Anda di halaman 1dari 93

CONTROLLED DOCUMENT

Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air


Conditioning (HVAC)

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2

Name Date

Prepared by: Gordon Fisher 4/12/08

Approved by: Michael Hamblin 14/12/08

Custodian: Godfrey Howard 5/12/08

Concurrence (Agreement that must be obtained if an item is prepared external to, but impacts, a department or division. If
concurrence is required, it must be noted within the body of the item).

1.

Woodside Management System Sub-processes MUST obtain concurrence endorsement from BopCom. The date of the BopCom
meeting where endorsement is granted should be indicated below.

BopCom Endorsement Meeting date when endorsement granted:

REVISION HISTORY

Revision Description Date Prepared by Approved by

0 Merged A3000MM012 and A3000SM045 03/2007 D Gomes M Hackett

1 Updated as per WELEV08030220 11/2008 G Fisher M Hamblin

2 Listed WEL Standards 11/2008 G Fisher M Hamblin

INFORMATION SECURITY REVIEW STATUS PREPARED


CONFIDENTIALITY CLASSIFICATION (Check one box only) (Check one box only)
(Check one box only)
Unclassified Review on/by By WEL
(Shared without Restrictions) (01/03/2010)
Restricted Review Not Required For WEL
(Freely Shared within Woodside and Under PO/Contract No:
Associated Companies)

Confidential
(Shared With Selected Personnel)

Most Confidential
(Strict Need-to-Know Basis)

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any form by
any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.
Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 1 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

OPERATIONS / PROJECTS USE ONLY

Operating Facility:

Key TAG No’s:

DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION

Full Name / External Organisation Name (if applicable) Electronic


Copy No. (Show Username (WOPID) to differentiate between persons with identical Hard Copy
Notification
names).

00 WEL Document Control

01 TW Doc Control

02 CAJV Doc Control

03 Gilbert Habets(10063)

04 Peter Nalepa(3019)

05 Mike Hamblin(3227)

06 Pluto Eng Coordinator(2404)

07 Sunrise Eng Manager(7521)

08 Browse Eng Coordinator(4350)

09 LNG Project Development Eng Manager(8927)

10 Clive Saxton(3606)

11 Tony Glesson – TW ENG Manager

12 Iain Denholm – CAJV Eng Manager

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 2 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

PREFACE
Woodside Energy Ltd. (WEL) has developed a suite of Engineering and Technical Standards
and Guidelines. It is intended that these reflect the most suitable engineering practices for
use on all new WEL facilities as well as the modification of existing facilities. The application
of the Standards is mandatory. The application of Guidelines is to support the
implementation of the Standards, and are considered best practice, but are not mandatory.

The Standards are based on the experience acquired by WEL personnel and contractors
during WEL’s involvement with the design, construction, operation and maintenance of WEL
processing units and facilities. Where appropriate, the Standards are based on or make
reference to national and international standards and codes of practice.

The objective of this publication is to ensure the overall integrity of engineering design and to
achieve maximum technical and economic benefits through the standardisation of
engineering and technical practices.

The use by WEL contractors or manufacturers/suppliers of the Engineering and Technical


Standards contained in this publication does not relieve them of any responsibility
whatsoever for the quality of design, materials and workmanship that they have been
engaged to provide.

Where the standards to be used for a certain application are not provided for in this
publication, WEL expects that the standards that are used will achieve the same level of
integrity as reflected in this publication. If WEL contractors or manufacturers/suppliers have
any doubt as to the relevant standard to use, then they must consult WEL, however they will
remain responsible at all times for the use of the most appropriate standard. Specific
requirements may be added as an addendum to these Standards and Guidelines for various
projects. Project specific requirements must not depart from the requirements of the
Engineering and Technical Standards contained in this publication. Where changes or
additions to these Standards are required, they must be raised as a deviation and presented
to the WEL Technical Authority for consideration.

WEL grants the right to use these Standards and Guidelines to WEL’s consultants,
contractors and suppliers who are contractually authorised to do so and to any tier of
contractor to its consultants, contractors and suppliers who are contractually required to
comply with them.

DISCLAIMER

WEL and its joint venture partners disclaim any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage
(including injury or death) suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or
in connection with the use, application or implementation of any standard, combination of
standards or any part thereof contained in this publication.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 3 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 6
1.1 PURPOSE ................................................................................................... 6
1.2 SUPPOSITION ............................................................................................ 6
1.3 COMPLIANCE ............................................................................................. 6
1.4 HVAC FUNCTION ....................................................................................... 7
1.5 DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................. 7
1.5.1 General Definitions....................................................................................... 7
1.5.2 Specific Definitions....................................................................................... 8
1.6 ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................... 9
2 PRIMARY GUIDANCE ..................................................................... 10
2.1 FORMATIVE CONSIDERATIONS............................................................. 10
2.2 HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION .................................................. 10
2.2.1 HVAC Role for Hazardous Area Enclosures.............................................. 11
2.2.2 Minimum Ventilation Rate .......................................................................... 11
2.2.3 Non-hazardous Areas ................................................................................ 12
2.2.4 Hazardous Classifications.......................................................................... 12
2.2.5 Equipment Protection Techniques ............................................................. 12
2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ............................................................ 13
2.3.1 External Meteorological Conditions............................................................ 14
2.3.2 Internal Space Conditions .......................................................................... 15

3 BASIS OF DESIGN .......................................................................... 18


3.1 FACILITY LAYOUT ................................................................................... 18
3.1.1 Temporary Refuge ..................................................................................... 18
3.1.2 Equipment Location ................................................................................... 19
3.1.3 General Arrangements............................................................................... 19
3.1.4 HVAC Fresh-Air Intakes and Exhausts ...................................................... 20
3.2 TYPEs OF HVAC SYSTEM....................................................................... 21
3.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation ............................................................................... 22
3.2.2 Heating....................................................................................................... 23
3.2.3 Cooling ....................................................................................................... 23
3.2.3.1 Room Air Conditioners ............................................................................ 23
3.2.3.2 Packaged Air Conditioning Units............................................................. 24
3.2.3.3 Central AHU with Refrigeration Plant ...................................................... 24
3.2.4 Floating Production Vessels....................................................................... 25
3.3 CONTROLS PHILOSOPHY ...................................................................... 25
3.3.1 Control and Monitoring - Normal Operation ............................................... 27
3.3.1.1 Integrated HVAC Panels ......................................................................... 27
3.3.1.2 Dedicated HVAC Panels ......................................................................... 27
3.3.1.3 Fan Control.............................................................................................. 29
3.3.1.4 Fire Damper Control................................................................................ 29
3.3.1.5 Loss of Pressurization ............................................................................. 30
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 4 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

3.3.1.6 Temperature Control ............................................................................... 30


3.3.2 Control and Monitoring - Emergency Conditions ....................................... 30
3.4 SPARING PHILOSOPHY .......................................................................... 31
3.5 MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHY ................................................................ 33
3.5.1 Spares........................................................................................................ 34
3.6 MATERIALS AND CORROSION .............................................................. 35
3.7 DESIGN CALCULATIONS ........................................................................ 36
4 SYSTEM DESIGN - AREA SPECIFIC ............................................. 38
4.1 PROCESS AND UTILITIES AREAS ......................................................... 38
4.1.1 Hazardous Area Enclosures ...................................................................... 38
4.1.2 Non-Hazardous Areas................................................................................ 38
4.2 LIVING QUARTERS .................................................................................. 39
4.3 DRILLING AND DRILLING UTILITIES AREAS ........................................ 43
4.3.1 Shale Shakers & Cuttings Cleaning Units.................................................. 43
4.3.2 Mud Tanks ................................................................................................. 43
4.3.3 Air Scrubbers ............................................................................................. 44
4.3.4 Cement Units ............................................................................................. 45
4.4 GAS TURBINE ENCLOSURES ................................................................ 45
4.5 EMERGENCY VENTILATION ................................................................... 45
4.6 ANCILLIARY AREAS................................................................................ 46
4.6.1 Battery and Charger Rooms ...................................................................... 46
4.6.2 Laboratories ............................................................................................... 46
4.6.3 Chemical Storage Rooms .......................................................................... 47
4.6.4 Purging Equipment..................................................................................... 47

5 INSTALLATION, COMMISSIONING AND DOCUMENTATION...... 47


6 REFERENCES ................................................................................. 48
7 APPENDICES .................................................................................. 51
7.1 APPENDIX 1 Air Handling Units.............................................................. 52
7.2 APPENDIX 2 Constant Volume Terminal Reheat Units......................... 56
7.3 APPENDIX 3 Cooling Plant...................................................................... 59
7.4 APPENDIX 4 Cowls and Weather Louvres............................................. 65
7.5 APPENDIX 5 Ductwork ............................................................................ 66
7.6 APPENDIX 6 Fans .................................................................................... 69
7.7 APPENDIX 7 Filters and Coalescers....................................................... 72
7.8 APPENDIX 8 Fire Dampers...................................................................... 74
7.9 APPENDIX 9 General Dampers ............................................................... 77
7.10 APPENDIX 10 Grilles and Diffusers........................................................ 80
7.11 APPENDIX 11 Heater Banks.................................................................... 83
7.12 APPENDIX 12 Humidifiers ....................................................................... 86
7.13 APPENDIX 13 Pumps............................................................................... 88
7.14 APPENDIX 14 Sound Attenuators........................................................... 90
1Th is document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 5 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

INTRODUCTION
1.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of this code is to identify the minimum engineering standards and
requirements acceptable to WEL, for the basis of design, detail design, type of
equipment and fabrication associated with mechanical HVAC systems.

The code was initially developed for offshore facilities however it is equally applicable
to onshore installations.

This code should be applied to new installations and the upgrade and modification of
existing facilities. It is directed at system designers, equipment/requisitioning
engineers or other engineers responsible for the design, engineering and operation of
WEL installations.

The code may be used by WEL directly or by Agents, Consultants or Contractors


acting on behalf of WEL.

Any intent to use an alternative code of practice for HVAC systems, or to deviate from
the intent of this document shall be agreed with the WEL custodian.

Compliance with the requirements of this code of practice does not alleviate the user
of the responsibility to follow safe and good engineering practice throughout.

1.2 SUPPOSITION
It is assumed that a full evaluation has verified a need for the development of a
mechanical HVAC system or multiple systems, essential for the effective operation of
the facility under review or design.

Areas and spaces identified with a requirement for mechanical HVAC are also
assumed to be of a fully enclosed construction. Enclosed areas spaces can be of the
normally manned or unmanned and located in either a hazardous area or non-
hazardous area.

Areas that may be suitable for natural ventilation (dependent on natural wind effects
and air temperature differentials) are not covered by this code.

1.3 COMPLIANCE
Primarily the Standard is intended for new projects and shall provide a guide for the
project design team, consultants and contractors to ensure HVAC conformity during
the design phases of the project.

Additionally the Standard shall also be used as a guide for the review of existing
facilities. However it is recognised that practical constraints may be found when
applied to existing facilities. In such cases, and prior to an upgrade proposal, a full
evaluation of the existing HVAC system including the existing hazards, controls, and
limitations shall be conducted. Thereafter the HVAC upgrade proposal shall include a
summary of the upgrade benefits, associated costs and also clearly indicate any
deviations from this code.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 6 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Deviations from the code requirements shall be presented to the WEL custodian for
consideration.

1.4 HVAC FUNCTION


HVAC systems provide vital safety functions, a habitable environment for personnel
and appropriate conditions for effective equipment operation. The core requirements
of a HVAC system are to provide one or more of the following functions:

• Prevent by means of pressurisation, the ingress of smoke or flammable


gas/air mixtures into enclosed non-hazardous spaces – when they are located
in the vicinity of hazardous areas

• Prevent the concentration of flammable gas/air mixtures by means of


adequate ventilation, to ensure the dilution, dispersion and removal of such
mixtures

• Operate during an emergency where serving enclosed spaces containing


personnel and/or essential electrical or mechanical systems – when the main
power source is unavailable

• Provide a controlled internal environment in which personnel, plant and


systems can operate effectively

1.5 DEFINITIONS
1.5.1 General Definitions
The definitions below shall be included if the words defined are used in the
Code of Practice.

• The Contractor is the party that carries out all or part of the design,
engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning or management
of a project, or operation or maintenance of a facility. The Principal may
undertake all or part of the duties of the Contractor.
• The Manufacturer/Supplier is the party that manufactures or supplies
equipment and services to perform the duties specified by the Contractor.
• The Principal is the party that initiates the project and ultimately pays for
its design and construction. The Principal will generally specify the
technical requirements. The Principal may also include an agent or
consultant authorised to act for, and on behalf of, the Principal.
• The words shall/must/will indicate a mandatory requirement.
• The word should indicates a recommended course of action.
• The words may/can indicate one acceptable course of action.
• WEL Technical Integrity Custodian (TIC) in this document refers to
Operations Technical Support Manager. Authority to deviate from the
standards is delegated to the custodian(s) indicated on the document
details page of this document.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 7 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

1.5.2 Specific Definitions


Axial Flow Fan A fan in which the air enters the impeller axially and is
discharged axially
Airflow Rate The volumetric flow rate derived from the mass flow rate at
a standard air density of 1.2 kg/m³
Air Handling Unit A purpose built unit for the delivery of supply-air via
(AHU) associated ductwork distribution networks
Azeotropic A mixture of two or more liquids having a boiling point
independent of the individual liquid boiling points
Continuous Running Any equipment or plant operating 24 hours per day, 365
days per year
Cross Contamination Pollution of any HVAC air intake by induction of
contaminated air from exhaust discharge louvres, engine
fumes or other external airborne contaminants
Exhaust-air Air drawn or expelled to atmosphere from an enclosed
space
Centrifugal Fan A fan in which the air enters the impeller axially and is
discharged radially
Mixed Flow Fan A fan in which the air enters the impeller axially and is
discharged both axially and radially hence mixed flow
Free Cooling The use of unconditioned outside air to limit the temperature
rise in a given area
Gas Hydrocarbon and other hazardous gases present on a
facility
Manned Area Areas on a facility where personnel are normally present
during operations
Supply-air Air delivered to an enclosure in order to ventilate/pressurise
the area served
Transmission A measure of the heat flow rate by conduction through a
wall or structure in W/m² °C
Unmanned Area Areas on a facility where personnel are not normally present
during operations, but may be present only during
maintenance/servicing
Velocity Pressure The pressure of a fluid exerted in the direction of flow
Vp

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 8 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

1.6 ABBREVIATIONS
AHU Air Handling Unit
AIRAH The Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning &
Heating
AS Australian Standard
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air-
conditioning Engineers
CHW Chilled Water
CIBSE Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers
DX Direct Expansion
Db Dry Bulb Temperature
dB (A) Sound Pressure Level in Decibels (A scale)
ESD Emergency Shut Down
FCU Fan Coil Unit
F&G Fire and Gas
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic
HDG Hot Dip Galvanised
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
LEL Lower Explosive Limit
LQ Living Quarters
Pa Pascals
QRA Quantitative Risk Analysis
RH Relative Humidity
TR Temporary Refuge
TW Tempered Water
Wb Wet Bulb temperature

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 9 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

2 PRIMARY GUIDANCE
2.1 FORMATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
The evaluation of any HVAC system must reflect the specific needs and HVAC
functions necessary to satisfy the hazardous area classification, the enclosed space
internal environmental conditions and any other specific requirements.

Early resolution of the following considerations will ensure the appropriate HVAC basis
of design is developed accordingly: -

• Provide early design input so that electrical or mechanical HVAC plant and
equipment is sited in an optimum location so far as is reasonably practical
(non-hazardous areas are preferred)

• Adopt a consistent HVAC philosophy for the separation of hazardous and


non-hazardous areas and select the functions required of the HVAC systems
serving those areas

• Determine the internal and external environmental conditions and nominate


sensible maximum and minimum parameters that enables cost-effective
practical HVAC systems to be developed. Dust particles size need to be
established for the design filtration systems for clean rooms as per AS1324.2.
Dust particle composition may also need to be established (eg iron filings or
conductive particles).

• Implement a basis of design that provides adequate pressurisation, fresh-air


ventilation, air filtration, heating, cooling or humidification in line with the
nominated internal and external environmental conditions

• Develop the basis of design to provide 100% standby availability for major
HVAC plant and equipment; within the constraints imposed by installed cost,
maintenance resources and the consequences of plant and equipment failure

• Select a control system that provides operator control from a frequently


manned location and also provides the operator with essential information on
the status of the plant. The control system must also be integrated with the
facility ESD and F&G systems so that actions in an emergency minimise the
risk to personnel

• Specify HVAC equipment and components manufactured form materials, or


having protective coatings, that minimise lifecycle costs over the operating
lifetime of the installation

2.2 HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION


All areas of any facility fall into either a non-hazardous or hazardous area category.
Therefore it is important to recognise the potential impact these areas have in relation
to the selection of suitable HVAC equipment and plant.

By adopting a consistent HVAC design philosophy for the distinction between non-
hazardous and hazardous areas the appropriate level of protection for HVAC
equipment and plant can be ascertained.
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 10 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

2.2.1 HVAC Role for Hazardous Area Enclosures


HVAC shall be required where hazardous area enclosed spaces - having some form
of solid boundary - will not disperse or remove flammable gases naturally. In such
cases these enclosed spaces must have adequate ventilation, normally by means of
mechanical ventilation, with no stagnant areas.

The principle roles of the HVAC system are to provide for: -

• dilution, dispersal and removal of concentrations of flammable gas due to


fugitive emissions which occur from process components under operating
conditions
• reducing the risk of ignition following a leak by quickly removing
accumulations of flammable gas to maintain the atmosphere below the
LEL

Normally a hazardous area enclosed space requires mechanical ventilation only.


However should there be an additional requirement for heating or cooling, all
associated HVAC equipment and plant must have appropriate protection for the
hazardous area classification and be fully integrated with the ESD and F&G systems.

2.2.2 Minimum Ventilation Rate


Based on the recommendation of IP Area Classification Code for Petroleum
Industries, Model Code of Safe Practice, Part 15; ventilation rates for mechanically
ventilated enclosed spaces located in hazardous areas shall comply with the
following criteria: -

• A minimum of 12 air changes of the enclosure per hour

• The enclosure should not contain stagnant areas (ie should be 'well-mixed')

It should be noted that there is no formal definition of the term 'stagnant area'. It is
taken to be any area within an enclosed space in which there is no discernible air
movement. No single stagnant area should exceed 5% of the total enclosed space
volume.

The “12 air changes per hour” figure is intended to be sufficient to rapidly remove gas
after a small leak. In well-mixed areas 3 air changes will make an area safe.

eg: 100% gas will dilute to a concentration of less than 5% after just 3 complete air
changes – consequently for spaces having 12 air changes per hour the time taken to
dilute below 5% takes 15 minutes

For enclosures that are 'well-mixed' it has been demonstrated that enclosure volume
is not a factor and that it is the leakage rate of flammable vapours that directly
determines the rate of ventilation required. It follows that in using the criterion of 12
air changes per hour, ventilation rates for small leakages of flammable vapours may
be much higher than are actually required.

Alternative methods for determination of the ventilation rates are available by


predicting the flammable gas leakage rate or utilising sophisticated computational
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 11 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

modelling. These methods are subject to considerable uncertainty and not preferred.
The adoption of a fixed number of minimum air changes, in this case 12 air changes
per hour is favoured. Any deviations below 12 air changes per hour criteria should
be considered carefully and submitted in accordance with the WEL deviation
procedure.

Where enclosed spaces also include a requirement for heating or cooling (free
cooling or mechanical cooling) the minimum default 12 air changes per hour must be
maintained regardless of any impact to heating or cooling load considerations.

2.2.3 Non-hazardous Areas


Non-hazardous areas normally do not require the same level of equipment protection
as compared to equipment located in hazardous areas.

However, in certain instances there may be a requirement for special protection


techniques for some HVAC equipment, despite being located in a non-hazardous
area. This requirement may be applied where HVAC equipment must operate during
an emergency, or when purging is desired at initial start-up, or re-start following an
incident or emergency. Typically this may apply to supply-air fan drive motors and
electrical equipment associated with the main AHU.

2.2.4 Hazardous Classifications


Hazardous areas are divided into two distinct hazard classes, Class I for gases or
Class II for dusts. For oil and gas facilities, the class of hazard adopted is normally
Class I. Additionally a Class I hazard is subdivided into three area classifications as
follows: -

Zone 0 A flammable atmosphere continuously present or present for periods


longer than 1000 hours per year

Zone 1 A flammable atmosphere likely to occur during normal operation for


periods longer than 10 hours per year but less than 1000 per year

Zone 2 A flammable atmosphere not likely to occur, and if it occurs will exist for
short periods less than 10 hours per year

All HVAC equipment and plant required to operate within a classified hazardous area
location, shall be specified and selected in accordance with the appropriate
protection techniques as required for the hazardous area classification.

