being worn by her.
B. A jacket are being worn by her.
C. A jacket is not being worn by her.
D. A jackets are not being worn by her.

6. Shahir is inviting Erra to visit Susan.


A. Shahir is being invited by Erra to visit Susan.
B. Erra is being invited by Susan to visit Shahir.
C. Erra is being invited by Shahir to visit Susan.
D. Erra are being invited by Shahir to visit Susan.
7. She was not making an announcement.
A. An announcement was being made by her.
B. An announcement were being make by her
C. An announcement was not being made by her.
D. An announcement were not being made by her.

8. Is Rayyan showing great respect to his classmates?


A. Is his classmates being shown great respect by Rayyan?
B. Is his classmates shown being great respect by Rayyan?
C. Are his classmates shown being great respect by Rayyan?
D. Are his classmates being shown great respect by Rayyan?

9. He was teaching her English.


A. He was being taught English by her.
B. He was being taught English by her.
C. She was being taught English by him.
D. She were being taught English by him.
10. She was not admitting her mistakes.
A. Her mistake was not being admitted by her.
B. Her mistake were not being admitted by her.
C. Her mistakes was not being admitted by her.
D. Her mistakes were not being admitted by her.

Reading

Identify Stated Main idea

Subject: Verb: Critical


Who or What is What is the Information: Stated Main
+ + =
this paragraph subject doing in How, Why, When, or Idea
about? the paragraph? Where?

What is Main Idea?

 The main idea is the central, or most important, idea in a paragraph or passage.
 It states the purpose and sets the direction of the paragraph or passage.
 The main idea may be found in any sentence of the paragraph.
 Finding the main idea is a key to understanding what you read.
 The main idea is NEVER a question because examples are details that support the main idea, so
examples cannot be the main idea.

How to find Main Idea?

1. Read the entire paragraph before you decide if there is a stated main idea sentence.
2. Find the topic.
3. Ask yourself these questions; "What does the writer want me to know about the topic?" or
"What is the writer teaching me about the topic?"
4. Pay attention to any idea that is repeated in different ways.
5. Look for reversal transitions at the beginning of sentences.
6. Once you feel sure that you have found the main idea, test it by asking to yourself if the sentence could
act as a summary of the other sentences in the paragraph.
7. If they do, then you are right on target but if they don't, you may want to revise back your main idea.

(Adapted from: http://www.mpc.edu/home/showdocument?id=12790)

What is Stated Main Idea

 The point the writer wants to make about the subject is clearly identifiable in a sentence.
 When the main idea of a paragraph is stated, it is most often found in the first sentence of the
paragraph.
 The main idea may be stated in the first sentence of a paragraph and then be repeated or restated at
the end of the paragraph.
 The first sentence of a paragraph may present a point of view, while the last sentence presents a
contrasting or opposite view.
 Stated main ideas will be in the topic sentence
 Regardless of where it appears, it will have supporting details that explain more about it, give examples
of it, or prove it.

What is Topic Sentence

 The focus of the paragraph.


 A general statement that covers all of the details in the paragraph.
 Topic sentences may be at the beginning, middle, or end of the paragraph, but are usually at the
beginning.

Activity 3

Read the following paragraphs. Identify and write the correct stated main ideas in the paragraph.

Passage 1

Asia has long been the home of inveterate smokers. To millions of them, cigarettes are the core of daily
social intercourse. Nothing is done without them - no task unrewarded, no meal concluded. Everybody
knows Asia is supposed to be the last great frontier of the tobacco industry, a place where vast number
continue to expose themselves to the risks of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, emphysema and other
smoking-related illnesses. And yet, across the region , an Asian anti-smoking movement is quietly but
inexorably gathering strength. It isn't large yet, but it is starting to have a dramatic impact - from fresh legal
wins in unlikely quarters to tough bans on smoking in public places.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 2

The Neighbourhood Watch Scheme is seen as an effective recommended method of crime prevention,
involving a partnership between the community and the police. The concept provides for communities to
come together to monitor happenings around their neighbourhoods and report suspicious activities to the
police. Each 'neighbourhood watch' group is made up of 10 to 20 households, with each group designated
a specific area to supervise. Group members are not expected to do any patrolling or make arrests but they
are required to monitor their area and, in the event of any suspicious activity, report to the police
immediately.
Stated Main Idea:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 3

Most times, ants are considered insignificant and a nuisance by many of us. But these little creatures have
superb characteristics despite their size. Although extremely small, they do have brains. It takes a colony of
40,000 ants to collectively make up the size of a human brain. In many ways, this tiny creature is far better
than humans. An ant can lift 20 times its own body weight, a feat beyond the capability of humans. If a man
could run as fast for his size as an ant can, he would be as fast as a racehorse.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 4

Bamboos have an extraordinary lifestyle. Individuals of each bamboo species flower once simultaneously
every 20 to 100 years, and then die. This makes them difficult to study and vulnerable to rapid
deforestation. Bamboo, an ancient form of giant grass, is called the 'wood of the poor' in India and the
'friend of the people' in China because of its diverse use in everything from the food and cooking to
furniture, boats and houses. Some species can grow at great speed, up to 1.2 m a day. A single bamboo
clump can produce up to 14.4 km of useable pole in its lifetime. Furthermore, they are major food source
both for animals and people.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 5

You might think your dreams are nothing more than jumbled images that do not always make a lot of sense.
Perhaps they do not seem to have much relevance to any real-life problems you may have, but many
experts believe dreams can be a rich source of information about ourselves and our underlying concerns.
They can be seen as commenting on our experiences or reminding us of issues we are not confronting. It is
as though the problem is tugging away at our subconscious, trying to tell us that we need to do something
about it.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 6
There are several possible causes for sleepwalking in adults, including stress, fatigue and alcohol or drug
abuse. According to recent research from the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, sleepwalking may be
a genetic disorder. Other contributing factors are various health problems including mental issues and sleep
apnea. Over half of the 74 patients tested reported episodes of sleepwalking during childhood.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 7

To understand the greying process, one must have a basic idea of the structure of the hair. The hair
consists of concentric layers. The outermost layer is the cuticle, which is made up of tiny transparent scales
that overlap each other. The second layer is the cortex. It is in the cortex just below the surface layer where
pigment, or colouring matter, form. This gives the hair its colour. The more the pigment, the darker the
colour of the hair. With age, pigment may not form, causing hair to be without colour or to be white. There
may be other reasons why pigment may fail to form, but age is the most common factor.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 8

Theft is occurring nightly before our very eyes. Increasingly, our dark nocturnal canopy is falling victim to
the predatory glare of excessive and misdirected lighting, known by the popular term 'light pollution'. This
rape of the sky's quiet majesty is not just a problem of aesthetics. Wasted light costs us money, contributes
to air pollution, compromises safety and security, intrudes onto our property and invades our privacy.
Although the solution is really quite simple, it will take a concerted and co-operative effort by all of us to
address the situation properly.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 9

So what exactly is GPS? According to local geographic information system (GIS) website MalaysiaGIS.com
(www.malaysiagis.com), it is a network of 24 satellites operated by the US Defence Department that is
used to pinpoint the exact location of a radio receiver on the surface. Arranged in orbit above the earth, the
satellites complete a full orbit of the earth every twelve hours, all the while transmitting a constant time
signal from an atomic clock onboard each satellite. GPS receivers on the ground can then pick up the
signals from at least four satellites, 24 hours a day, and calculate their own position with immaculate
precision by determining the time it takes for the signal to arrive from each satellite's known position in
space. Thus, a person with a GPS receiver unit is able to pinpoint his exact location, no matter which part
of the planet he may be on.
Stated Main Idea:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Passage 10

In this age, processed foods are very much an integral part of our diet. Thanks to strict food quality and
safety standards required by the food laws enforced in the country, known as the Malaysian Food
Regulations 1985, most processed foods available today can be consumed safely. However, given the fact
they contribute different amounts of various nutrients towards our daily food and nutritional intake, we need
to choose them wisely, based upon our nutritional needs. Making healthy choices from the dizzying array of
products on the supermarket shelves might prove a mind-boggling task. But there is a trick to it - read and
understand nutrition labels and discern the nutrition claims that may be presented on the packaging.

