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Nurul Hana Mokhtar Kamal

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CO1 Able to interpret rainfall PO2
measurement, infiltration and water

CO2 Able to intepret evaporation PO2

process, groundwater process and
streamflow measurement

CO3 Able to analyse baseflow, PO2

streamflow hydrograph and
statistical hydrology

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Coursework Assessment (30%) : We l e a d

Test 20% Quiz -

Assignment 20% Project -

No. of tests – 2
No. of assignments - 2

Dr. Nurul Hana Bt. Mokhtar Kamal (NH)
Dr Mohd Remy Rozainy B. Mohd Arif Zainol (MRR)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rozi B. Abdullah (RA)

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Course Plan We l e a d


10:00am – 11:00am 11:00 am – 1:00pm
Course Content
Course Assessment Lecture 2 –Basics of Hydrology
1 NH Course Outcome World water balance, History of hydrology & Applications
Lecture 1 - Basics of Hydrology in engineering
Hydrology & its importance, Hydrologic Cycle &
Water budget equation
Lecture 3 - Precipitation Lecture 4 - Precipitation
2 NH Forms of precipitation; Weather systems for Measurement of precipitation & Presentation of rainfall
precipitation & Characteristics of precipitation data
Lecture 5 - Precipitation Lecture 6 - Precipitation
3 NH Estimating mean precipitation over an area, Testing Estimating missing rainfall data, Frequency analysis of
consistency in rainfall records point rainfall
Lecture 7 - Infiltration Lecture 8 - Infiltration
4 NH Infiltration processes, Infiltration capacity, Infiltration indices; Horton & Green Ampt infiltration
Measurement of infiltration equations
Lecture 9 - Evaporation Lecture 10 - Evaporation
Evaporation processes, Evaporimeters, Empirical Transpiration & its measurement methods,
5 NH evaporation equations, Analytical methods for Evapotranspiration and its measurements
evaporation estimation
Test I Assignment I
Lecture 11 – Ground Water Lecture 12 – Ground Water
6 MRR Forms of subsurface water, Aquifer properties, Confined groundwater flow, Unconfined flow by Dupuit’s
Geologic formations as aquifers assumption
Lecture 13 – Ground Water Lecture 14 – Ground Water
7 MRR Wells, Steady flow in a well, Unsteady flow in a Specific capacity & groundwater resources
confined well & Well loss
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Lecture 15 – Streamflow Measurement Lecture 16 – Streamflow Measurement

Velocity-area method & Slope-area method Slope-area method

Lecture 17 – Streamflow Measurement Lecture 18 – Streamflow Measurement

10 MRR
Dilution Method & Rating Curve Assignment II

Lecture 19 – Baseflow Analysis Lecture 20 – Streamflow Analysis

11 RA
Baseflow Analysis Unit hydrograph principles & superposition principle

Lecture 21 - Streamflow Analysis Lecture 22 - Streamflow Analysis

12 RA
Discrete convolution & S-curve SCS method & Synthetic unit hydrograph
Lecture 23 – Statistical Hydrology
Lecture 24 – Statistical Hydrology
13 RA Statistical parameter; hydrologic return period;
Gumbel distribution
Binomial distribution
Lecture 25 – Statistical Hydrology
14 RA Test II
Normal distribution; Logpearson-III
Lecture 26 – Urban Drainage Lecture 26 – Urban Drainage
15 RA
Rational Method & Drainage Design Best Management Practice (BMP)

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Self introduction
Please go to this link:

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Hydro + logy

indicating or Science; theory;

relating to water, study
liquid, or fluid

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Group Activity We l e a d

In a group of 3-4 people:

➢ Discuss the importance of hydrology in life

Then, change your group:

➢ In hydrological engineering, discuss what is the

function of an Engineer.

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Were does WATER come from???
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Hydrologic Cycle We l e a d

Water occurs on the earth in all three states (liquid, solid and
gaseous) and in various degree of motion. Some example of
dynamic aspects of water are:
– Evaporation of water from water bodies (oceans, lakes)
– Formation and movement of clouds, rain and snowfall
– Stream flow & groundwater movement

The various aspects of water related to the earth can be

explained in terms of a cycle known as the Hydrologic Cycle

Quiz!!! (

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Process involved during water cycle We l e a d

➢Evapotranspiration is a combination of evaporation and transpiration.