2.2.5 Equipment Protection Techniques


The latest versions of the following Australian Standards are adopted by WEL for
equipment protection requirements for all areas on new facilities and major
developments or upgrades to existing facilities.

AS-2380 Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres – Explosion Protection


Techniques

AS-2381 Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres – Selection, Installation


and Maintenance
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 12 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The following listings give an outline of acceptable equipment protection techniques


for each type of zone classification.

Zone 0
Ex ia Intrinsic safety
Ex s Special protection (approved for Zone 0)
Zone 1
Zone 0 protection techniques acceptable
Ex d Flameproof
Ex ib Intrinsic safety
Ex p Pressurisation for Zone 1
Ex p1 Purging for Zone 1
Ex m Encapsulation
Ex e Increased safety
Ex v Ventilation for Zone 1
Ex s Special protection for Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 0 and Zone 1 protection techniques acceptable
Ex n Non-incentive
Ex p Pressurisation for Zone 2
Ex p1 Purging for Zone 2
Ex v Ventilation for Zone 2
Ex s Special protection for Zone 2

2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS


Incorrect evaluation of meteorological data and environmental conditions can lead to
impractical maximum and minimum criteria being nominated for the basis of design.

For instance, the maximum external dry bulb air temperature and maximum humidity
values rarely coexist. However, if these maximum values are adopted as the basis of
design, unnecessary, oversized HVAC plant capacities - particularly cooling plant
capacities – are developed; thereby catering for a small proportion of the year when
meteorological extremes are encountered, while for the remainder, the cooling plant
operates inefficiently with poor system control.

Consequently a careful assessment of meteorological data is required to ensure


nominated design parameters prescribe cost effective HVAC systems that meet
realistic capacity requirements. Additionally it is also accepted that internal space
temperatures may rise above maximum design for short periods during extreme
meteorological conditions.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 13 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

2.3.1 External Meteorological Conditions


Seasonal extremes of temperature, humidity and wind-speed vary widely throughout
the world. Accurate meteorological and oceanographic data for the specific offshore
location should be obtained for each facility. Where this information is not readily
available, a qualified Meteorologist and/or Oceanographer should be engaged to
supply the maximum and minimum values of the following criteria over a typical
calender year: -

• dry bulb temperature – Db °C


• wet bulb temperature – Wb °C
• relative humidity - % RH
• seawater temperature – °C
• wind speed – m/s

The nominated design parameters for HVAC systems should be based on the actual
meteorological conditions as applied to the following table: -

Criteria External Summer Design External Winter Design


Dry bulb temperature °C 2% probability of exceeding all 2% probability of falling below all year
minimum average
year maximum average
Wet bulb 2% probability of exceeding all 2% probability of falling below
temperature °C year maximum average all year minimum average
Relative humidity 2% probability of exceeding all 2% probability of falling below
%RH year maximum average all year minimum average
Seawater 2% probability of exceeding all 2% probability of falling below
temperature °C year maximum average all year minimum average
Wind speed m/s 1/12th annual average 1hr 1/12th annual average 1hr
mean velocity at 10m mean velocity at 10m
reference height reference height

Dust particle characterisation in reference to the AS 1324.2, must be carried to


establish local conditions unless they have been established.

Internal pressurisation must be used as the primary method of preventing dust and
moisture ingress (e.g. electrical and electronic equipment rooms) unless otherwise
agreed by the Technical Authority.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 14 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

2.3.2 Internal Space Conditions


Depending on the category of enclosed space, the internal environmental conditions
must be maintained between acceptable predetermined parameters. Therefore,
where applicable, the HVAC system must be capable of maintaining internal
conditions for the comfort of personnel and/or the safe operation of mechanical and
electrical equipment by close control of the following internal parameters: -

• dry bulb temperature


• relative humidity
• noise
• pressure

Dry Bulb Temperature


During summer design conditions, internal temperatures may be maintained at
acceptable internal space conditions by fresh-air ventilation only (free cooling) or by
using mechanical cooling plant ie refrigeration cooling systems.

Where external maximum air temperatures are high the use of fresh-air ventilation
(free cooling) may be impractical or unable to maintain acceptable internal space
conditions. In such cases a refrigeration cooling system is unavoidable.

Also for enclosed spaces that are fitted with sensitive equipment or instrumentation,
the internal temperature shall be determined by the conditions required for
acceptable performance of the equipment or instrumentation.

During winter design conditions, internal temperatures may be maintained at


acceptable conditions by use of duct mounted electric heater banks or reverse cycle
heating.

For normally unmanned hazardous area enclosed spaces, heating should not be
provided unless a specific need is justified. In such cases temporary portable
heaters suitable for the area classification may be more appropriate than providing
duct mounted electric heater banks.

Relative Humidity
It is not usually necessary to provide close control of the internal relative humidity,
providing the relative humidity is maintained between 40% and 65% in selected
areas, such as the LQ to protect the health of the occupants and in electrical
equipment rooms to prevent the formation of condensation.

It is critical to ensure good mixing of cooled supply air occurs before entering the
conditioned space. This is particularly important when there is a possibility of cool air
blowing onto electrical or electronic equipment and possibly creating a cold surface
on which condensation may occur.

For LQ’s relative humidity is usually maintained at acceptable internal conditions by


operation of cooling plant associated with the HVAC system. During the (wet coil)

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 15 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

cooling process, dehumidification occurs simultaneously thereby removing excess


moisture.

Should exceptionally low relative humidity be experienced, it may be necessary to


install electric steam injection humidifiers at the AHU. Typically humidification may
be provided for the comfort of personnel within LQ’s or for electrical equipment rooms
to ensure undesirable electrostatic conditions do not occur. However humidification
is usually not seen as critical for any other enclosed spaces and in most cases can
be omitted.

Noise
There are many factors that contribute to noise generation from a HVAC system.
Rotating machinery such as fans, pumps and refrigeration compressors can generate
excessive localised noise breakout. However fans and high air velocities that
transmit excessive noise through ductwork are the principle sources of unacceptable
noise transmission generated by a HVAC system.

A comprehensive analysis should be performed to demonstrate the noise contribution


from the HVAC system and adequate steps should be taken to minimise all
excessive noise.

Installation of sound attenuators should be considered to eliminate or reduce noise


transmission through ductwork. Also all major HVAC rotating machinery should be
installed with anti-vibration mounts and be located within an acoustically insulated
HVAC plantroom where possible.

The following table offer’s guidance for acceptable internal space conditions for
typical enclosed spaces encountered on facilities: -

Pressurisation
Pressurisation can be used to prevent ingress of both hydrocarbons and dust/humid
air into an area.

Pressurisation for non-hazardous areas typically range 25-60 Pa. Pressurisation for
dust air ingress prevention need only be >10Pa although care must be taken to
ensure that there are no areas of negative pressurisation (relative to external
atmospheric pressure) in the entire system (e.g. ducting upstream of circulation fans)

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 16 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

20 – 26°C db

15 – 27°C db

15 – 35°C db
Un-manned

Un-manned
Manned
Area
Description Comments

Living Quarters
Cabins X Corridors, toilets, locker
Toilets/showers X rooms, stairs and galley may
have a minimum of 16°C
Dining rooms X
Recreation rooms X
Offices X
Meeting rooms X
Galley X
Galley stores X
Laboratories X
Control rooms X X
Equipment rooms X X
Workshops X
Locker rooms X
Plant rooms X
Utilities
Switchrooms X
Equipment rooms X Temp may also be
determined by sensitivity of
instrumentation

Workshops X Some batteries may have


Battery rooms X specific max. temp
requirements
Emergency X
generator rooms
Fire pump rooms X
Engine rooms X When outdoor ambient is
35°C max temp of 47.5°C
permitted

The maximum sound power levels in conditioned spaces must be as per the ‘satisfactory’
levels specified in AS/NZS 2107.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 17 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

3 BASIS OF DESIGN
3.1 FACILITY LAYOUT
It is not the intention of this standard to detail a facility layout philosophy, but to identify
optimum locations for essential aspects of the HVAC system to ensure safe effective
operation and performance.

The facility layout requires a great deal of coordination between the engineering
disciplines involved in design, operation, maintenance and safety. However, the major
consideration in platform layout and HVAC philosophy is likely to be risk, whether
measured in terms of potential harm to personnel, the asset or the environment. QRA
should be undertaken during the project conceptual design phase to evaluate the risk
benefits of alternative layout arrangements including consideration of various HVAC
options.

3.1.1 Temporary Refuge


Each facility should have a 'Temporary Refuge', which may be an enclosed space or
an open area, to ensure personnel can seek refuge in the event of a major incident or
emergency. In virtually all cases the TR should be the LQ, where one is provided.

For each facility a detailed risk assessment of the location of the LQ or TR should be
undertaken as part of the design verification. The TR should also comply with Shell
DEP 37.17.10.11-Gen.

The location of the LQ and the associated means of evacuation to avoid the
consequences of radiation and smoke effects are of paramount importance.
Hazardous areas, particularly high-pressure hydrocarbon systems, should be located
as far as practicable from the TR so that any gas emissions are naturally dispersed.

The maintenance of TR life support is directly related to the availability of breathable


air and the provision of a barrier from all external emergency conditions for the
duration of the ‘Endurance Period’. The endurance period of the TR is the period for
which integrity of the TR structure and TR life support can be maintained.

In the event of an emergency where the HVAC system is shutdown, the gross
internal volume of the TR should be able to provide the entire complement of
personnel with sufficient quantities of breathable air for the full duration of the
endurance period. An air volume of 1.2m³ provides one person with one hour of
breathable air.

In the event of an emergency condition where gas or smoke has not entered the
HVAC fresh-air inlet, the HVAC system may continue to operate. However should
gas or smoke be detected at the fresh-air inlet then the HVAC system must be
shutdown immediately, concurrent with the automatic closure of all external boundary
penetrations (all fresh-air intakes and exhausts) to prevent the ingress of gas or
smoke into the TR.

Emergency HVAC systems and those specifically designed to operate during


emergency conditions are the only exception. These systems are permitted to
continue operating by virtue of recirculating 100% supply-air while all associated

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 18 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

external boundary penetrations are automatically closed to prevent the ingress of gas
or smoke into the TR.

Should the facility LQ be identified unsuitable for TR purposes, a passive


arrangement such as a protected open TR area may be preferred since it will not rely
on any equipment functioning under emergency conditions.

3.1.2 Equipment Location


In general, facilities are designed such that areas classified “Hazardous Area Zone 0”
do not require HVAC.

Facilities should also be designed to avoid, where possible, HVAC equipment and
plant being installed or sited in a Hazardous Area Zone 1 or 2 location. Where this is
unavoidable, the equipment shall be selected as required to meet the protection
techniques of the hazardous area classification.

The preference is for all major HVAC equipment and plant to be located in non-
hazardous areas and installed within a dedicated HVAC plant room where feasible.

3.1.3 General Arrangements


An independent dedicated HVAC system should be provided to serve the following
enclosed space configurations: -

• any sole enclosed space


• multiple enclosed spaces integrated by a common structure or boundary
with a uniform hazardous area classification

Under no circumstances should a single HVAC system be permitted to


simultaneously serve a combination of various hazardous and non-hazardous
enclosed spaces, or serve multiple enclosed spaces that are structurally segregated
and remote from each other.

Each independent HVAC system should be contained within and/or attached to the
external structure of the space or spaces served, and also be suitable for the
applicable hazardous area classification.

In some instances the independent HVAC systems major equipment or plant may be
sited in a non-hazardous location despite serving an enclosed space(s) located in a
hazardous area. Normally this arrangement involves installation of ductwork into the
hazardous space only. However selected HVAC equipment may still be required to
meet specific protection techniques regardless of their non-hazardous location. Also
where rated bulkheads or boundaries are penetrated by ductwork, they must be fitted
with certified fire dampers to ensure the integrity of adjacent hazardous and non-
hazardous spaces.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 19 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

3.1.4 HVAC Fresh-Air Intakes and Exhausts


The facility layout should include careful positioning of all HVAC fresh-air intakes and
exhaust-air outlets in relation to gas turbine and engine intakes/exhausts, vents and
flares to allow for safe operation. In particular, HVAC fresh-air intakes should be
located to avoid cross contamination from: -

• exhausts from fuel burning equipment, gas turbines and generators


• lubricating oil vents, drain vents and process reliefs
• dust discharge from drilling, dry powders
• helicopter engine exhaust
• flares
• supply and support vessels

Particular care should also be taken locating HVAC fresh-air intakes and exhaust-air
outlets in relation to other independent HVAC systems serving adjacent hazardous
and non-hazardous areas.

All fresh-air intakes serving hazardous or non-hazardous enclosed spaces should be


located at the maximum practical distance from hazardous areas, irrespective of
minimum distances specified by relevant regulations, standards or codes.

Where possible all exhaust-air outlets should exhaust to non-hazardous areas and
also be located at the maximum practical distance from hazardous areas. Where this
is not feasible and exhaust-air is discharged to a hazardous area, then the enclosed
space must also be pressurised if required to maintain a non-hazardous
classification. Pressurisation is not required if the enclosed space is also classified
as a hazardous area.

The underside of a platform can be a convenient location for HVAC fresh-air intakes
and exhaust-air outlets as a large proportion of this zone may be classified as non-
hazardous. However, consideration should be given to the effects of the wind and
waves and below platform cooling water discharges.

For floating production vessels the downwind zone may provide an appropriate
location for HVAC fresh-air intakes and exhaust-air outlets. However, they should be
positioned to avoid ingress of smoke or contaminants from engine rooms and
capable of operation in adverse winds.

Wind Effect
The location of HVAC intakes and exhausts should be carefully considered in relation
to prevailing wind directions for fixed facilities and weather vane affects for floating
production vessels. Locations that provide shelter or protection from the wind are
preferred so as to minimise strong wind conditions from adversely affecting fan
performance and pressurisation.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 20 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

All HVAC fans should operate satisfactorily in wind conditions varying from still air to
design wind speed. A contingency margin should be included in the design to ensure
the fan performance requirements are met during adverse wind effects.

3.2 TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEM


The type of HVAC system best suited for each application will vary according to the
physical size and capacity of the HVAC plant required, the hazardous area
classification and the physical space limitations that are unique to each individual
facility.

There are two main aspects to consider for the development of an HVAC system
concept. Principally does the HVAC system necessitate mechanical ventilation only or
mechanical ventilation including the means to provide heating and/or cooling.

In both instances a mechanically powered fan system, air handling system or a


multiple combination of systems is required to provide air movement and distribution
usually via associated ductwork. The array of fan types is extensive, ranging from a
single fan unit to fans available as an integral component of an equipment package or
AHU.

In spite of many types of HVAC system design or arrangements being available, there
are only a limited number of suitable designs that also meet the operating
requirements for an facility.

All HVAC systems shall incorporate the constant volume method of delivering air to
enclosed spaces and under no circumstances should variable air volume be
considered. The constant volume method of delivering air ensures pressurisation
where required, satisfies air change rate and fresh-air rate requirements, and enables
terminal reheat units to be utilised for close temperature control.

The most common types of HVAC system arrangements are shown in the table below:
-

Type of HVAC Application Comments


Equipment
Ventilation only – Fan General supply-air Usually serves single space
assisted supply-air only
systems 100% fresh-air/free cooling Limited cooling capacity
Pressurisation
Ventilation only – Fan General exhaust Usually operate in
assisted exhaust-air Galley exhaust conjunction with supply-air
systems Toilet exhaust systems
Room Air 100% recirculated air Serves single space only
Conditioning Unit Emergency cooling and/or Temperature control limited
heating to single space
Split Air Conditioning General supply-air Usually serves single space
Unit Pressurisation Must have fresh-air make up
arrangement to provide
pressurisation
Cooling and/or heating Temperature control usually

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 21 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

limited to single space


Centralised AHU General supply-air Serves multiple spaces
Pressurisation Must have fresh-air make up
arrangement to provide
pressurisation
With Cooling by: DX Refrigeration Practical cooling capacity
limited to 400kW per system,
no provision for future
expansion

Type of HVAC Application Comments


Equipment
AHU cont.
With Cooling by: Central chiller plant with No cooling capacity limits,
CHW circuit may serve multiple AHU or
FCU, provision for future
expansion
Fan Coil Unit (FCU) General supply-air Usually recirculated supply-
air only

Cooling Relies on central chiller plant


to circulate secondary
cooling medium (ie water)

3.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation


Mechanical ventilation is suitable when sufficient free cooling occurs to maintain the
enclosed space within the internal design parameters - without the requirement of a
cooling system ie refrigeration plant.

Clearly mechanical ventilation (free cooling) should be used wherever practical and is
dependent on accurate meteorological and environmental data from the project
location, to evaluate the free cooling capacity potential. The cooling capacity
available by adopting the free cooling method is reduced when also considering heat
gains from fans, fan motors, ductwork, personnel, equipment and heat transmission
through bulkheads of the space(s) served. Where there is less need for precise
temperature control such as for unmanned utility and equipment rooms then free
cooling may be adequate.

When mechanical ventilation is nominated to serve an enclosed space or spaces, it


should provide the following functions: -

• pressurisation (if required to maintain non-hazardous enclosed space)


• a minimum of 12 air changes per hour
• adequate free cooling

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 22 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• Various mechanical ventilation system configurations are possible. The


adopted configuration will depend on the application and type of enclosed
space requirements. Common configurations are: -

• supply-air fan(s) & exhaust-air fan(s)


• supply-air fan(s) & natural exhaust-air
• exhaust-air fan(s) & natural supply-air

3.2.2 Heating
It is usual and straightforward to provide heating by means of incorporating electric
heater banks in the supply-air ductwork or AHU. Main or large capacity heater banks
are normally mounted within an AHU, while smaller capacity heaters are mounted in
terminal reheat units. Terminal re-heaters are usually installed in the ductwork
supply branch serving single or limited multiple spaces to provide close temperature
control.

The primary concern with heater banks is to select electrical equipment that satisfies
the area classification and incorporates all associated safety and temperature limiting
devices. Electric heater banks must also meet stringent regulations for the degree
and type of thermal insulation required for fire protection.

In some instances hot water heating coils may be considered. However they are not
commonly installed where in most cases a suitable hot water recirculating system is
not continuously available. Additionally they may take up valuable AHU space
already restricted by incorporating standby equipment.

While other methods of providing heating may be available, electric heater banks are
preferred, as they offer the most compact arrangement and can accommodate
hazardous area protection requirements without difficulty.

3.2.3 Cooling
Whenever the enclosed space internal environmental conditions cannot be
maintained within the specified limits by use of free cooling then cooling must be
provided by a refrigeration system.

Many options are available to provide adequate cooling. The options range from a
simple room air conditioner up to a central type air handling plant incorporating an
intricate refrigeration system. The selected cooling option depends on the layout,
configuration, cooling load, space restrictions and accuracy of temperature control.

3.2.3.1 Room Air Conditioners


These are small fully contained single piece units used for supplying conditioned air
to single spaces only. Limited in cooling capacity, and primarily recirculation air
type units, the whole unit is mounted into a wall penetration with no associated
ductwork being connected. These units can provide supplementary cooling for
spaces with high equipment heat gains and may also be configured to provide
cooling during emergency conditions.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 23 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Where room air conditioners are used to provide supplementary cooling during
normal operating conditions, the primary fresh-air supply is usually supplied via the
central air handling system.

To avoid large wall penetration complications for mounting of the whole unit, it is
advisable to use split units having an indoor fan unit connected by refrigeration
pipework and control cabling to a remote air-cooled condensing unit.

3.2.3.2 Packaged Air Conditioning Units


Packaged units may be single piece or split type arrangements used for supplying
conditioned air to single, or a limited number of, spaces and can be installed with or
without distribution ductwork. They are recommended when it is not practical to
install a central AHU and associated refrigeration plant.

Packaged units as they imply, contain the supply-air fan, cooling/heating facilities
and electrical starting gear and controls in a complete package. For single piece
units the refrigeration condensers are water-cooled whereas for split type or two
piece units the condensers are remote and air-cooled. Cooling facilities are always
provided by means of a DX refrigeration circuit while heating can be provided by
reversing the refrigeration circuit (ie reverse cycle) or by electric heating elements.

3.2.3.3 Central AHU with Refrigeration Plant


Central AHU’s are used for supplying conditioned air via ducting networks to
multiple enclosed spaces simultaneously and are recommended for serving entire
LQ’s, or enclosures with multiple spaces.

Usually central AHU’s operate in conjunction with general, galley and toilet exhaust-
air systems and may be designed to operate on a total loss basis (100% fresh-air)
or a combination of fresh-air mixed with return-air. The mixture ratio of fresh-air to
return-air is dictated by the quantity of exhaust-air that must be exhausted directly
to atmosphere, the cooling load capacity requirement and the physical space
limitations for installation of the supply and return air ductwork.