Stated Main Idea:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

(Adapted from: Longman, Text MUET A Complete Guide, 2008)

Listening

Understanding language functions.

A lot of what we say is for a specific purpose. Whether we are apologizing, expressing a wish or asking
permission, we use language in order to fulfill that purpose. Each purpose can be known as a language
function . The English user use the language in order to fulfill a specific purpose, therefore making their
speech more meaningful. Choosing the appropriate way in which to say something will partly depend on:-

1. your social standing relative to the person you are talking to


2. how well you know the person;
3. who is listening; and
4. the circumstances under which the communication occurs.

(Adapted from: https://sites.educ.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/Best%20of%20Bilash/functionsof


%20lang.html)

Types of Language Functions:-

No. Purposes Example of Language Functions


1. Taking Part in interaction To introduce oneself, to introduce others, to invite, to accept an
invitation, to decline on invitation, to welcome, to thank, to
apologize, to request, to suggest.
2. Seeking information To enquire/to ask for information, to ask or seek for clarification, to
ask for direction, to ask for instruction.
3. Giving information To inform/to state, to clarify, to confirm, to explain, to describe, to
direct/to give directions, to instruct.
4. Giving opinions To approve, to disapprove, to state preference, to agree, to
disagree, to refute.

Activity 4.

Listen to the recording and identify the language functions in the situation below.

Situation 1: Zahra, who is a new student, meets Rania.

Zahra : Hello! I don't think we've met. My name is Zahra. ( _______________________________ )


Rania : I'm Rani. I saw you sitting at the front of the class today.
Zahra : Yes, that was me. I have bad eyesight. ( _______________________________ )
That's why Miss Aina told me to sit there.
Rania : Oh, I see! I prefer to sit in the middle. You should use glasses or contact lenses.
( _______________________________ )
Zahra : My glasses broke last week. Do you know where I can get it repaired?
( _______________________________ )
Rania : You should try Jalan Mawar. There are three optical shops there.

Situation 2: It is the school holidays, and Roland would like to visit the National Museum.

Roland : Since we are on holiday, why don't we go to the National Museum?


Daniel : That's a good idea. ( _______________________________ ) Shall we go on Tuesday?
Roland : I'm sorry, I can't. ( _______________________________ ) How about on Thursday?
Daniel : Okay. Can you tell me how to get there? ( _______________________________ )
Roland : It's in Jalan Damansara. I'll get my father to drop us off.
Daniel : Thank you. That's very kind of you. ( _______________________________ )
I will let my parents know.
Situation 3: Syafiq just witnessed fireman putting out a fire in his neighborhood.

Syafiq : Did you see the fireman at work? Oh! they were so brave.
( _______________________________ )
Gopal : No, I was at the canteen. What happened? ( _______________________________ )
Syafiq : Mr. Faiz's house caught fire. The fireman rescued him from the burning house.
( _______________________________ )
Gopal : Thank goodness! It must have been his son's fault. ( _______________________________ ) I've

often seen him playing with a lighter.

Situation 4: Fattah pays Fazura a visit at her apartment.

Fattah : Who is that playing the guitar?


Fazura : That's my brother.
Fattah : Really? ( _______________________________ ) I didn't know he could play so well.
Fazura : Yes, he's music group won battle of bands in Kuala Lumpur. I wish I could play like him.
( _______________________________ )
Fattah : Actually, you could too. You just have to practice every single day.
( _______________________________ )
Fazura : I don't think that that's enough.
Fattah : Mr. Shah, a famous guitarist will be at my house next Friday. Why don't you come over to meet
him? ( _______________________________ )
Fazura : Thank you, I'd like to come. Hopefully he can give me some tips.

Situation 5: Nazri's team has just won the National Novice Debating Championship in Uitm.

Aiman : Congratulations on your success. ( _______________________________ ) I heard your team


won the debate.
Nazri : Thank you. It was very good teamwork.
Aiman : I'm sorry I couldn't attend it. ( _______________________________ ) I had some group
assignments to finish up.
Nazri : We need to start preparing for the next debate championship soon. Don't forget that you promised
to help. ( _______________________________ )
Aiman : Yes, I remember. I can't wait to start working on it. ( _______________________________ ) Let's
start next week.

Activity 5

Listen to the recording and complete the conversation below.

Conversation 1: Mr. Rafiq telephones Mr. Sufian, the owner of Gemilang Bookstore.

Mr. Sufian : Gemilang Bookstore. Can I help you?


Mr. Rafiq : ___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to enquire about a product)
Mr. Sufian : Yes, I do have some. How many copies would you like?
Mr. Rafiq : I would like to have 60 copies.
Mr. Sufian : ___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to ask clarification)
Mr. Rafiq : 60 copies.
Mr. Sufian : Oh dear! I don’t have that many copies.
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to explain) Would you like to have them?
Mr. Rafiq : All right. I’ll take the 30 copies then.
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to place an order)
Mr. Sufian : Certainly, Sir. Let me get the order book and I’ll take down your order.

Conversation 2 : Mr. Mrs. Liang are talking to their children.


Mrs. Liang : Listen, children. Your father has something to tell you.
Mr. Liang : ___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to announce)
Lee Boon : That’s wonderful! When will we be going?
Lee Chin : This is so exciting!
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to ask about plans)
Lee Boon : Yes… yes. Please tell us.
Mr. Liang : ___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to state plans)
Lee Boon : I’d like that.
Lee Chin : Oh no! I have to attend a motivation camp in October.
Mrs. Liang : ___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(to suggest)
Mr. Liang : I agree. We’ll go after Lee Chin’s motivation camp.

Conversation 3: Fahmi, Jerry and Suresh are discussing plans for Teachers’ Day.

Fahmi : Our school will be celebrating Teachers’ Day next week.


Jerry : ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(to refute) We’re celebrating it next month.
Suresh : ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(to confirm) We’re celebrating it next month, not next week.
Fahmi : Let’s do something special for Mrs. Syikin. I like her.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(to describe)
Suresh : That’s a good idea. Let’s buy her an expensive present.
Jerry : I don’t think so. She has always told us never to do that. Why don’t we write a letter or a special
poem to thank her?
Suresh : ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(to express preference) What about you, Fahmi?
Fahmi : All right. We’ll write her a poem then.
Jerry : Let’s do it now.

Speaking

Giving information about people


Asking for information is our expressions to ask questions or to ask about explanations from someone else,
so we get answers on what we asked. When asking for information we will be using WH-Questions:

 What
 When
 Where
 Who
 Why
 Whose
 How

How to find Information about people on the Web?

The web has made it much easier to get information about people. Although many people access the
Internet on a daily basis now, they often use screen names or nicknames that are known only to their
friends. Other people, tend to change their profile pictures once or more often during the course of their
lives. You can also find information through social media or platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter,
LinkedIn etc. There are a few tips about finding people via the web:-

Step 1 : Enter the name


Step 2 : Enter the domain name
Step 3 : Refine your search

Who is relatively easy to find on the web?