Condensation is the process by which water vapour in the air is

➢Condensation changed into liquid water.
➢Precipitation Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain,
freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail.
➢Runoff the flow of water, from rain, snow melt, or other sources, over land

➢Infiltration the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil

➢Percolation infiltration is the amount of water from the surface of soil into soil,
whereas the percolation is the amount of water crossing the water

water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in
the fractures of rock formations.

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Precipitation We l e a d

Water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet,
snow, or hail.

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Evaporation/ Transpiration We l e a d

Transpiration is the process

by which moisture is
carried through plants from
roots to small pores on the
underside of leaves, where
it changes to vapor and is
released to the

Evaporation is the process

by which water changes
from a liquid to a gas or

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Evapotranspiration We l e a d

Combination of evaporation and


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Runoff We l e a d

The flow of water, from rain, snow melt, or other sources flow
over land. Also known as surface flow or overland flow.

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Condensation is the
process by which
water vapour in the
air is changed into
liquid water.

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Groundwater recharge We l e a d

Infiltration is the process by which

water on the ground surface
enters the soil

Percolation is the downward

movement of water through the
unsaturated zone. The movement
under hydrostatic pressure of
water through the interstices of a
rock or soil

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Groundwater recharge We l e a d

Interflow is the lateral

movement of water in the
unsaturated zone, that first
returns to the surface or enters
a stream prior to becoming

Baseflow is the portion

of stream flow that comes
from the sum of deep
subsurface flow and delayed
shallow subsurface flow.

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Water Cycle We l e a d



Snow 2
3 4
8 from ocean
Groundwater (8) 6
7 0
8 6

0 = Evaporation from ocean 9 Rock Pervious material

1 = Raindrop evaporation
2 = Interception
7 = Infiltration
3 = Transpiration
8 = Ground water
4 = Evaporation from land
9 = Deep percolation
5 = Evaporation from water bodies
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6 = Surface runoff / Stream flow nhmk@2016
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Estimated World Water Quantities
Item Area Volume % total % fresh
(M km2) (M km3) water water
Ocean 361.3 1338.0 96.5 -
Ground water
(a) Fresh 134.8 10.530 0.76 30.1
(b) Saline 134.8 12.870 0.93 -
Soil moisture 82.0 0.0165 0.0012 0.05
Polar ice 16.0 24.0235 1.7 68.6
Other ice and snow 0.3 0.3406 0.025 1.0
(a) Fresh 1.2 0.0910 0.007 0.26
(b) Saline 0.8 0.0854 0.006 -
Marshes 2.7 0.01147 0.0008 0.03
Rivers 148.8 0.00212 0.0002 0.006
Biological water 510.0 0.00112 0.0001 0.003
Atmospheric water 510.0 0.01290 0.001 0.04
(a) All kinds of water 510.0 1386.0 100.0
(b) Fresh water 148.8 35.0 2.5 100.0
Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975
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Global Annual Water Balance
Item Ocean Land
Area (M km2) 361.30 148.8
(km3/year) 458,000 119,000
(mm/year) 1270 800
(km3/year) 505,000 72,000
(mm/year) 1400 484
Runoff to ocean
Rivers (km3/year) 44,700
Groundwater (km3/year) 2,200
Total runoff
(km3/year) 47,000
(mm/year) 316

Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources

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Water Balance of Continents (mm/year)
Continent Area Precipitation Total Runoff as Evapor
(M km2) P runoff % of P ation
Africa 30.3 686 139 20 547
Asia 45.0 726 293 40 433
Australia 8.7 736 226 30 510
Europe 9.8 734 319 43 415
N. America 20.7 670 287 43 383
S. America 17.8 1648 583 34 1065
Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975

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Water Balance of Oceans (mm/year)
Ocean Area Precpt. Inflow from Evapo. Water
(M km2) adjacent exchange
continents with other
Atlantic 107 780 200 1040 -60
Arctic 12 240 230 120 350
Indian 75 1010 70 1380 -300
Pacific 167 1210 60 1140 130
Source: World Water Balance & Water Resources Of The Earth. UNESCO 1975