A dedicated refrigeration plant with associated CHW or DX coils mounted in the


AHU supplies the cooling requirements. The primary difference between CHW and
DX systems are that CHW systems circulate secondary cooling mediums (chilled
water) through the cooling coil whereas DX systems circulate the primary cooling
medium ie refrigerant through the cooling coil (also known as the evaporator coil).

CHW systems typically consist of a centralised package chiller set incorporating a


compressor(s), refrigeration circuit(s), a condenser, an evaporator and all
necessary controls, starting gear and instrumentation. The chiller set is connected
to a closed loop CHW piping circuit usually incorporating duty and standby CHW
pumps, which in turn serve CHW cooling coils mounted in the central AHU. CHW
systems are extremely versatile; they provide accurate temperature control and can
be sized to provide for future cooling needs by serving additional AHU’s as
required.

DX refrigeration systems consist of a compressor set or condensing unit coupled by


refrigeration pipework to a remote evaporator coil mounted in the central AHU. The
DX refrigeration system supplies liquid refrigerant directly to the evaporator coil
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 24 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

where direct expansion of the refrigerant takes place - hence the term DX. DX
systems are usually limited to serving the evaporator coil(s) of a single AHU and
therefore do not allow for future additional cooling systems.

CHW and DX systems can both accommodate air-cooled or water-cooled


condensing media. The merits of which condensing medium is suitable must be
evaluated by careful analysis and consideration of the facility cooling water system,
the location of main refrigeration plant and the available space for locating external
air-cooled condensing equipment. Where practical, the preference is for air-cooled
condensing equipment to avoid reliance on cooling water systems and prevent
down time associated with maintenance and cleaning of water-cooled condensers.

Where refrigeration equipment may be required to operate under emergency


conditions they shall incorporate air-cooled condensers only.

3.2.4 Floating Production Vessels


For HVAC systems on board floating production vessels, special attention is drawn to
the appropriate certification body such as ABS, Lloyd’s and AMSA rules and
regulations. Generally where the HVAC basis of design adopts the general principles
of this code then these requirements should be easily met.

Essentially for shipping vessels either with or without propulsion equipment, the type
of construction includes multiple internal bulkheads and decks and offers limited
service or ceiling void space for the routing of ductwork.

As such, the applicable rules and regulations permit ductwork having a cross-
sectional area of no more than 0.75m² to pass through bulkheads and decks without
the need for fire dampers (providing the penetration is suitably constructed and fire
rated). Consequently this anomaly, in conjunction with limited space for routing of
ductwork, may steer the design towards adopting a high velocity ductwork system
and in doing so, reduce the number of fire dampers required.

Where feasible, low or medium velocity ductwork designs are preferred including fire
dampers located at all rated bulkhead penetrations and where necessary all non-
rated bulkhead penetrations.

3.3 CONTROLS PHILOSOPHY


The philosophy outlined in this section is representative of good engineering practice
on large, integrated facilities. Some aspects may not be appropriate to smaller
facilities or normally unattended facilities where HVAC may not be considered to have
a role in asset protection.

The HVAC control philosophy must provide the operator with the following control and
monitoring functions from a frequently manned location such as the central control
room: -

• executive override control for normal and emergency operation


• normal and alarm status of major HVAC plant
• fire and gas damper indication at the main F&G panel

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 25 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The HVAC control philosophy must also be integrated with the facility ESD and F&G
systems to initiate automatic HVAC plant shutdown when required to do so in the
event of an emergency incident.

In the event of a gas release, the objectives are to dilute and remove the resulting gas
cloud and limit migration to other areas. The strategy to achieve this is normally to: -

• Upon gas detection inside an enclosed hazardous area – continue operation of


the HVAC system to dilute and remove the gas
• Upon gas detection at any HVAC fresh-air inlet – shutdown the HVAC system
to prevent external gas being drawn in and propagated by the HVAC system
• Upon gas detection inside an enclosed non-hazardous area – shutdown the
HVAC system as it is assumed that gas is being drawn in from other areas and
should not be propagated by the HVAC system

In the event of a fire, the objectives are to prevent any external smoke entering the
enclosed space via the HVAC fresh-air inlet and to prevent any fire or smoke
generated within an enclosed space form being propagated to other areas via the
HVAC system. The strategy to achieve this is normally to: -

• Upon smoke or fire detection at any HVAC fresh-air inlet – shutdown the
HVAC system to prevent external smoke or fire being drawn in and
propagated by the HVAC system
• Upon smoke or fire detection inside an enclosed hazardous or non-hazardous
area – shutdown the HVAC system as it is assumed that an internal fire has
occurred and should not be propagated by the HVAC system

The HVAC system design should therefore incorporate adequate fire-rated fire
dampers that automatically operate to prevent gas or smoke ingress and/or
propagation. In particular the HVAC system design shall provide for: -

• Fire-rated ductwork penetrations through fire-rated boundaries, bulkheads or


decks, provided with fire-rated fire dampers equal to the rating of the boundary
they penetrate

• HVAC fresh-air inlets serving non-hazardous enclosed spaces shall be


provided with fire dampers that automatically close upon detection of gas or
smoke at the inlet

• Fire dampers shall automatically close (and where appropriate HVAC shall be
shutdown) to isolate segregated areas upon internal detection of fire or smoke

Alternative shutdown philosophies may be adopted but it is important that they are
consistent with the facility ESD and F&G philosophies.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 26 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

3.3.1 Control and Monitoring - Normal Operation


3.3.1.1 Integrated HVAC Panels
An HVAC console should be located within the central control room or a similar
normally manned room to provide the operator with HVAC executive override
control for normal and emergency operation that also provides status and alarm
conditions. All controls, status and alarm indicators should be set out in logical
functional groups and be easily identifiable. As a minimum, the degree of operator
override control should allow for: -

• HVAC system shutdown


• closure and opening for all fire dampers

HVAC alarms should allow for “loss of pressurisation” and “general group
equipment alarms”. The provision of alarms for specific items of equipment, upon
failure, is considered unnecessary. The preferred option is to provide group
equipment alarms for each system or equipment package so that further
investigation must be conducted to identify the exact nature of the fault at the
central HVAC panel or equipment package. Where standby equipment is installed,
it should automatically start-up allowing the failed duty equipment to be investigated
in a timely manner following a group equipment alarm.

For HVAC control systems that are fully integrated with the facility central control
system, a digital graphic display screen with complete HVAC system control and
monitoring should be provided for the operator. Where this type of control
arrangement is adopted, major HVAC equipment may be powered directly from a
motor control centre without the need for a dedicated HVAC starter panel.

3.3.1.2 Dedicated HVAC Panels


A dedicated central HVAC panel may be provided to enable complete HVAC
system control and must be interfaced with the facility ESD and F&G safety
systems, and also any ancillary control panels.

In the case of specific plant packages that are supplied already fitted with a
control/starter panel, such as for packaged refrigeration equipment, steam
humidifiers etc, they shall be interlocked with the dedicated central HVAC control
panel.

All controls and indicators associated with HVAC panels should be set out in logical
functional groups. Typical arrangements would be as follows: -

SELECTOR SWITCHES / PUSHBUTTONS:


Start & stop All fans
pushbuttons
Open - Close All fire dampers – protecting fire rated bulkheads or providing
selector boundary isolation for TR
Auto-Man –Off All duty/standby fan arrangements
selector Duty/standby refrigeration plant
Duty/standby CHW pumps

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 27 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Lamp test Common test pushbutton for all indicator lamps


pushbutton

INDICATORS:
Running All fans
Stopped All fans
On Each package equipment item
All heater banks
Tripped All fans
Each package equipment item
Heater banks
Dirty filter All filters (excluding coalescers or vane separators)
Open & closed All fire dampers – protecting fire rated bulkheads or providing
boundary isolation for TR
Loss of All non-hazardous areas (eg LQ) adjacent or connected to a
pressurisation hazardous area

ALARMS:
Smoke detection Optionally alarmed via F&G system only
Gas detection Optionally alarmed via F&G system only
Loss of All non-hazardous areas (eg LQ) adjacent or connected to a
pressurisation hazardous area
Common group Fan trip
alarm Package equipment trip
Heater trip
Dirty filters
High/low humidity (if applicable)

Fire damper open and closed indication should be repeated at the F&G panel,
particularly in the case of TR boundary dampers where the location of a damper
that has failed to close needs to be established quickly to ensure the integrity of the
TR.

To generate equipment indication the following instrumentation shall be provided: -

Fan Status
Provide proximity sensors to monitor fan drive shaft rotation (especially for belt
driven fans). The sensors should be calibrated to identify speeds below 80% of fan
full speed and be integrated with the control circuitry to provide fault indication and
initiate automatic fan changeover from duty to standby where applicable.

Alternatively, a differential pressure switch mounted across individual fans or fan


sets may be used.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 28 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Fire Damper Status


Remote indication of open or closed fire damper status shall be provided by two
separate micro-switches (one for open, one for closed) supplied as integral
components of the fire damper. Additionally the damper shall indicate the open or
closed damper position locally at the control box enclosure by means of a
mechanical mechanism.

3.3.1.3 Fan Control


For non-hazardous enclosures failure of a supply fan shall stop all associated
exhaust fans. However failure of an exhaust fan shall not stop any associated
supply fans. For start-up of the HVAC system, exhaust fans should be inhibited
from starting until the supply fans are energised and operating satisfactorily.

Meanwhile for hazardous area enclosures failure of a supply fan shall not stop any
associated exhaust fans. However failure of an exhaust fan should stop its
associated supply fan.

A manual start/stop station should be provided locally at each fan.

Galley exhaust fans shall be interlocked with the main supply AHU and/or galley
supply-air fans.

Exhaust fans serving local fume producing activities or equipment such as


welding/paint spraying booths and laboratory/fume cupboards, should be provided
with start/stop control and status indication local to the equipment or working
position.

3.3.1.4 Fire Damper Control


Control of fire dampers to initiate opened/closed positioning should be via a control
signal from one or more of the following four sources: -

• remote operation from the main HVAC panel


• remote operation from the HVAC console in the central control room
• automatic operation by the facility ESD and F&G systems
• fail safe closure by rupture of an integral frangible bulb or trigger device
provided with each fire damper
• manual operation from a dedicated fire damper control station located
outside the enclosure

Where multiple fire dampers serve the same area or zone, they should be grouped
together to automatically operate simultaneously and thereby isolate the zone.

Where multiple fire dampers are operated via independent control loops or circuits
then failure of any single damper should not prevent the normal operation of the
remainder.

For pneumatically operated fire dampers, a manual fire damper control station may
be provided and located in a safe area outside the main escape exit for the
enclosed space(s) served. The control station should incorporate hand operated
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 29 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

three-way pneumatic valves assigned to each individual or group of fire dampers for
local manual control.

3.3.1.5 Loss of Pressurization


An indication and alarm should be raised when a non-hazardous enclosed space,
that is adjacent or connecting to a hazardous area, falls below a minimum
pressurisation level. Indication and alarms shall be relayed back to the HVAC
console or screen located in the central control room.

To avoid nuisance alarms due to frequent door openings an adjustable time delay
should be incorporated. The time delay period should range from between 2 to 5
minutes. Since it is not possible to model the frequency of door openings in relation
to the rate of loss and re-instatement of pressurisation, the time delay period is
normally determined by empirical means during HVAC commissioning.

When areas are pressurised solely to eliminate ingress of dust and moisture to the
room, the alarm can be delayed for 6 hours to reduce the amount of nuisance
alarms to the panel operator. The Technical authority may allow alternative means
of monitoring pressure if installation of an alarm is not considered practical, e.g.
local monitoring during “watch keeping” rounds.

3.3.1.6 Temperature Control


Temperature control shall be fully automatic and integrated with the HVAC system.

For centralised HVAC systems incorporating AHU’s, temperature control should be


provided by an adjustable programmable PID temperature controller. Temperature
transmitters should be mounted at the AHU air-on and air-off locations to provide
the temperature controller with analogue input signals (0-10 V or 4-20mA). The
temperature controller shall process all input signals and in-turn provide analogue
output signals to control the degree of heating or cooling required to maintain the air
temperature in the conditioned areas .

For LQ’s or other habitats containing multiple enclosed spaces, adjustable


temperature controllers/sensors shall be provided for each room or area. These
local controllers shall control the degree of trim heating supplied by the associated
constant volume reheat unit to maintain individual room temperatures at the desired
room set point.

Room air conditioning units or split air conditioning units shall be supplied with
dedicated thermostats or temperature controllers for temperature control.

3.3.2 Control and Monitoring - Emergency Conditions


At the dictate of the ESD or F&G systems, HVAC systems shall be shutdown
including: -

• isolation of all HVAC equipment power supplies


• closure of all fire dampers

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 30 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Once shutdown HVAC systems shall be prohibited from being re-started until the
emergency has been cleared and the shutdown signal has been reset through the
ESD and F&G systems.

An override to the ESD and F&G shutdown signal for smoke exhaust should not be
provided since smoke removal using the HVAC systems is not usually a design
consideration for facilities.

Upon reinstatement of electrical power HVAC systems should be restarted in


accordance with the initial 'start-up' sequence procedure.

Black start ventilation should be achieved primarily by natural ventilation and


secondly by portable fans.

Emergency Cooling
Emergency cooling is normally provided by independent room air conditioners or split
air conditioners for enclosed spaces such as the central control room, emergency
switchrooms, electronic equipment rooms, telecom/radio rooms or TR muster areas.

The need for emergency cooling will usually depend on the rate of temperature rise
due to heat dissipation from electrical and electronic equipment. Emergency
powered air conditioning units should be provided only when maximum operating
space temperatures or the permissible "Heat Stress" threshold will be exceeded
within the required emergency operating period. It should be recognised that heat
dissipated from electrical equipment during an emergency may be significantly less
than under normal circumstances. However there may also be residual heat from
equipment isolated/shutdown that may increase the rate of temperature rise early in
the TR endurance time. Also refer to Shell DEP 37.17.10.11-Gen on TR design.

Air conditioners required to operate in an emergency must be connected to an


emergency electrical power supply so they may continue or commence operation.

In most cases they will also need to be of the remote air-cooled condensing type,
given that it is unlikely for utility cooling water to be available during an emergency.
The air-cooled condenser fan motors and all electrical gear should be suitable for a
zone 1 hazardous area classification – despite the possibly of being located in a
normally non-hazardous area – since they must operate during emergency conditions
where hydrocarbon gas may have been released.

Emergency air conditioners shall recirculate air only – they are not designed to
maintain pressurisation and must never be connected to an outside air supply.
Outside fresh-air supplied from the central HVAC system shall be isolated in
emergencies through closure of associated fire dampers.

3.4 SPARING PHILOSOPHY


The sparing philosophy involves addressing the necessity of providing standby
equipment arrangements when considering the consequences of: -

• duty equipment reliability under continuous operation


• duty equipment failure
• loss of pressurisation
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 31 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• loss of cooling to spaces with substantial heat gains

Normally for facilities most HVAC equipment is required to operate continuously 24


hours per day yearly. For some equipment, although it is made available for operation
24 hours per day, there will be occasion when it is idle or operates intermittently –
especially in the case of refrigeration plant during periods of minimal cooling loads.

The HVAC design should therefore reflect a high degree of operational reliability and
availability to minimise equipment downtime and thereby retain essential HVAC
systems. Equipment sparing or duplicate standby equipment is the favoured
arrangement by which operational reliability and availability can be assured. For
essential HVAC systems 100% standby equipment is preferred to guarantee service
continuation and equivalent operating conditions.

For LQ’s that incorporate a centralised AHU, they shall in every instance require a
minimum of 2 x 100% supply-air fans (duty and standby) to prevent loss of
pressurisation. Ancillary fan systems interlocked with the AHU, such as the galley,
toilet or laundry exhaust systems should also be provided with duty and standby fan
arrangements.

While 100% or total standby capacity is preferred, it is not always crucial. Reduced
standby capacity may be considered adequate where standby operation is temporary
or for some refrigeration systems which all, unavoidably, operate with inherent
diversity. Similarly, the adoption of 2 x 50% duty fans may be acceptable on some
supply or exhaust systems if temporary operation at 1 x 50% presents no risks or
dangers for the period required to reinstate a failed fan.

The following table indicates the recommended standby arrangements for typical
HVAC equipment: -

Equipment Sparing Comments


Centralised AHU 2 x 100% supply-air fans Rotate duty monthly

Fans – as for LQ’s and 2 x 100% general supply fans Rotate duty monthly for all fan
general usage applications
2 x 100% galley supply fans
2 x 100% galley exhaust fans
2 x 100% general exhaust fans
2 x 100% toilet exhaust fans
2 x 100% laundry exhaust fans
AHU cooling coils 2 x 100% cooling coils Or match refrigeration plant
configuration as required

Centralised CHW 2 x 100% chiller sets Rotate duty monthly


refrigeration plant Rotate duty monthly
2 x 100% CHW pumps Not required if using direct seawater
2 x 100% TW pumps cooling

Centralised DX 2 x 100% refrigeration units Rotate duty monthly


refrigeration plant OR
3 x 50% refrigeration units Two 50% units provide total duty –
OR rotate 1 x 50% unit for standby
Space temperature may rise if standby
1 x 100% duty refrigeration unit & 1 x 60% unit required during max cooling load
standby refrigeration unit

Emergency cooling 1 x 100% packaged unit Remote air cooled condensing types
only

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 32 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Ventilation only – 2 x 100% supply or exhaust fans Rotate duty monthly


Hazardous areas
Ventilation only – 2 x 50% supply fans Applicable to floating production vessels
Engine room OR
4 x 25% supply fans
2 x 50% exhaust fans
Ventilation only – 2 x 100% exhaust fans Applicable to floating production vessels
Cargo pumproom OR
1 x 100% supply fan
1 x 100% exhaust fan

Note that standby equipment is not required for non-essential services or where
contingency plans for equipment failure has clearly demonstrated rapid repair or
replacement would be implemented immediately.

3.5 MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHY


Due to the high cost of maintenance, HVAC systems should be designed to maximise
intervals between maintenance periods, but should also avoid neglect. The emphasis
should be placed on planned maintenance, especially for all equipment with customary
wear and tear, to prevent minimal equipment failure.

Long term reliability of components, materials and plant is therefore essential and
particular attention should be given to lifecycle costs when selecting new equipment. It
is therefore important to identify suitable materials and protective coatings for
equipment and components that will ensure prolonged effective operation.

Plant should be well placed for ease of maintenance in order to ensure better overall
reliability. Lack of withdrawal space inevitably will increase maintenance costs and
should be avoided. The following general principals should be followed: -

• plant and equipment should be floor mounted wherever possible


• plant and equipment should have good accessibility
• permanent access platforms should be provided for all items of
equipment requiring regular maintenance or inspection, where adequate
access from floor level is not possible
• ample head-room and good lighting should be provided
• ample withdrawal/removal area should be provided for all items of plant
and equipment
• provide lifting and handling facilities for major equipment items for use
during construction and for maintenance

All components requiring regular servicing should have removal and maintenance
areas developed and coordinated with other disciplines. Ideally, withdrawal and
maintenance areas should be common. Removal routes for large items should be
considered for access to and from crane lifting points or lay down areas.
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 33 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Determination of equipment inspection, maintenance and testing intervals normally


depends upon the manufacturer’s recommendations. However, frequencies should
initially be set conservatively and modified in line with experience.

The following equipment may typically require maintenance routines as indicated: -

Air filters - 3 monthly (or as required)


Electric heater banks - 3 monthly
Fire dampers - 3 monthly
Fans, including drive belts and - 3 monthly
bearings
Control systems including control - 6 monthly
panels
Humidifiers - 6 monthly
Pumps – CHW and TW service - 6 monthly
Refrigeration plant - 6 monthly
Water cooled condensers - 12 monthly (or as required for direct
serving refrigeration units seawater cooling condensers)

All HVAC maintenance routines must be included in the site computer maintenance
system (SAP). Care must be taken with systems that provide pressurisation to
prevent ingress of hydrocarbons or sufficient ventilation to prevent the build up of
hydrocarbon vapours. There must be at least one recurring work with TI (technical
integrity) flag to demonstrate the system is functioning correctly.

3.5.1 Spares
To satisfy operational availability and incur minimum costs over the lifetime of the
facility, consideration should be given to the following aspects: -

• standardisation of components and holding of spares


• ease of maintenance
• specialised tools
• specialised & qualified personnel

One objective of equipment selection should be to reduce spares stock quantities


and to incorporate, where possible, maximum standardisation of components to
enable interchangeability between various HVAC systems across the facility. For
identical standby equipment it is acceptable to hold a common single spare item.
Where possible, selection of air filters, refrigeration filter driers and other
consumables should be standardised.