 People who have become famous.


 People who post on the internet under their real names.
 Academics and other people who publish articles and speak at conferences. Professors also tend to
have personal web pages.
 Self-employed consultants and other people who own their own businesses.
 Senior management of companies, especially public companies.
 People active in community organizations.
 Anybody with a career that causes them to get written about, cited in articles, or quoted in the press

Examples: Asking and giving information expression.

Asking information Giving information

Excuse me. Who is he He is my brother.

Can you tell me where you live? I live at Taman Rajawali

Can you help me to find my laptop? I saw it in the living room an hour ago.
Could anyone tell me what happen there? There is a car accident.

Sorry to trouble you, but do you know where my bag Don’t you remember that you’ve left it in my room.
is?

Do you happen to know where Mr. Rahman is? He goes to the libarary.

Do you see my new handbag? Here it is. I have found it in the kitchen.

Acivity 6

Choose a prominent personality whom you admire most. Search as much information as possible from the
the Web. Add 5 more interesting information about that person on the space provided.

a) Name : __________________________________________________________
b) Age : __________________________________________________________
c) Gendar : __________________________________________________________
d) Date of birth : __________________________________________________________
e) Place of birth : __________________________________________________________
f) Occupation : __________________________________________________________

g) Hobby : __________________________________________________________
h) _________________________________________________________________________________
i) _________________________________________________________________________________
j) _________________________________________________________________________________
k) _________________________________________________________________________________
l) _________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 7

Find a classmate that you know. Interview your classmate and get as much information as possible. You
may add few more information on the space provided. Please record the interview session and upload it in
the YouTube channel.

a) Name : __________________________________________________________
b) Nickname : __________________________________________________________
c) Age : __________________________________________________________
d) Gendar : __________________________________________________________
e) Date of birth : __________________________________________________________
f) Place of birth : __________________________________________________________
g) Occupation : __________________________________________________________

h) Hobby : __________________________________________________________
i) Dream car : __________________________________________________________
j) Dream house : __________________________________________________________
k) Favourite movie (reason) : __________________________________________________________
l) Favourite colour (reason) : __________________________________________________________
m) _________________________________________________________________________________
n) _________________________________________________________________________________
o) _________________________________________________________________________________
p) _________________________________________________________________________________
q) _________________________________________________________________________________

Please write your YouTube link : __________________________________________________________

Writing

Thesis Statement.

A thesis statement generally appears at the end of the introductory paragraph. A thesis statement is a
sentence that tells your reader your topic, what you think about it, and possibly how you are going to prove
it. Moreover, a thesis helps you narrow down the more general topic and find your own angle on the topic
and express your opinion. Other than that, a thesis lets the reader know what to expect or look for in the
essay. For your readers, it serves as a ‘roadmap’ for where you are going to take
them with your essay. Finally, there are some methods to write a thesis statement:-

a) answer the question or respond to the writing task directly


b) brainstorm and free-write to discover your argument
c) connect your ideas under one joining sentence

Components of thesis statement:-

1. Topic - the general subject of the essay


Example: Teenagers Vapors

2. Controlling idea - your opinion / belief / view / feeling about a topic


Example: Ministry of Health need aggressive promotional campaigns

3. Sub-topics (optional) - the area that you will focus on to support your idea.
Example: Damages the lungs, increases the risk of mouth cancer, raises the chance of heart disease

Thesis statement : Ministry of Health need to target teenage vapors with aggressive promotional
campaigns in order to overcome lung damage, mouth cancer, and heart disease among the teenagers.

Thesis Statement Checklist:-


 includes specific topic
 is it a broad topic
 includes opinion
 is it clear
 is it specific
 is it arguable
 an outline for the essay
 uses effective word choices.

Activity 8

List down the controlling idea based on the topic given. Then, write the thesis statement by using the
information that you have listed.

1. Topic : Radio Commercials


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - provide information
ii - marketing strategy
iii - provide job opportunities

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

2. Topic : Music
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - make you happier
ii - reduces stress
iii - helps you sleep better

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. Topic : Money
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - online business
ii - save it in a bank
iii - a part time job

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

4. Topic : Backpacking
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - cheaper
ii - boost social skills
iii - independent traveller

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

5. Topic : Pollutions
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - air
ii - water
iii - thermal

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

6. Topic : Animal
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - overharvesting
ii - habitat destruction
iii - pollutions

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

7. Topic : Leaderships
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - role model
ii - facilitator
iii - counselor

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

8. Topic : Education
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - primary
ii - secondary
iii - tertiary

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
9. Topic : Social Network
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - cyber bullying
ii - pornographic
iii - sharing fault information

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

10. Topic : Smartphone


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - health problem
ii - distraction
iii - security issue

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 9

List down the controlling idea and sub-topics based on the topic given. Then, write the thesis statement by
using the information that you have listed.

1. Topic : Green House


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

2. Topic : Online Gambling


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. Topic : Multi level marketing
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

4. Topic : Addiction
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

5. Topic : Bullying
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

6. Topic : Education Loan


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

7. Topic : Pornography
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

8. Topic : Early Childhood Education


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

9. Topic : Employment
Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

10. Topic : Smoking


Controlling idea : ____________________________________________________________________
Sub-topics : i - _____________________________________________________________________
ii - ____________________________________________________________________
iii - ____________________________________________________________________

Thesis statement :
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 6

RELATIONSHIP

At the end of the Unit, students should be able to:


1. Use adverbial phrase and correlative conjunctions correctly;
2. Observe the skill of identifying the stated main ideas;
3. Listen to radio program and identify request statement;
4. Express opinions; language of agreeing and disagreeing; and
5. Write thesis statement using sequence connectors.

GRAMMAR
Adverbial phrase is a group of words
that act together as an adverb, giving
more information about a verb,
adjective, or other adverb in a
sentence. The adverbial phrase
answers the same questions as a
regular adverb: how/how much, when,
or where.

Watch this YouTube video for more information and explanation on Adverbial Phrase!

https://youtu.be/k1BWYnzLP8Y

6.1 Circle the adverbial phrase in these sentences.

1. We expect our grandparents to arrive in about 5 minutes.

2. My cousin watches Korean movies almost as much as you do.

3. The weatherman says it will be cloudy all day.

4. My brother plays football better than your brother does.

5. Our parents love to cycle on weekends.

6. Ghaffar and Dena walk through the corridor.


7. The frog jumps through the tall grass.

8. Mama cooks dinner better than Dad does.

9. He found his lucky pen in the cupboard.

10. We raced our toy cars on the playground.

11. Fendy and Zack were reading their books in the car.

12. The music teacher played the violin better than her student.

13. Siti tried to talk to Ikram underneath the rain

14. Early in the morning the air is cold and fresh.

15. Mum will pick us up after school today.

16. Sue will run on the track at school.

Correlative conjunction is pairs of


conjunctions that are related and work
together in a sentence

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on Correlative Conjuntions

https://youtu.be/Wwk5t0OgxOs
6.2 Choose from the pairs of correlative conjuntions below to fill in the blanks.

Either Both Neith


er
or and
nor

Wheth Not
er only

or But
also

1. My sister and I will go to our grandparent’s house _______________ tonight


_______________ tomorrow night.

2. Uncle Roslan cooked _______________ Rendang _______________ Lontong for our Hari
Raya gathering.

3. _______________ my cousin _______________ my auntie like watching P.Ramlee’s movies.