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Importance of Hydrological Cycle We l e a d

• Helps to study the science of hydrology in a systematic way

• Because life on Earth depends on the constant presence of

water in its various forms. The water cycle keeps clean water
moving constantly, replenishing the environment

Water-Budget Equation (Hydrologic Equation)

The continuity equation for water in various phases is expressed
M i  M o  S

Mass inflow – Mass outflow = Change in storage

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Expression of water budget equation for a
catchment: We l e a d

P  SR  G  E  T  ΔS
P = Precipitation
SR = Surface runoff
G = Net groundwater flow out of the catchment
E = Evaporation
T = Transpiration
S = Change in storage
• All terms in the water budget equation must have consistent units (volume
or depth over the catchment area).
• In hydrologic calculations volumes are often expressed as average depths
over the catchment area.

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Residence time We l e a d

The average duration of a particle of water to pass through a phase

of the hydrologic cycle is known as the residence time of that phase.
Residence time for a phase:

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒

𝑇𝑟 =
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒

Residence times rates of hydrologic activity are measured in term of the average amount
of time that water remains in its various states or reservoirs. For example, the mean
residence time of a water molecule in the atmosphere is very short, usually from days to a
week or two. Water may be stored for months to years in soil water and individual water
molecules may remain in deep groundwater, glaciers and ocean basins for decades to
10,000 or more years.

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Hydrological Data We l e a d

• Weather records (temperature, humidity & wind speed)

• Precipitation data
• Evaporation & transpiration data
• Stream-flow records
• Infiltration characteristics of an area / catchment
• Groundwater characteristics
• Physical & geological characteristics of the area

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Example 1: We l e a d

A lake has a water surface elevation of 103.2 m above datum at the beginning
of a certain month. In that month the lake received an average inflow of 6.0
m3/s from surface runoff sources. In the same period the outflow from the
lake had an average value of 6.5m3/s. Further in that month, the lake received
a rainfall of 145 mm and the evaporation from the lake surface was estimated
as 6.10 cm. Write the water budget equation for the lake and calculate the
water surface elevation of the lake at the end of the month. The average lake
surface area can be taken as 5000 ha. Assume that there is no contribution to
or from the ground water storage.

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Solution: We l e a d

For a time period t the water budget for the lake can be written as:

Input volume – Output volume = Change in storage

I t  P A  Q t  E A  ΔS
I = average inflow rate
Q = average outflow rate
P = precipitation
E = Evaporation
A = surface area of the lake
S = change in lake storage volume
t = time

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Here, t = 1 month
= 30x24x (60x60)
= 2.592x106 s
= 2.592 Ms
In one month
Inflow volume = I t = 6.0 x 2.592 = 15.552 M m3
Outflowvolume = Q t = 6.5 x 2.592 = 1 6.848 M m3
145 x 5000 x 100 x 100
Input due to precipitation =PA =
1000 x 10 6
= 7.25 M m3
6.10 5000 x 100 x 100
Outflow due to evaporation= EA = x
100 10 6
= 3.05 M m3
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Hence, S = (15.552+7.25)
– (16.848+3.05)
= 2.904 M m3
S 2.904 x 10 6
Change in elevation z = 
A 5000 x100 x100
= 0.058 m (+ve)

New water surface elevation

at the end of the month =103.200+ 0.058 =103.258 m
(above datum)
5000 Hectares into Square Meters

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We l e a d

1. Subramanya K. (2013). Engineering Hydrology. Tata McGraw-Hill.

2. Elizabeth M. Shaw (1989). Engineering Hydrology Techniques in
Practice. John Wiley & Sons.
3. Ray K., Linsley, Jr., Max A. Hohler. (1988). Hydrology for Engineers. Mc
Graw Hill.
4. Roberson, JA. Cassidy, JJ. Chaudhry MH. (1998). Hydraulic Engineering.
John Wiley & Sons.
5. Richard H. McCune (1998). Hydraulic Analysis and Design. Prentice

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