It is also important to ensure any maintenance routines carried out on specialised


equipment such as for complex refrigeration plant and controls, are performed by
fully trained and qualified personnel. Typically the manufacturers representative may

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 34 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

be utilised to avoid the possibility of spares being misused and squandered by non-
qualified personnel.

3.6 MATERIALS AND CORROSION


Materials and protective coatings for equipment and components must be carefully
selected to maximise the design life of HVAC equipment, and in doing so minimise the
lifecycle costs.

All equipment located externally face the harshest conditions and must be selected or
constructed to withstand a constant saliferous atmosphere, usually with a high relative
humidity, during the entire lifetime of the facility. Most HVAC systems and associated
components will also continuously handle large quantities of outside air during normal
operation, posing similar harsh conditions. Additionally various corrosive materials
may be present and must be equally guarded against.

It is therefore necessary to select HVAC equipment that is designed to withstand these


conditions and thereby avoid additional maintenance, service, repair or premature
equipment replacement. In all cases, and as a minimum, non-combustible, non-toxic
materials shall be used throughout the HVAC system. All materials when heated or on
fire shall not emit toxic fumes.

Of the potential sources of corrosion, the following have the largest impact on HVAC
equipment: -

• salt aerosols
• galvanic attack
• combustion products
• drilling chemicals in dust, paste and liquid form, comprising but not limited
to cement, caustic soda, bentonite and barytes

Salt aerosols, galvanic attack and combustion products occur throughout all facilities
while drilling chemicals are mainly concentrated around drilling storage areas and may
be carried as wind dusts to surrounding areas following release from storage tank
vents or dump chutes.

Corrosion can be significantly reduced by adopting prevention philosophies that: -

• minimise corrosion opportunity by control of the environment eg by


humidity control and effective air filtration etc
• use inherently corrosion resistant materials and/or protective coatings
• use corrosion allowances to extend the life period before replacement

Stainless steels, typically type 316, are preferred as a means of minimising corrosion.
However alternative and composite materials may be considered where stainless steel
may be impractical.

Aluminium’s low melting point and potential for friction sparking when combined with
rusting mild steel shall exclude its use on facilities. The only exception to this rule is

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 35 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

the accepted use of anodised or enamel coated aluminium grilles and diffusers when
installed within non-hazardous enclosed spaces such as LQ’s.

Ductwork
Generally all ductwork shall be fabricated from stainless steel type 316 sheet.

For short design lives, for example on upgrade or refurbishment work, it may be
acceptable to manufacture external ductwork from mild steel sheet provided it is
painted or HDG after fabrication. Additionally, depending on local contractor
capability, fabrication facilities and available materials it may not be possible or cost
effective to manufacture stainless steel ductwork in some instances.

Fans
Impellers shall be made from inherently non-corroding materials such as stainless
steel type 316 or GRP. Fan casings should also be constructed from stainless steel
type 316 although mild steel may be used providing they are HDG after manufacture.

Consideration should also be given to the sparking potential of fans. Non sparking
constructions that includes brass rubbing rings or plates for stainless steel fan inlet
cones and belt guards shall be adopted for all fans.

3.7 DESIGN CALCULATIONS


Design calculations may be performed either by manual calculation or by using a
recognised computer software program such as “Camel”, “Carrier EII-20”, “Trane
Tracer” or equivalent recommended by AIRAH, ASHRAE, CIBSE or similar institute.

Calculations should be presented on standard A4 size sheets or computer print-outs


with each sheet bearing a title, date and signature of the HVAC engineer and approval
authority. Calculations must be revised and updated as required by the development
of the project or other unforseen changes until final detail design has been completed.

Fans
Fans should be selected to operate on the steep part of their performance
pressure/volume curve to ensure minimal airflow fluctuations during adverse wind
conditions. The operating point shall be the required airflow rate where the system
pressure is based on the actual system resistance for ductwork and fittings, cooling
coils, filters (average dirty pressure drop) and 50Pa pressurisation effect (where
required).

Where practical, the fan and motor should be selected to cater for speed increases to
compensate for system deterioration or possible future modifications to the ductwork
routes.

Arrangements with duty/standby fans should be selected so that the fans are capable
of starting against a 5% backdraught airflow. Depending on the arrangement and
quality of the associated fan shut-off dampers, a contingency of up to 5% should be
added to the fan design duty to compensate for air recirculated through the standby
fan and shut-off damper.

Fan Contingency
To prevent gross over-sizing of fan duties the design engineer must demonstrate that
any contingency is fully justified and has taken into account: -
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 36 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• the maturity of the design and subsequent confidence in the ductwork


routing and nominated airflow rates
• the impact of contingencies in relation to the required fan motor size

Hence, high airflow resistance due to excessive contingencies may double the size of
smaller fan motors although this is unlikely to create a problem. However for larger fan
motors this may cause unacceptable increases to the power supply, cabling and
switchgear required.

Wind Loading

A value of design wind speed corresponding to a probability of exceedance of 5% from


any compass direction should be used, with the effect being calculated using a
recognised computer software program.
This load will produce both positive and negative effects on the system pressures,
resulting in variations in the supplied air volume and pressurisation. It should not be
assumed that these changes are detrimental to the total safety of the system
performance before first fully analysing their consequences.

Final fan selections should be checked for wind gusts producing velocities with a
probability of exceedance of 0.1% to ensure the systems will naturally recover after
these adverse effects.

Small volume fans require special consideration. For example a system resistance
should not double as a consequence of the addition of the wind load. The use of cowl
type inlets and outlets should be used to lessen the effects of wind loading.
Components, such as filters, attenuators and ductwork should be increased in size to
reduce the system airflow resistance and enable a practical fan selection. This
approach will ensure good fan efficiency, reduce generated noise, reduce vibration
and retain power requirements within practical limits.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 37 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

4 SYSTEM DESIGN - AREA SPECIFIC


4.1 PROCESS AND UTILITIES AREAS
4.1.1 Hazardous Area Enclosures
HVAC systems for hazardous areas shall be entirely separate from those serving
non-hazardous areas.

Hazardous area enclosures shall not exceed maximum and minimum design
temperatures. Typically a maximum temperature of around 35°C is acceptable and
where feasible maintained by use of free cooling.

The minimum number of 12 air changes per hour shall be adopted for all hazardous
area enclosures. This air change rate should be increased if inadequate to dilute
fugitive hydrocarbon emissions.

The system design should include air inlet arrangements that draw 100% fresh-air
from a non-hazardous area. For each of the following possible ventilation system
arrangements 100% fresh-air is forced or induced into the enclosure and fully
exhausted. Recirculation air is not permitted: -

• supply fan and exhaust fan


• supply and natural exhaust
• natural supply and exhaust fan

Where a hazardous area enclosure is adjacent and/or connected to non-hazardous
area enclosures the exhaust ventilation system should be fan assisted to ensure the
internal pressure, by design, does not exceed 0 Pa with reference to the local
external ambient pressure. In cases not associated with proximity to non-hazardous
areas, fan assisted exhaust ventilation may also be required for specific removal of
hydrocarbons, fumes or equipment heat.

Internal pressures for hazardous area enclosures not adjacent or connected to non-
hazardous area enclosures should be dictated by local ambient conditions with no
attempt to provide internal pressure control.

4.1.2 Non-Hazardous Areas


Non-hazardous area enclosures should not exceed maximum and minimum design
temperatures. The preferred method of cooling is by free cooling and designs should
provide adequate airflow and air change rates that meet the pressurisation
requirements of 25 Pa – 60 Pa (where required), lighting, electrical equipment, plant
equipment, solar and transmission heat gains. Cooling by use of refrigeration plant
may be considered where free cooling is insufficient or impractical.

It is accepted that space temperatures may go above the maximum design value for
short periods during peak summer outside conditions. This should not deter the use
of free cooling.

Heating, where necessary, should be provided by electric heater banks mounted in


the AHU or supply ductwork.
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 38 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The system design should include ventilation arrangements that draw fresh-air from a
non-hazardous area. Recirculated air is not preferred but may be permitted for
instances where cooling plant is required: -

• supply fan and exhaust fan


• supply fan and natural exhaust
• dedicated independent exhaust systems for fume cupboards, welding
bays/booths etc. should be provided as required.

4.2 LIVING QUARTERS


HVAC systems should be designed to maintain adequate internal environmental
conditions, taking into full account the following criteria: -

• external environmental maximum and minimum design values


• heat gains from personnel, lighting, electrical equipment, plant
equipment, solar and transmission
• heat losses due to transmission through external boundaries

During periods in summer or winter, when external conditions exceed the maximum
and minimum design values, it is accepted that the design internal temperature may
not satisfy the specified limits for short periods of time.

Primary equipment including centralised AHU’s, cooling plant and various ancillary
fans should wherever possible be located in a dedicated HVAC plantroom. Selective
exhaust-air fans may be located external to the LQ in accessible and unobstructed
positions where plantroom location would be impractical eg for laundry exhaust fans
the preference is for external location in close proximity to the laundry space.

Supply or exhaust-air fans should not be mounted in ceiling voids. Where this is
unavoidable, fan selection is vitally important and should take into serious
consideration the consequences of radiated noise through the fan casing in addition to
the noise transmitted through the ductwork.

Supply-air Rate
The supply-air rate shall be determined by performing three independent calculations –
for each separate room or area – that satisfies the criteria listed below. The greatest
calculated supply-air rate shall be the adopted design supply-air rate: -

• Maximum cooling load

• Fresh-air requirement

• Number of required air changes per hour

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 39 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The maximum cooling load depends on the magnitude of heat gains during the
maximum design conditions. The fresh-air requirement is to be calculated by
estimating the occupancy levels for each room or area and applying a minimum of 8 L
/s of fresh-air per person. A minimum number of air changes must also be achieved
for each room or area as per the table below. However the actual air change rate may
be higher than those shown below; especially when the supply airflow rate is
determined by the cooling load or fresh-air requirements.

Room or Area Air Changes per Hour (minimum)

First aid room 6


Laundry 6
Cabins 8
Offices and public areas 10
Cabin toilet spaces 15
Galley 15

The actual air change rate for galleys may be higher than 15 and should be
determined by the exhaust-air requirements of galley hoods and canopies. Refer to
AS 1668.2 for the method of calculation.

The actual air change rate for laundries should be determined by the drier equipment
exhaust requirements in conjunction with the maximum cooling load.

Pressurisation
At design wind speed conditions the LQ should be pressurised within a range of 25Pa
to 65Pa with reference to the external atmosphere. The optimum pressurisation set
point is 50Pa.

Airlocks provided for LQ access doors should not be pressurised or served by the
HVAC system.

Consideration must be given to the degree of air leakage from pressurised enclosures,
particularly in the refurbishment of existing facilities. Leakage rates of up to 5% on
steel plated structures and 10% on clad structures (referenced to 50Pa) may be
measured. These figures may be exceeded on existing modules that have not
undergone external cladding refurbishment.

Supply-Air Systems
The main supply-air system should comprise of a centralised AHU and associated
supply duct distribution network. The supply-air system shall be of medium velocity,
constant volume, and terminal re-heat type serving the following areas: -

• cabins
• control, equipment and laboratory rooms
• galley, dining and recreation rooms
• offices and public areas
• workshop and locker rooms

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 40 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The AHU should be provided with a two-stage filter/coalescer to collect dirt, moisture
and salt aerosols and also incorporate heating, cooling and humidification equipment
as necessary.

The HVAC system may be either a 100% total loss system, or a mixed fresh/return air
system. For systems utilising return air, the ratio of return air shall be determined by
the quantity of non-returnable air exhausted directly to atmosphere from galley, toilet
and general exhaust systems and also the practicality of installing return air ductwork.

Supply-air to all areas should be via constant volume terminal re-heaters to enable
individual room temperature control. Ceiling supply-air diffusers should be provided
with opposed blade dampers for fine-tune air balancing and also have adjustable air
direction capabilities.

Exhaust Systems
To prevent cross contamination and maintain hygienic conditions, independent
exhaust-air systems must be installed for the type of exhaust categories as listed
below: -

• battery rooms
• electrical equipment and electronic rooms
• first aid rooms
• galley
• general (cabins, offices, recreation rooms, corridors)
• laundry
• toilets (cabin toilets, also shower areas)

Small battery rooms containing sealed for life batteries may be served by a general
exhaust system although the battery manufacturer’s advice should be sought in each
instance.

Galley Systems
The galley exhaust system should be designed to induce a proportion of airflow from
the dining room (via the servery area) to prevent galley cooking odours entering the
dining room.

In order to prevent significant quantities of conditioned air from the dining room being
exhausted directly to atmosphere via the galley exhaust system, it is acceptable for up
to 70% of the galley supply-air to be introduced by a dedicated galley supply-air
system using non-cooled fresh-air. Conditioned supply-air from the centralised AHU
should only be introduced via high velocity nozzles to provide spot cooling for
personnel working in the galley.

Galley canopies or hoods over all cooking equipment shall be fitted with cleanable
grease filters and suitable grease drainage. Provision should also be made for fire
detection and fire suppression. Exhaust canopies or hoods should also be installed
over dishwashers and any other steam producing equipment located within the galley;
and may also be connected to the galley exhaust system.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 41 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

A dedicated fire damper should be fitted to each ductwork exhaust connection for all
galley canopies or hoods. In addition a fire damper must be fitted at every exhaust
ductwork penetration through a fire rated barrier and also at the LQ boundary. The fire
dampers are to close in accordance with the ESD, F&G systems logic.

All galley exhaust ductwork shall be constructed to meet an A-60 fire rating throughout
its entire continuous length.

Supply or exhaust-air ductwork serving spaces not associated with the galley shall not
under any circumstances be routed through galley areas or galley ceiling voids.

Laundry Systems
Clothes drying machines are a serious potential source of fire. This is primarily due to
inadequate filtration systems permitting the build up of lint, unsuitable ductwork design
or material selection. Also recirculation air from laundries shall not be permitted to
prevent lint contamination. To minimise the risk of fire the following design guidance
should be adopted: -

• position filters as close as possible to the drying machine outlet


• install high capacity disposable type filters
• install non-return dampers for each drying machine outlet
• avoid vertical duct runs
• avoid concealed ductwork
• minimise the length of ductwork run
• provide access doors in ductwork for inspection and cleaning
• ensure all ductwork components are accessible and fully serviceable

The preferred arrangement for laundry exhaust systems is to position the exhaust fans
externally but close by the laundry space to minimise the ductwork route accordingly.
It may be possible to mount the fans at floor level, although for reasons of proximity a
high level location over an adjacent external walkway is also acceptable.

All laundry ductwork should be constructed to meet an A-60 fire rating; particularly
where circumstances prevent use of design guidance principles as stated above.

Transfer Grilles
Transfer grilles should only be provided in toilets since the objective is not to transfer
air from cabins into corridors. All corridors and staircases should be positively
pressurised in comparison with adjacent areas to assist in maintaining smoke free
escape routes.

Temporary LQ/TR's & Office Modules


HVAC is usually provided by an independent single or split packaged air conditioning
unit to provide supply-air, cooling and or heating to temporary modules. In some
instances cooling or heating may not be required and mechanical ventilation may be
adequate. Duplication or standby HVAC plant is not necessary.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 42 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The HVAC system supply-air should be 100% fresh-air and not be recirculated.
Pressurisation should also be provided.

All equipment shall be suitable for the classification of the area in which the module is
situated. All ductwork penetrations through the module bulkheads should be installed
with a fire damper to ensure the module fire barrier integrity is not compromised.

Toilet or shower units are to be installed with dedicated exhaust fans as required.

It is usually convenient and cost effective to install the HVAC plant on the module roof
in spite of possible additional maintenance access requirements.

4.3 DRILLING AND DRILLING UTILITIES AREAS


The control of dust and noxious substances in drilling areas will usually require the
installation of local exhaust ventilation, which should be discharged in a suitable area
that will not affect personnel or be infiltrated by any equipment air intakes.

Shale Shakers and Mud Tanks will require outside supply-air to meet the exhaust-air
requirements of the tanks and shakers. Under normal circumstances these
requirements will be met by a dedicated supply-air system to provide adequate air
distribution to the general space. The exception to this requirement is where the
modules are of a semi-open nature allowing air to be drawn in through a variety of
openings. Under these circumstances natural supply-air ventilation can be used for
make-up air.

These areas should have air change rates that are determined by the air quantity
required for the effective extraction of fumes, heat and dust from tanks and shaker
enclosures.

Due to the nature of these areas all mechanical ventilation components and equipment
should be provided with clear access to perform cleaning and maintenance duties.

4.3.1 Shale Shakers & Cuttings Cleaning Units


Shale Shakers and associated drainage troughs should be fully enclosed to ensure
capture of fumes at source by exhaust ventilation, thereby preventing unnecessary
operator exposure. Enclosures should form an integral part of the Shale Shaker Unit
and due consideration should be given to the need for clear access to enable filter
screen replacement and maintenance requirements.

Enclosures should be designed so that air velocities through openings ensure


complete capture of emitted airborne contaminants. Air velocities in exhaust
ductwork, upstream of scrubbing units, should also ensure optimum transportation of
airborne contaminants with minimum dropout.

Cuttings Cleaning Units should be provided with exhaust enclosures and ventilation
similar to that for shale shaker units.

4.3.2 Mud Tanks


Although during the initial design phase some mud tanks may be designated as
storage only, (inactive), experience has shown that all mud tanks are likely to contain
hydrocarbon bearing liquid, (active), at some stage during the life of the drilling
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 43 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

platform. All tanks should, therefore, be assumed to be active and should be


ventilated accordingly.

Tanks should have solid plated covers with minimum penetration for pipework,
agitator shafts, valve handles, instrument entries and inspection/access hatches.
The void between the covers and mud surface should be constantly purged with
ventilation of the entire freeboard. A negative pressure should be achieved within the
freeboard space by an imbalance between supply-air entering the void through
leakage paths in the cover plate and the ducted exhaust-air system. Precise control
over negative pressure is not a requirement of the system design.

Multiple Mud Tanks that are adjacent may be ventilated by a common system, if
practical.

Mud Tank enclosures should be designed so that air velocities through openings
ensure complete capture of emitted airborne contaminants. Air velocities in exhaust
ductwork, upstream of scrubbing units, should also ensure optimum transportation of
airborne contaminants with minimum dropout.

4.3.3 Air Scrubbers


Air scrubber units, in the form of integrated air washers and plenum settlement
chambers, shall be provided for all exhaust ventilation systems serving mud tanks
and shale shakers to minimise the discharge of mud and dust particles discharged to
atmosphere.

Ductwork between the scrubber and the mud tank or shale shaker should preferably
be of circular cross section and be designed for easy disassembly for cleaning.
Ductwork should be fitted with maximum sized access doors at each change of
direction and installed to fall back towards the mud tank or shale shaker. Any low
sections should be fitted with large bore drain valves.

Air scrubbers shall incorporate the following features: -

• air scrubbing sprays


• vane wash sprays
• vane moisture eliminators
• detergent injection (oil based mud)
• drain sump with bolted access
• waste water drain with manometric trap
• all liquid pipework and drain connections
• access doors to spray section and discharge section

Air scrubbers are usually required to operate continuously typically handling air at a
peak temperature of 80°C, with normal operation at 40-60°C.

Minimum efficiency with wet mud or dry dust shall be 95% with a particle size range
of 5 to 50 microns. The maximum initial (clean) scrubbing unit airflow resistance at
the optimum design velocity should not exceed 350Pa.
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 44 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Detergent should not be added if the effluent is to be discharged to a settling tank.


Where used the detergent should be non-foaming, biodegradable and non-clogging.

All construction materials shall be non-combustible and shall not emit smoke or toxic
fumes in fire conditions. Construction materials should also be suitable for seawater
and chemicals (detergent or mud) likely to be used, with respect to corrosion and
erosion.

4.3.4 Cement Units


If a drilling cement unit doubles as part of the Well Kill system, its diesel engine,
where installed, should be arranged to operate in an emergency. In this case HVAC
services should be provided as described for the diesel fire pump (See Section 4.5).

4.4 GAS TURBINE ENCLOSURES


Enclosures for gas turbines shall be ventilated in accordance with any specific
manufacturer’s requirements and the hazardous area classification in which the unit is
located.

Ventilation requirements for all gas turbine enclosures shall fully comply with
Woodside Standard W1000MM104 STANDARD: GAS TURBINES: SELECTIONS
AND SPECIFICATION.

4.5 EMERGENCY VENTILATION


Fire rated enclosures or compartments containing fire pumps, emergency generators
or any plant that is required to operate during an emergency, should also be provided
with emergency ventilation in addition to normal ventilation requirements.

When diesel engines operate in an emergency, the air required for engine radiator
cooling and engine combustion may be provided by a system that forms part of the
diesel package and is separate from the normal ventilation system. Where the
ambient conditions are considered harsh, it may also be necessary to provide
emergency ventilation fans (also separate from the normal ventilation system) to
maintain the fire rated enclosure at an acceptable temperature for effective equipment
operation.