4. My father will be on time _______________ he drives to work _______________ ride his


motorcycle.

5. _______________ mother _______________ father insist that I go to a local college rather


than abroad.

6. _______________ Korea _______________ Japan were visited by our relatives this year.

7. Siti’s brother wants to go to _______________ Pulau Perhentian _______________ Pulau


Langkawi.
8. I will be your friend _______________ you stay here _______________ move away.

9. Nora’s husband will _______________ fill out the application _______________ take a job if it
is offered to him.

READING

A stated main idea is a sentence found in the reading


passage which contains the topic and the main point

Watch this Youtube video to get more insight on identifying stated main idea.

https://youtu.be/8o4DZQjCH2Q

6.3 Circle the main idea for each paragraphs

The word “empathy” is on the lips of scientist and business leaders, education experts and
political activists. Empathy is not just a way to extend the boundaries of your moral universe.
According to new research, it’s a habit we can cultivate to improve the quality of our own lives.
But what is empathy? It is the ability to step into the shoes of another, aiming to understand their
feelings and perspectives, and to use that understanding to guide our own actions. That makes it
different from kindness or pity.

There is a new treat at universal Studio Singapore at the end of this year which is a new outdoor
ride, Puss in Boots Giant Journey. The ride takes off with an original storyline that includes a
giant castle, a magical beanstalk and Puss’ accomplice, Kitty Soft Paws. Other than that, Puss
and Kitty will be dancing in a new stage show, the Dance for the Magic Beans. The 20-minute
show ends in meet-and-greet sessions with the characters. Universal Studios Singapore features
more than20 rides, shows and attractions. This new ride will be the seventh attraction based on
Dream Works Animation films.
Historically regarded as the Pearl of the Orient, Penang is a large and colourful island shaped by
its diver culture, heritage and world –famous cuisine. A must-do here is a stroll or rickshaw ride
around the historic Georgetown to see its colonial buildings, stately mansions, lovely temples and
impressive hotels. Visitors will find plenty of activities that range from excellent shopping and
culinary experiences to horse riding on the beach, photographing snakes in the Snake Temple,
and cable car rides up the Penang Hill

The Bounty was one of the world’s most recognizable ships. Launched in 1960 for the MGM film
Mutiny on the Bounty, she was a scaled-up replica of the 1784 original HMS Bounty on which
Fletcher Christian led the revolt against Captain William Bligh in 1789. This ship was a tall ship.
Her three masts rose more than 30m high, supporting 930m2 of sailcloth and laced with more than
3.2km of line. She was 36m long – about 9m longer than the original – and built of hand – hewn
Douglas fir, oak and spruce.

LISTENING

Language functions define what the person should say or write in communicative situations. Here are most
typical language functions which we normally listen to.

Agreeing Offering
Disagreein Inviting
g

Suggestin Requestin
Promisin g Apologizing
g g
information
https://youtu.be/8o4DZQjCH2Q
6.4 Listen to the recordings and fill in the blanks.

1. Speaker A is talking about her ____________________________________________

2. Speaker B is talking about his ____________________________________________

3. Speaker C is talking about her ____________________________________________

4. Speaker D is talking about his ____________________________________________

5. Speaker E is talking about her ____________________________________________

Expressing Opinion, Agreeing and Disagreeing

Here are some examples of language form which can be used to express opinion, agreeing and
disagreeing while having a conversation.

Expressing Opinion

In my opinion...
The way I see it...
If you want my honest opinion...
According to...
As far as I am concerned... Expressing Agreement
If you ask me...
I agree with you
I couldn’t agree with you more
That’s so true.
That’s for sure.
Tell me about it!
You’re absolutely right.
Absolutely.
That’s exactly how i feel
Exactly.
I’m afraid I agree with...
Expressing Disagreement

I don’t think so.


No way.
I’m afraid I disagree.
I totally disagree.
I beg to differ.
I would say the exact opposite.
Not necessarily.
That is not always true.
That is not always the case.
No, i am not so sure about that.

Watch this YouTube video for information on how to express opinion as well as agreeing and
disagreeing in a conversation.

https://youtu.be/F7eX77ayWR8

6.5 Look at the picture and express your opinion accordingly. You may give your response in the
forum platform. You may also want to agree or disagree with your friends opinion.
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

WRITING

What is a thesis
statement?
A thesis statement is a sentence which
always contains the main idea of an essay
and it helps to control the idea within the
essay. The thesis statement usually appears
at the end of the first paragraph of a paper
Watch this YouTube video to get some insights on how to write a good thesis statement

https://youtu.be/J5NLKGwVSRI

6.6 Write you thesis statement based on the topic and main points given below

1.
Topic: Happy Family
Main points:
Love each other
Care for each members
Be together

Thesis statement:

2.
Topic: Reasons of Divorce cases in our society
Main points:
Lack of love
Cheating
Financial problem

Thesis statement:
3.
Topic: How to develop a good friendship
Main points:
trust
be a good listener
understanding

Thesis statement:

6.7 Let’s practice by listing down the main points of the topics given and then write the thesis
statement usingEarly
Topic: Marriage
the main points that you have listed.
Main Points:

 ____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________

Thesis statement:

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Topic: How to build a healthy relationship

Main Points:

 ____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________

Thesis statement:

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

Topic: What makes a good best friend?

Main Points:

 ____________________________________________
Topic:
 How to prevent jealousy in relationship?
____________________________________________
Main Points:
____________________________________________
 statement:
Thesis ____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________

Thesis statement:

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 7

STUDY SKILLS

At the end of the Unit, students should be able to:


1. Use perfect tenses correctly;
2. Formulate the implied main idea of a paragraph;
3. Distinguish relevant information by listening through telephone conversations;
4. Talk about leisure plans using markers and linking devices and
5. Write introductory paragraphs.

GRAMMAR
Perfect Tenses
I have lost my assignment. 1.Past action with result in
the present.
I have been a lecturer for
Present S + has/have +
1 more than 5 years. 2. Action started in past
Perfect V3 + O
and continues

to the present.
I have been waiting here for 1. Action started in past
two hours. and continues

Present I’m tired because I’ve been to the present(stress on


2 Perfect S + has/have + walking around the campus. duration)
Progressive been + V.. ing
2. Action from the past,
+O
but recently

stopped (result seen)


I'd (had) already eaten 1. Completed action
3 Past Perfect S + had + V3
before they came. before something
They had been talking for 1. To express the duration
S + had been
Past Perfect over an hour before Karim of a continuous activity
4 + V-ing + for…
Progressive arrived. begun before another
before…
activity in the past.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on Perfect Tenses as well as other tenses in
English

https://youtu.be/U_uH5ZWMIqs

7.1 Write a suitable sentence using the PRESENT PERFECT TENSE :

1. Ani’s hand was dirty. Now it’s clean. (wash)


e.g. ……... Ani has washed her hand…………
2. Timah was 80 kg. Now she is 70. (lose weight)
………………………………………………………………………
3. Bakar played football yesterday. Now he can’t walk; his leg is in plaster. (break)
………………………………………………………………………
4. Siti is looking for her dictionary. (lose)
………………………………………………………………………
5. Mariam is on the way to the library. (go)
………………………………………………………………………
6. Hashim was in the library just now. He’s back in the class now. (be)
………………………………………………………………………
7. Look! Mrs. Leela has got a lot of books. (buy)
………………………………………………………………………
8. Remy can’t study anything now. (study too much)
…………………………………………………………………….
9. Jamilah is very tired. (do / assignment)
………………………………………………………………………
10. Tam needs a holiday. (study / hard / this year)
………………………………………………………………………

7.2 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE or PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS?. Circle the correct
answer.

1. I have bought / have been buying a new resource book.


2. Have you finished / Have you been finishing reading the notes yet?
3. They have revising / have been revising the lesson all afternoon, ever since they came back from
lecture.
4. I have been reading / have read this book now, so you can have it back.
5. They have been writing / have written eight pages already.
6. Your exam paper is completely blank! What have you been doing / have you done?
7. Oh, no! There’s nothing to eat. My sister has been eating / has eaten everything I left in the kitchen.
8. Oh, no! There’s no milk to drink. They have drunk / have been drinking all the milk for breakfast.
9. No wonder your eyes hurt. You have been scrolling / have scrolling the computer for information
ever since you had your lunch.
10. Tina and Salina have not seen / have not been seeing their supervisor for months.
11. God! Hakim has scored / has been scoring.
12. They have typed / have been typing their assignment for an hour.
13. I have been waiting / have waited for your task for weeks.
14. I have finished / have been finishing my studies.
15. I have been writing / have written my project paper for an hour.
16. Rahim has attended / has been attending ten different lectures this week.
17. I am very tired. Because I have travelled / have been travelling around the university’s campus all
day.
18. She has found / has been finding a good job.
19. I’m hot because I have been running / have run.
20. I have written / have been writing proposals for weeks.

READING

What is a main
idea?
A main idea is the author’s main point
about the topic. Main Idea is divided
into stated and implied.

Implied Main Idea

What is implied main


idea?
It is a sentence that the readers need to
formulate in order to tell the author‘s
main idea by reading between the lines
and draw conclusions.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insights on Implied Main Ideas

https://youtu.be/OSClp4vP3B0

7.3 Write out the implied main idea for each paragraph. Please take note that a main idea
must be written in a complete sentence.

Rahmah is a retired schoolteacher. In her spare time, she helps out at the local old folk’s home. She
also baby-sits her neighbours’ children. Her house is full of stray cats and dogs which she feeds and
looks after. Her friends drop by every day to chat and pass the time. She always has friendly words for
everyone.

__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

One technique to manage stress is self-hypnosis. Another relaxation technique is the relaxation
response. In this technique, one learns how to quiet the body and mind. Another way to manage stress
is progressive muscular relaxation. This is a procedure in which muscles are contracted and relaxed
systematically. Other techniques include yoga, quieting, and diaphragmatic breathing.

__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
When you register for a Mathematics class, try to select a teacher who can explain concepts clearly.
Also, find a Mathematics teacher who is willing to answer students’ questions in class. Try to choose a
teacher who is willing to help students after class. When choosing a Mathematics teacher, try to find
one who gives fair tests and who provides useful handouts that complement class notes.

__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

If you have a weak background in English, begin each course with the mindset that you will take the
course seriously whether or not the grade will count toward your degree requirements. To make up for a
weak background, try to find a teacher who enjoys teaching and learning. If your background is weak,
make a point to attend every class and do all the assigned homework regularly, even if that homework is
not collected by the instructor. Also, go to the language lab; students who use the language lab generally
perform better than students who do not.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

If you are having trouble with your English instructor, do not use this problem as an excuse of not doing
well in the class, if you cannot understand something, ask the instructors to slow down his or her pace.
If you cannot follow the teacher’s language, work with other students in your class, ask questions or
refer to the dictionary. If you English instructor will not make time to answer your questions, go to the
language lab, ask another instructor, or get help form an A student.

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

LISTENING

Listening for relevant information


Watch this YouTube video to get some insights on listening for information

https://youtu.be/B8EJVcRJSXo

7.4 Before you listen to the audio let’s discuss on this questions, you can give you respond
through the forum platform.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of buying


new or used books for your studies? Do you pay for
your own books or do your parents pay for them? Do
you pay cash or do you buy them using a debit/credit
card?

7.5 Listen to the conversation and answer these questions

1. Kamal is selling his science book, Today's World for ___________.


A. RM18
B. RM89
C.RM80

2. Why is the woman surprised by the price of the science book?


A. She says that the textbook is an old copy
B. She thinks that the book is in pretty bad condition.
C. She feels that she can find the book cheaper on the Internet.

3.Which of the books that Aisyah will not buy?


A. a novel
B. an English writing book
C. a research method book
4. Kamal's textbook on thesis writing is called, How to write ____________
A. a journal
B. good report
C. successful thesis

5. Why does Kamal want to study cooking?


A. He has a friend who's taking the same class.
B. He wants to major in hotel management in the future.
C. He wants to learn to cook because he lives on his own.

SPEAKING

Markers and linking devices in speaking

Signal Meaning
To start with, firstly…today I will speak about… Introducing the topic
today’s lecture is about…

The lecture is divided into… Tells the structure

Firstly, secondly, next, then, last but one… Be ready for a number of points to be listed

However, nevertheless, on the other hand, Contrast or opposing information


conversely, on the contrary, despite,
nonetheless…
In addition, in other words, put another way, Repetition, extra information or further evidence
also, as I mentioned before, moreover,
furthermore…
For example, that is to say, such as… What follows is an example

Especially, specifically, most importantly… Important details will follow

Therefore, thus, because, consequently, as a Cause and effect relations


consequence, accordingly…

I’ll expand on this later on, I’ll give you more Be alert and leave some space to build up on
detail on this…. this point later on

Finally, in conclusion, in short, let me These signals will often help you get the global
summarise, let’s recap, in brief, to wrap up… picture

7.6 Look at some of the pictures on leisure activities. Talk about plans that you can make based
on the pictures. You provide your response through the forum platform.
1.

2.

3.

4.
WRITING

Introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of an


essay. It normally introduces the main idea of an
essay. A good introductory paragraph will always
grab the reader’s attention and always tell why the
topic is important. An introductory paragraph can be
written in four different ways – using a question, a
quote, some elements of drama or an anecdote.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insights on writing introductory parargraphs

https://youtu.be/4WDclqoGouY

7.7 Write an introductory paragraph for each topic given

Topic: Time Management

Introduction :

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Topic: How to prepare for your final examination

Introduction :

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

Topic: Using the internet for academic purposes

Introduction :

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Topic: How to take note effectively during lectures.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Introduction :
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 8

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

At the end of the Unit, students should be able to:


1. Use active and passive sentences correctly;
2. Formulate the implied main idea using the three formulas;
3. Distinguish relevant information by listening through telephone conversations;
4. Initiate and close conversation using markers and linking devices and
5. Write concluding paragraphs.

GRAMMAR
Active and Passive
Present Perfect (has / have + been + past participle)

Active Many students have used the university’s computer lab.

Passive The university’s computer lab has been used by many students.
Past Perfect (had + been + past participle)

Active Jamal had taught many international students before he began his job here.