All fire dampers should be fully integrated with emergency and normal ventilation
philosophies. Whilst the diesel engines are not running, normal fire damper logic will
apply ie close on either manual or a F&G shutdown signal.

However, in the event of a fire while the diesel engine is running, the fire damper
should only close upon rupture of the fire dampers internal frangible bulb or azeotropic
tube device.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 45 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

4.6 ANCILLIARY AREAS


4.6.1 Battery and Charger Rooms
Each battery system must be analysed to evaluate the possible extent of noxious or
flammable gases that may be released in to the room. The air change rate depends
upon the dilution rate of the battery by-products and heat removal from the room.
Typically, air change rates for open lead acid batteries will be greater than for totally
sealed batteries.

Regulated lead acid batteries are particularly temperature sensitive and are usually
specified to operate in the range of 15 to 25°C. Temperatures lower than 15°C may
significantly reduce battery power while above 25°C reduce battery life.

Where contamination of the atmosphere is negligible and does not threaten


personnel or the integrity of the facility, a general or local exhaust system may be
used as the sole means of room ventilation, providing there is no recirculation.

Where contamination levels are deemed to be hazardous and/or environmentally


unacceptable, a dedicated exhaust system should be provided. Exhaust-air should
be removed at high level (especially over battery racks) to remove lighter than air
gases and heat dissipated from batteries and charger units.

Supply-air should be introduced at low level and should maintain battery and charger
rooms at a pressure above adjacent hazardous areas (or below in the case of
adjacent non-hazardous areas).

If the batteries are known to produce hazardous levels of explosive gas during boost
charging, then battery charger operation should be interlocked to stop charging upon
loss or failure of the exhaust fan.

4.6.2 Laboratories
Sufficient supply-air required to maintain room pressurisation and adequate internal
environmental conditions may be provided by a dedicated or centralised HVAC
system.

All supply-air shall be fully exhausted by a fume cupboard and/or dedicated exhaust
system. Supply-air shall not be recirculated.

Fume cupboards shall incorporate a dedicated exhaust fan and associated ductwork.
They shall exhaust directly to atmosphere with discharge cowls located to avoid
personnel contact with exhaust fumes. Recirculation type fume cupboards shall not
be permitted.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 46 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

4.6.3 Chemical Storage Rooms


Supply-air to chemical storage rooms shall be continually purged and draw 100%
outside fresh-air from a non-hazardous area ie total loss system.

Duty/standby fans should be provided in line with the standby philosophy and be
provided with automatic changeover. Fan controls shall be integrated with the overall
ESD, F&G and safety systems.

4.6.4 Purging Equipment


Supply-air to specific electrical enclosures, plant and components that require to be
continually purged shall draw 100% outside fresh-air from a non-hazardous area ie
total loss system.

Duty/standby fans should be provided in line with the standby philosophy and be
provided with automatic changeover. Fan controls shall be integrated with the into
the control system of the equipment being served and into the overall ESD, F&G and
safety systems.

Purge air supply to equipment required to run in an emergency should be connected


to an emergency power supply.

5 INSTALLATION, COMMISSIONING AND DOCUMENTATION

Installation and commissioning shall be carried out as per DEP 31.76.10.11-Gen.

In particular the Contractor shall submit for review and approval the following:
• a functional description of the testing and balancing procedure to be
followed for each item of major plant and for each air, water, electrical and
control system;
• equipment schedules for all major items of plant showing the design
requirements and supplied capacities cross-referenced to the drawings;
• calibration certificates for test equipment;
• test and balance forms for all systems and components;
• control system logic diagrams and test flow charts together with test
results;
• pressure test results for all installed systems;
• electrical circuit continuity and earthing test results;
• electrical insulation test results;
• preliminary as-built drawings, operation and maintenance manuals,
certificates and factory test data.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 47 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

6 REFERENCES

LEGISLATION, ASSOCIATED GUIDANCE AND APPROVED CODES OF PRACTICE


ABS American Bureau of Shipping
AMSA Australian Maritime Safety Act
Lloyd’s Lloyd’s Register of Shipping
SOLAS International Maritime Organisation – Safety of Life at Sea
SI 1992 No. 2885 The Offshore Installations (Safety Case Regulations) 1992
SI 1995 No. 743 Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and
Emergency Response) Regulations and Approved Code of
Practice
SI 1994 No. 3246 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations and
General COSHH Approved Code of Practice

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
ISO 15 138 (Draft) Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Offshore Production
Installations – Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning
Institute of Petroleum Area Classification for Petroleum Industries, Model Code of
Safe Practice, Part 15

AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS
AS 1167 Welding and brazing – Filer metals
AS 1167.1 Part 1: Filler metal for brazing and braze welding
AS 1210 Pressure vessels
AS 1271 Safety valves, other valves, liquid level gauges, and other
fittings for boilers and unfired pressure vessels
AS 1324 Air filters for use in general ventilation and air conditioning
AS 1324.1 Part 1 : Application, performance and construction
AS 1324.2 Part 2 : Methods of test
AS 1345 Identification of the contents of pipes, conduits and ducts
AS 1530 Methods of fire tests for building materials, components and
structures
AS 1530.1 Part 1: Combustibility test for materials
AS 1530.2 Part 2: Test for flammability of materials
AS 1530.3 Part 3: Simultaneous determination of ignitability, flame
propagation, heat release and smoke release
AS 1571 Copper – Seamless tubes for air conditioning and refrigeration
AS/NZS 1668.1 The use of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning in
buildings Part 1: Fire and smoke control in multi-compartment
AS 1668.2 buildings
The use of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning in
AS 1668.2 Supp1 buildings Part 2: Mechanical ventilation for acceptable indoor-
air quality
The use of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning in
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 48 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

buildings Part 2: Mechanical ventilation for acceptable indoor-


air quality – Commentary (Supplement to AS 1668.2)
AS/NZS 1677 Refrigerating systems
AS/NZS 1677.1 Part 1: Refrigerant classification
AS 1921 Air conditioning and ventilation in ships – Cabins and living
spaces of merchant ships
AS 1925 Air conditioning and ventilation in ships – machinery control
rooms of merchant ships
AS 1939 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical
equipment (IP Code)
AS 2107 Acoustics – Recommended design sound levels and
reverberation times for building interiors
AS 2129 Flanges for pipes, valves and fittings
AS 2254 Acoustics – Recommended noise levels for various areas of
occupancy in vessels and offshore mobile platforms
AS 2380 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres – Explosion
protection techniques
AS 2381 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres – Selection,
installation, and maintenance
AS 2381.1 Part 1: General requirements
AS 2430 Classification of hazardous areas
AS 2430.1 Part 1: Explosive gas atmospheres
AS 2936 SAA Fan Test Code
AS 2971 Serially produced pressure vessels
AS 3000 SAA Wiring Rules
AS 3102 Approval and test specification for electric duct heaters
AS 3439 Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies
AS 3666. 1&2&3 Air handling and water systems of buildings
AS 4254 Ductwork for air handling systems in buildings

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 49 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

INDUSTRY STANDARDS
AIRAH Design Guides
ASHRAE Fundamental Handbooks, Standards & Guidelines
CIBSE Design Guides
SAA HB40 The Australian Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Code of
Good Practice
SAA HB40.1 Part 1: Reduction of emissions of fluorocarbon refrigerants in
commercial and industrial refrigeration and air conditioning
applications
SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National
Association – HVAC Duct Construction Standards for Metal
and Flexible Ducts
SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National
Association – Ductwork Leakage Testing

SHELL DESIGN & ENGINEERING PRACTICES


DEP 37.17.10.11 – Design of Offshore Temporary Refuges
Gen.

WEL STANDARDS
W1000SE025 Standard: Electrical Engineering Design
W1000SE002 Standard: Low Voltage Switch Gear
W1000ME009 Guideline: Electrical Requirements for Package Equipment
W1000SE005 Standard: HV and LV Electric Machines, Cage Induction Type
W1000SJ010 Standard: Instrument Installation
W1000MM103 Standard: Pumps, Selection and Specification
W1000MM104 Standard: Gas Turbines, Selections and Specification

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 50 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7 APPENDICES

APPENDIX
AIR HANDLING UNITS 1
CONSTANT VOLUME TERMINAL REHEAT UNITS 2
COOLING PLANT 3
COWLS AND WEATHER LOUVRES 4
DUCTWORK 5
FANS 6
FILTERS AND COALESCERS 7
FIRE DAMPERS 8
GENERAL DAMPERS 9
GRILLES AND DIFFUSERS 10
HEATER BANKS 11
HUMIDIFIERS 12
PUMPS 13
SOUND ATTENUATORS 14
DATA SHEETS 15

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 51 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.1 APPENDIX 1 AIR HANDLING UNITS


General
The AHU shall provide a robust housing for major mechanical air handling equipment
and associated components, that will: -

• protect internal equipment from mechanical damage and corrosion


• enable straightforward pre-delivery performance testing
• improve accessibility to all components for service and maintenance
•minimise heat loss, noise break-out and eliminate external condensation
or cold bridging by use of thermal/acoustic insulation.
The design of both externally and internally located AHU’s will be similar, with the
exception that external units should be fitted with a pitched roof to prevent
water/corrosive fluids pooling on the top of the unit, particularly between any panel
section joints.

Most AHU’s will be located internally within a dedicated HVAC plantroom and not
subject to harsh environmental conditions once installed. However whether located
internally or externally all AHU’s shall be fabricated from stainless steel type 316 and
have a high build quality in order to resist damage and corrosion while in the
fabrication yard, during shipping and when put into operation.

All major equipment items as determined by the HVAC design should be fixed or
housed in such a manner that permits complete withdrawal.

AHU Housing
The AHU should where possible be designed to have a constant width and height and
also avoid large roof spans. The length and overall dimensions should be kept to a
practical minimum to maintain adequate access space for maintenance and withdrawal
of internal equipment, while also ensuring that the air velocity across filters, heater
bank and cooling coil face areas does not exceed 2.5m/s.

The AHU housing shall consist of double skinned insulated wall, ceiling and floor
panels fixed to a rigid main sectional support frame. The sectional support frame shall
be constructed from stainless steel type 316 angle or other section of not less than
3mm thickness. The support frame shall be fully welded throughout.
The outer skin for wall, ceiling and floor panels shall be a minimum of 1.6mm thick
stainless steel type 316 sheet while the inner skin of 1mm thick respectively.
Panels shall be insulated with fire resistant semi-rigid glasswool having a minimum
thickness of 50mm. The insulation shall be fire retardant and have a thermal
conductivity of not more than 0.035 W/m K at 20°C and a minimum density of 48
kg/m³. When tested in accordance with AS 1530 part 3 the insulation shall exhibit the
following characteristics: -

• ignitability index 0
• spread of flame index 0
• heat evolved index 0
• smoke developed index 0 – 1
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 52 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Access doors shall be provided for inspection, service and maintenance purposes.
Access doors shall generally be of the same construction as the wall panels and be
fitted with adequate hinges, securing latches and airtight door seals.

The entire AHU shall be made both airtight and water tight between all panel joints,
seams and all other mating faces to maintain the integrity of the thermal and vapour
barrier using neoprene gaskets and mastic sealant. All pop rivets shall be of the
stainless steel blind type and further plugged with mastic sealant.

Base Frame
A single base frame or skid frame shall be fitted to provide a rigid support for the entire
AHU assembly. The skid shall be certified as a lifting frame and capable of supporting
the whole unit during lifting. The skid shall also include lifting lugs suitable for cranage
and rigging gear. The frame will typically be constructed of hot dipped galvanised
steel.

Filters
Filters shall be easily accessible for maintenance and cleaning while the AHU remains
operational. The preferred arrangement is for a man-size access door into a dedicated
filter access compartment.

Fans
AHU’s should incorporate supply air fans of the "draw-through" type to ensure the
airflow across filters, heater bank and cooling coil face areas is uniformly distributed.

Fan and motor assemblies shall be vibration isolated from the AHU by mounting them
on dedicated frames with anti-vibration mountings. Fan and motor drive assemblies
shall be fitted with accessible and removable guards for replacement and tensioning of
belts.

For duty and standby fan motor assemblies separate compartments should be
provided to permit servicing, maintenance or removal of a fan motor whilst the other
fan motor remains operational. Duty and standby fan arrangements shall each be
fitted with automatic shut-off dampers to prevent short cycling of air through the non-
operating fan.

Cooling Coils and Heater Banks


Internal partitions shall be installed to prevent the air stream from bypassing the heat
exchanger contact surfaces. Internal partitions shall be thermally insulated using fire
retardant materials as specified for the AHU housing.

Internal partitions shall be used to position cooling coil headers and associated local
control valves outside the air stream but within the AHU housing. Terminal boxes and
associated safety devices for electric heater banks shall also be positioned in the
same manner.

Cooling coil inlet and outlet pipework connections shall protrude through the AHU
housing wall via insulated pipe penetrations for hook up on site.

Cooling Coil Drip Trays


Each cooling coil shall be fitted with a condensate drip tray constructed from
continuous stainless steel type 316 sheet of not less than 2mm thickness. All corner
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 53 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

joints shall be continuously welded. The minimum height at any given point of the drip
tray shall not be less than 75mm. The drip tray shall also be insulated to prevent
surface condensation run-off inside the AHU.

For AHU’s installed on board floating facilities each condensate drip tray shall be fitted
with two equal size drain points fitted at opposite ends of the tray to allow for any
listing and rolling movement. In this instance the drip tray shall be pitched from the
centre point towards both ends.

Each drain point shall be connected to a manometric trap of sufficient depth to provide
a water seal that withstands the fan static pressures. The manometric trap shall be
installed in an accessible location on the external surface of the AHU.

Steam Humidifiers
Where humidifiers are fitted, the preference is for the steam generator to be contained
within a compartment of the AHU but outside of the air stream.

Where possible the steam injection point should be positioned upstream of the fan inlet
where good mixing is assured.

The floor of the AHU down stream of the steam injection point should incorporate a fall
to a drain point in the event of water carry over from any steam that may condense.

Glass observation ports should be fitted down stream of humidifiers to verify their
performance. Internal AHU lighting shall be fitted when observation ports are installed.

Volume Control Dampers


It may be feasible for the fresh-air and return-air volume control dampers to form an
integral part of the AHU. Provision for damper access and adjustment shall be
required in this instance.

Ductwork Connections
The AHU shall be provided with flanges for ductwork connection to the air inlet, supply-
air and return air as required. The flanges shall be constructed from fully welded
stainless steel type 316 angle and pre-drilled in accordance with the drilling detail for
the connecting ductwork.

Access
The design of the AHU should provide adequate access for inspection, service,
maintenance and withdrawal of all equipment items.

For AHU’s with a clear internal height of 1500mm or more, man-size hinged access
doors shall be provided for walk-in access compartments for all equipment and
components. Where possible these compartments should serve adjacent equipment
items.

For AHU’s with a clear internal height of less than 1500mm, hinged access doors
and/or side and top lift-off access panels may be provided.

In all cases, lift-off access panels may be provided to enable access to individual
components such as control valves or electrical devices where inaccessible by any
other means.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 54 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Electrical
All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be selected in compliance with
the hazardous area classification in which the AHU is located.

Ex'e IP65 rated bulkhead light fittings should be located inside each walk-in type
access compartment. Switches for these lights should be positioned on the external
face of the AHU and be clearly labelled to identify use.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. Earthing bosses shall be fitted to
the skid frame to provide for external earth bonding. A minimum of two stainless steel
type 316 earthing bosses shall be welded to the skid frame and be tapped for an M10
stainless steel stud complete with nuts and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standard: -

W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 55 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.2 APPENDIX 2 CONSTANT VOLUME TERMINAL REHEAT UNITS

General
Constant volume terminal reheat units shall be fitted into supply-air branch ductwork
sections upstream of supply-air registers serving a single zone or room for non-
hazardous enclosures only. The units shall be designed to provide a constant airflow
quantity, adequate sound attenuation and accurate temperature control.

Each unit should contain the following three basic components: -

• constant volume regulator – a self actuating mechanical device providing


a non fluctuating constant airflow quantity
• sound attenuator – acoustic insulation that reduces duct borne noise
being transmitted through the unit and into the room
• electric air heater – during summer or winter used to trim the supply-air
temperature according to the room thermostat set point

The air heater may be excluded when provision for heating is not required or
alternative methods of heating are employed.

Constant Volume Regulator


The regulator shall be designed as a self-actuating device, the sole motive force being
supplied by the airflow through the unit. Units should be selected at the mid-point of
the unit’s regulator design range.

The regulator set point shall be adjusted to ensure that the airflow quantity is
maintained within ±5% of the design volume requirement. The set point should be
manually adjustable without the need for specialised tools. The air velocity should
normally range from a minimum of 2.5m/s up to a maximum 5.0m/s.

Plastic or rubber components in the form of diaphragms or bellows shall not be


permitted as part of the constant volume regulator.

Sound Attenuator
The dynamic insertion loss must be equal or greater in all frequency bands than the
required value in accordance with the HVAC design noise calculations. Noise
generated by the unit itself should also be considered in determination of a suitable
unit.

Acoustic media material shall be non-hygroscopic and fire retardant. The attenuator
material shall be secured by perforated stainless seel steel sheet and provide
adequate strength, minimal airflow resistance and air turbulence. A polyester lining
shall be fitted between the acoustic media material and the perforated sheet to prevent
any media fibres migrating into the airstream.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 56 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Electric Air Heater


Heaters shall comply with AS/NZS 3102 and be type tested with a safety clearance
certificate as a minimum.

The electric heater shall be suitable for continuous and intermittent operation, and
should also provide minimal air turbulence and airflow resistance.

All heaters shall have a maximum rating of 2.4kW when connected to a single phase
supply or 2kW per phase when connected to a three phase supply. For three phase
supplies, elements shall be arranged to ensure the out of balance load across each
phase is not greater than 2%.

The heater elements shall be mounted on a support plate complete with an electrical
termination box. The degree of protection required for the termination box shall be a
minimum of IP56.

The heater assembly shall be designed for insertion through a rectangular hole cut into
the side of the unit whereby the termination box remains clear of the airstream. The
handing of the cutout shall be determined by the ductwork layout and access for
servicing and maintenance to ensure complete withdrawal of the heater assembly is
made possible.

All elements shall be provided with element supports to prevent vibration and sagging.
Where elements do not match the cross sectional face area of the unit’s internal
dimensions, the space beyond the elements shall be fitted with 316 type perforated
steel sheet of 50% open area.

Elements shall have a maximum surface temperature rating of 200°C (T3) when
operating in still air conditions. Under normal operating airflow conditions elements
shall not exceed a surface temperature of 135°C (T4).

Heating elements shall be constructed from nickel-chrome resistance wire contained


within magnesium oxide, all encased within an Incoloy 800 sheath. Elements may be
provided with fins to increase the heat exchange surface but only where full
compliance with the surface temperature requirements is strictly met.

The unit casing shall be thermally insulated for a distance of not less than 250mm
upstream and downstream from the heater elements. Thermal insulation shall be non-
combustible and have a coefficient of heat transfer not greater than 30 W/m²K at
100°C.

The unit shall also be fitted with devices to satisfy both of the following requirements
and safeguard against overheating under abnormal operating conditions: -

• a thermal cut-out device or a supply-air failure switch to interrupt the


power supply to the heater elements upon loss of the supply airflow
• a manual reset thermal cut out device to monitor the air temperature in
the immediate vicinity of the heater elements - set to trip at 120°C and
interrupt the power supply to the heater elements

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 57 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Electrical
All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be selected in compliance with
the hazardous area classification in which the unit is located.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each terminal box for the earth core of each incoming and
outgoing cable.

An earthing boss shall be fitted to all casings fabricated from stainless steel. A
stainless steel type 316 earthing boss shall be welded to the casing to provide for
external earth bonding and be tapped for an M10 stainless steel stud complete with
nuts and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standards: -

• W1000ME009 GUIDELINE: ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PACKAGE


EQUIPMENT
W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 58 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.3 APPENDIX 3 COOLING PLANT

Refrigerant Type
Refrigeration systems associated with HVAC systems have traditionally used R22 as
the refrigerant. However, R22 is no longer acceptable for new facilities. Acceptable
refrigerants are R407C or R410A for package units and R134A for chillers.

General
Cooling plant should be provided by a centralised or packaged refrigeration system in
accordance with AS 1677 Refrigerating Systems.

Centralised refrigeration systems may be of the CHW type or DX type depending on


the cooling capacity requirement, practicality and layout. In all cases these types of
refrigeration system should operate as part of an integrated HVAC system and be
automatically controlled by the HVAC control system.

Packaged refrigeration systems shall be supplied complete with all necessary


equipment and componentry. The package may operate independently or as part of
an integrated HVAC system.