Passive Many international students had been taught by Jamal before he began his job here.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on active and passive sentence

https://youtu.be/s8fqGQXhrrU

8.1 Change the sentences into passive sentences.


1. The scientist has recently brought this new invention.
____________________________________________________________________________
2. June has just failed the experiment.
____________________________________________________________________________
3. My professor has broken this test tube.
____________________________________________________________________________
4. Rina has dusted the laboratory carefully.
____________________________________________________________________________
5. Sani felt better when he had reached the Science Centre, visited the laboratory and performed
the experiment.
____________________________________________________________________________
6. By the time the director came she had typed the letters.
____________________________________________________________________________
7. They went home after they had visited the Planetarium
___________________________________________________________________________.
8. Professor Reza wondered why we had not visited his university before.
____________________________________________________________________________
9. The lab coat has been lent to me for the week.
____________________________________________________________________________
10.Jali and Brian will have passed the exams by the end of June.
____________________________________________________________________________
11. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
____________________________________________________________________________
12.Previous researchers had run the test for the experiment.
____________________________________________________________________________
13.We shall have finished this experiment report by 8 o’clock.
____________________________________________________________________________
14.Somebody had slashed the specimen with a blade.
____________________________________________________________________________

8.2 Complete the text with expressions given below.

had been given had been told had never been taught
was given (twice) was offered was promised
was shown wasn’t being paid was sent

I’ll never forget my first day at that office. I __(1)__ to arrive at 8.30, but when I got there the whole place
seemed to be empty. I didn’t know what to do, because I __(2)__ no information about the building or
where I was going to work, so I just waited around until some of the secretaries began to turn up. Finally I
__(3)__ a dirty little office on the fifth floor, where I __(4)__ a desk in a corner. Nothing happened for an
hour; then I __(5)__ some letters to type on a computer by one of the senior secretaries. This wasn’t very
successful, because I __(6)__ how to use a computer. (in the letter I __(7)__ when I __(8)__ the job, I
__(9)__ computer training, but they’d obviously forgotten about this.) By lunchtime things hadn’t got any
better, and I decided that I __(10)__ enough to put up with the nonsense, so I walked out and didn’t go
back.

READING
The Implied Main Idea is one that is
NOT clearly stated in any one
sentence in a passage. It is only
suggested or inferred by the
supporting details. The author
doesn’t state it directly.

Formulating implied main idea using the three formulas

The Three Formulas


Formula 1: Add essential information
(usually the topic) to a sentence in the
paragraph that almost states the main
idea.

Formula 2: Combine into a single


sentence two sentences from the
paragraph that together the complete
main idea.

Formula 3: Summarize details into one


general sentence or combine several
important ideas into one sentence.
8.3 Write out the implied main idea for each paragraph and please take note that the main idea
needs to be written in a complete sentence

1. People who are obese are likely to develop type II, non-insulin dependent diabetes. In fact, 90% of
obese people develop this disease. Seventy percent of obese people will develop heart disease, and 33%
will develop hypertension. Colon and breast cancers are also linked to obesity. (Adapted from Hahn and
Payne, Focus on Health)

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

2. Eliminating cigarette and tobacco use can reduce one’s risk for cardiovascular disease. Increasing
physical activity is another lifestyle change that will reduce one’s chances of developing heart disease.
Another controllable risk factor for heart disease is blood cholesterol level. If we change our eating habits,
we can lower the level of cholesterol in the blood, thus reducing our risk of disease. The last controllable
risk factor is high blood pressure, a risk factor than can be reduced through changes in lifestyle.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

3. Shortly after a loved one has died, grieving people often experience physical discomfort such as
shortness of breath and tightness of the throat. Grieving people may also experience a sense of
numbness. Another common emotion of the bereaved is feelings of detachment from others. Still other
bereaved people are preoccupied with the image of the deceased. Some may not be able to complete
everyday tasks without thinking of their lost loved one. Still other survivors may be overcome with feelings
of guilt, feeling that they somehow neglected or ignored their departed loved one. (Adapted from Hahn and
Payne, Focus on Health)

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

4. Denial is typically the first stage that dying people experience. Many patients refuse to believe that they
will really die. After experiencing the denial stage, many patients experience anger. They may feel they
have been cheated. This stage is typically followed by the bargaining stage. Some patients feel that if they
make a bargain with God, they will be healed. When these patients realize that bargaining will not work,
they may enter the next phase, depression, withdrawing from close relatives and friends. The final stage is
acceptance, a phase which ensures a sense of peace. (Adapted from Hahn and Payne, Focus on Health)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

5. According to Leming and Dickinson (1990), grief peaks in the week after a loved one's funeral. To help
the bereaved, friends and family should try not to make demands on the grieving individual. Instead, they
should allow the bereaved time to grieve. The bereaved can also be helped by assisting them with daily
household chores. It is likewise helpful to talk with the bereaved person about the deceased and to
express one’s own feelings of sadness and loss but without pity. Friends and family can also help the
bereaved by keeping regular contact with them, inviting them to dinner or to movies or just offering a
friendly call or a visit. (Adapted from Hahn and Payne, Focus on Health)

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

LISTENING

8.4 Listen to the two different telephone conversation. Fill in the blanks with the relevant
information from the conversation.

Hakim : Hello, Hakim speaking.

Maria : Hello Hakim, this Maria. Is your ____________________________?

Hakim : I’m afraid _____________________. He is probably


___________________________________. Can I take a message?

Maria: Yes, sure. Could you please let him know that he is
________________________________________________ and
___________________________________________, please?

Hakim: Sure, I’ll tell him that.

Maria: Thanks, Bye

Hakim: Bye.
Ms. Lim : Good Morning, Lim speaking .How may I help you?

Datuk Zack: Good morning, this is


___________________________________________. I
would like to speak to ______________________.

Ms.Lim: Oh, I’m sorry Datuk. Datuk Yahya is


_____________________________________.

Datuk Zack: hmm..when will he be back to _____________________?

Ms.Lim: He will be
__________________________________. Would you like
me ___________________________________________.

Datuk Zack: Just tell him


________________________________________

Ms.Lim: Certainly Datuk. I will inform him


_______________________________

Datuk zack: Alright then. Thanks. Bye

Ms.Lim: You’re welcome. Bye.


SPEAKING

8.5 Initiate a conversation based on these topics given. You can work with a partner and use the
Forum platform to share your responses.

1. What is the greatest invention in the world?

2. Internet is harmful to mankind

3. How has science and technology improved your life?

WRITING

Writing a concluding paragraph

The concluding paragraph is the last paragraph of the essay.

 It signals the end of the essay

 It summarizes the main points

 It leaves the reader with the writer’s final thoughts on the topic
Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on writing a concluding paragraph

https://youtu.be/6odCJyvaRdw

8.6 By using the skills of writing a thesis statement that you have learned in Unit 6, write the
thesis statement, introduction and concluding paragraph for the given topic in the space provided.

Title: The Greatest Invention in the world

Introduction :

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Conclusion:

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Title: Virtual Classroom: The advantage

Introduction :

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Conclusion:

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Title: Smart watch or Digital Watch? What is your preference?

Introduction :

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Conclusion:

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UNIT 9

EDUCATION

At the end of the Unit, students should be able to:


1. Use correlative conjunctions correctly;
2. Understand the role of supporting details in paragraphs;
3. Distinguish fact from opinion by listening to fact and opinion about jobs opportunity;
4. Use anaphora appropriately together with other cohesive devices and
5. Write essays based on stimuli provided.

GRAMMAR

Correlative Conjunctions

A correlative conjunction is a paired conjunction that, like a coordinating conjunction, joins elements of
equal grammatical construction.

Correlative Conjunctions

both . . . and
not only . . . but also
either . . . or
neither . . . nor
whether . . . or
just as . . . so too

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on Correlative Conjuntions


https://youtu.be/5SaZcxUGegM

9.1 Fill in the blanks using the appropriate correlative conjunction.

1. ________________ my brother _________________ my sister study in Kota Bahru.