Each refrigeration system shall be sized with sufficient cooling capacity and be
capable of continuous operation during full cooling load requirements and intermittent
operation with long idle periods during low cooling load requirements.

Manufacturers standard refrigeration products are preferred when the plant is to be


located in a non-hazardous area, as provided by installing refrigeration plant within an
enclosed dedicated HVAC plantroom.

Customised or purpose built refrigeration plant is not preferred but may be unavoidable
where plant location must comply with a hazardous area classification. Alternatively it
may be possible to modify the electrical cabling and componentry of a manufacturers
standard product to comply with the hazardous area classification.

Where refrigeration equipment is located externally it shall be constructed from


suitable materials and include protective coatings as required for operation in a marine
environment.

Refrigeration plant shall be supplied with all necessary controls and components of
refrigeration industrial quality. Each refrigeration circuit should incorporate the
following components as a minimum: -

• high pressure cut-out switch – manual reset


• low pressure cut-out switch
• oil differential pressure switch
• gauge panel with suction, discharge and oil pressure gauges
• compressor crankcase heater
• compressor suction and discharge service valves

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 59 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• refrigerant liquid line filter driers and sight glass

Compressors
Open-drive, semi hermetic or hermetic compressors may be used providing the
electrical rating complies with the power supply voltage and the hazardous area
classification in which it is located. Reciprocating, screw and scroll compressors are
equally acceptable.

• Reciprocating
No fixed capacity limit by utilising multiple compressors sets in
conjunction with compressor capacity control. Reciprocating
compressors can be adapted to any system configuration and range from
small hermetic to medium semi-hermetic or large open-drive capacity
types.
• Screw/Rotary
Normally selected for capacities in excess of 160kW they include multi-
step compressor capacity control and are preferred to reciprocating
compressors where large cooling capacities are required. These
compressors are usually supplied as part of a self contained chiller set.
• Scroll
When utilising multiple compressors technically there is no fixed capacity
although these compressor types are fully hermetic and should only be
utilised for single cooling zones with capacities up to 60 kW.

Water Cooled Condensers


Condensers should be water-cooled when the practicality and availability of providing
seawater or tempered water cooling to the condenser location is feasible.

Water-cooled condensers are normally mounted on the common base frame of a self-
contained CHW type chiller set or DX condensing unit. Condensers shall be of the
shell and tube type fitted with removable water boxes at each end for inspection and
cleaning of the waterside tubes.

Sized accordingly, water-cooled condensers may also serve as the refrigeration circuit
liquid receiver providing they have sufficient volumetric capacity to pump down the
system refrigerant charge, a pressure safety valve and all necessary refrigeration
service valves.

Water-cooled condensers shall be manufactured with seamless titanium or 90/10


cupro-nickel alloy tubes and tube end plates as a minimum. The removable water
boxes should be manufactured from aluminium bronze, however where acceptable by
the project specification they may be constructed from carbon steel providing all steel
surfaces exposed to cooling water are treated with a suitable protective coating such
as an approved glass flake resin or ceramic compound.

All water-cooled condensers shall be fitted with sacrificial anodes suitable for
protection against electrolytic corrosion.

Water-cooled condensers are pressure vessels and shall be manufactured in


accordance with AS 1210 for unfired pressure vessels. The waterside of the
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 60 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

condenser shall be hydrostatically tested at 1.5 times the working pressure but not less
than 1550 kPa(g) while the refrigeration side shall be pressure tested to a minimum of
2100 kPa(g).

Air Cooled Condensers


Condensers should be air-cooled when the practicality, availability of external space
and the local environmental conditions are appropriate. For refrigeration systems that
are required to operate during an emergency the condenser shall be of the air-cooled
type in every case.

Air-cooled condensers can be supplied for most capacity requirements, however for
capacities above 160kW the units are usually too bulky and require impractical space
for mounting. Consequently their use for larger capacities is discouraged.

The air-cooled condenser location should be selected to provide unrestricted airflow


across the condenser, avoid local heat sources and prevent the condenser fans from
short-cycling air across the condenser coil.

Manufacturers standard air-cooled condenser products are not suitable for saliferous
marine environments or hazardous areas. As such, all air-cooled condensers shall be
of the custom built type.

Condenser casings shall be fully weatherproof and constructed from stainless steel
type 316 sheet having a minimum thickness of 1.6mm. The casing shall house the
condenser heat exchanger coil and multiple condenser fans each fitted with stainless
steel fan guards. Legs or mounting brackets shall be also be constructed from
stainless steel type 316 folded sheet or section having a minimum thickness of 3mm.

The heat exchanger coil shall be constructed from copper tubes with copper fins and
be coated with a protective finish such as electro-tinning. Alternatively the
manufacturers own protective finish may be considered if specifically developed or
suited for marine environments.

Condenser fan motors shall be direct drive and suitable for the hazardous area
classification in which they are located. As a minimum requirement all fan motors and
associated electrical components shall be Ex’e rated. All fan motors shall be pre-wired
to a common junction box to provide a single point termination for incoming cables
when installed on site. All cable wires shall be crimped and numbered according to
the electrical termination diagram.

Fan motor resilient mountings should be selected to provide not less than 95%
isolation of all frequencies transmitted to the condenser supporting structure.

Fan noise levels should be limited to 80 dBA at 1 metre away from the condenser
casing especially where personnel may be continually exposed to the condenser.

Evaporators - CHW Shell and Tube Type


CHW shell and tube evaporators are normally mounted on the common base frame of
a self contained chiller set and serves to refrigerate or chill the water that is circulated
through the closed loop CHW piping system.

Evaporators shall be fitted with removable water box covers at each end for inspection
and cleaning of the waterside tubes.
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 61 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Evaporators shall be manufactured with seamless copper tubes or 90/10 cupro-nickel


alloy tubes and tube end plates. The removable water boxes should be manufactured
from aluminium bronze, however where acceptable by the project specification they
may be constructed from carbon steel providing all steel surfaces exposed to CHW are
treated with a suitable protective coating such as an approved glass flake resin or
ceramic compound.

CHW shell and tube evaporators are pressure vessels and shall be manufactured in
accordance with AS 1210 for unfired pressure vessels. The waterside of the
evaporator shall be hydrostatically tested at 1.5 times the working pressure but not
less than 1550 kPa(g) while the refrigeration side shall be pressure tested to a
minimum of 2100 kPa(g).

Evaporators - DX Cooling Coil Type


DX evaporator cooling coils are normally mounted in the supply-airstream of AHU’s or
supplied as an integral part of a packaged refrigeration unit.

Cooling coils shall be constructed from copper tubes with copper fins and shall be
coated with a suitable finish such as that provided by electro-tinning to provide
adequate protection in a marine environment. Alternatively the manufacturers own
protective finish may be considered if specifically developed or suited for marine
environments.

The perimeter holding-frame and tube end sheets shall be constructed from brass. The
holding-frame shall be constructed for flange mounting allowing the evaporator coil to
be easily removable.

Cooling coils shall have a face velocity of not more than 2.5 m/s and fin spacing not
exceeding 2.5mm. Evaporators shall be factory pressure tested at 2000 kPag(g) in
accordance with the manufacturers test procedures.

Cooling coils shall be provided with a condensate drip tray constructed from
continuous stainless steel type 316 sheet of not less than 2mm thickness. All corner
joints shall be continuously welded. The minimum height at any given point of the drip
tray shall not be less than 75mm. The drip tray shall also be insulated to prevent
surface condensation run-off.

CHW Cooling Coils


CHW cooling coils are normally mounted in the supply airstream of AHU’s, supply-air
ductwork or fan coil units.

CHW cooling coils mounted in AHU’s shall be constructed in the same manner as for
DX evaporator cooling coils.

Controls
Refrigeration systems shall be complete with a control panel of the manufacturers
standard range in the case of packaged systems.

Where the panel must comply with a hazardous area classification or project specific
electrical control gear, starting gear and wiring requirements, then the panel shall be of
the custom built type.

In each case the control panel should contain all or part of the following componentry: -
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 62 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• mains isolator
• crankcase heater Isolator
• compressor motor MCB’s
• condenser fan motor MCB’s
• supply/evaporator fan motor MCB’s
• control circuit MCB
• compressor motor starters and overloads
• condenser fan motor starters and overloads
• supply/evaporator fan motor starters and overloads
• overload protection against single phasing
• compressor capacity controls
• automatic temperature controls and indication
• automatic pump-down control
• anti short cycle timer device
• on-off control switch
• duty selector switches
• reset pushbuttons
• emergency stop pushbutton
• hours run meter for each compressor
• equipment running lamps
• equipment stopped lamps
• equipment fault lamps
• lamp test pushbutton
• volt free alarm contacts for group alarm indication
• volt free contacts for equipment status and monitoring

Temperature control shall be electronic using PID controllers and associated sensors
valves and actuators.

Provision for interconnection and interlocking with the main HVAC control panel shall
be incorporated into the control philosophy.

The refrigeration system should also be fitted with all or part of the following indication
and control components that are normally fitted external to the control panel: -

• suction pressure gauges


• discharge pressure gauges
• oil pressure gauge
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 63 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• condenser water temperature gauges


• evaporator water temperature gauges
• low pressure cut-out switch
• high pressure cut-out switch – manual reset type
• head pressure control switches
• oil differential pressure switch
• condenser water flow switch

Electrical
All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be selected in compliance with
the hazardous area classification in which the cooling plant is located.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each control panel and terminal box for the earth core of each
incoming and outgoing cable.

Earthing bosses shall be fitted to equipment skid frames to provide for external earth
bonding. A minimum of two stainless steel type 316 earthing bosses shall be welded
to skid frames and be tapped for an M10 stainless steel stud complete with nuts and
washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standards: -

• W1000SE002 STANDARD - LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR


• W1000ME009 GUIDELINE: ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PACKAGE
EQUIPMENT
• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 64 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.4 APPENDIX 4 COWLS AND WEATHER LOUVRES

General
Air intakes for all HVAC systems shall be protected by the installation of high efficiency
weather louvres for protection from water ingress during adverse wind and weather
conditions. All air intakes shall also be fitted with bird mesh screens to prevent large
particles or debris from entering the HVAC system.

Exhaust outlets may include similar louvres and screens having a lower efficiency.

Pressure relief ducts or openings should not be fitted with louvres but should have
cowls or swan necks including bird mesh screens to reduce the effects of adverse
weather conditions.

Cowls or swan necks including bird mesh screen may also be used on intakes or
exhausts where additional benefit over louvres is demonstrated.

Bird mesh screens should be located for ease of access and cleaning. Access doors
may be required to enable the screens to be adequately maintained on larger intakes
or exhausts. Adequate support structures should be included where required.

Cowls and weathers louvres shall be constructed from a minimum of 2mm stainless
steel type 316 sheet and be of fully welded construction. Bird mesh screen shall be
constructed from stainless steel wire mesh.

Performance
Intake louvres shall have a high water removal capability with a low airflow resistance.
The airflow resistance across the louvre should not exceed 100Pa.

Intake louvres should also be capable of ensuring no water carryover for a loading of
100 l/m² where moisture droplets are greater than 30 microns diameter. The louvres
and components are to be self-draining.

Louvres should also provide minimal changes in performance with varying wind
directions. Typical performance efficiencies at 90° to the wind for a wind speed of
27m/s are: -

• 30 microns 100%
• 25 microns 99.5%
• 20 microns - 99%
• 15 Microns 94%

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 65 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.5 APPENDIX 5 DUCTWORK


Design
All ductwork shall be designed, manufactured and installed in accordance with the
following standards: -

AS 4254 Ductwork for air-handling systems in buildings


SMACNA Duct Construction Standards for Metal and Flexible Ducts
Ductwork should be sized for a pressure gradient of 1 Pa per meter length. Where
medium to high velocity ductwork is unavoidable the maximum permitted pressure
gradient shall be 8 Pa per meter length.

Main branches of ductwork systems should be sized to suit the following maximum
velocities: -

• supply – 11 m/s
• return – 6 m/s
• exhaust – 6 m/s
All ductwork systems shall be designed and constructed to withstand a positive static
pressure limit of 2000 Pa or a negative static pressure limit of 750 Pa. The maximum
air leakage limit shall be 0.003 x p0.65 L/s/m² of duct surface area, where p is the
differential pressure in Pa.

Air velocities that exceed the recommended maximums should be avoided to ensure
duct generated noise levels and duct resistances are kept to a minimal.

Ductwork systems should be designed to include volume control dampers at each


main branch duct to allow for a fully proportional system air balance. All ductwork
systems should also be sized to be self-balancing wherever possible.

Ductwork Materials
All ductwork located externally shall be constructed from fully welded stainless steel
type 316 sheet. All stainless steel welds shall be cleaned and passivated to ensure
maximum corrosion protection.
• External Ductwork
• 2-3mm thick stainless steel type 316 sheet
• Internal Ductwork – Production and Drilling Modules
2mm thick stainless steel type 316 sheet, fully welded

• Internal Ductwork – LQ/General


1.6mm stainless steel sheet
• Internal Ductwork – Humid or Corrosive Air Systems
Stainless steel type 316 sheet, fully welded, thickness as follows
Fresh-air intakes up to air filters 2mm
Galley exhaust 2mm
Laundry exhaust 1.6mm
Battery room exhaust 1.6mm
Fume cupboard exhaust 1.6mm
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 66 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Flexible Ductwork
Flexible ductwork shall not be used except for final connections in the LQ between
constant volume terminal boxes and their associated ceiling diffusers. Each flexible
connection shall be limited to a maximum length of 800mm. Flexible connections shall
be fixed to ductwork and ceiling diffuser spigots using worm-drive clamps.

Flexible ductwork connections for fan inlets or outlets shall be made using non
combustible heavy industrial type flexible material, factory fitted with flanges to suit the
fan and corresponding ductwork. The flexible fan connection shall be capable of
withstanding the fan operating pressure range.

Insulation
All supply-air ductwork downstream of cooling coils shall be fully insulated complete
with a vapour barrier to provide thermal conservation and anti-condensation protection.
Internal circular supply-air ductwork within the LQ may be of the pre-insulated type
providing the insulation material meets the requirements of AS 1530 part 3 (refer
below).
Fresh-air ductwork upstream of cooling coils, internally located return air ductwork and
all types of exhaust air ductwork shall not require insulation.
Ductwork fitted externally to enclosed spaces shall have a minimum insulation
thickness of 50mm. The insulation shall be fitted to the internal walls of the duct.
Ductwork fitted internally within enclosed spaces shall have a minimum insulation
thickness of 25mm. The insulation may be fitted to the inner or outer walls of the duct.
Insulation material fitted to inner duct walls shall be of semi-rigid mineral wool with a
factory applied matt-faced liner. Insulation shall be fixed to the duct walls using non-
flammable adhesive and be mechanically secured and covered by an inner case of
perforated steel sheet.
Insulation material fitted to outer duct walls shall be of semi-rigid mineral wool with a
factory applied outer foil face. The insulation shall be fixed to the duct wall using non-
flammable adhesive and be mechanically secured with retaining pins and chicken wire
mesh.
All insulation shall have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.035 W/m K at 20°C
and a minimum density of 48 kg/m³. When tested in accordance with AS 1530 part 3
the insulation shall exhibit the following characteristics: -

• ignitability index 0
• spread of flame index 0
• heat evolved index 0
• smoke developed index 0 – 1

Sealing and Fasteners


All flanged ductwork joints shall be sealed using neoprene gasket material between
the flange faces.

Appropriate weather, fire or pressurisation gasket sealing materials shall be provided


wherever ductwork penetrations pass through bulkheads, floors or roofs.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 67 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

All ductwork fasteners (nuts, bolts, set screws, locknuts, washers) shall be of stainless
steel for stainless ductwork and of carbon steel protected by electro-galvanising or
cadmium plating for galvanised ductwork. All self-tapping screws shall be of stainless
steel.

Dissimilar metal contact shall be avoided or isolated where unpreventable. All new
ductwork pieces shall be continuity bonded throughout the continuous length of each
ductwork run.

Hangers, Brackets and Supports


All ductwork shall be properly and substantially supported by hangers, brackets or
supports designed to suit the requirement of each point. External hangers and
supports and those exposed to external conditions shall be designed to withstand wind
loads in addition to static loads.
The maximum allowable distance between rectangular ductwork supports shall be as
follows: -

Longest Side of Duct (mm) Maximum Support Spacing (mm)


0 – 800 1800
801 – 1200 2400
1201 – 2500 3600
The maximum allowable distance between internal circular ductwork supports shall be
1800 mm for all sizes of circular ductwork.

Suitable insulation or isolation shall be provided to prevent contact between support


hangers and dissimilar metals.

Maintenance Access
Galley and laundry exhaust systems shall incorporate sufficient access to permit inner
ductwork and component cleaning for the complete ductwork route.

Wherever practicable hinged doors having 500 x 500mm clear openings should be
provided to give access to duct mounted equipment and fire dampers to enable routine
inspection, service and maintenance to be performed.

Exhaust systems serving mud tanks and shale shakers should be provided with
access for frequent cleaning of all components, equipment and the complete ducting
system. Access platforms and/or walkways may be necessary.

Test Holes
Test holes provided in the ductwork for insertion of airflow or temperature instruments
shall be fitted with non-combustible removable plugs for commissioning purposes.
Plug locations should be clearly labelled "VENTILATION TEST HOLE" or similar.

Test holes shall not be permitted in fire rated ductwork or flexible ductwork and fan
flexible connections.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 68 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.6 APPENDIX 6 FANS

General
Fans should be driven by an electric motor either directly or in conjunction with a drive
belt assembly. Electric fan motors shall be suitable for the hazardous area
classification in which they are located.

Some specialist fan applications may be driven by pneumatic, hydraulic or mechanical


means. Where pneumatic driven fan motors are required they should be fitted with a
filter, regulator and lubricator unit regardless of the air supply source. For hydraulic
driven fan motors supplying airflow for engine cooling and or combustion purposes,
hydraulic fluid should be supplied direct from the applicable engine. In each case the
level of protection for specialist fan motors shall be no less than that required of an
electric motor used under the same circumstances.

Performance
Centrifugal and axial fans are both acceptable providing they fully meet the design
requirements below.

Centrifugal fan impellors shall be of the backward curved aerofoil contour blades type.
Axial fans shall be of the mixed flow type where the airflow through the impellor is both
axial and radial.

All fans shall meet the following requirements for the design operating limits: -

• design duty point selected to maintain optimum efficiency


• non over-loading power characteristics
• non stalling characteristics
• suitable for continuous operation 24 hours per day 365 days per year

Fans shall be selected to allow for an external wind velocity of 27m/s and have a
minimum total efficiency of 70% or greater.

Excessive speeds towards the upper limit of the fan's operating range shall be avoided
to prevent excessive noise and undesirable loads on bearings, drive assemblies and
impellers.

The fan discharge velocity should not exceed 15m/s. Fans having a diameter of
300mm or less may have a discharge velocity up to a maximum of 20m/s.

Fan inlets and outlets should be kept free of obstructions with the nearest adjacent
component (cooling coil, fire damper, shut-off damper etc) located not less than 1.5 fan
diameters from the fan casing.

Construction
Non sparking features shall be an inherent design for all fans. The construction and
construction materials shall not permit any steel parts to rub or strike together and
cause a spark. The fan shall be protected from sparking in the event of: -

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 69 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• axial movement of the impeller


• incorrect fitting of guards or shaft during re-assembly
• accidental damage to the drive guard or fan casing
• reasonable wear of the bearing or impeller

Fan casings shall be continuously welded and stiffened to prevent "drumming". The
casing shall be constructed to enable the fan impeller to be removed and also
incorporate a bolt on inspection hatch.

Fan casings shall be constructed from stainless steel type 316 sheet. Carbon steel
casing’s HDP after manufacture may be permitted providing a deviation has been
presented to WEL, and subsequently approved by WEL.

Centrifugal fan impellors shall be constructed from stainless steel type 316. Axial
impellors may be constructed from stainless steel type 316 or GRP. Carbon steel
epoxy coated impellors may be permitted providing a deviation has been presented to
WEL and subsequently approved by WEL.

Any other components or materials that form part of the fan assembly shall be
corrosion resistant and non-combustible.

Base Frame
Composite fan assemblies consisting of a casing/scroll, fan impellor, electric drive
motor, drives and safety guards shall be mounted on a common skid base frame
complete with anti-vibration mounts.

The skid base frame shall be constructed from carbon steel rolled section to provide a
rigid support for the entire fan assembly. The skid shall be fully welded and either
HDG or painted after manufacture.

The skid shall be certified as a lifting frame and capable of supporting the whole unit
during lifting. The skid shall also include lifting lugs suitable for cranage and rigging
gear.