2. _________________my cat, _________________my rabbit are hungry.
3. _________________ my mother _________________my father were born in this state.
4. _________________I will go to the campus _________________ you will.
5. _________________football _________________ tennis are my favourite sport in school.
6. _________________ my car, _________________my motorcycle needs to be repaired.
7. __________________ I will come there, _________________you will come here.
8. _________________you _________________ your friend are wise enough to think of what is good and
what is bad.

9.2 Read the sentences below. Then circle the correlative conjunctions that complete each
sentence.

1. _____________ Ali _____________Kamal tried out for the debate competition.

a. Whether . . . or

b. Both . . . and

2. _____________ you arrange your study table _____________ you will stay home this weekend.

a. Either . . . or

b. Neither . . . nor

3. _____________ we go to library _____________ stay at the cafe does not matter to me.

a. Whether . . . or
b. Not only . . . but also

4. __________ ___________ did Sheila do well on her History test, ___________ she ___________ got an
A on her Geography report.

a. Both . . . and

b. Not only . . . but also

5. _____________ I can go to the public library on Saturday, _____________ I can go to the cinema.

a. Not only . . . but also

b. Either . . . or

6. I found _____________ my homework _____________ my textbook on the kitchen cabinet.

a. both . . . and

b. either . . . or

7. Fendi found ___________ ___________ the report he had lost ___________ ___________ his
important files.

a. neither . . . nor

b. not only . . . but also

8. I have _____________ the time _____________ the motivation to study Chemistry right now.

a. neither . . . nor

b. either . . . or

9. _____________ my internet _____________ my cable television disconnected last night.

a. Both . . . and

b. Whether . . . or

10. Zati can’t decide _____________ to play theater this year _____________ to take social studies.

a. neither . . . nor

b. whether . . . or
READING

What is supporting details?

Supporting details are specific facts, evidence,


or ideas used to develop, expand, and support
the more general main point of a paragraph.
Supporting details are important to develop
and support the main idea of the paragraph,
making your argument stronger, more
interesting, and easier to understand.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on supporting details

https://youtu.be/yCz7b7ZlClM

Acupunture can be used


9.3 Underline as aidea
the main painkiller or andown
and write anaesthesia. In thisdetails.
the supporting practice, needles are used as the
instruments of treatment. These needles are inserted at specific points in the body. Acupuncture is
actually a unique Chinese medical practice. It is also used to treat illnesses such a migraine, arthiritis
and ulcers.

Supporting details:

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_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
The last decade has witnessed sweeping developments in Malaysia’s medical sector. These changes
have generated benefits for patients and medical practitioners and brought the country closer to the
forefront of medical technology and therapy. The healthcare has improved dramatically in both public
and private sectors. Currently, we are approaching the level of healthcare available in the developed
world. Besides, with the advancement of the internet and social media, patients are more
knowledgeable and demanding and hospitals have to step up to their expectations. Hence, the
hospitals are now focusing on the customer’s overall journey and providing the highest quality
medical experience including comfort, care and compassion.

Supporting details:

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________

SANOFI Malaysia has launched the #MerdekaTanpaDenggi campaign to raise awareness and reduce
the number of dengue cases in the next few months. This campaign is part of the initiative by the Health
Ministry which was launched on July 16 to address the rising number of dengue fever cases in the
country. It provides a platform for all Malaysians to pledge for a future that is free from dengue. To-date,
more than 120 Malaysians have died of the dengue fever. The campaign calls upon all Malaysians to
educate themselves on ways to prevent dengue spreading.

Supporting details:

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__________________________________________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________
Taking notes is a good way to remember something we read or hear. It is not always possible to retain
large amounts of information in our memories. When we write down main points and facts as we listen
to a speech or read a textbook, we will be able to use them to recall the information at a later time.

Supporting details:

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

One of the best methods of gathering information quickly is through face-to-face or telephone
interviews. These methods provide greater flexibility than mail questionnaires. Through interviews,
interviewers will be able to clarify complicated questions or questions which need more explanations.
Also, interviewers can ignore irrelevant questions. In interviews we are able to obtain feedback
immediately and this saves time. The data that is collected is more accurate and concise. Moreover,
people respond better to interviews than mail questionnaires.

Supporting details:

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
___

LISTENING

A fact is something that An opinion is based on a


is concrete, real and person point of view or
proven with evidence. belief in something. For
For example, the earth example, most people
revolves around sun. It feel that internet is the
has been scientifically greatest invention. This
proven through is just an opinion.
numerous researches.
Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on distinguishing facts from opinion.

https://youtu.be/fnFnWWAnlkw

9.4 Listen to the conversation between Intan and Ella about job satisfaction. Decide whether the
following statements are facts or opinions.

Doctors and lawyers are the Teachers are Malaysia’s


unhappiest workers in unhappiest workers.
Malaysia Fact /Opinion
Fact / Opinion

There are limited promotions


Office Administrators have
for doctors.
many responsibilities.
Fact / Opinion
Fact / Opinion
Some doctors are serious. Those earning RM1200 a
month are the happiest
Fact / Opinion workers.

Fact / Opinion

SPEAKING

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on cohesive devices.

https://youtu.be/2JZaiIp0q44

9.5 Give your opinion based on the given pictures below. You may work with a partner. Use the
cohesive devices that you have learned. You can provide you responses on the Forum platform provided.
1.

2.

3.

4.
WRITING

9.5 Describe the information based on the infograohics given. Write an essay in about 150 words
for each inforgraphics.
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(source https://www.digitalnewsasia.com/)
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(source http://www.educationdestinationmalaysia.com)

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UNIT 10

EMPLOYMENT

At the end of the Unit, students should be able to:


1. Use active and passive correctly;
2. Identify and differentiate the minor and major details;
3. Distinguish fact from opinion by listening to fact and opinion about jobs opportunity;
4. Manage interaction and
5. Write descriptive essays.

GRAMMAR
Active and Passive Sentences

Simple Present
(is / are + past participle)
Active Twice a month, Shah updates his resume.

Passive Twice a month, the resume is updated by Shah.

Present Continuous (is / are + being + past participle)

Active At the moment, Khatijah is typing the minutes.

Passive Right now, the minutes is being typed by Khatijah.

Simple Past (was / were + past participle)

Active Tina returned the curriculum vitae.

Passive The curriculum vitae was returned by Tina.

Past Continuous (was / were + being + past participle)

Active The officer was writing the fine ticket when the truck sped past us.

Passive The ticket was being written by the officer when the truck sped past us.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on active and passive sentences on various
tenses.
https://youtu.be/ePfmgMTgXl8

10.1 Change the following sentences from passive voice to active voice.

1. The office party is not enjoyed by Mohamad.

2. The final interview was successfully passed by the candidates in the interview list.

3. Atok’s entire company was left to his grandson Ahmad.

4. The sad letter is written by Salmah.

5. Later that afternoon, the platoon was lead by the commandant himself.

6. For several years, the company was established by the board of directors.

7. His employer was greatly concerned about his lack of determination in work.

8. The roof of that building was ripped out by the force of the heavy storms.

9. Nearly half of the software company’s employee was impacted by the recession.

10. The theatre’s final performance was postponed due to some technical problems.
10.2 Rewrite the following passage into PASSIVE VOICE:

Izzati has been worried since last week. Last Tuesday, she received a letter from the police. In the letter
they asked her to call the police. Izzati wondered why the police wanted her, and nothing worried her
anymore. There, they told her that they had found her handbag. They found it at the back alley of the
abandoned shop houses few days ago. Somebody stole it 2 weeks ago, when she was walking back home
from work. Now, they are sending it to her.