Drive Assemblies
Belt driven fans shall be fitted with continuous vee-belts running in multi grooved
pulleys. A minimum of two belts shall be required for each drive assembly. Vee belts
shall be rated for a minimum of 150% of the transmitted drive power requirement.

Bearings shall be rated for a minimum of 30,000 hours continuous running and be
fitted with accessible grease lubricating points extended to a convenient location
where necessary.

Maintenance

Design of the fan shall allow easy access for maintenance, including blade and motor
change out. Maintenance plans must be included in the site computerised
maintenance system (SAP) unless a “run to failure” operation mode has been agreed
with the relevant Technical Authority.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 70 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Noise and Vibration

Where possible noise levels should be limited to 80dBA at 1 metre away from the fan
assembly especially where personnel are in continual exposure.

Resilient mountings shall be selected to provide not less than 95% isolation of all
frequencies transmitted to the support frame or structure. Flexible ductwork
connections shall be fitted to provide not less than 99% isolation in all frequency bands
from the connected ductwork.

Monitoring
Fans should be either speed and or pressure monitored for confirmation of normal
operation and where applicable shall initiate automatic changeover to a standby fan
motor in the event of a duty fan failure (controls shall ensure that fan shut-off dampers
also changeover automatically with associated duty/standby fan operation).

Proximity speed sensors are preferred for fan monitoring and shall be arranged to
monitor the fan shaft/pulley speed and not the drive motor shaft/pulley. Fault
indication and or automatic duty changeover shall be initiated whenever the fan shaft
speed falls below 80% of the actual shaft speed.

Pressure differential switches may also be used for fan monitoring and shall monitor
the total pressure across the fan. Fault indication and or automatic duty changeover
shall be initiated whenever the differential pressure falls below a pre-determined set
point value (according to fan selection). Differential pressure switches should not be
calibrated to operate at zero differential pressure.

Electrical
All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be selected in compliance with
the hazardous area classification in which the fans are located.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each terminal box for the earth core of each incoming and
outgoing cable.

Earthing bosses shall be fitted to fan skid frames to provide for external earth bonding.
A minimum of two stainless steel type 316 earthing bosses shall be welded to skid
frames and be tapped for an M10 stainless steel stud complete with nuts and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standards: -

• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


W1000SE005_STANDARD: H.V. AND L.V. ELECTRIC MACHINES CAGE
INDUCTION TYPE

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 71 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.7 APPENDIX 7 FILTERS AND COALESCERS

General
The fresh-air composition should be assessed for airborne particulates and moisture
content to determine any special filtration requirements.

Filters shall be required to meet the performance criteria in accordance with the
following standard: -

AS 1324.1 Air filters for use in general ventilation and air conditioning
Part 1: Application, performance and construction

All filter and coalescer materials shall not fragment into the airstream and shall also be
non-toxic and non-combustible.

Single Stage Filter


Single stage filters may be used for normally unmanned applications such as
workshops and stores, generator rooms, fire pump rooms and process areas etc.

Single stage filters shall consist of corrugated filter coalescer panels to remove mist,
water droplets and dust particulates. The panels shall be manufactured from dry
washable polyester media sandwiched between plastic coated wire mesh and be
contained within a stainless steel frame.

The filter coalescer panels performance shall be 99% efficient at 6 microns and shall
reduce the salt/air content to less than 0.02 ppm by weight.

When fully loaded the coalescer maximum airflow resistance shall not exceed 250Pa.
The maximum face velocity across filter coalescer panels shall be no more than
4.5m/s.

Two Stage Filter


Two stage filter arrangements should be used where a higher degree of filtration is
required. Typically this includes all normally manned areas, LQ’s, equipment rooms or
switchrooms containing sensitive electrical/control equipment, emergency and
temporary living quarters and offices.

Two stage filters shall consist of corrugated filter coalescer panels (as described above
for single stage filters) in conjunction with pre-filter panels & bag filters to improve
efficiency for the removal of dust particulates. In every case the filter coalescer shall
be the first stage located upstream of the second stage pre-filter panel & bag filters.

Pre-filter panels shall be of the synthetic media V-form type and may be washable or
disposable. The pre-filter panels performance shall have an average arrestance of
90% or more. When fully loaded the pre-filter maximum airflow resistance shall not
exceed 250Pa (G4 performance rating in accordance with AS 1324.1).

Bag filters shall be of the deep bed synthetic fibre media type, be self supporting and
capable of withstanding air turbulence without the risk of dust break through. Bag
filters shall be of the disposable type; appropriate selection should permit a long useful
life. The bag filters performance shall have an average arrestance of 95% or more
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 72 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

with a dust spot efficiency of no less than 60%. When fully loaded the bag filter
maximum airflow resistance shall not exceed 350Pa (F5 performance rating in
accordance with AS 1324.1).

The maximum face velocity across pre-filters and bag filters shall not exceed 2.5m/s.

Where space restrictions dictate, the second stage filter may consist of filter coalescer
panels in conjunction with washable or disposable V-form panels only.

Support Housing
Filters and coalescers shall be constructed with an outer stainless steel type 316 frame
designed to contain the media, provide rigidity and be suitable for insertion into a main
support/housing frame.

The main support/housing frames shall be constructed from stainless steel type 316
and shall include airtight seals to prevent air bypass or leakage. All filter types shall be
mounted vertically to provide for horizontal airflow.

Main support/housing frames shall incorporate quick release clips or springs to provide
straightforward access for filter removal and replacement.

Coalescer support/housing assemblies shall be self-draining and incorporate a drip


tray and manometric trap.

Instrumentation
Filter cleanliness shall be indicated by installation of a magnehelic circular dial gauge
(calibrated in Pa) mounted on the external surface of the filter housing (or AHU) to
monitor the pressure drop across the filter.

A pressure differential switch should also be installed to monitor the pressure drop
across the filter and provide remote dirty filter indication or alarm.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 73 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.8 APPENDIX 8 FIRE DAMPERS

General
Fire dampers shall be provided whenever ducted ventilation air (or non-ducted ie free
openings) passes through ‘A’ and ‘H’ rated fire barriers ie bulkheads, deckheads,
walls, ceilings or floors. Additionally, fire dampers shall also be installed where
required to perform as part of the fire, smoke and gas control philosophy.

The single exception for omitting fire dampers is permitted where ductwork passes
through an enclosure it does not serve (ie no outlets or breaks in the duct). Under
these circumstances the ductwork shall be constructed to match the highest integrity
fire barrier that borders the enclosure through which the ductwork passes.

Dampers shall be of the multiple opposed blade inter-locking type and be capable of
correct operation when mounted in any orientation.

Under no circumstances shall any fire damper be permitted for dual purpose ie to
additionally function as a non-return, volume control or a pressure control damper.

Performance
The maximum leakage rate through damper casing and blades when in the closed
position shall not exceed 100L/s per m² of damper face area when subjected to a
differential air pressure of 2000 Pa. Under normal operating conditions where the
damper is in the fully open position, the airflow resistance shall not exceed 50Pa.

The closure time of pneumatically or electrically actuated dampers shall not exceed 4
seconds for individual or grouped dampers.

Pneumatically actuated dampers shall be suitable for operation under the following
compressed air supply conditions: -

• normal operating air pressure 850 kPa(g)


• minimum operating air pressure 400 kPa(g)
• maximum operating air pressure 1000 kPa(g)

All dampers shall equal or exceed the fire rated barrier they serve and be certified and
approved by the assigned certification authority such as Lloyd’s or DNV.

Control
Unless specified otherwise, all fire dampers shall be of the failsafe type ie fail to closed
position upon loss of air, control voltage or power supply. Under special conditions
where the damper is normally open (ie fire pump and emergency generator
rooms/enclosures) the damper may remain open.

Damper controls shall be integrated to automatically close all fire dampers in


accordance with the F&G and ESD shutdown philosophy.

An inherent trigger assembly shall also be provided to independently close the damper
whenever activated. The trigger assembly shall incorporate a thermal device mounted
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 74 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

in the airstream of the damper casing and shall be designed to fail at a temperature
not exceeding 70°C. The thermal device may be of the frangible bulb, azeotropic or
fusible link type.

Construction
All damper materials shall be non-combustible and non-corrosive.

Damper casings and blades shall be manufactured from stainless steel type 316 sheet
having a minimum thickness of 3mm and be of a fully welded construction. All welds
shall be cleaned and passivated to ensure maximum corrosion protection. Damper
blades shall be of aerofoil design to minimise airflow resistance.

Blade shafts and linkages shall also be manufactured from stainless steel type 316.
Bushes/bearings associated with stainless steel blade shafts shall be manufactured
from graphite bronze to prevent galling or seizure with stainless steel parts.

Components
All associated components for each damper shall be housed in a common protective
control box enclosure. Each damper shall incorporate the following componentry as a
minimum: -

Pneumatic actuated fire dampers Electric actuated fire dampers


Pneumatic actuator Electric actuator (220-240VAC 50/60Hz)
Thermal trigger assembly Thermal trigger assembly
Solenoid valve (3-port, 2-way) Two microswitches
Quick exhaust valve
Two microswitches

Two independent volt-free microswitches shall be provided for open and closed remote
indication and monitoring. One microswitch shall be mounted to activate when the
damper blades travel to within 5% of their fully open position. The second microswitch
shall be mounted to activate when the damper blades travel to within 5% of their fully
closed position.

An extension rod (fixed to a blade shaft) that protrudes through the control box cover
shall provide local open and closed indication. Open and closed labels shall be
securely fixed to the cover and be clearly visible from a distance.

Electrical
All electrical components shall be suitable for a Class 1 Zone 1 hazardous area
classification regardless of the area classification in which the damper is located.

Electric actuators, solenoid valves, microswitches and terminal boxes shall be certified
EEx'e' as a minimum. Control box enclosures shall be weatherproof to IP56.

All electrical componentry shall be factory pre-wired into a terminal box or boxes
mounted on the external surface of the control box enclosure.

Each terminal box shall be provided with sufficient 20mm cable gland entries for
connection of incoming cables. Where Intrinsically safe components are used,
separate terminal boxes shall be provided for IS and non-IS circuits.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 75 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each terminal box for the earthing core of each incoming and
outgoing cable.

A stainless steel type 316 earthing boss shall be provided for external earth bonding.
The earthing boss shall be welded to the damper casing and be tapped for an M10
stainless steel stud complete with nuts and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standards: -

• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


W1000SJ010_STANDARD - INSTRUMENT INSTALLATION

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 76 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.9 APPENDIX 9 GENERAL DAMPERS

General
The following general types of dampers are commonly used in HVAC systems: -

• fan shut-off dampers – to prevent air bypass/recirculation for duty/standby


fan arrangements
• non-return dampers – to prevent backflow of air
• volume control dampers – for system air balancing
• pressure relief dampers – for pressurisation control

All dampers shall be required to function correctly when subjected to system pressures
up to 2500 Pa.

Performance
The maximum leakage rate through shut-off and non-return damper blades when in
the closed position shall not exceed 150L/s per m² of damper face area when
subjected to a differential air pressure of 2000 Pa.

Airflow resistance through shut-off and volume control dampers when in the open
position shall not exceed 50Pa.

Airflow resistance through non-return and pressure relief dampers should be suitable
for their function.

Fan Shut-off Dampers


Fan shut-off dampers shall be of the multiple opposed blade type having aerofoil
section blades. Shut-off dampers serving fans having circular casings shall be
rectangular complete with transition pieces for connection to the fan and or ductwork
circular flange connection.

Shut-off dampers shall be operated automatically by either pneumatic or electric


actuators.

Pneumatically actuated dampers shall be suitable for operation under the following
compressed air supply conditions: -

• normal operating air pressure 850 kPa(g)


• minimum operating air pressure 400 kPa(g)
• maximum operating air pressure 1000 kPa(g)

Pneumatically operated dampers shall be provided with single action, spring return
type actuators configured to close the damper upon loss of the pneumatic air supply.

Each pneumatic damper shall incorporate and be controlled by a 3-port, 2-way


solenoid valve. Normally energised the solenoid valve shall supply pneumatic air onto
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 77 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

the actuator to open the damper. Whenever the solenoid valve is de-energised, the
damper shall close by venting pneumatic air to atmosphere.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standard: -

• W1000SJ010_STANDARD - INSTRUMENT INSTALLATION

Alternatively dampers may be electrically actuated where a pneumatic air supply is


unavailable.

Volume Control Dampers


Volume control dampers shall be of the multiple opposed blade type capable of being
manually adjusted and locked in any position. The damper shall be capable of
regulating airflow rates with a velocity of up to 25m/s.

Non-return Dampers
Non-return dampers shall be of the gravity operated parallel blade action type and
must therefore be mounted vertically in all cases. The damper may be either single or
multiple blade dependent on the face area of the damper. The damper shall be fitted
with positive sealing side blade seals and blade edge seals.

Pressure Relief Dampers


Pressure relief dampers shall be of the gravity operated parallel blade action type and
must therefore be mounted vertically in all cases. The damper may be either single or
multiple blade, depending on the face area of the damper. An adjustable tension
spring or counterbalancing weight shall be provided to restrict blade opening and
maintain the required rate of relief air.

Pneumatically controlled pressure relief dampers shall not be permitted.

Construction
All damper materials shall be non-combustible and non-corrosive.

Damper casings and blades shall be manufactured from stainless steel type 316 sheet
having a minimum thickness of 3mm. Damper casings shall be of a fully welded
construction. All welds shall be cleaned and passivated to ensure maximum corrosion
protection.

Blade shafts and linkages shall also be manufactured from stainless steel type 316.
Bushes/bearings associated with stainless steel blade shafts shall be manufactured
from graphite bronze to prevent galling or seizure with stainless steel parts.

Electrical (Fan Shut-off Dampers Only)


Electrically actuated dampers shall incorporate motorised actuators rated for
220-240VAC 50/60Hz power supply.

All electrical equipment, electric actuators and solenoid valves shall be suitable for the
hazardous area classification in which the damper is located.

All electrical componentry shall be factory pre-wired into a terminal box or boxes
mounted on the external surface of the control box enclosure.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 78 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each terminal box for the earth core of each incoming and
outgoing cable.

A stainless steel type 316 earthing boss shall be provided for external earth bonding.
The earthing boss shall be welded to the damper casing and be tapped for an M10
stainless steel stud complete with nuts and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standard: -

• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 79 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.10 APPENDIX 10 GRILLES AND DIFFUSERS

General
Grilles and diffusers fall into two distinct categories. Those that serve non-hazardous
areas and those used to serve hazardous areas.

Grilles and diffusers located in LQ’s and other non-hazardous areas shall be of a light
duty type construction. The construction materials may be of aluminium complete with
an anodised or baked enamel finish to suit the chosen architectural finish. In all cases
these grilles and diffusers shall not permit any line of sight into ceiling voids or
ductwork.

Grilles and diffusers mounted in hazardous areas shall be of a heavy-duty type


construction. The construction materials shall be of stainless steel type 316 and be
fabricated to withstand mechanical impact.

Ceiling Slot Diffuser (Light Duty)


Ceiling slot diffusers should be used for cinema rooms or similar where draft-less air
distribution is required. They are suitable for supply or return air applications and
should be selected with a frame fastening that matches and easily fits into the
suspended ceiling system.

Supply-air ceiling slot diffusers shall incorporate air pattern controls to give 180° airflow
adjustment through each slot (single or multiple slot unit). The ceiling slot diffuser shall
also include a thermal/acoustic insulated plenum box complete with a volume control
damper and ductwork spigot connection. Alternatively the volume control damper may
be duct mounted upstream of the slot diffuser it serves.

Return air ceiling slot diffusers shall not require air pattern controls. Plenum boxes
shall be fitted with a volume control damper (alternatively duct mounted upstream) and
spigot connection but shall not require thermal insulation.

Ceiling slot diffusers intended for use with fluorescent light fittings may also be used
providing they incorporate the same features as for the general type described above.
However, careful attention should be given to the compatibility between the selected
light fittings and slot diffuser.

Eyelash Diffuser (Light Duty)


Eyelash diffusers may be used generally for all supply-air requirements and are
especially suited for high or low sidewall applications, suspended ceiling systems as
well as direct surface mounting on rigid ductwork. Incorporating individually adjustable
eyelash type curved blades these diffusers offer a wide variety of air-throws and
deflection patterns.

Eyelash diffusers may be of the multi-pattern core type with one, two, three or four-way
air-throw deflection patterns as required.

The diffuser shall be fitted with an opposed blade damper to enable fine-tuning of the
airflow rate. Adjustment of opposed blade dampers shall be through the diffuser face.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 80 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

For eyelash diffusers that are direct surface mounted on rigid ductwork, a stream
splitter shall also be fitted to the back of the diffuser ensuring an even airflow route
through each diffuser.

Round Ceiling Diffuser (Light Duty)


Round ceiling diffusers may be used generally for all supply-air requirements but may
not be as easily integrated into certain types of suspended ceiling system. They are
particularly effective for rapid maximum diffusion.

Round ceiling diffusers may be of the fixed or adjustable louvre core type with
removable louvre cores. The adjustable louvre cores shall permit the centre core to be
wound up or down to modify the air-throw pattern.

All round ceiling diffusers shall be fitted with a radial blade or butterfly volume control
damper adjustable through a hole in the centre cone of the diffuser.

Square/Rectangular Ceiling Diffuser (Light Duty)


Fixed blade square/rectangular ceiling diffusers may be used generally for all supply-
air requirements and can also be easily integrated into all types of suspended ceiling
system. They are particularly effective for rapid mixing of supply-air with room air
when used for low ceiling applications - typical for use in LQ enclosures and modules.

Fixed blade square/rectangular ceiling diffusers may be of the multi-pattern core type
with one, two, three or four-way air-throw patterns as required. The core shall be
completely removable by use of spring-loaded pins or retaining clips.

The diffuser shall be fitted with an opposed blade damper to enable fine-tuning of the
airflow rate. Adjustment of opposed blade dampers shall be through the face of the
diffuser without the need to remove or alter the core pattern.

The diffuser shall also be fitted with a thermal/acoustic insulated plenum box complete
with a ductwork spigot connection.

Sidewall Single/Double Deflection Grilles (Light Duty)


Sidewall defection grilles may be used generally for all supply-air requirements and
may be mounted in the walls of enclosures or directly surface mounted on exposed
rigid ductwork.

Incorporating individually adjustable single or double deflection aerofoil blades these


grilles offer a wide variety of horizontal and vertical air-throw patterns. Sidewall grilles
shall also incorporate a removable core.

The grille shall be fitted with an opposed blade damper to enable fine-tuning of the
airflow rate. Adjustment of opposed blade dampers shall be through the grille face.

For sidewall grilles that are direct surface mounted on rigid ductwork, a stream splitter
shall also be fitted to the back of the grille ensuring an even airflow route through each
grille.

Exhaust & Return Grilles(Light Duty)


Square/rectangular ceiling grilles may be used generally for all exhaust and return air
requirements and can also be easily integrated into all types of suspended ceiling

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 81 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

system. Alternatively they may be direct surface mounted on to exposed rigid


ductwork.

Square/rectangular ceiling grilles shall be of the fixed square egg-crate pattern core.
The core shall be completely removable by use of spring-loaded pins or retaining clips.

Each grille shall be fitted with an opposed blade damper to enable fine-tuning of the
airflow rate. Adjustment of opposed blade dampers shall be through the face of the
grille without the need to remove core.

The grille shall also be fitted with a plenum box complete with a ductwork spigot
connection.

In toilet and shower areas where small exhaust-air volumes are required, adjustable
truncated exhaust valves may be used in lieu of exhaust grilles. Exhaust valves may
be constructed from PVC.

Transfer Grilles (Light Duty)


Transfer grilles may be of the ceiling mounted type whereby an associated transfer
duct and ceiling mounted grilles straddle the enclosures requiring air transfer.
Additionally transfer grilles may be of the door-mounted type.

Where transfer grilles are installed into ceiling systems they shall be selected to match
the adjacent ceiling mounted grilles or diffusers. The associated transfer ductwork
shall be constructed to the same standard as the local ductwork. The transfer
ductwork should also include acoustic insulation to prevent noise being transmitted
from one enclosure to another.

Door transfer grilles shall be completely sight-proof and suitable for a door thickness of
25mm or more. The grille shall consist of a main flanged frame with an inverted
chevron blade core. An auxiliary backing frame shall fit into the main frame to provide
a finished appearance on both sides of the door.

All transfer grilles or ductwork shall not penetrate through fire rated bulkheads or doors
unless an associated fire damper is installed.

Exhaust Air Grille (Heavy Duty)


Exhaust-air requirements should be provided by grilles with a simple steel mesh core
and an opposed blade damper fitted at the back of the grille. The damper shall be
adjusted through the face of the mesh.

Where the purpose of the grille is only to prevent airborne rubbish entering the duct
then a simple flange framed grille with coarse mesh is adequate.

Wherever ductwork is intentionally exposed within an enclosed space, the grilles may
be mounted directly to the rigid duct wall.

Supply Air Grille (Heavy Duty)


Supply-air distribution should be provided by single or double deflection type grilles
complete with opposed blade dampers for the majority of heavy-duty applications.
Adjustment of opposed blade dampers should be through the face of the grille without
the need to remove or alter the selected air distribution pattern.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 82 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

For areas where the purpose of the grille is only to "dump" air, a basic framed metal
mesh grille may be adequate.

Wherever ductwork is intentionally exposed within an enclosed space, the grilles may
be mounted directly to the rigid duct wall providing a stream splitter is fitted to the back
of the grille to ensure an even airflow route through each grille.

7.11 APPENDIX 11 HEATER BANKS

General
This section describes the requirements associated with primary or main heater banks
only. For trim heating as provided by constant volume reheat terminal units refer to
Appendix 3.

Heating, where required for non-hazardous enclosures, should be provided by electric


heater banks located in the AHU or supply-air ductwork.

Heating, where required for hazardous area enclosures, should be provided by


water/glycol heating coils located in the AHU or supply-air ductwork and be served
directly or indirectly form a low pressure low temperature closed loop heating system.

In either case it may be necessary for a number of primary or main heater banks to be
provided for separate zones or where enclosures require varying conditions.

ELECTRIC HEATER BANKS

Performance
Heater banks shall fully comply with AS/NZS 3102 and be supplied with a certificate of
conformance as a minimum.

Each electric heater bank shall be configured for a maximum capacity of 50kW per unit
and be suitable for continuous and intermittent operation. Heater banks shall be
limited to a 3kW capacity for single-phase power supplies. For capacities above 3kW,
three-phase power supplies shall be used with elements arranged to ensure the out of
balance load across each phase is not greater than 2%.

The heater bank should provide minimal airflow resistance and air turbulence. The
minimum air velocity shall be 2.5 m/s with a maximum of 5 m/s in all cases.

Elements shall have a maximum surface temperature rating of 200°C (T3) when
operating in still air conditions. Under normal operating airflow conditions elements
shall not exceed a surface temperature of 135°C (T4).

All elements shall be provided with element supports to prevent vibration and sagging.
Where elements do not match the cross sectional area of the AHU or ductwork internal
dimensions, the space beyond the elements shall be fitted with 316 type perforated
steel sheet of 50% open area.

All electric heater banks shall be encapsulated by thermal insulation fixed directly to
the AHU or ductwork internal casing. The insulation shall also be installed for a
distance of not less than 250mm upstream and 250mm downstream from the heating
This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 83 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

elements. Thermal insulation shall be non-combustible and have a coefficient of heat


transfer not greater than 30 W/m²K at 100°C.

Control/Safety Devices
Heater banks with capacities above 10kW shall be split into equal capacity stages with
each stage arranged to provide an even heat distribution over the total cross sectional
area of the air stream.

Thyristor or step control shall be provided to energise each heating stage to ensure
smooth temperature control and reduce the electrical circuit switching load.

The heater bank shall also be fitted with devices to satisfy both of the following
requirements and safeguard against overheating under abnormal operating
conditions:-

• a thermal cut-out device or a supply-air failure switch to interrupt the


power supply to the heater elements upon loss of the supply airflow
• a manual reset thermal cut out device to monitor the air temperature in
the immediate vicinity of the heater elements - set to trip at 120°C and
interrupt the power supply to the heater elements

Thermocouples or resistance temperature devices should also be used to protect each


heating stage.

Construction/Mounting
Heating elements shall be constructed from nickel-chrome resistance wire contained
within magnesium oxide, all encased within an Incoloy 800 sheath. Elements may be
provided with fins to increase the heat exchange surface but only where full
compliance with the surface temperature requirements is strictly met.

Where installed within an AHU the heater bank shall be mounted on a purpose built
stainless steel type 316 support frame. When installed in supply-air ductwork the
heater bank casing shall be constructed from the same material as the adjoining
ductwork and be directly flange mounted in accordance with the ductwork flange
drilling detail.

In either case heating elements shall be mounted on a support plate to enable


individual element withdrawal without the need to remove the support frame or
ductwork heating section. Where the heating element passes through the mounting
plate they shall be clamped by an airtight mounting bushing and fire retardant gasket.

Electrical
All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be selected in compliance with
the hazardous area classification in which the heater bank is located.

Separate terminal boxes should be provided for power supplies to elements and
control circuits for safety devices. Multiple terminal boxes may be required for step or
thyristor controlled heater stages.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 84 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The location of termination boxes shall be determined by layout and access


considerations for servicing, maintenance and withdrawal of the heating elements.
The degree of protection required for all terminal boxes shall be a minimum of IP56.

All heating element and incoming cable terminations shall be made using crimped
compression lugs for threaded terminal posts and/or crimped compression pins for
screw terminal rails.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each terminal box for the earthing core of all incoming and
outgoing cables.

A stainless steel type 316 earthing boss shall be provided for each individual heater
bank for external earth bonding. The earthing boss shall be welded to the support
frame/ductwork casing and be tapped for an M10 stainless steel stud complete with
nuts and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standards: -

• W1000ME009 GUIDELINE: ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PACKAGE


EQUIPMENT
• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

WATER/GLYCOL HEATING COILS

Heating coils shall have a face velocity of not more than 3.5 m/s and fin spacing not
exceeding 2.5mm. Heating coils shall be factory pressure tested at 2000 kPag(g) in
accordance with the manufacturers test procedures.

Heating coils shall be constructed from copper tubes with copper fins and shall be
coated with a suitable finish such as electro-tinning to provide adequate protection in a
marine environment. Alternatively the manufacturers own protective finish may be
considered if specifically developed or suited for marine environments.

The perimeter holding-frame and tube end sheets shall be constructed from brass.
The holding-frame shall be constructed for flange mounting allowing the heating coil to
be easily removable. Intermediate support plates should be provided where necessary
to add rigidity to the coil. Headers and return bends shall be located out of the
airstream. Each heating coil shall be provided with a drain point and air vent.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 85 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.12 APPENDIX 12 HUMIDIFIERS

General
Steam humidifiers shall only be provided where they can be located within a non-
hazardous enclosure such as within the HVAC plantroom.

All humidifiers shall be of the electrode-boiler, atmospheric steam generating type and
should be wall mounted on or adjacent to the main AHU being served.

The unit shall be a self-contained package, housing all steam generating equipment,
control/starting gear and safety devices within a purpose built cabinet.

Performance
The steam humidifier shall generate sufficient steam to satisfy the specific project
requirements as determined by the HVAC calculations.

Humidifiers shall generate sterile odourless steam from the facilities potable water
supply and shall be suitable for water pressures ranging from 100 to 800 kPa(g).

Water Supply
The humidifier shall be fitted with a water inlet strainer, pressure regulator and a fill cup
that provides a minimum 25mm air gap for the incoming water supply to prevent back
feeding or contamination of the inlet water supply. The fill cup shall be fitted with a
safety overflow drain.

Pipe connection fittings shall be provided for the potable water inlet, steam outlet and
drain.

Steam Cylinder
Steam cylinders shall be constructed from polypropylene and be easily removable to
facilitate service and maintenance. Each steam cylinder shall be a two part split type
arrangement enabling quick access to replace electrodes, clean electrode mesh
guards and remove any scale deposits.

Each steam cylinder shall be fitted with a water level sensing electrode to close the
inlet water valve and prevent overfilling.

Steam Injection
Where possible the steam piping and injection distributor should be installed at a
higher level than the humidifier unit. Should the piping be installed below the level of
the unit, then a condensate separator and drain must be installed to the nearest drain
point.

The steam piping between the humidifier and the injection distributor shall be
manufactured from high temperature cotton-braided rubber steam hose.

The injection distributor shall be manufactured from stainless steel type 316 and be
perforated for direct injection of steam into the airstream. The injection distributor shall
be naturally inclined to ensure continual condensate drainage and thereby avoid the
requirement of a condensate return line.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 86 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

The steam injection distributor shall be duct mounted and should be positioned to
inject steam into the AHU at the supply-air fan inlet.

Controls
An electrical interlock shall be provided to prevent the humidifier from operation
whenever the main supply-air fan is shut down. Volt-free contacts shall also be
required for remote operating and fault status.

The humidifier shall automatically shut down in the event of high over-current, a water
supply fault or a drain pump blockage.

The humidifier front control panel shall be factory fitted and pre-wired with the following
controls and indicators: -

• alpha-numeric display and keypad


• power on/off switch
• manual drain selector switch
• power on indicator lamp
• warning indicator lamp

The alphanumeric display and touch sensitive keypad shall enable initial set-up,
configuration, diagnostics and operating parameter adjustments.

A remote mounted humidistat shall provide a 0-10VDC signal to the humidifiers on-
board microprocessor controller to modulate steam production and satisfy the humidity
set point. The humidistat should be remotely mounted for sensing of general exhaust-
air.

In response to the humidistat control signal, electrode operation shall be energised by


semi-conductors, thyristor or step control gear for optimum steam output. Filling and
draining of the steam cylinder shall be automatically monitored and controlled by the
on-board microprocessor.

The humidifier shall undergo an automatic time-controlled pump assisted drain cycle.
Drain cycle intervals shall be determined automatically by sensing the degree of water
conductivity and regulating the fill and drain frequency accordingly.

Electrical
All electrical componentry shall be factory fitted and fully pre-wired. All pre-wired
cabling shall be terminated made using crimped compression lugs for threaded
terminal posts and/or crimped compression pins for screw type terminals. The
minimum size cable for all power wiring shall be 2.5mm².

A dedicated electrical compartment shall house all power/starting, control and safety
devices and include a termination rail for connection of incoming main power and
external control cabling.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided for the earthing core of all incoming and outgoing cables.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 87 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

• Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standards: -


• W1000ME009 GUIDELINE: ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PACKAGE
EQUIPMENT
• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

7.13 APPENDIX 13 PUMPS


General
The following requirements are applicable to pumps used for CHW, TW, condenser
water and heating water applications associated exclusively with HVAC systems.

Pumps shall be of the centrifugal type, directly driven by an electric drive motor. Each
pump shall be suitable for continuous operation as the primary circulating water pump
serving the applicable closed loop pipework circuit.
All closed loop pipework circuits shall typically incorporate two equal capacity pumps
to provide a 100% duty and 100% standby arrangement. Piping circuits without any
standby redundancy shall not be permitted unless a deviation has been approved.

Pump sets shall be mounted on a common base skid complete with all associated
componentry such as flexible pipework connections, isolating valves, check valves,
strainers, discharge and suction gauges.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standard: -

• W1000MM103 STANDARD: PUMPS, SELECTIONS AND


SPECIFICATION

Performance
All centrifugal pumps shall be close coupled and may be either: -

• single stage or multiple stage in-line type


• single stage end suction type

Pump impellors shall be of the backward curved aerofoil contour type. All pumps shall
meet the following requirements for the design operating limits: -

• design duty point shall be selected to maintain optimum efficiency


• non over-loading power characteristics
• non stalling characteristics
• be suitable for continuous operation 24 hours per day 365 days per year

Pumps shall be selected to avoid cavitation problems. The available suction head of
the pipework system at the most adverse operating condition shall be equal or greater
than the required pump suction head to ensure cavitation is avoided.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 88 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Pump operating speeds of 3600 RPM or higher should be avoided. Operating speeds
of 1800 RPM or lower are favoured to reduce the possibility of adverse noise or
vibration.

The pump discharge velocity should not exceed 6m/s. The suction velocity should not
be less than 1.2m/s. Pumps should be selected for a minimum total efficiency of 70%
or greater.

Construction
Pump casings shall be fabricated from cast iron and may be of the horizontal split case
type or back pull-out type enabling access to working parts without disturbing the
connecting pipework.

Centrifugal pump impellors shall be constructed from zinc free bronze or stainless
steel. The drive shaft, shaft sleeve and wear ring shall all be constructed from
stainless steel as a minimum.

Any other components or materials that form part of the pump assembly shall be
corrosion resistant and non-combustible.

Base Frame
A single skid base frame shall be constructed from carbon steel rolled section to
provide a rigid support for the entire pump assembly. The skid shall be fully welded
and either HDG or painted after manufacture.

The skid shall be certified as a lifting frame and be capable of supporting the whole
unit during lifting. The skid shall also include lifting lugs suitable for cranage and
rigging gear.

Electrical
All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be selected in compliance with
the hazardous area classification in which the pumps are located.

All electrical equipment shall be fully earth bonded. A main earthing post or terminal
strip shall be provided in each terminal box for the earth core of each incoming and
outgoing cable.

Earthing bosses shall be fitted to pump skid base frames to provide for external earth
bonding. A minimum of two stainless steel type 316 earthing bosses shall be welded
to skid base frames and be tapped for an M10 stainless steel stud complete with nuts
and washers.

Also refer to the requirements of the following Woodside Standard: -

• W1000SE025 STANDARD : ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 89 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

7.14 APPENDIX 14 SOUND ATTENUATORS

General
The performance of a sound attenuator is maximised when located in ductwork
passing from high to low noise level areas. Typically sound attenuators are installed in
main ductwork runs prior to leaving the HVAC plantroom. Sound attenuators may also
be installed in local ductwork braches that serve rooms requiring low noise levels.

Attenuators should not be located at the inlet or discharge ductwork of fans or close to
any bends.

Where sound attenuators are required for galley or laundry exhaust systems they shall
be designed and constructed to eliminate the risk from grease or lint accumulation and
the subsequent fire hazard these products possess.

Shale shaker exhaust, mud tank exhaust and any air system where excessive air-
borne dirt is present shall not be fitted with a sound attenuator.

Performance
The dynamic insertion loss must be equal or greater in all frequency bands than the
required value in accordance with the HVAC design noise calculations. The noise
level generated by the unit itself should also be considered in determination of a
suitable attenuator.

Leading edges of centre and side splitters shall be aerodynamically designed to


minimise the airflow resistance and air turbulence.

Construction
The casing and internal splitters shall be of the same material as the adjoining
ductwork ie stainless steel sheet type 316 or galvanised steel sheet as required.

Fully welded flange connections shall be provided for connection to adjoining


ductwork, drilled in accordance with the ductwork flange drilling detail.

Internal splitters shall be fabricated from perforated sheet and be securely fixed to the
casing. The splitters shall be filled with non-hygroscopic and fire retardant acoustic
infill media. A polyester lining shall be fitted between the acoustic infill media and the
perforated sheet to prevent any infill media fibres migrating into the airstream.

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 90 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Datasheet for HVAC FIRE DAMPER - PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR


SERVICE: TAG No:
1 Service description:

2 Location:
3 Duty/Fire Zone:
DESIGN DATA:
4 Manufacturer:
5 Model No:
6 Type:
7 Maximum Air Flow: NM3/Hr
8 Operating Temp Range: °C
9 Minimum Air Pressure: kPa(ga)
10 Maximum Air Pressure: kPa(ga)
11 Actuator Material (note 2):
12 Actuator Air connect'n size: NPTF
13 Weight Includ. Access: kg
14 Mounting Flange/Welded:
15 Insulation Material:
16 Fire Rating Class:
17 IP Rating: IP56 IP56 IP56
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
ACCESSORIES
25 Solenoid Details Based on WEL Form
A3000SJ048.052:
26 Check Valve Manufacturer:
27 Check Valve Model No:
28 Check Valve Material (note 2):
29 Filter Regulator Manufacturer:
30 Filter Regulator Model No:
31 Filter Regulator Material (note 2):
32 Frangible Bulb Manufacturer:
33 Frangible Bulb Model No:
34 Frangible Bulb Oper. Temp: °C
35 Frangible Bulb Material (note 2):
36 Position Switch Manufacturer: Pepperl & Fuchs Pepperl & Fuchs Pepperl & Fuchs
37 Position Switch Model No: NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe
38 Position Switch Tag No:
39 Tubing and Fittings: WEL Std W9000RJ001 WEL Std W9000RJ001 WEL Std W9000RJ001
40 Hook-up Number:
41
42
Notes:
1 316 st.stl. tags stamped with Tag No in 10mm characters shall be permanently attached using 316 st.stl. screws or rivets.
2 Under no circumstances shall 304 or other non-molybdenum containing stainless steels be used,
this shall also include bare aluminium and its alloys. The vendor may offer his standard equipment for WEL approval.
Where aluminium is offered it must be coated in accordance with WEL standard W9000SM001.

REV. DATE REVISION DESCRIPTION PREPD CHKD APPD WEL


Woodside Energy Ltd.
ACN 005 482 986
Project Ref: Rev:
Document No:

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 91 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Datasheet for HVAC AIR DAMPER - PRESS. CONT. ACTUATOR


SERVICE: TAG No:
1 Service description:

2 Location:
3 Duty/Fire Zone:
DESIGN DATA:
4 Manufacturer:
5 Model No:
6 Type:
7 Maximum Air Flow: NM3/Hr
8 Operating Temp Range: °C
9 Minimum Air Pressure: kPa(ga)
10 Maximum Air Pressure: kPa(ga)
11 Actuator Material (note 2):
12 Actuator Air connect'n size: NPTF
13 Weight Incl. Access: kg
14 Mounting Flange/Welded:
15 Insulation Material:
16 Fire Rating Class:
17 IP Rating: IP56 IP56 IP56
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
ACCESSORIES
25 I/P Conv. Based on Relative Section of
WEL Form A3000SJ048.051:
26 Diff. Pressure Transmitter Based on
WEL Form A3000SJ048.011:
27 Filter Regulator Manufacturer:
28 Filter Regulator Model No:
29 Filter Regulator Material (note 2):
30 Position Switch Manufacturer: Pepperl & Fuchs Pepperl & Fuchs Pepperl & Fuchs
31 Position Switch Model No: NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe
32 Position Switch Tag No:
33 Tubing and Fittings: WEL Std W9000RJ001 WEL Std W9000RJ001 WEL Std W9000RJ001
34 Hook-up Number:
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
Notes:
1 316 st.stl. tags stamped with Tag No in 10mm characters shall be permanently attached using 316 st.stl. screws or rivets.
2 Under no circumstances shall 304 or other non-molybdenum containing stainless steels be used,
this shall also include bare aluminium and its alloys. The vendor may offer his standard equipment for WEL approval.
Where aluminium is offered it must be coated in accordance with WEL standard W9000SM001.

REV. DATE REVISION DESCRIPTION PREPD CHKD APPD WEL


Woodside Energy Ltd.
ACN 005 482 986
Project Ref: Rev:
Document No:

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 92 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.
Title: Standard: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Datasheet for HVAC AIR DAMPER - SHUT OFF ACTUATOR


SERVICE: TAG No:
1 Service description:

2 Location:
3 Duty/Fire Zone:
DESIGN DATA:
4 Manufacturer:
5 Model No:
6 Type:
7 Maximum Air Flow: NM3/Hr
8 Operating Temp Range: °C
9 Minimum Air Pressure: kPa(ga)
10 Maximum Air Pressure: kPa(ga)
11 Actuator Material (note 2):
12 Actuator Air connect'n size: NPTF
13 Weight Incl. Access: kg
14 Mounting Flange/Welded:
15 IP Rating: IP56 IP56 IP56
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
ACCESSORIES
25 Solenoid Details Based on WEL Form
A3000SJ048.052:
26 Check Valve Manufacturer:
27 Check Valve Model No:
28 Check Valve Material (note 2):
29 Filter Regulator Manufacturer:
30 Filter Regulator Model No:
31 Filter Regulator Material (note 2):
32 Position Switch Manufacturer: Pepperl & Fuchs Pepperl & Fuchs Pepperl & Fuchs
33 Position Switch Model No: NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe NJ4-12GK-SN fail safe
34 Position Switch Tag No:
35 Tubing and Fittings: WEL Std W9000RJ001 WEL Std W9000RJ001 WEL Std W9000RJ001
36 Hook-up Number:
37
38
39
40
41
42
Notes:
1 316 st.stl. tags stamped with Tag No in 10mm characters shall be permanently attached using 316 st.stl. screws or rivets.
2 Under no circumstances shall 304 or other non-molybdenum containing stainless steels be used,
this shall also include bare aluminium and its alloys. The vendor may offer his standard equipment for WEL approval.
Where aluminium is offered it must be coated in accordance with WEL standard W9000SM001.

REV. DATE REVISION DESCRIPTION PREPD CHKD APPD WEL


Woodside Energy Ltd.
ACN 005 482 986
Project Ref: Rev:
Document No:

This document is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be reproduced, adapted, transmitted, or stored in any
form by any process (electronic or otherwise) without the specific written consent of Woodside. All rights are reserved.

Controlled Ref No: W1000SM3132376 Revision: 2 Native file DRIMS No: 3132376 Page 93 of 93
Uncontrolled when printed. Refer to electronic version for most up to date information.