…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………

READING
When you read certain paragraph, you will always identify that this paragraph contains main idea. The main
idea will normally be elaborated with details which are the major details. The major details usually describe
the reasons and elaborating more on the main idea. Besides, the minor points are presented in order to
give more emphasis on the major details.

Main Idea

What the topic is all


about
Major Details

Explanation on the main idea

Arguments /comparison

Support the main idea

Using connectors like first, second,


moreover , furthermore
Minor Details

Always available to elaborate on the major details

Using connectors like for instance, for example,


this means, as an example

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on identifying minor and major details.

https://youtu.be/uE74-8YAV9E
10.3 Read the following paragrpahs and write the major and minor details.

Online shopping has become popular among Malaysians. With the extensive advertisements of
online shopping sites like Lazada and 11streets, more Malaysians find online shopping convenient.
They can shop from the comfort of their homes without having to drive to shopping malls and
having the salesperson pressuring them to buy the goods sold.

Major details:

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_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Minor details:

_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

A number of people claimed that money and materials are the most important things in their life.
They would do anything to gather as much money as they can. For instance, some people resorted
to gambling and illegal activities like selling drugs to get easy money. There are also some who
work day and night and neglect their families for financial gains.

Major details:

_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Minor details:

_______________________________________________________________________________
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_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
The advertisement of technology has provided humans with numerous benefits. The main
contribution is in sharing of information worldwide. A person can access journal articles,
unpublished work, stories and reports easily from the web. A lot of books can also be read online
without having to purchase them. For primary and secondary school students, they can access
the web for quizzes, examination questions, sample of essays and assignments for practice.
Teachers can also download worksheets for grammar lessons with different groups of students.

Major details:

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_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
________

Minor details:

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_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

10.4 Look at the following paragraph. Circle the major detail. Then, try to write two minor details
to support the major detail.

Travelling to attractive places is one of the most popular hobbies among the working people. There
are many reasons why working people love to travel. One of the reasons is to relax and get away
from their busy life.

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________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________
LISTENING

10.5 Which factor is most crucial when looking for a new job? Rank the following points in terms
of importance and then discuss your reasons:

opportunities for promotion or advancement, working hours, vacation


days, pension plan, interest level, salary, benefits such as health and
life insurance, sick or maternity leave

10.6 Listen to the conversation and choose the correct answer.

1. In which field is Fendi looking for a job?

A. education
B. medicine
C.technology

2. Which statement best describes the pay for the job?

A. The salary for the position is above the industry average.


B. Workers are paid on a commission basis depending on their sales.
C. Employees can receive periodic pay increases based on their work.

3. What are some of the benefits that the company provides?

A. insurance, paid vacation and a company vehicle


B. paid vacation, opportunities for promotion, and insurance
C. opportunities for advancement, insurance, and a free bus pass

4. What does the future hold for the industry that Fendi is considering?

A. growing, yet uncertain


B. expanding and secure
C. contracting, yet stable
5. From the conversation, what do we know about Fendi’s educational background?

A. He has a college degree.


B. He dropped out of high school.
C. He has some post-secondary education.

SPEAKING

Managing interaction

During a conversation or having a discussion with friends or colleagues, you may want to interrupt or even
change the topic. Below are some expressions that you can use to interrupt or change the topic.

How to interrupt
Can I just say something here?
Can I stop you there for a moment?
Can I just butt in for a second?
Can I just mention something?
Can I just add something here?
Do you mind if I come in here?
Before you move on, I’d like to say something.
Before you go on, I’d like to say something.
Excuse me for interrupting but……
Excuse me for butting in but…..
Sorry for interrupting but….
Just a moment, I’d like to….
If I could just come in here. I think…
How to change the topic
Oh, by the way…
That reminds me of…
Speaking about/of…
Talking of …
Before I forget…
Oh, I nearly forgot…
Oh, while I remember…
I just thought of something…
Oh, there’s something else I wanted/meant to say/ask you…
Oh, I knew there was something I meant/wanted to tell you
Oh, I know what I wanted/meant to say/tell/ask you…
This has nothing to do with what we are talking about, but…
I know this is changing the subject, but…
Changing the subject for a minute…
Funny / strange you should mention/say that…
That’s funny, because something similar…
Incidentally…

10.7 By referring to some of the suggested phrases on how to intterupt and how to change the
topic in the box, create dialogues with a friend using some of the phrases by choosing any four of the
following situations. You can use the forum platform to give your responses.

1. With a job interviewer

2. At the meeting room

3. At the shopping mall with the sales person

4. Talking to a librarian

5. At a train station

6. With a professor

7. At a clinic
8. At a workshop

WRITING

Writing Descriptive Essay

This type of essay is represented by a written task describing the case to the reader so that it becomes
clear to them. The case of the essay can be a place, a person, a famous building or any generic object.

Description of people
Essay containing description of a person or people has to be
structure as follows:

1. The introduction must include general facts about a person


being described and provide the details circumstances of your
encounter.
2. The main body consists of the description of your subject’s
physical appearance and personality qualities as well as
interests and other unique features. Each topic should be
summarized in a separate paragraph.
3. The concluding phase is a paragraph in which you describe
your personal standing in regards to a specific person.

Description of building/places

When writing a descriptive essay about a building or a facility


you should refer to the following tips:

1. The introduction should explain your reason for choosing a


certain place/building for the description as well as mention its
name and location.
2. The main body is used for description of the major features of
a building or a place in details. For instance while narrating about
a building you need to mention what other places you can see
from it and what you can do there, also its exterior and interior. If
known the history of the building/place you should include it in
your description as well.
3. In the concluding paragraph you can include your feelings,
attitudes and other comments on the building/place being
described.
Description of Objects
Great examples of description of objects can be found in great
quantities in catalogues, advertisements, and special magazines.

When describing an object(s) you should give a precise picture


of it, thus including information about size, weight, pattern,
shape or any decorative specifications such as color, origin and
material used to make it.

A lot of adjectives should be used in description of an object. It


is better to name opinion adjectives first and then include fact
adjectives. They are listed in such order: weight, size, age, shape
or pattern, color, material used and its origin. Naming those
entire one after another will sound unnatural, thus try to
diversify your writing.

Description of Events

There are a few components in the essay describing event(s).

1. The introduction presents the name, place, time, and reasons


of a particular event being celebrated.
2. The main body consists of the description the arrangements
leading to the event and the actual event in individual
paragraphs. The writer has to use present tense depicting annual
events and festivals and past tense for illustration of an attended
outing in the past.
3. The conclusion as usual will consist of feelings, thoughts and
views on the attended event.

Watch this YouTube video to get some insight on writing descriptive essay.

https://youtu.be/ATysG32zrsE
10.8 Choose on of the following topics and write a descriptive essay based on the choosen topic.
You may use the template given below.

1. Describe a place that you would like to work at.

2. Describe a prominent figure

3. Describe your experience in a job interview

4. Describe the reason why fresh graduates face difficulties to get a job

5. Describe the characteristics of a good employee.


Topic:
___________________________________________________________________________________

Thesis Statement :
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Body Paragraph 1

Topic Sentence 1:____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

Major Details

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Minor Details

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Body Paragraph 2

Topic Sentence 2:____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

Major Details

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Minor Details

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Body Paragraph 3

Topic Sentence 3:____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

Major Details

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Minor Details

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Concluding Paragraph:

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